Operations Research in GM Manufacturing

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Operations Research in GM Manufacturing Powered By Docstoc
					  Operations Research at GM
      -Selected Projects

       (No math, but lots of pictures!)


                  Jeff Alden
Group Manager, Manufacturing Architecture Design
   Manufacturing Systems Research Laboratory
               Warren, Michigan
                   GM R&D



                                             12-Mar-03 * JMA *   1
                  Lots of Analysis Opportunities in
               Production System Operations Research

                                 Carrier Return Loop                               Throughput
Requirements
5 Styles
80 JPH            Load                                     Unload

                                                                              80 JPH

    Common Issues:                                     •    Parallel Lines
    •   Throughput improvement                         •    System Layout
    •   Placement of Buffers                           •    Material Handling
    •   Model Mix                                      •    Allocation of Work
    •   Number of Workstations                         •    Vehicle Sequencing
    •   Number of Carriers                             •    System Design
    •   Cost Drivers                                   •    Lot sizes
    •   Maintenance Operations                         •    Setting Station Speeds
    •   Plant Operations                               •    Plant Capacity Allocation




                                                                                         12-Mar-03 * JMA *   2
                                                                   Project A: Plant Improvement using
                                                                  the CMORE throughput Analysis Tool
                                          Buffer = 20                                                                   10                                       1               5                           2                                          10                                       10


      Load                                                                                   Weld                                          Inspect                   Robogate        S Weld1                      S Weld2                                            Seal                                       UnLoad



                    Speed (JPH)                                                        Mean Cycles Between Failures                                                              Mean Time to Repair (min)                                                                           % Scrap
100                                                                                   200                                                                                        8                                                                              10
                                                                                                                                                                                 7
80                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8
                                                                                      150                                                                                        6
60                                                                                                                                                                               5                                                                              6
                                                                                      100                                                                                        4
40                                                                                                                                                                               3                                                                              4

20                                                                                      50                                                                                       2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2
                                                                                                                                                                                 1
 0                                                                                           0                                                                                   0                                                                              0




                                                                                                                                                                 Seal




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Seal




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Seal
                                                                                                           Weld




                                                                                                                                                                                            Weld




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Weld
                                                                                                   Load




                                                                                                                                                                                     Load




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Load
                                                                   Seal
             Weld
      Load




                                                                                                                                                                        Unload




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Unload




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Unload
                                                                                                                      Inspect




                                                                                                                                                                                                   Inspect




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Inspect
                                                                          Unload
                     Inspect




                                                                                                                                            S Weld1
                                                                                                                                                       S Weld2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            S Weld1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      S Weld2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          S Weld1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    S Weld2
                                            S Weld1
                                                      S Weld2




                                                                                                                                Robogate




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Robogate




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Robogate
                               Robogate




               Bottleneck Analysis
                                                            Increase in Jobs/Hr
                       2


                1.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2005 Edelman Prize winner
                       1
                                                                                                                                                                                                   > $2 Billion Savings over 18 years
                0.5


                       0
                                          Inspect


                                                                            S Weld2




                                                                                                 S Weld1




                                                                                                                                Weld
                                                            Robogate




                                                                                                                                                      Load
                                                                                                             Unload
                                                                                      Seal




