ISO27001 and 27002

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					 ISO27001 and 27002

Removing the Smoke & Mirrors

       Ken Anderson

1. History of ISO and Timeline
2. Overview of ISO 27000
3. Threats and Impacts ISO addresses
4. Objectives and benefits for measuring security
5. Best Practices

February 2008    Overview - ISO 27000
History of ISO - Timeline
   The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), which is part of the UK
   Government, publish a 'Code of Practice for Information Security
   This document is amended and re-published by the British Standards Institute
   (BSI) in 1995 as BS7799.
   Support and compliance tools begin to emerge, such as COBRA.

   David Lilburn Watson becomes the first qualified certified BS7799 c:cure
   The first major revision of BS7799 was published. This included many major

    Accreditation and certification schemes are launched. LRQA and BSI are the
    first certification bodies.

February 2008              Overview - ISO 27000
History of ISO – The Timeline
   In December, BS7799 is again re-published, this time as a fast tracked ISO
   standard. It becomes ISO 17799 (or more formally, ISO/IEC 17799).
   The 'ISO 17799 Toolkit' is launched.
   A second part to the standard is published: BS7799-2. This is an Information
   Security Management Specification, rather than a code of practice. It begins
   the process of alignment with other management standards such as ISO
   A new version of ISO 17799 is published. This includes two new sections, and
   closer alignment with BS7799-2 processes..
   ISO 27001 is published, replacing BS7799-2, which is withdrawn. This is a
   specification for an ISMS (information security management system), which
   aligns with ISO 17799 and is compatible with ISO 9001 and ISO 14001

February 2008             Overview - ISO 27000
Where did 17799 come from?
• BS7799 was conceived, as a technology-neutral, vendor-
  neutral management system that, properly implemented,
  would enable an organization's management to assure
  itself that its information security measures and
  arrangements were effective.
• From the outset, BS7799 focused on protecting the
  availability, confidentiality and integrity of organizational
  information and these remain, today, the driving objectives
  of the standard.
• BS7799 was originally just a single standard, and had the
  status of a “Code of Practice”. In other words, it provided
  guidance for organizations, but hadn't been written as a
  specification that could form the basis of an external third
  party verification and certification scheme.

February 2008        Overview - ISO 27000
Overview – ISO 27000 (base standard)
Published standards
ISO/IEC 27001 - the certification standard against which organizations' ISMS may be
               certified (published in 2005)
ISO/IEC 27002 - the re-naming of existing standard ISO 17799 (last revised in 2005,
               and renumbered ISO/IEC 27002:2005 in July 2007)
ISO/IEC 27006 - a guide to the certification/registration process (published in 2007)

In preparation
ISO/IEC 27000 - a standard vocabulary for the ISMS standards
ISO/IEC 27003 - a new ISMS implementation guide
ISO/IEC 27004 - a new standard for information security management
ISO/IEC 27005 - a proposed standard for risk management
ISO/IEC 27007 - a guideline for auditing information security management systems
ISO/IEC 27011 - a guideline for telecommunications in information security
               management system
ISO/IEC 27799 - guidance on implementing ISO/IEC 27002 in the healthcare

February 2008              Overview - ISO 27000
ISO/IEC 27001
ISO/IEC 27001 certification usually involves a three-stage audit process:

Stage 1 is a "table top" review of the existence and completeness of key
        documentation such as the organization's security policy,
        Statement of Applicability (SoA) and Risk Treatment Plan (RTP).
Stage 2 is a detailed, in-depth audit involving testing the existence and
        effectiveness of the information security controls stated in the
        SoA and RTP, as well as their supporting documentation.
Stage 3 is a follow-up reassessment audit to confirm that a previously-
        certified organization remains in compliance with the standard.
        Certification maintenance involves periodic reviews and re-
        assessments to confirm that the ISMS continues to operate as
        specified and intended.

