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					                                Dr Andrea Noble
                     Reader and Head of Department of Spanish
                               University of Durham

                                  Keynote Speaker

„Dismodernity‟ and New Mexican Cinema

This paper takes as its starting point a cluster of Mexican films made in the late 1980s
and early 1990s, which are driven by narratives of incestuous desire, taking Oedipal
scenarios to extremes that seem designed to shock. The proliferation of increasingly
explicit incest narratives suggests that as a theme incest comes endowed with a
surplus of cultural significance at this historical moment. Although these films were
made just prior to the ‗cinematic revivals‘ of the mid 1990s that are the focus of this
conference, this paper aims to explore the relationship between this thematic
obsession, the socio-political changes brought with neo-liberalism and the
contemporary transnational box-office appeal currently enjoyed by Mexican and
indeed Latin American cinema more generally.

                               Dr Catherine Grant
            Senior Lecturer and Head of the Department of Film Studies
                                University of Kent

                                 Keynote Speaker

„New Argentine Cinema‟ as a Directors‟ Cinema

As I set out in an article on the new forms of auteurism in contemporary world cinema
for Screen in 2000, in the mid to late 1990s during the early stages of the
establishment of ‗New Argentine Cinema‘ (NAC) as a cultural phenomenon, the
filmmakers associated with this cinema were often heard to reject any association of
their work with the conventional model of individualistic auteurism, or ‗Second
Cinema‘ to use Solanas and Getino‘s term. Indeed, in the first years after the
instrumental passing of the Ley de Cine, the idea that this was, if anything, an anti-
auteurist ‗movement‘ clearly took hold. If we look back now at the last ten years of
Argentine film production and see what has characterised the cinema made and
marketed under the NAC label, it may be argued that what emerged in Argentina was
an unusual kind of space for a writer-director led cinema which has enabled work of a
remarkable stylistic and thematic consistency (a related development over a somewhat
longer, though overlapping period, I would argue, would be the films of the ‗New
Iranian Cinema‘). My paper will examine these aspects of NAC by looking in detail at
the careers and especially the films of two of the most prominent of the New
Argentine cineastes, nationally and internationally: Pablo Trapero (Mundo grúa, El
bonaerense, Familia rodante) and Lucrecia Martel (La ciénaga, La niña santa).

                                  Prof Lúcia Nagib
                             Professor of World Cinemas
                                 University of Leeds

                                  Keynote Speaker

„Going Global – The Brazilian Scripted Film‟

Like all other independent cinemas in the world, current Brazilian cinema is
supported by a combination of national and international funds, often granted on the
basis of scripts. Scripts proven successful with international producers usually obey a
few basic rules. Very rarely they fall outside the limits of political correctness. They
are imbued with social concerns and committed to realism, achieved through the use
of real locations and unknown or non-professional actors, whose lives resemble those
of the characters they play. To such documentary backdrop a constructive fictional
plot is applied, along the lines of ordinary people facing and overcoming
extraordinary events. Unlikely though they might be, these events are made credible
by well-constructed, coherent scripts, which turn common people into ‗private heroes‘
in a depoliticised world.

Adding their own auteurist touch to this recipe, filmmakers from all over the world,
including Brazil, have been shaping a global grammar of cinematic storytelling and
producing some international hits, such as Central Station (Walter Salles, 1998) and
City of God (Fernando Meirelles and Katia Lund, 2002). Both films have had their
scripts fine tuned at the Sundance Institute, which, as other similar laboratories in
Europe, has been training independent scriptwriters and directors along the past two
decade. This paper will discuss the new Brazilian transnational scripted film, also
looking at some of its national peculiarities, such as the reflexive formula launched by
the short film Island of Flowers (Jorge Furtado, 1989), an early contributor to the
current international grammar, whose echoes can be perceived in films such as Amélie
(Jean-Pierre Jeunet, 2001) and Y tu mamá también (Alfonso Cuarón, 2001).

                               Prof. Robert Stam
                              New York University

„Aesthetics of Resistance‟

My talk will focus on ―Aesthetics of Resistance‖ in recent Brazilian audio-visual
media, and especially in cinema and music-video. Some of the aesthetic rubrics and
genres treated will include: polyphonic dialogism; reflexive documentary; media
critique; progressive rap; camcorder activism; and indigenous media.