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12-Mar-03 * JMA *                           3
               Story of “Throughput analysis” in GM Plants
                 “There’s more than just solving the analysis problem.”
•   Researcher spent months visiting plants (~ 1985)
     -   Main complaint: Improvement efforts is too “hit-or-miss”
     -   Understood the need for throughput analysis (great vision).
•   Hired consultants to work with GM R&D to develop an analytic throughput analysis tool
     -   Simulation way too slow!
     -   Serial lines with equal station speeds … start simple
           ·   Clarified definitions “buffer”, “station”, “bottleneck”, etc
           ·   Developed concept and usefulness of “breaking bottlenecks” … perhaps more powerful than the tool!
•   Big push to get some plants to use model … “chicken or egg” problem, also competition
     -   Major effort to get good data at a few plants
           ·   Developed Mean Cycles Between Failures as “a failure rate measure”
           ·   Initiated some automatic data collection … many issues here (e.g., what is a good cycle time?)
     -   Developed a throughput improvements process (TIP) … throughput analysis tool was not enough!!!
           ·   Collect Data, Analyze Bottlenecks, Team Solve Bottlenecks, Track effort & improvement, Repeat.
     -   Lingering complaints of model failure to track throughput … problem was unequal station speeds
•   Consultants failed to solve new problem …. Alden did (~1989)
     -   Convinced high management to form dedicated SWAT implementation teams … mostly from R&D
     -   Worked with 20+ plants in many areas … mostly in body assembly
     -   Developed the “Bottleneck Busters” Award, user’s group and newsletter
     -   Saved many millions of dollars in one year (~1991)
•   Plants have TICs = throughput improvement coordinators to support TIP, Tool, Data collection.
•   Support via user group, EDS contracts, central simulation & IT groups, and a few researchers.
                                                                                                                12-Mar-03 * JMA *   4
                        Project B: Chaining Principle:
                        a Maintenance Work Example
                                              Mean       Mean Time
                                             Service      Between
                        Worker   Number of    Time        Failures
     Task Types         Pools     Workers    (minutes)    (minutes)   Worker Utilization

Electrician Tasks (E)               4           20           6               83%


Millwright Tasks (Mi)               5           40           10              80%


Pipe Fitter Tasks (P)               2           30           25              60%


Mechanic Tasks (Me)                 1          120          240              50%


 Welding Tasks (W)                  3           35           17              69%




What if we trained some people to do multiple task types (i.e., cross training)?


                                                                         12-Mar-03 * JMA *   5
                            Impact of Cross Training
                        for Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)
   Tasks         Workers
Elec                                Elec                             Elec
Mill                                Mill                             Mill
Pipe                                Pipe                             Pipe
Mech                               Mech                             Mech
Weld                               Weld                             Weld
 a) No Cross-Training                      b) Chaining               c) Total Cross-Training

 MTTR = 25.0 minutes                 MTTR = 9.9 minutes                MTTR = 7.9 minutes


       •   Chaining provides most of the performance improvement of total cross-
           training with much less training effort.




                                                                                   12-Mar-03 * JMA *   6
12-Mar-03 * JMA *   7
   Project C: Visualization of Models and Spread Sheets
                 a Business Case Example
            R &D          /     G M       A P                                                                             B 2 B         - C H IN A
            D ra f t B iz            C a s e                                                    D C F / R O I & C A S H F L O W E V A L U A T IO N
                   N o v 4 9 9                                                In c r e m e n t a l U S $ B a s i s - D o e s n o t r e f l e c t J V p a r t n e r i m p a c t
         s h a d in g = in p u t b o x
    C A LE N D A R Y E A R S             2000                             2001            2002           2003             2004          2005             2006             2007               2008                 2009              2010             2011            TO TA L
    E V E N T:                                                                            S O P                           M IN                           M A J                                                    M IN
    TE M P LA TE Y E A R                   -2                               -1            S O P            2                3             4                5                6                   7                   8                 9               10
    I N V E S T M E N T ($ M i l l l i o n s)
    L a n d / L a n d Im p ro v e m e n t                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 .0
    B u ild in g s                                                               6 .6                                                                                                                                                                                      6 .6
    M a c h in e r y & E q u ip m e n t                                       1 1 .9                                                                            6 .0                                                                                                     1 7 .9
    M a s t e r M o ld /          O t h e r T o o ls                             5 .5                                          0 .5                             5 .0                                                      0 .5                                           1 1 .5
    P r o d u c t io n M o ld T o o ls                                                          0 .0             1 .3          1 .4             1 .4            1 .2              1 .4                1 .4                1 .4              1 .4           1 .4          1 2 .3
    S t a r t u p O p e r a t io n s E x p                                    2 5 .6                                                                            6 .4                                                                                                     3 2 .0
    T o t a l In v e s t m e n t                                   0 .0       4 9 .6            0 .0             1 .3          1 .9             1 .4          1 8 .5              1 .4                1 .4                1 .9              1 .4           1 .4          8 0 .2


