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Marzano's High Leverage Strategies

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					 Marzano’s Essential 9
     High Leverage
Instructional Strategies
              Objectives

By the end of the session you will...
 examine research-based instructional
  strategies that affect student
  achievement
 identify various methods for teaching
  these strategies
 determine which strategies you will
  incorporate in your classroom
  practice.
             Research
 Robert   Marzano, Debra Pickering,
  Jane Pollock
 From books, Classroom Instruction
  That Works & The Handbook for
  Classroom Instruction that Works
 Identified nine instructional strategies
  that are most likely to improve
  student achievement across all
  content areas and across all grade
  levels
         Clock Buddies
Sign your name on the top
of your paper.
Avoid people seated at your
table.
Find a different partner for 2:00; 4:00;
6:00; 8:00; 10:00; 12:00
Trade signatures.
Sit down as soon as you have all
signatures.

You have 2 minutes 14 seconds.
         The Essential Nine
 Categories Of Instructional Strategies
   That Affect Student Achievement

            Category               Percentile
                                     Gain
Identifying similarities and          45
differences
Summarizing and note taking           34

Reinforcing effort and providing      29
recognition
 Similarities and Differences
Research
 The ability to break a concept into its
 similar and dissimilar characteristics
 allows students to understand (and
 often solve) complex problems by
 analyzing them in a more simple way.
         Synectics
 Findyour 4:00 partner. Find another
 pair, finish the following statement.

Going back to school after Winter
vacation is like ______________
because _________________ .
      Identifying Similarities
         and Differences
Variety of Ways
  -Comparing
      similarities and differences
  -Classifying
      grouping things that are alike
  -Metaphors
      comparing two unlike things
  -Analogies
      identifying relationships between pairs of
      concepts
      Identifying Similarities and
              Differences
            Recommendations
          For Classroom Practice

   Give students a model for the process.
   Use familiar content to teach steps.
   Give students graphic organizers.
   Guide students as needed.
Summarizing and Note Taking
  Research
  High leverage strategies because they:
   - encourage powerful learning
    - lead to deeper understanding
    - endure long-term recall

  Verbatim note taking is the least
  effective way to take notes.
          Summarizing
          Recommendations
        for Classroom Practice

   Use summary frames
   Use a rule-based summary strategy
    (a set of rules students can follow to
    summarize text)
           Summarizing
 Use the Triad Summarizing format to
 summarize the article “Moving With the
 Brain in Mind”

Large Group Share
           Note Taking
Research
 Note taking and summarizing are
 closely related. Both require students
 to identify what is most important
 about the knowledge they are
 learning and then state that
 knowledge in their own words.
            Note Taking

            Recommendations
         For Classroom Practice
1.   Teach students a variety of note-
     taking formats.
2.   Give students teacher-prepared
     notes.
3.   Remind students to review their
     notes.
        Note Taking

Although note taking is one of the
most useful study skills a student can
cultivate, often teachers do not
explicitly teach note taking strategies
in the classroom.
       Note Taking
       Cornell Notes

Find your 10:00 partner and share.
What elements of the Cornell note format
make this type of note taking effective for
students?

How could this format be adapted for use
with younger students?
   Reinforcing Effort

Believing in effort can serve as a
powerful motivational tool that
students can apply to any
situation
       Reflecting on Current
       Beliefs and Practices
   Think, Pair, Share - Turn to your
    neighbor and discuss…
 How do you reinforce students’ effort in
  your classroom?
 What is the purpose for reinforcing
  effort in the classroom?
 What makes reinforcing effort effective
  or ineffective?
 What questions do you have about
  reinforcing effort?
                  RESEARCH

   People generally attribute success at any
    given task to one of four causes:
       Effort
       Other people
       Ability
       Luck
     Three of these four beliefs ultimately inhibit
     achievement – (Covington 1983,1985)
Generalizations from Research

  Not all students realize the importance
  of believing in effort.

   Implication is that teachers should
   explain and exemplify the “effort
   belief” to students.


            Urdan,Midgley, & Anderman 1998
Generalizations from Research

Students can learn to change their beliefs
to an emphasis on effort


  Students who were taught about the
  relationship between effort and
  achievement increased their achievement
  more than students who were taught
  techniques for time management and
  comprehension of new material.

