Guiding Principles for Classroom Assessment • A. General • Student assessment should be humane • B Responsibility (Who?) • Student assessment is the responsibility of classroom teachers C. Standards (How Good?) • The standards used for interpreting student assessment results should be consistent with the purposes of the evaluation • D. Purposes (Why?) • Student assessment should be used for a number of purposes E. Evaluating What We Value (What?) • Assessment practices should reflect all the valid outcomes of a unit, course, school or board • Assessment techniques should measure the learning that they are intended to assess, i.e. they should be valid F. Variety (How?) • Student assessment procedures should be varied and consistent with the purpose(s) of the assessment(s) • More than one assessment method should be used to ensure comprehensive and consistent indicators of student performance, i.e. to enhance reliability • Take into account the backgrounds and prior experiences of students G. Frequency (When?) • Evaluation should occur throughout the teaching/learning process • H. Modifications • Alternate assessment procedures should be used with students who have special needs I. Communication (Grading and Reporting) • Procedures for “scoring” student performance should be appropriate for the assessment method used and be consistently applied and monitored • Procedures for summarizing and interpreting assessment results, i.e. grades and reports, should provide accurate and informative representations of student performance I. Communication (Grading and Reporting) • Procedures for “scoring” student performance should be appropriate for the assessment method used and be consistently applied and monitored • Procedures for summarizing and interpreting assessment results, i.e. grades and reports, should provide accurate and informative representations of student performance I. Communication (Grading and Reporting) continued • Reports should be clear, accurate and informative for the recipients of such documents Classroom Assessment in Teacher Decision Making • Teacher as a mentor to individual students- uses assessment to guide interaction with the student • Teacher as a guide for the class- uses assessment to oversee the operation of the classroom Classroom Assessment in Teacher Decision Making • Teacher as marks accountant- uses assessment to record day-to-day marks • Teacher as reporter- uses assessment to report to parents, teachers (report cards) • Teacher as program director- uses assessment to guide teaching decisions The ICE Model of Assessment • Ideas Building blocks of learning, i.e. steps in a process • Connections- links or relationships students make among the Ideas and between new and prior learning i.e. combining steps • Extensions- internalization of learning by students so it becomes part of their perspective i.e. using learning in novel ways Adapting Classroom Assessment for Exceptional Learners • Adapting learning outcomes • Preparing students for classroom tests • Adapting tests during test construction • Adapted administration of classroom tests • Adapting marking of classroom tests • Using adapted performance assessments • Portfolios as classroom assessments DESIGNING A QUALITATIVE RUBRIC ELEMENTS IDEAS CONNECTIONS EXTENSIONS \ Testing Accommodations • Before the test- • Study guides • Practice tests • Teaching test-taking skills • Modified test construction • Individual tutoring Testing Accommodations • During the test- • Alternate test format • Alternate means of response • Alternative sites • Direct assistance • Extra time Testing Accommodations • After the test- • Change letter or number grades • Change grading criteria • Use alternatives to number and letter grade Teaching Students with Low Incidence Exceptionalities • Description • Incidence • Characteristics • Classroom implications • Implications for social and career participation Modified Program for Students with Severe Developmental Disabilities Includes: • Functional academic skills • Physical development and personal care • Communication skills and social interaction skills • Community living skills • Career development, work experience and transition planning Baseline Data • Recording of the behaviours exhibited by a student prior to the intervention Event Recording • Recording of how often a behaviour occurs i.e. frequency Duration Recording • Recording of the length of time a student engages in a specific behaviour Latency Recording • Recording the time between the presentation of the cue to perform a task and the student’s actual initiation of the task Scoring by Levels • Recording of the levels of assistance or intervention necessary to facilitate the student’s performance of a task Accommodations • Adapting skill sequences-rearranging the typical order of steps within a task • Adapting rules-changing certain rules to allow more participation • Utilizing personal assistance-aids, peer tutors, buddy systems to accomplish tasks Accommodations • Fostering social/attitudinal changes- changing assumptions and beliefs of the student, family, professionals and community members Accommodations • Creating or using materials and devices to meet specific needs of specific students- microswitches, mechanical devices, calculators, computers, communication devices, special handles, lifts Selecting Appropriate Integration Opportunities • Select activities that enhance the student’s abilities and self-image rather than highlight their disabilities • Emphasize similarities i.e. intervening with the entire group when working with students with and without handicaps-”What do you all need to do next?” Selecting Appropriate Integration Opportunities • Facilitate interaction and communication-all students must receive training in the use of adaptive devices/technology • Provide students with severe handicaps systematic and direct instruction regarding appropriate instruction through naturally occurring interactions, role playing, rehearsing and coaching Facilitating Interactions • Facilitate reciprocal rather than helping interactions • Allow all student varied opportunities to help • Stress cooperation rather than helping • Provide opportunities to show off competencies and strengths Facilitating Interactions • Encourage maximum participation of all students • Set up interaction opportunities that are valued activities for all students • Fade teacher intervention/intrusion as quickly as possible Facilitating Interactions • Avoid having non-handicapped peers implement nonfunctional or undignified teaching programs i.e. toileting • Encourage choice and decision making • Structure seating arrangements, playground activities, hallway mobility and positioning to facilitate interactions Facilitating Interactions • When students are working or playing together in a group, reinforce and intervene with the entire group • Use opportunities like teasing to teach values and appropriate responses to teasing, and to provide factual information • Develop a social interaction project for all students Facilitating Interactions • Answer students’ questions about disabilities factually without unnecessary detail or additional information. Use positive terminology, focus on abilities and emphasize similarities • Encourage after-school relationships and activities Facilitating Interactions • Conduct evaluations and determine quality of interactions I.e. amount of time, quality/type of interactions, perceptions and attitudes of students, teachers. • Facilitate interactions, relationships and friendships rather than “programs”. Social Skills and Friendship • Displays positive interaction style: a smile • Gets the message across: augmentative communication • Is reinforcing to others: express feelings in positive ways • Initiates thoughtful actions: birthday card • Is a good listener: listening skills Social Skills and Friendship • Shares belongings and feelings: playing in the same sand box • Has similar likes and dislikes: computer club • Takes the perspectives of others: simulations • Is trustworthy and loyal: sitting by a friend who is sad Instructional Strategies • Shaping- systematic reinforcement of a desirable behaviour • Modeling- demonstrating a behaviour for the student to imitate • Coaching- direct instruction, opportunities to practice the skill(s) with peers and a post review session to review the skill Fading • Fade assistance as soon as naturally occurring supports are available • Too much assistance may hinder the development of friendships Goal • The challenge to professionals is to create the optimal environment that encourages individuals with and without handicaps to be friends with one another.