                                  João Luiz Vieira
                  Lecturer in the Department of Cinema and Video
                  Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro

„All-Purpose Latina: Penelope Cruz‟ Travelling Body‟

Given the growing interest in the area of globalization and the discussion of how the
body (as a general and specific area of confluence of different modes of inquiry —
cultural, economic, political) is constituted by transnational discourses, my paper will
question the contemporary conditions for the representation of the multiplicity of
―latino/a‖ identities in film, taking Penelope Cruz‘s star text and her travelling body
as a quintessential example. From her early career in Spain to her Hollywood work as
the most recent incarnation of an all-purpose Latina, Cruz belongs to a complex
lineage of constructed Latino/a identities that dates back to the silent (Valentino) and
sound periods in Hollywood (Lupe Vélez, Carmen Miranda).

This paper will address some of the shifts in current theoretical thought and practices
regarding the Hollywood paradigm and its ―alternative other‖; the refining of some
cultural concepts of ―the body‖ as well as Cruz‘s intertextual links with other new
latino/a star performances and their constructed transnational personas as they
function within a negotiated post-capitalist audiovisual circuit of production and

Emphasis will be placed on Woman on Top (2000), a crossover between Arau‘s Como
agua para chocolate and Bruno Barreto‘s Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands,
produced by Fox Searchlights, partly shot on Brazilian locations, directed by a
Venezuelan filmmaker (Fina Torres), written by a Brazilian author (Vera Blasi) and
performed by Cruz.

                              Prof. Michael Chanan
                            Professor of Cultural Studies
                     University of the West of England, Bristol

„Contemporary Documentary Currents in Latin America‟

This paper will look at the main currents in documentary filmmaking in Latin
America over the last fifteen years, including especially the work of Eduardo
Coutinho in Brazil, and in Argentina, the two strands of cine piquetero and the art
documentary. Given the claims that cine piquetero revives the tradition of third
cinema associated with La hora de los hornos by Solanas and Getino, the paper will
ask to what extent contemporary Latin American documentary continues in the mould
of the New Latin American Cinema of the 1960s and 70s.

                                   Ismail Xavier
                                 Associate Professor
                          Department of Film and Television
                              University of São Paulo

„Voice over narration in Brazilian contemporary cinema‟

A significant number of Brazilian contemporary films present voice-over narration as
a structural element. I am interested in films based on novels and which reveal
specific connections between cinema and recent literature. As part of a project
engaged in the study of that connection, my paper focuses on the performance of
voice-over narration in Estorvo (1999), by Ruy Guerra, a film based on Chico
Buarque´s novel of the same name. The idea is to relate the "flatness" of that voice to
the (lack of) psychological structure of the main character. His fragmented perception
of space, time and action articulates a particular view of Brazilian society presented in
the film as it engages with Buarque´s novel. My analysis also aims to establish a
ground for different comparisons involving Ruy Guerra´s film and other examples of
voice-over narration in contemporary Brazilian cinema. In this context I will refer to
Cidade de Deus (Fernando Meirelles and Katia Lund, 2002) and Lavoura Arcaica
(Luiz Fernando Carvalho), both film adaptations of recent novels.

                                 María Donapetry
                                Adj. Prof. of Spanish
                            Pomona College, California

„“Y tu madre patria también” (Re: Cuarón´s Y tu mamá también)‟

Whereas some critics find Y tu mamá también to be a film which revises models of
gender and national identity, I take issue with this assumption. Reading the movie as a
subversion of genre, particularly the road/buddy movie genre, I maintain that the
director critiques Mexican machismo and re-visits the concept of motherland (madre
patria/Spain). In doing so, Cuarón suggests that Mexicans will not have access to
modernity so long as models of self-absorbed masculinity remain unchanged. The
decision to embody progressive sexuality in a Spanish actress and character is central
to my interpretation of this polemical film. My analysis will be rounded out by
consideration of the different models of spectatorship made available to female/male,
Mexican/non-Mexican sectors of the audience.