            Van Overwalle & De Metsenaere, 1990
Recommendations for Classroom
         Practice
Students need to be taught that
effort can improve achievement.
•Share personal examples of times you
have succeeded because you did not give
up
•Share examples of well-known athletes
and others who succeeded mainly because
they did not give up
•Have students share personal examples of
times they succeeded because they did not
give up.
Recommendations for Classroom
         Practice


Have students chart effort and achievement

      Charting their effort and
achievement will reveal patterns and
  help students see the connection
          between the two.
          Reinforcing Effort

    ORGANIZING CLASSROOMS FOR EFFORT

   Students know what is expected.
   Fair and credible evaluations are used.
   Curriculum is geared to standards.
   Student responsibility for work is
    emphasized.
   Results are fixed, time varies.
   Recognition of accomplishment is
    utilized.
Providing Recognition

Providing recognition for
attainment of specific goals not
only enhances achievement, but it
stimulates motivation
         RESEARCH

Rewards do not necessarily have a
negative effect on intrinsic motivation.
Reward is most effective when it is
contingent on the attainment of some
standard of performance.
Abstract symbolic recognition is more
effective than tangible rewards.
  Recommendations for
   Classroom Practice
Establish a rationale for
reinforcing effort and providing
recognition
Follow guidelines for effective
and ineffective praise.
Link effort to achievement
Use the pause, prompt, and praise
technique
     CHECKING FOR
    UNDERSTANDING
        Base Group ACTIVITY
Read the four examples of providing
recognition in the classroom.
In your group, evaluate each example
according to the Guidelines for Praise.
Determine if recognition is Effective or
Ineffective
Cite the specific criteria and explain your
thinking.
            Teacher Recognition

Example 1: Dana was unable to make any connections
among the elements using a table of characteristics. Mr.
Mulder suggests she focus on one characteristic and look
for connections. When he returns later, Dana explains how
she had figured out a way to group the elements according
to boiling point. Mr. Mulder congratulates her on on
finding a valid connection.

Example 2: Mr. Mulder circulates as students are
working in small groups. He pauses at Station 1 and
comments, “Nice work on your calculations.” At
Station 2, he says, “Nice work on your graphs.” At
Station 3, he says, “Nice work on your calculations.
 Teacher Recognition

Example 3: “You really did a good job working
through all of the steps and checking your answers
for this problem. I know you’ve had difficulties
with multi-step calculations before and sometimes
settled for getting any answer down on paper, even
if it wasn’t correct. Your determination with third
task really showed.”


Example 4: “Good job. Jackson. Keep it up.”
SNOWBALL ACTIVITY

On a post-it note answer this question.

Why are Reinforcing Effort and Providing
Recognition included in the nine
categories of Instructional Strategies
proven to increase student
achievement?
     The Essential Nine
Categories Of Instructional Strategies
  That Affect Student Achievement

          Category              Percentile
                                  Gain
Homework and practice              29

Nonlinguistic representations      28

Cooperative learning               27
           Homework
             Rationale
 Why homework?
 - Students are in school a short time
 - Homework extends learning beyond
   the school day

 Asset or Liability?
 - It depends on how it is used
                 Homework

   Take 3-4 minutes to answer these
    questions on the handout provided.
       What are the purposes of homework?
       What kind of homework do you assign your
        students?
       What makes homework effective, and how do
        you know it has been?
       What questions do you have about using
        homework?
Find your 2:00 partner and share
Homework and Practice

Research
 Both homework and practice give
 students opportunities to deepen their
 understanding and proficiency with
 content they are learning.
              Homework
Considerations/Recommendations
 -Amount
     10 X the # of the grade as a guideline
 -Parent involvement
     Parents as facilitators
 -Homework policy
     Feasible & defensible expectations
 -Purpose
     Without one, it’s “busy work”
 -Assignment sheets
     Clarify what they are doing and why
 -Feedback (be specific)
     Can improve student achievement
            Practice
Research
 Students need to practice skills and
  processes before they can use them
  effectively.
 Goal is for learning a skill, not
  learning information.
              Practice
           Recommendations
       For Classroom Practice
   Determine which skills are worth
    practicing.
   Schedule massed and distributed
    practice.
   Help students shape a skill or
    process (explicit instruction and
    modeling)
Non Linguistic Representations

 Research
  -Teachers typically present new
   knowledge to students linguistically.
  -Engaging students in the creation of
   nonlinguistic representation actually
   stimulates and increases activity in
   the brain.
Non Linguistic Representations

          Recommendations
        For Classroom Practice
  Graphic organizers
  Pictographic representations
  Mental images
  Physical models
      Graphic Organizers

Use Graphic Organizers to:
     Activate current knowledge
     Present information
     Take notes
     Summarize information
     Assess student learning
    Graphic Organizers
 Graphic   organizers make thinking
  visible.
 Different graphic organizers
  represent different kinds of thinking.
 Students must be taught how to use
  graphic organizers.
 The goal is for students to be able to
  select the appropriate graphic
  organizer.
   Graphic Organizers
Give One—Get One
 Take two post-it notes, on each
  one, write one way that you have
  used graphic organizers in your
  classroom.

