Guiding Principles for Classroom Assessment

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					Guiding Principles for Classroom
•   A. General
•   Student assessment should be humane
•   B Responsibility (Who?)
•   Student assessment is the responsibility of
    classroom teachers
    C. Standards (How Good?)
• The standards used for interpreting student
  assessment results should be consistent with
  the purposes of the evaluation
• D. Purposes (Why?)
• Student assessment should be used for a
  number of purposes
  E. Evaluating What We Value
• Assessment practices should reflect all the
  valid outcomes of a unit, course, school or
• Assessment techniques should measure the
  learning that they are intended to assess, i.e.
  they should be valid
            F. Variety (How?)
• Student assessment procedures should be varied
  and consistent with the purpose(s) of the
• More than one assessment method should be used
  to ensure comprehensive and consistent indicators
  of student performance, i.e. to enhance reliability
• Take into account the backgrounds and prior
  experiences of students
       G. Frequency (When?)
• Evaluation should occur throughout the
  teaching/learning process
• H. Modifications
• Alternate assessment procedures should be
  used with students who have special needs
 I. Communication (Grading and
• Procedures for “scoring” student performance
  should be appropriate for the assessment method
  used and be consistently applied and monitored
• Procedures for summarizing and interpreting
  assessment results, i.e. grades and reports, should
  provide accurate and informative representations
  of student performance
 I. Communication (Grading and
• Procedures for “scoring” student performance
  should be appropriate for the assessment method
  used and be consistently applied and monitored
• Procedures for summarizing and interpreting
  assessment results, i.e. grades and reports, should
  provide accurate and informative representations
  of student performance
 I. Communication (Grading and
      Reporting) continued
• Reports should be clear, accurate and
  informative for the recipients of such
     Classroom Assessment in
     Teacher Decision Making
• Teacher as a mentor to individual students-
  uses assessment to guide interaction with
  the student
• Teacher as a guide for the class- uses
  assessment to oversee
  the operation of the classroom
     Classroom Assessment in
     Teacher Decision Making
• Teacher as marks accountant- uses
  assessment to record day-to-day marks
• Teacher as reporter- uses assessment to
  report to parents, teachers (report cards)
• Teacher as program director- uses
  assessment to guide teaching decisions
  The ICE Model of Assessment
• Ideas Building blocks of learning, i.e. steps
  in a process
• Connections- links or relationships students
  make among the Ideas and between new
  and prior learning i.e. combining steps
• Extensions- internalization of learning by
  students so it becomes part of their
  perspective i.e. using learning in novel ways
Adapting Classroom Assessment
   for Exceptional Learners
•   Adapting learning outcomes
•   Preparing students for classroom tests
•   Adapting tests during test construction
•   Adapted administration of classroom tests
•   Adapting marking of classroom tests
•   Using adapted performance assessments
•   Portfolios as classroom assessments


       Testing Accommodations
•   Before the test-
•   Study guides
•   Practice tests
•   Teaching test-taking skills
•   Modified test construction
•   Individual tutoring
       Testing Accommodations
•   During the test-
•   Alternate test format
•   Alternate means of response
•   Alternative sites
•   Direct assistance
•   Extra time
       Testing Accommodations
•   After the test-
•   Change letter or number grades
•   Change grading criteria
•   Use alternatives to number and letter grade
     Teaching Students with Low
      Incidence Exceptionalities
•   Description
•   Incidence
•   Characteristics
•   Classroom implications
•   Implications for social and career
 Modified Program for Students
  with Severe Developmental
     Disabilities Includes:
• Functional academic skills
• Physical development and personal care
• Communication skills and social interaction
• Community living skills
• Career development, work experience and
  transition planning
             Baseline Data
• Recording of the behaviours exhibited by a
  student prior to the intervention
           Event Recording
• Recording of how often a behaviour occurs
  i.e. frequency
         Duration Recording
• Recording of the length of time a student
  engages in a specific behaviour
          Latency Recording
• Recording the time between the
  presentation of the cue to perform a task
  and the student’s actual initiation of the task
          Scoring by Levels
• Recording of the levels of assistance or
  intervention necessary to facilitate the
  student’s performance of a task
• Adapting skill sequences-rearranging the
  typical order of steps within a task
• Adapting rules-changing certain rules to
  allow more participation
• Utilizing personal assistance-aids, peer
  tutors, buddy systems to accomplish tasks
• Fostering social/attitudinal changes-
  changing assumptions and beliefs of the
  student, family, professionals and
  community members
• Creating or using materials and devices to
  meet specific needs of specific students-
  microswitches, mechanical devices,
  calculators, computers, communication
  devices, special handles, lifts
Selecting Appropriate Integration
• Select activities that enhance the student’s
  abilities and self-image rather than highlight
  their disabilities
• Emphasize similarities i.e. intervening with
  the entire group when working with
  students with and without handicaps-”What
  do you all need to do next?”
Selecting Appropriate Integration
• Facilitate interaction and communication-all
  students must receive training in the use of
  adaptive devices/technology
• Provide students with severe handicaps
  systematic and direct instruction regarding
  appropriate instruction through naturally
  occurring interactions, role playing,
  rehearsing and coaching
       Facilitating Interactions
• Facilitate reciprocal rather than helping
• Allow all student varied opportunities to
• Stress cooperation rather than helping
• Provide opportunities to show off
  competencies and strengths
       Facilitating Interactions
• Encourage maximum participation of all
• Set up interaction opportunities that are
  valued activities for all students
• Fade teacher intervention/intrusion as
  quickly as possible
      Facilitating Interactions
• Avoid having non-handicapped peers
  implement nonfunctional or undignified
  teaching programs i.e. toileting
• Encourage choice and decision making
• Structure seating arrangements, playground
  activities, hallway mobility and positioning
  to facilitate interactions
      Facilitating Interactions
• When students are working or playing
  together in a group, reinforce and intervene
  with the entire group
• Use opportunities like teasing to teach
  values and appropriate responses to teasing,
  and to provide factual information
• Develop a social interaction project for all
       Facilitating Interactions
• Answer students’ questions about
  disabilities factually without unnecessary
  detail or additional information. Use
  positive terminology, focus on abilities and
  emphasize similarities
• Encourage after-school relationships and
       Facilitating Interactions
• Conduct evaluations and determine quality
  of interactions I.e. amount of time,
  quality/type of interactions, perceptions and
  attitudes of students, teachers.
• Facilitate interactions, relationships and
  friendships rather than “programs”.
    Social Skills and Friendship
• Displays positive interaction style: a smile
• Gets the message across: augmentative
• Is reinforcing to others: express feelings in
  positive ways
• Initiates thoughtful actions: birthday card
• Is a good listener: listening skills
    Social Skills and Friendship
• Shares belongings and feelings: playing in
  the same sand box
• Has similar likes and dislikes: computer
• Takes the perspectives of others:
• Is trustworthy and loyal: sitting by a friend
  who is sad
       Instructional Strategies
• Shaping- systematic reinforcement of a
  desirable behaviour
• Modeling- demonstrating a behaviour for
  the student to imitate
• Coaching- direct instruction, opportunities
  to practice the skill(s) with peers and a post
  review session to review the skill
• Fade assistance as soon as naturally
  occurring supports are available
• Too much assistance may hinder the
  development of friendships
• The challenge to professionals is to create
  the optimal environment that encourages
  individuals with and without handicaps to
  be friends with one another.