    V O L U M E               ( U n it s )                                                     5 0 0      4 5 0 0 0        5 0 0 0 0     5 0 0 0 0         4 2 0 0 0       5 0 0 0 0           5 0 0 0 0            5 0 0 0 0        5 0 0 0 0        5 0 0 0 0
    T o t a l V o lu m e                                                                       5 0 0      4 5 0 0 0        5 0 0 0 0     5 0 0 0 0         4 2 0 0 0       5 0 0 0 0           5 0 0 0 0            5 0 0 0 0        5 0 0 0 0        5 0 0 0 0      4 3 7 5 0 0


    C O S T / P R O F IT                   W A L K ( $ / u n it )
    R e t a il P r ic e                                                                      6 4 0 0       6 5 0 6          6 6 1 3       6 7 2 2            6 8 3 3        6 9 4 6              7 0 6 0             7 1 7 7          7 2 9 5          7 4 1 6
    L e s s : D e a le r M a r g in                                                            2 0 5            2 0 8         2 1 2            2 1 5           2 1 9             2 2 2               2 2 6                2 3 0            2 3 3           2 3 7
               R e t a il/ V A T T a x e s                                                     9 8 0            9 9 9       1 0 1 8       1 0 3 8            1 0 6 4        1 0 8 4              1 1 0 5             1 1 2 6          1 1 4 7          1 1 6 9
    T o t a l N e t S a le                                                                   5 2 1 5       5 2 9 8          5 3 8 3       5 4 6 9            5 5 5 1        5 6 3 9              5 7 3 0             5 8 2 1          5 9 1 4          6 0 0 9


    M a t e r ia l                                                                           3 7 0 0       3 7 7 4          3 8 4 9       3 9 2 6            4 0 0 5        4 0 8 5              4 1 6 7             4 2 5 0          4 3 3 5          4 4 2 2         8 1 4 .5
    La b o r                                                                                     8 1              8 3           8 4              8 6             8 8               8 9                 9 1                 9 3               9 5            9 7
    B u rd e n                                                                                   8 1              8 3           8 4              8 6             8 8               8 9                 9 1                 9 3               9 5            9 7
    C o m m e r c ia l                                                                         5 3 2            5 4 3         5 5 3            5 6 5           5 7 6             5 8 7               5 9 9                6 1 1            6 2 3           6 3 6
    D e p r e c ia t io n                                                                      1 0 8            1 0 8         1 0 8            1 0 8           1 0 8             1 0 8               1 0 8                1 0 8            1 0 8           1 0 8
    S t a r t - u p A m o r t iz a t io n                                                        5 9              5 9           5 9              5 9             8 7               8 7                 8 7                 8 7               8 7            8 7
    R o y a lt y                                                                                    0                 0             0                0                0                0                   0                    0                0               0
    O th e r                                                                                     5 0              5 1           5 2              5 3             5 4               5 5                 5 6                 5 7               5 9            6 0
    T o t a l F a c t o ry C o s t                                                           4 6 1 1       4 6 9 9          4 7 9 0       4 8 8 3            5 0 0 5        5 1 0 1              5 1 9 9             5 2 9 9          5 4 0 1          5 5 0 5


    O p e r a t in g P r o f it                                                                6 0 4            5 9 9         5 9 3            5 8 6           5 4 6             5 3 9               5 3 1                5 2 2            5 1 3           5 0 4
    E x p e c te d T a x                                                                       2 1 1            2 1 0         2 0 7            2 0 5           1 9 1             1 8 9               1 8 6                1 8 3            1 8 0           1 7 6
    C h in a   T a x H o lid a y                                                              -2 1 1           -2 1 0        -2 0 7           -1 0 3            -9 6              -9 4                     0                    0                0               0
    N e t P r o f it A f t e r T a x                                                           6 0 4            5 9 9         5 9 3            4 8 4           4 5 1             4 4 4               3 4 5                3 3 9            3 3 4           3 2 7


    C A S H          F L O W         ($      M illio n s )


