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					FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                    Glossary of Terms



GLOSSARY OF TERMS

The purpose of this glossary is to define and to explain terms, used in forestry or
otherwise, which appear and are of importance in the text of the Forest Management
Planning Manual.

NOTE: Underlined words within definitions are also defined in the glossary.

ABANDONMENT (roads)
     The use management strategy adopted when a road has fulfilled its original use
     and is no longer required, or when maintenance cannot be justified.

             Natural Abandonment: The natural degradation of a road when it is not
             maintained. Road maintenance has ceased and steps are not taken to prevent
             the use of the road by vehicular traffic through means of physical disablement.

             Physical Abandonment: A deliberate act to render a road unusable by vehicular
             traffic.

ABORIGINAL
     See Native

ACCESS CONTROL (roads)
     The closure of a road to public travel or the restricted access to a road for certain
     specified uses for given periods of time.

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT
     Management based on continuous learning.

AGE
             1.     Of a Tree:
                    breast height: The number of annual growth rings between the bark and
                    the pith, as counted at breast height.
                    harvest: The number of years required growing from seeding or planting
                    to maturity.
                    stump: The number of annual growth rings between the bark and the pith,
                    as counted at stump height.
                    total: The number of years elapsed since the germination of the seed or
                    the budding of the sprout, root sucker, or cutting.

             2.     (FRI Usage) Of a Forest, Stand or Forest Type: the average age of the
                    trees in the working group species only that comprise it.


AGE CLASS
     One of the intervals into which the age range of forest stands is divided for
     classification and use.

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ALGORITHM
     A procedural model for complicated calculations.

ALLOCATION
     Designation of management unit areas for specific treatments such as harvest,
     forest renewal, and forest tending.

ALLOWABLE CUT
     The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given
     period.

             NOTE: This term is no longer used in Ontario.

             See Available Harvest Area

AMENDMENTS
     See Plan Amendments

ANNUAL WORK SCHEDULE
     A statement, mainly tabular in form, showing the order and extent of all work of
     any nature to be carried out during one year consistent with the forest
     management plan.

AREA CHARGES
     The charges to be paid in respect of the area under a Forest Resource Licence
     as required by the Crown Forest Sustainability Act, the Regulations and the
     licence.

AREA OF CONCERN (AOC)
     An area of value to users/uses which may be affected by forest management
     activities. These areas require modifications to those operations usually
     prescribed. Areas of Concern include such features as wildlife habitats, rare
     vegetation, tourism considerations, streams, canoe routes, railways, trout
     lakes/fisheries, other lakes, campsites, portages, park boundaries, residences,
     lodges, cottages, deer yards, public roads, osprey nesting sites, heronries.

AREA OF NATURAL AND SCIENTIFIC INTEREST (ANSI)
     Areas of land and water containing natural landscapes or features which have
     been identified as having values related to natural heritage protection, scientific
     study, or education. Depending upon the features of particular areas, they may
     be referred to as life science or earth science sites. These areas vary in their
     level of significance and their vulnerability to environmental impacts.

AREA OF THE UNDERTAKING
     The area within the geographic boundaries of the area of the undertaking is all
     land and water within forest management unit boundary lines. The northern
     boundary is generally the northern limit of current commercial timber operations;

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             the southern boundary is generally the limit of the forest on Crown land. Of that
             area, 385,000 square kilometres (or 38.5 million hectares) is Crown land subject
             to the undertaking, and is referred to as the "Area of the Undertaking" in this
             Decision.

ARTIFICIAL REGENERATION
      Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings.

             Also see Regeneration

ASSESSMENT
     The analysis or evaluation of data and information collected through inventory
     and monitoring programs.

AUDIT
             An independently led review of the adequacy of financial and management
             practices, controls and processes to ensure that the organization continues to be
             in control and in compliance with relevant legislation, policies and directives.

AVAILABLE HARVEST AREA (AHA)
      The managed forest area which may be harvested during the five-year planning
      term. The available harvest area is a component of the projected harvest area of
      the selected management alternative.