February 2008            Overview - ISO 27000
ISO/IEC 27002
ISO/IEC 27002 provides best practice recommendations on
   IS security management systems (ISMS).
The standard contains the following twelve main sections:
1. Risk Assessment – determining asset vulnerability
2. Security Policy - management direction
3. Organization of Information Security - governance of
   information security
4. Asset Management - inventory and classification of
   information assets
5. Human Resources Security - security aspects for
   employees joining, moving and leaving an organization
6. Physical and Environmental Security - protection of the
   computer facilities

February 2008      Overview - ISO 27000
ISO/IEC 27002
7. Communications and Operations Management -
   management of technical security controls
8. Access Control - restriction of access rights to networks,
   systems, applications, functions and data
9. Information Systems Acquisition, development and
   maintenance - building security into applications
10. Information Security Incident Management -
   anticipating and responding appropriately to security
11. Business Continuity Management - protecting,
   maintaining and recovering business-critical processes
   and systems
12. Compliance - ensuring conformance with information
   security policies, standards, laws and regulations
 February 2008        Overview - ISO 27000
ISO/IEC 27002
Within each section, information security controls and their
  objectives are specified and outlined.
Specific controls are not mandated since:
• Each organization is expected to undertake a structured
  information security risk assessment process to determine
  its specific requirements before selecting controls that are
  appropriate to its particular circumstances.
• It is practically impossible to list all conceivable controls in
  a general purpose standard. Industry-specific
  implementation guidance for ISO/IEC 27001 and 27002
  are anticipated to give advice tailored to organizations in
  the telecomms, financial services, healthcare, lotteries
  and other industries.

February 2008         Overview - ISO 27000
            ISO 27002 Summary
                  (Eye Test)

February 2008    Overview - ISO 27000
February 2008   Overview - ISO 27000
Information security threats of 2008
CISSP / ISO27k implementers forum identifies the following threats:
• Imposition of legal and regulatory obligations.
• Cyber-criminals
• Malware, Trojans
• Phishers
• Spammers
• Negligent staff
• Storms, tornados, floods - Acts of God
• Hackers
• Unethical Employees who misuse/misconfigure system security
• Unauthorized access, modification, disclosure of, information assets
• Nations attacking critical information infrastructures to cause disruption.
• Technical advances that can render encryption algorithms obsolete

February 2008            Overview - ISO 27000
Information security impacts
Resulting information security incidents can cause:
• Disruption to organizational routines and processes
• Direct financial losses through information theft and fraud
• Decrease in shareholder value
• Loss of privacy
• Reputational damage causing brand devaluation
• Loss of confidence in IT
• Expenditure on information security assest and data damaged, stolen,
  corrupted or lost in incidents
• Loss of competitive advantage
• Reduced profitability
• Impaired growth due to inflexible infrastructure/system/application
• Injury or loss of life if safety-critical systems fail

February 2008          Overview - ISO 27000
Objectives of measuring security
So what are the objectives of measuring security?
• To show ongoing improvement;
• To show compliance (with Standards, contracts, SLAs,
  OLAs, etc);
• To justify any future expenditure (new security software,
  training, people, etc);
• ISO 27001 certification requires it. Other Management
  Systems also require it – ISO 9001, ISO 20000;
• To identify where implemented controls are not effective in
  meeting their objectives;
• To provide confidence to senior management and
  stakeholders that implemented controls are effective.

February 2008       Overview - ISO 27000
Benefits of measuring security
So what are the benefits of measuring security?
• Actually eases process of monitoring the effectiveness of
  the ISMS (e.g. less labor intensive, for example, if using
  tools, and provides a means of self checking);
• Proactive tools to measure / prevent problems arising at a
  later date (e.g. network bottlenecks, disk clutter,
  development of poor human practices);
• Reduction of incidents, etc;
• Motivates staff when senior management set targets;
• Tangible evidence to auditors, and assurance to senior
  management that you are in control – i.e. Corporate
  Information Assurance (Corporate Governance), and top
  down approach to Information Assurance.

February 2008       Overview - ISO 27000
What should be measured
They have been broken down into the following categories:
1. Management Controls: Security Policy, IT Policies,
   Security Procedures, Business Continuity Plans, Security
   Improvement Plans, Business Objectives, Management
2. Business Processes: Risk Assessment & Risk
   Treatment Management Process, Human Resource
   Process, SOA selection process, Media Handling Process
3. Operational Controls: Operational Procedures, Change
   Control, Problem Management, Capacity Management,
   Release Management, Back up, Secure Disposal,
   Equipment off site
4. Technical Controls: Patch Management, Anti-Virus
   Controls, IDS, Firewall, Content Filtering
February 2008       Overview - ISO 27000
What needs to be measured?

