From Enlightenment to Romanticism

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From Enlightenment to Romanticism Powered By Docstoc
					From Enlightenment to
    Romanticism
        1600-1900

    Malaspina Great Books
The Death of the Virgin 1601




  Something happening here
Skull with Cigarette 1886




  Angst
Starry Messenger 1609




Birth of Modernity
1687




The idea that human beings were
governed by the same laws as
governed the course of the stars
and planets, and that by observing
those same laws human communities
could move with the same order and
regularity as the heavens was
attractive.
William Blake's Newton (1795),
    Age of the Enlightenment
• autonomy of reason
• perfectibility and progress
• confidence in the ability to discover
  causality
• principles governing nature, man and
  society
• assault on authority
           Intellectual Setting


•   Rationalism
•   Impulse of Natural Science
•   Out with “Innate” & In with “sense”
•   Progress
                 Method


• Method of Newtonian physics applied to
  the entire field of thought and knowledge.
                  Religion


• Severe shift to impersonal deisms and
  “natural humanistic religions” – this is a
  central theme of the enlightenment
This movement provided a framework for the American and French Revolutions, as
well as leading to the rise of capitalism and the birth of socialism.




    John Locke (1632-1704)                      Karl Marx (1818-1883)
"Enlightenment is man's leaving his self-caused
immaturity. Immaturity is the incapacity to use
one's own understanding without the guidance
of another. Such immaturity is self-caused if its
cause is not lack of intelligence, but by lack of
determination and courage to use one's
intelligence without being guided by another.
The motto of enlightenment is therefore: Sapere
aude! Have courage to use your own
intelligence!"


Immanuel Kant What is Enlightenment? 1784
Naïve




Man not so simple



Problem of Evil



Problem of Original “Sin”
        Rousseau’s Solution
• Offers a new and modern solution to
  problem of evil

• The “fall of man” not caused by God or
  Man but by “Society”

• Salvation -> Social Contract
The Break
         Lisbon Quake 1755
• The 1755 Lisbon earthquake took place
  on November 1, 1755, at 9:20 in the
  morning. It was one of the most
  destructive and deadly earthquakes in
  history, killing well over 100,000 people.
  The quake was followed by a tsunami and
  fire, resulting in the near total destruction
  of Lisbon.
              Implications
• Caused many people to begin to wonder
  about natural law that could govern the
  planets in their steady and mathematical
  course but could also include sudden and
  unexplainable calamities. It began to seem
  as if natural law provided no assurance of
  order or of permanence.
       Failure of Enlightenment
• A perfect rational argument is like a
  balloon. If any one point fails, the entire
  argument fails. The Lisbon Earthquake
  was a point at which the argument upon
  which the Age of Reason was constructed
  failed.

  Lynn H. Nelson - Department of History
  University of Kansas.
     Voltaire’s Candide (1759)
• Candide pointed unerringly to the great defect in
  the idealism of The Age of Enlightenment. Even
  if the universe were governed by natural law on
  the basis of which humans might live in perfect
  peace and harmony, the fact of the matter is that
  human beings do not always behave rationally.
  It would seem that, in many if not most human
  beings, passions, personal desires, and just
  downright silliness often prevail over the
  exercise of reason. We are quite capable of
  thinking one way and then acting in quite a
  different, and often irrational, way.
                                  Women and the Enlightenment




                                  Women’s position degraded

                                  Capitalism severely restricted
                                  women’s rights to property

                                  In 1600 2/3 of businesses in
                                  London run by women; In 1800
                                  that became 1/10

                                  Educational opportunity
                                  expanded in quantity but
                                  degraded in quality




Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)