                                    Jessie Gibbs
                                     PhD student
                             University of Manchester

‘Cleopatra and Historias mínimas: Coding urban and rural spaces‟

Within my wider research project on Latin American road movies, I have noticed the
genre has been used by a number of filmmakers to explore tensions between tradition
and modernity in the nation. In this paper I will examine the coded use of rural and
urban spaces to present certain ideals, looking at two recent Argentine road movies,
Historias mínimas (Sorin, 2002) and Cleopatra (Mignogna, 2003). The apparent
endorsement of rural life in both films suggests a common disillusionment with
modernity and nostalgia for traditional values. Different utopian imagery is used
ironically in Historias mínimas to suggest the illusory or superficial nature of
modernity in Patagonia, such as the characters‘ fascination with palm-lined paradises,
or with consumer gimmicks and gadgets. Although poverty and isolation sometimes
characterize Sorin‘s representation of Patagonia, the film could be read as homage to
a more traditional way of life, as well as a comment on the partial nature of Argentine
modernity. In Cleopatra modern city life also seems to compare badly with a rural
space symbolising tradition, community and a type of philosophical spirituality.
Within this nostalgic atmosphere I investigate what kind of gender roles are proposed
for Cleopatra‘s eponymous heroine and her female travelling companion.

                               Dr Armida da la Garza
                              University of Nottingham

„Chicanos on Film: Challenging the Territorial Boundaries of the Nation‟

If, as Gellner would have it, nationalism is ―a theory of political legitimacy…which
holds that the national and the political unit be congruent,‖ American citizens of
Mexican ancestry and Mexican immigrants settled in the United States, currently
referred to as ‗Chicanos,‘ have since 1847 rendered the boundaries of the Mexican
nation problematic. Because membership of this group results through simultaneously
claiming the Mexican identity and the American identity that was, until the 1990s, its
discursive opposite, keeping Mexican cultural markers beyond the second generation
of migrants, but living this culture out of the territorial boundaries, they questioned
the fit between the political and the territorial unit that nationalism struggles to create.
The undecidability of the Chicano identity exposed the contingency of the hegemonic
meaning of Mexicanity. This paper thus looks at the various ways Chicanos have
historically been represented on Mexican film, the underlying assumption being that
these representations have been crucial for the forging and transformation of Mexican

                                   Sarah Barrow
                                   Senior Lecturer
                       Dept of Communication, Film and Media
                                  APU, Cambridge

„New Peruvian Cinema: Internationalist Strategies to Beat the Crisis‟

This paper provides an overview of Peruvian cinema of the last five years, and of the
efforts made by an emerging set of diverse film-makers to take advantage of new
international funding and support opportunities. These include the regional Ibermedia
programme, Rotterdam Film Festival‘s Hubert Bals project, and the Cannes
screenwriting residency awards for developing writer-director talent from developing
economies. By way of case study, the paper includes an analysis of Josué Méndez‘s
debut feature Días de Santiago (2004). Recounting the tale of a young military man
who leaves the Peruvian armed forces and attempts to reintegrate into civilian and
family life, the film‘s innovative stylistic approach has been favourably compared
with Scorcese‘s Taxi Driver (1976) and Friedkin‘s French Connection (1971). An
unprecedented success on domestic screens since its commercial release in September
2004, it has also been the surprise recipient of a clutch of global festival awards, and
has thus helped to restore a little credibility and prestige to Peru‘s struggling national

                                 Alessandra Meleiro
                           Ph.D. Cinema and Cultural Policy
                              Universidade de São Paulo

„Dynamics and Structure of audiovisual product circulation in Mercosur

Production levels in Brazil and Argentina, countries that legislate heavily in the area
of audio-visual cultural production, outstrip those of Paraguay and Uruguay where
little or no such legislation exists. It is these disparities between countries in terms of
their [film] markets and legislation which have figured as the primary impediment to
the circulation of cultural goods within Mercosur, composed of the above four
countries. In light of this, my research aims to identify the exact dynamics and
structure of the international circulation of audiovisual products amongst Mercosur
countries, as well as constructing a set of indicators for public and private sectors that
may allow audio-visual diffusion levels to be gauged.

I will present some preliminary results obtained from a virtual collaboration area
amongst Mercosur countries presently being developed through a post-doctoral
project, from which I intend to evaluate the performance of public policy adopted in
relation to the audiovisual sector.