    N e t P r o f it A f t e r T a x                                                            0 .3           2 6 .9        2 9 .6           2 4 .2          1 8 .9            2 2 .2              1 7 .2            1 7 .0              1 6 .7        1 6 .4
    A d d : D e p r e c ia t io n + A m o r t iz a t io n                                       0 .1             7 .5          8 .3             8 .3            8 .2              9 .7                9 .7                9 .7              9 .7           9 .7
    C a s h F lo w        f r o m O p e r a t io n s                                            0 .4           3 4 .4        3 8 .0           3 2 .5          2 7 .1            3 1 .9              2 7 .0            2 6 .7              2 6 .4        2 6 .1
    D e d u c t : In c re a s e           N e t W o rk . C a p .                                0 .3           2 3 .2          3 .0             0 .4            0 .0              4 .8                0 .5                0 .5              0 .5           0 .5
    A d d : L iq u id a t e        N e t W o rk . C a p .                                       0 .0             0 .0          0 .0             0 .0            0 .0              0 .0                0 .0                0 .0              0 .0        3 3 .6
    A d d : R o y a lt y F e e            p a id t o G M                                        0 .0             0 .0          0 .0             0 .0            0 .0              0 .0                0 .0                0 .0              0 .0           0 .0
    D e d u c t In v e s t m e n t (S O P = Y e a r1 )                                      (4 9 . 6 )         (1 . 3 )      (1 . 9 )         (1 . 4 )      (1 8 . 5 )          (1 . 4 )            (1 . 4 )          (1 . 9 )            (1 . 4 )      (1 . 4 )
    A d d : I n v e s t m e n t C r e d it                                                      0 .0             0 .0          0 .0             0 .0            0 .0              0 .0                0 .0                0 .0              0 .0           0 .0
    T o t a l N e t C a s h F lo w                                                          (4 9 . 5 )         1 0 .0        3 3 .0           3 0 .7            8 .6            2 5 .7              2 5 .1            2 4 .3              2 4 .5        5 7 .8
    D is c o u n t e d C a s h F lo w                                                         (4 9 )              8           2 3              1 8                4              1 0                   8                    7                6             1 1
    C u m D C F                                                                               (4 9 )        (4 1 )           (1 8 )             (0 )              4              1 4                 2 2                  2 9              3 5             4 6
    P a y b a c k C a lc          (n o t s h o w n )                                            0 .0             0 .0          0 .0             0 .0            5 .9              0 .0                0 .0                0 .0              0 .0           0 .0


    P A YB A C K                 &    R ET U R N           O N     IN V E S T M E N T
    IN P U T S :                                                                    R ES U L T S :                                                                                         T O T A L           IN V E S T M E N T
    H U R D LE R AT E                                        2 0 .0 %
    D E ALE R          M A R G IN                             3 .2 %                    D C F R e tu r n (I R R % )                                      4 2 .3 %                          C A P IT A L                               3 6 .0
    R E T A IL V A T / T A X %                               1 7 .0 %                   N e t P r e se n t V a l u e ($ M i l s)                         $ 4 6 M                           P R O D 'N          M O LD S               1 2 .3




Full of hidden errors (approx 90% have errors) … links & equations
Onerous to validate … so many cells, equations, data, ranges, etc.
Poor collaboration environment … what cells do you own and how does it link in?
Difficult to present the model … nice graphs of output, but hared to visualize the model
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   12-Mar-03 * JMA *   8
Business Case viewed as an Influence Diagram




     Enables collaborations easier … I see my part and how it links in
     Provide a quick high level validation aid

                                     From
     Provide environment for visual validation (InSight)
     Can actually be fun!
     Much easier to explain the model
                                                                     12-Mar-03 * JMA *   9
                 So we developed InSight …
    an Integrated Visual Systems Modeling Environment


                       No black box!
Watch the movie!                           All in one place!




