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How can personality be structured in terms of traits and how

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How can personality be structured in terms of traits and how Powered By Docstoc
					            Personality II
Hour 2 - How can personality be structured in
terms of traits and how can traits be
assessed?
 Structured tests
 MMPI, CPI, Q-Sort, etc.

 Trait theories
   • Surface traits and source traits
   • Cattell’s profile
   • Eyesenck’s scheme
   • The “Big Five”
Examples of structured tests
developed for use with a clinical
population.
   • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
     (MMPI)

Examples of structured tests
developed for use with a normal
population.
   • California Personality Inventory (CPI)
   • Q Sort
      Example of a MMPI-2 test profile of a depressed patient
      before and after treatment:
                                          Clinically significant range
                  Hypochondriasis
     (concern with body symptoms)
                        Depression
         (pessimism, hopelessness)
                           Hysteria
(uses symptoms to solve problems)      Before treatment
            Psychopathic deviancy
   (disregard for social standards)    After treatment
                           Paranoia
        (delusions, suspiciousness)
                     Psychasthenia
           (worried, guilt feelings)
                     Schizophrenia
    (withdrawn, bizarre thoughts)
                        Hypomania
    (overactive, excited,impulsive)
               Social introversion
                    (shy, inhibited)     30    40   50    60         70   80
                                                Standard score
                          Surface behaviors


Argues    Vigorously   Writes
a lot     defends      scathing
with      unpopular    letters
friends   positions    to the
          in class     news-
          discus-      paper
          sions        editor




     “Argumentativeness”          “Belligerence”     “Competitiveness”

Surface
 traits
                                  “Aggressiveness”
    Source trait
     Low                                   High

1     1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Warm
2     1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Intelligent
3     1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Emotionally stable
4     1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Dominant
5     1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Cheerful
6     1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Conscientious
7     1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Bold
8     1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Sensitive
9     1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Suspicious
10    1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Imaginative
11    1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Shrewd
12    1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Guilt prone
13    1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Experimenting
14    1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Self-sufficient
15    1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Self-disciplined
16    1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9     10   Tense
See also Gleitman,
                                  UNSTABLE
p. 599.
                        Moody                     Touchy
                   Anxious                           Restless
                  Rigid                               Aggressive
                Sober                                    Excitable
              Pessimistic                                Changeable
             Unreserved                                    Impulsive
            Unsociable                                     Optimistic
            Quiet                                               Active


        INTROVERTED                                     EXTROVERTED

          Passive                                              Sociable
            Careful                                          Outgoing
             Thoughtful                                    Talkative
              Peaceful                                  Responsive
                Controlled                             Easygoing
                   Reliable                              Lively
                       Even-tempered                Carefree
                            Calm                Leadership

                                       STABLE
                                          Physiological basis of
                                          extroversion-introversion
Degree of nervous system arousal

                                                            Introvert



                                                                 Extrovert
                                   Optimal level




                                    low                                  high
                                   Degree of environmental stimulation
              The “Big Five” (See Gleitman, p. 597-598)
 Trait-source    traits       Description-surface            traits

Openness   to experience   Imaginative vs. practical
                           Preference for variety vs. preference for routine
                           Independent vs. conforming

C onscientiousness         Organized vs. disorganized
                           Careful vs. careless
                           Disciplined vs. impulsive

Extroversion               Sociable vs. retiring
                           Fun-loving vs. sober
                           Affectionate vs. reserved

A greeableness             Soft-hearted vs. ruthless
                           Trusting vs. suspicious
                           Helpful vs. uncooperative
Neuroticism                Calm vs. anxious
                           Secure vs. insecure
                           Self-satisfied vs. self-pitying

				
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