                                Tamara L. Falicov
                                Assistant Professor
               Department of Theatre and Film/Latin American Studies
                               University of Kansas

„Assessing Programa Ibermedia: The dynamics of an Ibero-American co-
production Fund‟

This paper analyzes the Iberian-American film and television co-production fund,
Programa Ibermedia. Based in Madrid, Spain, the fund was founded in 1997 by the
Conference of Iberian-American Film Organizations. It has developed a funding
scheme modelled on the European film fund Media Programme, whereby each
member contributes to a fund in accordance with what each nation can afford. While
this has been a boon to smaller countries, it has also begged the question regarding the
power dynamic inherent in the different percentages of funding each country pays.
Spain, for example, contributes over fifty percent of the total from its foreign policy
(relaciones exteriores) fund and its agenda has lead commentators to view Spanish-
Spanish American relations in terms of neo-colonialist dynamics.

International co-productions also raise the issue of narrative compromise imposed on
the script. For example, in Argentine cinema, there have been strange occurrences of
Spaniards due to an enforced quota of Spanish actors ‗entitled‘ to participate in the

I will analyze the Ibermedia program‘s funding of films in its six year history,
including the financial participation of each country. Thus I hope to forge links
between amount of funding provided and the degree to which a narrative has been

                                     Joanna Page
                          Centre for Latin American Studies
                              University of Cambridge

„Allegory and alienation in the films of Lucrecia Martel: a critical quagmire‟

With just two feature films released to date, Lucrecia Martel has already been
canonized as a key figure in contemporary Argentine cinema. The critical reception of
La ciénaga (2001) and La niña santa (2004) reveals some confusion concerning these
films‘ status as allegories. To what extent can we interpret the indolent parochialism
of the middle-class families they depict as symbolic of a wider social decline in
Argentina? This paper will examine the case for an allegorical reading of these films,
while drawing attention to the ways in which they actively resist such an
interpretation. Through its play with the conventions of allegory, I will argue that
Martel‘s work engages self-reflexively with questions of authority, meaning and
interpretation. We can therefore read the films‘ emphasis on the unresolved, the
elliptical, the irrational and the banal at the level of narrative as symbolic of a deeper
disintegration at work, which takes on both social and spiritual dimensions. Martel‘s
interrogation of the relationships between the profane and the sacred, the literal and
the symbolic, the individual and the collective – all of which make possible the
production of meaning – effectively encodes a broader crisis in political filmmaking
in contemporary Argentina.

                             Katia Augusta Maciel
                            University of Southampton

„Addressing Pleasure and Reconciliation in the endings of Central do Brasil and
Lisbela e o Prisioneiro‟

This paper discusses the ways in which both filmmakers and spectators engage with
cinematic practices and discourses. It explores the functions of pleasure and
reconciliation in both the intellectual and aesthetic templates of contemporary
Brazilian films. The aim is to highlight the interplay of these issues in the debate
surrounding questions of cultural appropriation, high and low culture, and identity,
drawing on theories of Cultural and Film Studies. The discussion arises from a
reading of the endings of Central do Brasil (Central Station, 1998) and Lisbela e o
Prisioneiro (Lisbela and the Prisoner, 2003). These specific sequences were chosen
because both move across art and popular conventions, while approaching pleasure
and reconciliation on different levels.

                                Dr Dolores Tierney
                              Lecturer in Film Studies
                         Media and Film Studies Department
                                 Sussex University

„Director Without Borders: Alejandro González Iñárritu‟

Iñárritu‘s 21 Grams (2003) has been read as a ―border‖ film, industrially situated
between ―all out independence and attachment to the empire of the Hollywood major
studios‖ and formally positioned between the alternative and the familiar, in terms of
its narrative structures and hyper-realistic visual textures. However, the film also
exists on another border; one between Mexico and the US. This paper suggests that
the work of González Iñárritu and his creative team (cinematographer Rodrigo Prieto
and writer Guillermo Arraiga) on 21 Grams defies the usual émigré director paradigm
in which Hollywood (or in this case American Independent Cinema) co-opts and
depoliticises the stylistics of filmmakers from peripheral filmmaking nations (in this
case Mexico); characterised by stylistic and narrative innovation ,21 Grams has been
as critically and commercially successful as Iñárritu‘s debut feature Amores Perros
(1999). Through comparative analysis of Iñárritu‘s first two features, both of which
can be considered ―transnational texts‖, this paper will explore what is involved in the
crossing of geographic, aesthetic and industrial borders between the Mexican and
Hollywood/American Independent film industries.