  Easy what-ifs!                           Point and click!
                     Use legacy data!
                                                      12-Mar-03 * JMA *   10
                       Example of using InSight for Maintenance Operations
                                                   Maintenance System Model
                                                                                                                                                              PdM Monitoring           Detection Window
                                                                                                                                                                  Time                      Length
                          Annual
                                                                                                                                                                   Hrs                      Cycles
                       Fixed Costs
                           Dls                                                    Maintenance
                                                                                     Heads
                                                                                                             Cost Per                                                                   Predictive
                                                    Maintenance Head Cost
                                                                                                            Spare Part                                                                Maintenance
                           Annual                    Dls per Head per Yr                                                                PdM
                                                                                                           Dls per Part                                                               [PdM] Heads
                         Maintenance                                                                                               Replacements               PdM
                            Costs                                                 Annual                                            Num per Yr               Analysis
                             Dls                                                 Spare Part                 Spare Parts                                                               Percent of Parts
                                                                                   Costs                    Parts per Yr                                                              Covered by PdM
                                                      Labor Wage Rate               Dls                                                                                                   Percent
                                                    Dls per Hr per Head
                                                                                                                                                           PdM
                            Annual                                                                                                                      Detection                       Mean Cycles
                         Direct Labor                                                                                                                   Probability                   Between Failures
                            Costs                   Direct Labor          Max Avail Hours                                                                                              per Part MCBF
                              Dls                      Heads                Hrs per Yr                                                                                                  With No PM
                                                                                                                                              Mean Cycles                                  Cycles
                                                                                                                                               Between
   Annual                                                                                                                                       Failures
                                                                                                  Idle Time                                                                            Spare Part
    Costs                 Annual                       Straight Time                                                                             MCBF
                                                                                                 Hrs per Yr                                                         Percent           Replacement
                         Overtime                       Hrs per Yr                                                                              Cycles
      Dls                                                                                                                                                                                 Time
                          Costs                                                                                                                                     of Parts
                                                                                                                                                                    Covered           Hrs per Part
                           Dls
                                                                                                                                                                     by PvM
                                                                                                                                                                    Percent
                                        Overtime
                                                                                                                                                                                      Parts per
                        Annual          Premium
                                                                                                                Repair                                                                 Station
                        Variable        Percent                  Overtime
Annual                                                         (Under-time)                  Run Time          Call Rate
                         Costs
                                                                Hrs per Yr                  Hrs per Yr        Num per Yr                                                              Station Speed
 Profit                   Dls
                                                                                                                                                                                           JPH
   Dls

                                                                                                                                                           PvM                        Num of
                                                                                                                                                       Replacements                   Stations
                    Variable                                                                                                                            Num per Yr
                   Unit Cost
                  Dls per Unit                                                                   Throughput               Start                                                        Preventive
                                                                                                     JPH                           Mean Time
                                                                                                                                                                                      Maintenance
             Annual                                                                                                                To Recover                  Wait Time
                                           Annual                                                                                                                                     [PvM] Heads
                                                                                                                                  From Failure                 for Trades
            Revenues                     Production
                                            Units                                                                                     MTTR                  Hrs per Failure
                Dls                                              Mass             Station Speed                                        Hrs                                              Reactive
                                                                 Relief                JPH                                                                                            Maintenance
                                                                Percent
                                                                                                         Mean Time                                                                    [RM] Heads
                                                                                                         To Recover            Mean Cycles
                                                                              Annual                      From Halt           Between Halts
                                                     Sales Price              Demand                        MTTR                  MCBF            RM Repair Time              Wait Time
                                                    Dls per Unit               Units                         Hrs                 Cycles           Hrs per Failure          for Spare Parts
                                                                                                                                                                                 Hrs



                What if we moved people from reactive maintenance to predictive maintenance?
                                                                                                                                                                                    12-Mar-03 * JMA *     11
Visual Story-Telling of Results … like watching a Movie.




                                           Sub      12-Mar-03 * JMA *   12
                          Project D: Optimizing Vehicle Performance Validation
                                                                                                                                                                                            Evaluation
                                                              Knowledge Gap                                                                                                                 Approach                                                                                                                           Properties
                                                               Identification                                                                                                              Optimization                                                                                                                       Optimization
                                                                                                                                                                                                               • Physical Tests Detail                                                                                                                                Property Opt
      Vehicle                                                                                                                              Learning
                                                                                                                                           Objectives                                                            Create Plans to
   Requirements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Balance Program
                         Which requirements need ADV?                                                                                             Solution Using Best Risk/Use Ratio   How to evaluate?         Resources, Cost,                                                                          What properties?
                         How to prioritize learnings?                                                                                                                                  (math & physical)
                                                                                                                                                  F2   60      0     0     2       0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (count, configuration)
                                                                                                                                                  E3   70      1     1     3       1
                                                                                                                                                  D1   100    15     4     0       1


