The development of perception in infancy

Document Sample
The development of perception in infancy Powered By Docstoc
					2: The development of perception in infancy

Outline
 Why study perception in infancy?
 Theories of perceptual development
 Research:
    – what can infants perceive
    – how do infants interpret their perceptions
    – cultural differences in perception
   Learning outcomes



                                                   1
Why study perception in infancy?
 Underlies other developments
 illuminates the nature-nurture debate
 provides a BASELINE for development
 2 issues:
    – what can infants perceive?
    – How do infants interpret what they perceive?




                                                     2
Theories of perceptual development
   Piagetian theory:
    – no understanding of perception without
      experience
    – infants make sense of sensory information
      through interaction with environment
   Ecological theory:
    – Eleanor and James Gibson
    – direct perception - AFFORDANCES -
      environment provides information
    – perceptual learning:
        process of increased efficiency
        process of distinguishing finer discrimination

                                                          3
Texture Gradient




From Schiff, 1986
                    4
Theories of perceptual development
   Nativism:
    – Spelke
    – innate core principles:
          e.g. impenetrability, object identity,
           spatiotemporal continuity


   Constructivism?:
    – Baillargeon
    – innate mechanisms + learning
    – preliminary concepts -> adultlike concepts

                                                    5
Visual perception
   Newborns
    – Can discriminate between stripes and a
      uniform surface




    – Fixed focal length – 21cm


                                               6
From Fogel, 1991   7
Visual perception
   ability to track the path of moving objects
    – Aslin, 1981
   scanning:
    – Fogel & Melson, 1988

Auditory perception
    – loudness:
          Schulman-Galambos & Galambos, 1979
    – pitch
    – recognition of mother’s voice
          non-nutritive sucking experiments
            – deCasper & Fifer, 1980
                                                  8
 Scanning




From Fogel, 1991
                   9
Non-nutritive sucking technique   10
Touch, Smell & Taste
  – Tactile perception:
        Rochat, 1987
  – Olfactory perception:
        Lipsitt et al, 1963
  – Taste perception:
        Crook, 1978, Desor et al, 1973


Inter-modal perception
  – sight and sound:
      Bahrick, 1983
      Morrongiello, Fenwick & Chance, 1998

  – Touch and sight:
        Meltzoff & Borton, 1979
                                              11
Rosenstein
& Oster
(1988)
From Butterworth
& Harris (2002)
                   13
How do infants interpret what they perceive?

   Face perception
    – Sherrod, 1979
    – Kuchuk et al, 1986
    – Fisher et al, 1981
   Depth Perception
    – Looming:
       Bower, Broughton & Moore, 1970
       Yonas, 1981

       Nanez, 1988

    – Stereopsis

                                               14
From Butterworth
& Harris (2002)
                   16
The Visual Cliff
(from Bee &
Boyd, 2004 )
How do infants interpret what they perceive?

   Object perception:
    – Piaget vs Gibson
    – Loads of experiments by Baillargeon
   Perception of moving objects:
    – Gibson et al, 1979
    – Baillargeon, 1987: the drawbridge expt.




                                                18
Baillargeon’s Drawbridge Experiment
(from Bukatko & Daehler, 2001)




                                      19
How do infants interpret what they perceive?
   Categorical perception:
    – Phonemes and voicing (or voice onset time)
    – ba and pa
        Aslin, 1987; Kuhl, 1987
        Kuhl & Miller, 1978

        Werker & Lalonde, 1988

        Werker & Desjardins, 1995

   Imitation
    – Meltzoff & Moore, 1977




                                                   20
Voice Onset Time




                   21
Infants’ imitation of facial expressions (Meltzoff & Moore, 1977 )   22
Cultural differences in perceptual development?

    ‘Carpenteredness’ (Segall, Campbell &
     Herskovits, 1966):
     – Muller-Lyer illusion




                                                  23
Learning outcomes
 Understand what perception is and why
  we study its development
 Understand and be able to evaluate
  theories of perception
 Know and be able to evaluate current
  research on perceptual development and
  the implications this research has for
  theories of perception




                                           24
Reading
Essential Reading (on Digital Resources):
   Baillargeon, R. (2000). How do infants learn
    about the physical world? In D. Muir & A. Slater.
    Infant development: the essential readings.
    Oxford: Blackwell.
   Keenan, T. (2002). An introduction to child
    development. London: Sage. Ch 5. pp.94-117
   Spelke, E.S (1994) Initial knowledge: 6
    suggestions. Cognition, 50, pp.431 – 445

Further Reading:
   See pdf handout


                                                        25
Questions to ask.
 To what extent is each of the perceptual
  modalities innate?
 Are some perceptual abilities delayed
  because they have to be learned or for
  other reasons?
 What does the research told us about
  infants’ knowledge?
 What do the different theories say about
  the development of perception?


                                             26

				
DOCUMENT INFO