                                  Marcelo Vieira
                            Ph.D Student in Film Studies
                                  Institute of Arts
                        State University of Campinas, Brazil.

„The ‘Cangaço’ in New Brazilian Cinema‟

The ―Cangaço‖ was a cultural historic movement that took place in the Brazilian
north-eastern backlands in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. If the USA has its
cowboys and Europe its errant knights then Brazil has the ―cangaceiros‖, which have
formed part of its cinematic imagery since the 1920s. The ―cangaço‖ has been focused
on by Brazilian films through different perspectives and there are almost 50 films on
this subject that have formed a distinctive genre in its own right. In New Brazilian
Cinema, it has been revisited by several filmmakers, such as Rosemberg Cariry in
Corisco and Dadá (1996) and Paulo Caldas & Lírio Ferreira in Baile perfumado
(1997). This paper will analyze these two films in a historical context, particularly in
relation to their documentary bias. Corisco and Dadá tells the story of a famous
couple of ―cangaceiros‖. Baile Perfumado brings to the fore the life of a peddler and
amateur filmmaker, Benjamin Abrahão, who documented these outlaws on film in
1936. Both films include documentary footage of the ―cangaceiros‖ shot by Abrahão,
elaborating on it in radically different ways.

                        Alfredo Luiz Paes de Oliveira Suppia
                                   Ph.D Multimedia
                           Arts Institute, UNICAMP, Brazil

‗A possible naturalistic tendency in contemporary Brazilian Cinema‟

Contemporary Brazilian Cinema, which has arisen from the revival of the 1990‘s, is
shaped by aesthetic and thematic diversity. Nevertheless, within this heterogeneous
panorama, some Brazilian films appear to have in common a possible naturalist
tendency, characterised by a crude register, as well as in the mimetic reproduction of
some social groups‘ original speech and behaviour.

Usually, the general theme of these films corresponds to the treatment of everyday life
in the context of metropolitan Brazil. Within this reality two basic classes in conflict
can be highlighted: the bourgeoisie or the elite, living at the ―core‖ of society, and the
people or povo (lower classes), in particular common criminals (drug dealers, killers,
etc.), who exist on the peripheries of society.

In these films, blood, sweat, flesh, drugs, diseases, crimes of passion, sexual instinct,
the fight for survival and confrontation all abound. The criminal character emerges as
the symptom of a particular tendency in which the romantic and idealistic criminal
gives place to a more pragmatic one, driven by either vocation or the power of
particular events.

Among the films here seen as possibly naturalistic oriented are: Toni Venturi‘s
Latitude Zero (2000), Beto Brant‘s O Invasor (2002), Fernando Meirelles and Kátia
Lund‘s Cidade de Deus (2002), Cláudio Assis‘ Amarelo Manga (2002) and Roberto
Moreira‘s Contra Todos (2003).

                                  Dr Deborah Shaw
                             Senior Lecturer in Spanish
                              University of Portsmouth

„Playing Hollywood at its own Game? Bielinski‟s Nine Queens‟

Nine Queens written and directed by Fabián Bielinski, is the most commercially
successful Argentine film of recent times, and has also won many awards at
international film festivals, and has been remade in Hollywood with the title Criminal.
In this paper I will explore the reasons behind this success both in Argentina and on
the international circuit, and use this specific text to explore the contemporary
relationship between Argentine and Hollywood film. I ask whether Argentine cinema
has been forced to adopt a ‗Hollywood‘ form of filmmaking to make an impact in the
international market or whether notions of national cinema need to be reconsidered
and extended. I also examine questions of marketing strategies and critical reception
to the film in a range of national contexts. I focus on the way in which trans-national
generic elements are highlighted while ‗foreign‘ national signifiers are edited out of
the trailers for international audiences. I argue that different and even, contradictory
readings of the film are produced depending on whether the film is read from within a
national or a trans-national framework.