Measurement can be achieved against:
• A particular security control or objective;
• A group of controls;
• Against main controls within a Standard;
• Specific controls within an IT component.

February 2008     Overview - ISO 27000
Process for deciding which controls should be used.
First, you need to:
• Confirm relevance of controls through risk assessment;
• Define objectives, ensuring they map back to the
• Use existing Indicators wherever possible, e.g. in ITIL
   terms, KPIs:
      – A KPI helps a business define progress towards a particular goal;
      – KPIs are measurements critical to the success of the business.
• Within the ISMS audit framework, identify controls which
  can be continuously monitored, using chosen technique;
• Before using any tools, confirm the objectives with senior
  managers as well as staff. Corroborate with third parties,
  or through SLAs/OLAs where internal third parties are
  concerned e.g. ISO15000 (ITIL);

February 2008             Overview - ISO 27000
Process for deciding which controls should be used.

1. Establish a baseline, against which all future
   measurements can be contrasted/compared;
2. Provide periodic reports to appropriate management
   forum/ISMS owners (show graphs, pictures paint a
   thousand words);
3. Identify Review Input – agreed recommendations,
   corrective actions, etc;
4. Implement improvements within your Integrated
   Management Systems (IMS) e.g. merged ISO’s 9001,
   14000, 27001, 20000;
5. Establish/agree new baseline, review the output, apply the
   PDCA approach (Plan – Do – Check – Act).

February 2008       Overview - ISO 27000
Measuring the effectiveness of Security

 Apply the vulnerability management lifecycle...

 Inventory assets                              Prioritize based on
 Identify                                       vulnerability data,
  vulnerabilities                                threat data, and
                                                 asset classification
 Develop

 Monitor known                                 Eliminate high-
  vulnerabilities                                priority
 Watch unpatched                                vulnerabilities
  systems                                       Establish controls
 Alert other                                   Demonstrate
  suspicious activity                            progress

February 2008           Overview - ISO 27000
Regulatory Concerns – why look at ISO
A lot to worry about:
• Government concerns (e.g. Systrust, GCCR)
• Payment Card Industry (PCI)
• CSOX (Bill 198)
• NERC (Electric Regulatory)
• Cross border regulations (HIPPA, GLBA)
• ISA SP 99 (Future Industrial Standard?)
• There will be more to follow ……..

February 2008     Overview - ISO 27000
Why Best Practices are Important!
Today, the effective use of best practices can help avoid re-
  inventing wheels, optimize the use of scarce IT resources
  and reduce the occurrence of major IT risks, such as:
   – Project failures
   – Wasted investments
   – Security breaches
   – System crashes
   – Failures by service providers to understand and meet
     customer requirements

February 2008        Overview - ISO 27000
Why Best Practices are Important!
COBIT, ITIL and ISO 17799 are valuable to the ongoing growth and
  success of an organization because:
   – Companies are demanding better returns from IT investments
   – Best practices help meet regulatory requirements for IT controls
   – Organizations face increasingly complex IT-related risks
   – Organizations can optimize costs by standardizing controls
   – Best practices help organizations assess how IT is performing
   – Management of IT is critical to the success of enterprise strategy
   – They help enable effective governance of IT activities
   – A management framework helps staff understand what to do
     (policy, internal controls and defined practices)
   – They can provide efficiency gains, less reliance on experts, fewer
     errors, increased trust from business partners and respect from

February 2008           Overview - ISO 27000

•   ISO started as a management system
•   ISO 17799 (BS7799) has become a defacto IT standard
•   ISO 27000 takes standards to a new level
•   Most organizations are using or looking at the standard for help
•   Many more uses down the road

    February 2008        Overview - ISO 27000
ISO 27000 Reference Links

February 2008               Overview - ISO 27000

February 2008   Overview - ISO 27000