 Share and exchange ideas with
 other participants.
     Cooperative Learning
Research
 Organizing students into cooperative
 groups yields a positive effect on
 overall learning if approach is
 systematic and consistent.
      Cooperative Learning
         Recommendations
         For Classroom Use
•   Teach students the elements of
    cooperative learning
•   Vary grouping criteria
    (informal, formal and base)
•   Manage group size
     (3-5 students)
Cooperative Learning
 Pair Square
  Locate your Louvre Museum
  partner, find another team.

  Whatactivity did we do today that is
  an example of cooperative learning?

  Whatare some ways you group
  students other than skill level?
         The Essential Nine
          Category               Percentile
                                   Gain
Setting objectives and providing    23
feedback

Generating and testing              23
hypotheses

Questions, cues and advance         23
organizers
     Setting Objectives
   and Providing Feedback
Research
 Students learn more efficiently when
 they know the goals and objectives of
 a specific lesson or learning activity.
     Setting Objectives
 What  do students need to know and
  be able to do?
 How do I know they got it?
 What do I do when they don’t?
 What do I do when they do?
     Setting Objectives
 Mastery   Objectives

 Language    Objectives

 Written   in Kid-Friendly Language
         Setting Objectives
          Recommendations
        For Classroom Practice
   Set “standards-based” goals for a unit
    and encourage students to set personal
    learning goals on how they’ll achieve
    them.
   Communicate learning objectives to
    parents so they can provide appropriate
    support to students.
Setting Personal Learning Goals
GOAL: To become a better writer

MORE CONCRETE:
 I want to write more effective
  introductions with clear, concise
  thesis statements.
 I want to use good paragraph form in
  my writing.
         Providing Feedback
            Recommendations
          For Classroom Practice
   Use various methods of assessment.
   Feedback should be corrective in nature.
   Give timely feedback.
   Feedback should be specific to criterion.
   Self-assessment tools may be used to
    gauge progress.
     Providing Feedback
“Academic feedback is more
 strongly and consistently related to
 achievement than any other
 teaching behavior. This
 relationship is consistent
 regardless of grade, socioeconomic
 status, race or school setting.”
Bellon, Jerry J. Teaching from a Research
Knowledge Base. 1992
       Providing Feedback
Find your Anagram Partner and share.

 Why are rubrics an excellent way to give
 students specific feedback?
  Generating and Testing
       Hypotheses
Research
 Generating and testing hypotheses
 involves the application of
 knowledge, which enhances learning.
    Generating and Testing
         Hypotheses
           Examples of Strategies
   Systems Analysis
   Problem Solving
   Historical Investigation
   Invention
   Experimental Inquiry
   Decision Making
     Generating and Testing
          Hypotheses
              Recommendations
            For Classroom Practice
   Give students a model for the strategy
   Use familiar content to teach the strategy
   Make graphic organizers available
   Provide guided practice
   Have students explain their hypotheses
    and conclusions
      Cues, Questions, and
      Advance Organizers
Research
 Cues
  Explicit reminders about what a student is
  about to experience
 Questions
  Help students analyze what they already
  know
 Advance Organizers
  Help students retrieve what they know
  about a topic and focus on the new
  information
      Cues, Questions, and
      Advance Organizers
        Recommendations
      For Classroom Practice
Cues
 Telling students the topic of an
  article they are about to read
 Reminding students to look for new
  information when reading
     Cues, Questions, and
     Advance Organizers
          Recommendations
       For Classroom Practice
Questions
 Higher-level questions require
  students to analyze information and
  apply what they know
Cues, Questions, and Advance
         Organizers

  Research shows that…

  1/3 of class interactions are questions

  Primary grades: 150 per hour

  Elementary/high: several hundred per
    day
                           (Gage/Berliner)
Cues, Questions, and Advance
         Organizers
Research shows that…
                  (Flanders)
                 RULE OF 2/3
2/3   of class time is verbal
2/3   of that time is questions
2/3   are asked by teacher
2/3   are answered by teacher
    Advance Organizers
 Advance   organizers are
  organizational frameworks teachers
  present to students prior to teaching
  new content to prepare them for what
  they are about to learn.
 Advance organizers focus on
  essential information and get
  students ready to use the information.
    Advance Organizers
          Recommendations
       For Classroom Practice
 SQRRR (survey, question, read, recite, review)

 Narrative advance organizers (tell a
  story to make personal connections)
 Expository
 Skim a text
 Use graphic organizers
   Advance Organizers

Find your Merovingian King
  partner and share:
 Review SQ3R method.
 What are some ways you
 could implement this in your
 classroom?
       Review of Objectives

 examine   research-based
  instructional strategies that affect
  student achievement
 identify various methods for
  teaching these strategies
 determine which strategies you
  will incorporate in your classroom
  practice.
 Shaping Up Review
                      Four things that
 One thing that        are important
   you loved           concepts from
 learning about      today’s session –
      today             one in each
                          corner.




                       One all
                   encompassing
  Three most       statement that
important facts     summarizes
 from today’s     today’s session.
   session.

				
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