                            Verônica Ferreira Dias
                 Filmmaker and Lecturer at the Department of Arts
                        Catholic University of São Paulo

„Eduardo Coutinho´s Cinema‟

This paper discusses Brazilian documentary maker Eduardo Coutinho who
reinvigorated his acclaimed career in the mid 90s with his award winning Cabra
marcado para morrer. Filming on digital video allowed the director to satisfy the
technical needs appropriate for his subject matter: conversation, spontaneity and
metalanguage. An analysis of documentaries Cabra marcado para morrer (1984),
Santo forte (1999), Babilônia 2000 (2000) and Edifício Master (2002) highlight
Coutinho´s distinctive traits: turning the interview into central narrative feature,
emphasising the character‘s voice, using ordinary people and non-experts or
professional speakers. Coutinho also likes to highlight the participation of the
director, the team, and the technical apparatus, in order to lay bare documentary‘s
mechanisms of production. Coutinho involves people that he genuinely enjoys
interacting with resulting in an often unique interchange of character, and situation.

                                  Alison Fraunhar
                        University of California Santa Barbara

„Latin American Cinematic Cities‟

While many memorable films produced in Latin America have been situated in
dynamic urban settings, scholarship has focused on narrative, aesthetics and
representations of modernity and its subjects. What these accounts have left out is a
solid discussion of the spatiality of these films.

In this paper, I set out to analyze several recent Latin America films, including City of
God (Mirielles, 2003), Amores Perros (Innaritu, 2000) and Suite Habana (Perez,
2002). In each of these films, the city is intrinsic to the film‘s context, offering us an
opportunity to consider the spatialization of identity, social and economic changes.

                                Dr Else R P Vieira
           Reader in Brazilian and Contemporary Latin American Studies
                        Queen Mary, University of London

„Screening the social memory of Carandiru‟

On December 8th 2002, 250kg of gunpowder ‗imploded‘ three pavillions of the
Carandiru Prison Complex. In just seven seconds, the largest prison in Latin America,
and the symbol par excellence of social exclusion in Brazil, was no more. This
presentation analyses the different ways Hector Babenco´s film and the documentaries
featuring the same event weave the texture of Carandiru‘s memory. Emphasis will be
placed on their contrasting points of views, on the way they define their task as
testimonials, and, in so doing, reconceptualize realism; on what devices they use to
interpellate the modernity of what was once meant to be a model prison; and on their
distinctive handling of cinematography to blow life into an agonizing system.
References will also be made to other media which, together with the two films, in
further distinction, document the last months of this vanishing monument. The
underlying argument is that such marked differences are emblematic of Brazil‘s
conflicted struggle with its social memory.

                               Ana Rita Mendonça
                         Ph.D Student in Communications
                      Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil

‘City of God – A key release in Brazilian cinema‟

City of God (Fernando Meirelles, 2002) can be said to embody the hope inspired by
films that in their display of Brazilian realities have managed to touch the hearts and
minds of mass audiences at home and abroad and thus acquire key release status in
Brazilian cinema.

Such films may be submitted to a domestic debate over their legitimacy as a portrait
of these realities. The extensive critique and analysis that surrounds them owes itself
to a variety of social factors and addresses not only thematic concerns but also those
relating to film language as well as the link which exists between them.

The main objective of this paper is to examine the critique and analysis surrounding
City of God in the context of the film‘s key release status. Rio North Zone (Nelson
Pereira dos Santos, 1957) and Pixote (Hector Babenco, 1980) will also be considered
and a dialogue established between them and Meirelles film in order to illustrate
retrospectively some of the expectations surrounding filmic portraits of Brazilian
realties. City of God was also be discussed in the context of the current state of the
audio-visual sector in Brazil.

                                 Tatiana S. Heise
                          PhD Student in Brazilian Film
          Department of Spanish and Portuguese/Centre for World Cinemas
                               University of Leeds

„Madame Satã and the (re)configuration of power relations in contemporary
Brazilian film‟

This paper examines the representation of power relations in contemporary Brazilian
film. I will start with an analysis of Madame Satã (2002), highlighting features that
are common to other films produced between 1998 and 2004. In this context, I will
look at how individual characters interact with power, the means through which
power is exerted (e.g. through coercion and violence) and the social location in which
power relations are typically represented (e.g. between individuals of different classes
or ethnic groups). The representations of power in Madame Satã are contrasted with
representations from an earlier phase of Brazilian cinema (e.g.: the late 1960s and
early 1970s).