                                                                          Learning Objective Priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Timing, and Risk
                                                400
                                                                            "X" = Learning Objective
                                                                                                                                       Road-Lab-Math                                    • Test Requirements
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Program Constraints Operations Plan
         Learning Priorities                    350
                                                300
                                                          F
                                                                           Resource Threshold = 50


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Property count
                               Remaining Risk




                                                              E
                                                250

                                                                                                                                       Math Validation                                                           Optimization                                                                    • Test – Property Assignment
                                                200               D

                                                150
                                                                      B                              Risk Threshold = 100
                                                100
                                                                            H
                                                 50                               A              C
                                                  0
                                                      0               50           100        150          200         250
                                                                      Cumulative Resource Requirements




                                                                                                                                           • RLM analysis capabilities
              • Test resource requirements (T,$,L)                                                                                                                                                          How to route properties?
                                                                                                                                           • Available test capacity forecasts
                                                                                                                                                                                                            When & where to execute tasks?                                                                                                                         Build Plans
                                                                                                                                           • Property use performance                                                                                                                                                                                             Sharing Plans
 Current
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Schedule of 09/10/2002


                                                                                                                                             (idle, prep, test, move,etc)                           Workload Analysis                             60




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Schedule Plans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  57
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  54
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  51




Knowledge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  48
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  42
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  39




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Resource (units)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  33
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  27                           8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24                   7                                      11 12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21                                                9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18                           7                                         13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9   10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12                   4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   9       2                                        6                    12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   6                                   4                  5    9              14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   3                   3                                           10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0       2   4       6       8       10      12    14     16      18    20   22   24   26   28   30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Time (days)



                     Staffing Levels                                                                                                                               • Execution issues
                                                                                                                                       Execute                      (delays, availability, property, etc)
                                                                                                                                      Evaluations                                                                             • Build capacity forecasts & cadence
                                                                                                                                                                   • Available capacity updates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Build costs
                    Test Labs, PG, &                                                                                                                   Dynamic
                   Analysis Scheduling                                                                                          Manage Shared
                                                                                                                                                   Program Planning                                 • Delivery Capabilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Build
                                                                                                                               Resources to Meet
                                                                                                                                                    “Stuff Happens”                                                                                                                               Scheduling
                                                                                                                             Program Timing, Cost,
             PG                                                                                                              & Quality Imperatives                                                         Build
                                                          Test                                                                                                                                            Delivery
                                                          Labs                                                                                                                                          Information                                                                                           PPO
                     VSAS                                                                                                     • Operations Plan
                                                                                                                                        Which evaluations to drop/add due to issues?                                       What is the sequence of builds?
 Who should execute tasks & when?                                                                                                       How to update operations schedule?                                                 When to deliver builds?
  Lab Scheduling                                                                                                                        Visible Schedule                                                                                                                                                                                                    Build Finish/Schedule



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             12-Mar-03 * JMA *                13
Project E: Use of Probe Vehicles for Real-Time Traffic Information

                          Data Transmission
                              Raw data on
                              vehicle speed,       Data Processing
                              time, location

                                               Map matching
       Automatic
                                               Historical data
     data collection
                                               Incident detection
         from
                                               Trip time models
     GPS-equipped
     probe vehicles



                                               Incident reports
                                               Updated traffic data
                       Current traffic info    Dynamic routing


                        Data Dissemination


                                                                    12-Mar-03 * JMA *   14
                                Schematic of Test Area                                    N




                                                                         Schoenherr
                                          Van Dyke



                                                            Hoover
                                  GM




                        Mound
        Ryan
                                  Tech
                                 Center


12 Mile Rd


                                                     I-696 West


                                                     I-696 East




               1 mile                                                Michigan DOT loop detectors




                                                                                      12-Mar-03 * JMA *   15
12-Mar-03 * JMA *   16
                Average Speeds on Westbound I-696
                80

                70

                60                      9:45

  Average       50
   Speed                                      9:20
                40
(miles/hour)
                30

                20                          8:50

                10

                 0
                     0        1         2            3       4      5               6
               Groesbeck             Hoover     Van Dyke   Mound   Ryan
                                  Miles west of Groesbeck Highway

      Probe data           MDOT loop detector data




                                                                        12-Mar-03 * JMA *   17