I am examining the films from within a sociological framework. I am less interested
in purely textual analyses than I am in understanding Madame Satã (and the other
films mentioned) as a cultural manifestation within a specific social and historical
context. By examining changes in filmic representations of power, I wish to
understand what these films have to say about broader changes in Brazilian society.

                                   Eliska Altmann
                          Ph.D Sociology and Anthropology
                        Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

„The Brazilian nation in images: ruptures and continuities from past to present‟

Analysing the symbols and discourses that construct Brazilian ―social imaginary‖ this
paper examines the cinematographic representations of Brazil through two key
moments in the country‘s history: the decade of 1960, located in a period usually
denominated as ―modernity‖ or even ―utopia‖, when intellectual artists of the Cinema
Novo movement circumscribe a nation‘s project based on popular culture; and the
present cinema, inscribed in a moment called ―post-modernity‖. Focusing on the
works of Glauber Rocha and Walter Salles the central hypothesis of this paper is that
whilst the latter period presents more fluid and fragmentary characteristics than the
former, in terms of national images both demonstrate a continuity that runs contrary to
the process of rupture suggested by various social theories. In this sense, this paper is
articulated according to a dialogue between elements of cinematographic art and
theoretical conceptions of identity, modernity and post-modernity.

                               Yukiko Matsumoto
                        MA History of Film and Visual Media
                          Birkbeck, University of London

Central do Brasil – The Quest for Identity and Utopia

Walter Salles‘ Central Station (Central do Brasil, 1998) was acclaimed around the
world and is regarded as a milestone film, representing the re-emergence of the film
industry in Brazil in the 1990s. In the film, Salles conveys human qualities, such as
affection, compassion, loss and consolation between characters within a realistic
portrayal of their social environment in Brazil, employing a documentary approach,
casting non-professional people and shooting on location.

In this paper, I will explore the significance of this film that attracted both national
and international audiences, by examining its production background, as well as
analysing its theme by comparison with Vittorio De Sica‘s Bicycle Thieves. I will also
illustrate the social and historical context of Central Station, referring to several
Brazilian films including Salles‘ previous and subsequent works.

                               Dr Catherine Leen
                                 Dept of Spanish
                     National University of Ireland, Maynooth,

„History Lessons: Luis Puenzo‟s La historia oficial and Contemporary Argentine

In 1985, Luis Puenzo‘s La historia oficial was awarded the Oscar for Best Foreign
Film and nominated in the category of Best Screenplay. Other reactions to his film
were not quite so positive, and despite its importance in bringing world attention to
the human rights abuses associated with the period known as la guerra sucia, it was
criticised for its focus on the middleclass and its tendencies towards melodrama. This
paper examines the ways in which socially committed filmmaking in Argentina has
developed since La historia oficial through an examination of contemporary films
such as Pablo Trapero‘s Mundo grua and El bonaerense; Israel Adrian Caetano‘s Un
oso rojo and Bolivia; Fabian Bielinsky‘s Nueve reinas; and Adrian Sur‘s El hijo de la
novia. These films will be discussed with reference to topics such as the role of co-
productions, the evolution of genres, and the themes of corruption, nostalgia, and
economic decline.

                         Ana Cristina Geovanini dos Santos
                             MA World Cinema student
                                University of Leeds

„Brazilian Cinema: The eternal struggle for a self-sustainable film industry‟

Like many national cinemas across the world, Brazil is confronted with the massive
domination of North American cinema within its own market, and at the same time is
politically unable to challenge it. State support for film financing is therefore vital for
ensuring Brazilian cinema a certain presence on its own screens. After cinema‘s near
demise in the 1990s with the dismantling of the national film agency Embrafilme and
the direct support system, a major challenge was set to the industry, that of re-
conquering the local audience. Although recent films such as City of God and
Carandiru were very successful and managed to re-establish an effective dialogue
with the audience, the industry has far from become self-sustainable.

This paper will present some initial observations on the eternal struggle for a self-
sustainable film industry in Brazil and the problematic search for its own national
identity, in an attempt to contribute to existing debates and synthesise the current
issues faced by the Brazilian film industry, by looking into some of the infrastructural
challenges that have not been addressed by recent and previous government film

                                  Benedict Hoff
                      MA in Screen Translation Studies student
                               University of Leeds

„Now you see it, now you don‟t: Cinematic Experimentation and Screen

To suggest that the conventions of classical Hollywood cinema, in which the spatial
and temporal parameters of a shot are subordinated to the causal logic of a [linear]
narrative, succeed in aiding viewer perception (and thus his or her experience of
filmed drama as ‗projective illusion‘) may not seem entirely controversial. Yet
Richard Allen suggests this has as much to do with audience familiarity with these
conventions as anything else, as well as the framework of expectations provided by
the various genres underpinning the Hollywood product (2001: 115).

In this sense ‗art-house‘ directors from Luis Buñuel to David Lynch have sought to
offer alternative perspectives to audiences, and force them to ‗perceive differently‘.
But do these experiments really aid and enhance viewer perception or merely lead to
an overload of information and thus a ‗block of perception‘? In the case of the former,
can the same be said for foreign viewers? In the case of the latter, can translation act
as a medium to ‗unblock‘ perception? Referring to Rodrigo Bellot‘s Dependencia
Sexual (winner of the 2002 Locarno Film Festival and shot entirely in split-screen),
this paper seeks to briefly address these questions and examine the way in which
cinematic experimentation impacts upon viewer perception and in turn, film

In doing so I hope to provide food for thought for directors who tend ignore such
issues during production stages, often to the detriment of their films‘ trans-national
appeal and accessibility.

                              Charlotte Gleghorn
                            MA World Cinemas student
                               University of Leeds

„The urban imaginary in Colombian film‟

Colombian film has frequently been neglected by scholars, undoubtedly due to the
country's irregular and uneven production. Colombia does, however, have a long
history of filmmaking comparable to other countries in the region and the last few
years have witnessed a 'boom' in production. These years have also revealed a
preference for treating urban themes and geographies.

This paper will discuss some Colombian films since the 1990s with respect to the
term cine urbano. Many critics have commented on the growing tendency of
Colombian directors to move away from portrayals of traditional rural life towards
urban landscapes. Indeed, the evolution from a cinema that was predominantly rural
to one that is urbano is particularly poignant as it finds a parallel in the (forced)
migrations from the country to the city.

By analysing certain 'key' films such as La Estrategia del caracol (Cabrera, 1993) and
La Gente de la Universal (Aljure, 1993), I intend to assess to what extent the terms
cine urbano or cine bogotano are appropriate to describe Colombia's filmic
developments and how these films depict popular culture, problematising the
distinction frequently made between the 'backward' country and modern cities.

                                  William Massa
                             M.A. World Cinemas student
                                University of Leeds

„Loach‟s Others‟

This paper will examine the different constructions of ‗otherness‘ in Ken Loach‘s
2000 feature Bread and Roses which follows the fate of a recién llegada immigrant
from Mexico and her place among a larger immigrant community in Los Angeles
fighting in the ‗Justice for Janitors‘ campaign . The experience of ‗othering‘ manifests
itself in multiple ways within the text. Language, geographical location,
cinematography, race and gender all contribute to multiple, shifting notions of identity
in the borderlands. I am particularly interested in notions of visibility and the
cinematographic and thematic ‗fetishization‘ of outsiders as exotic, demonstrating that
‗otherness‘ is constructed visually, as well as at the level of narrative.

Notions of fetish and voyeurism can be mapped onto the texts as a desire to assimilate
into a culture that is not one‘s own, establish amorous partnerships with those residing
on the ‗other‘ side of the border or reclaim a lost or misplaced cultural heritage
through the visual documenting of foreign cultural experience. Each of the above
represents some sort of lack that instigates a journey or encourages an experience that
might substitute for that lack. These notions may also extend to the extra-diegetic
gaze of the spectator or respective cultural producer - in this case a British director
dealing with an important Latino social issue - and call into question the importance
of ethnocentric cinematic representation and/or ‗realism‘ as a genre.


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