BARREN AND SCATTERED (B & S)
     Productive forest land which, because of natural or artificial disturbance, contains
     only scattered trees (stocking below 0.25) or no trees at all with either shrub cover
     or bare soil, but no significant amount of regeneration.

BENEFIT (Syn.: Forest Benefit)
     The product or outcome (e.g., cubic metres of wood, hectares of habitat) of
     objective achievement through the management of forest cover.

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (Syn.: Biodiversity)
     The variability among living organisms from all sources including inter alia
     terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of
     which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of
     ecosystems.

BUMP-UP
     The elevation of a forest management plan, or a component part of it, from the
     class environmental assessment to an individual environmental-assessment
     status.

BY-PASS
     Area available for harvest which is not harvested for operational reasons (e.g.,
     inaccessibility, inoperable terrain).

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CLASSIFICATION
     A means of arranging entities into groups or sets on the basis of their similarities
     and relationships, or their dissimilarities.

CLEANING
     An operation in a young stand, not past the sapling stage, to free the favoured
     trees from undesirable individuals of similar age or size which overtop them or are
     likely to do so. Cleaning may be accomplished by hand or by mechanical or
     chemical means.

CLEARCUT (harvest method)
     (n)  Area harvested under the clearcut silvicultural system.

             (v)    The removal of the entire standing crop over a considerable area in one
                    operation, with or without leaving seed trees.

CLEARCUT SYSTEM
     A silvicultural system of regenerating an even-aged forest stand in which new
     seedlings become established in fully exposed micro-environments after most or
     all of the existing trees have been removed. Regeneration can originate naturally
     or artificially. Clearcutting may be done in blocks, strips or patches.

             Also see Silvicultural System

CLEARCUT WITH STANDARDS
     An even-aged silvicultural system where most of the overstory is removed in a
     single operation with some live trees retained for ecological purposes such as
     maintaining wildlife habitat and biodiversity.

COLDWATER BODIES
    Those lakes, rivers and streams that can support salmonids, such as lake or
    brook trout.

COMMERCIAL THINNING
    See Thinning: Commercial

COMMUNITY (ecological)
    An integrated group of species inhabiting a given area and influencing one
    another's distribution, abundance, and evolution.

CONIFER
     1.             Any of an order (Coniferales) of mostly evergreen trees and shrubs
                    including forms (as pines) with true cones and others (as yews) with an
                    arillate fruit.

             2.     Needle bearing trees that produce seeds in cones.


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CONSERVATION
     Management of the human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest
     sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet
     the needs and aspirations of future generations, and includes the preservation,
     maintenance, sustainable utilization, restoration and enhancement of the
     environment. Modern conservation theory incorporates the notion that what is to
     be conserved is not so much the physical state of an ecological system as the
     ecological processes by which that state is created and maintained.

CONSERVATION RESERVES
     These are protected areas created under the Public Lands Act that protect natural
     heritage values and prohibit industrial uses while allowing a broader range of
     traditional activities to continue

CONTIGUOUS CUTS
     A term used to describe clearcuts that are adjoining or close together.

CONTINGENCY AREA or CONTINGENCY HARVEST AREA
     See Harvest Area: Contingency

CONTINGENCY PLAN
     An interim forest management plan which is required if a forest management plan
     cannot be prepared and approved on or before the expiry date of the current
     plan.

COOLWATER BODIES
    Those lakes, rivers and streams which support percids, such as walleye, and
    esocids, such as northern pike.

CORRIDOR
     An area of uniform width bordering both or one side of a lineal feature such as a
     stream or route.

CRITERIA
     Standards by which forest sustainability are judged.

             Also see Sustainability Criteria

CRITICAL FISH HABITAT
      Those habitats which are needed to maintain the overall productive capacity of
      the fishery. These can include spawning areas for fish species with stringent
      spawning requirements, such as cobble areas for walleye and lake trout; highly
      productive nursery and feeding areas such as wetlands; essential refuges or
      cover, such as rocky areas used by young-of-the-year bass to avoid predators;
      and any narrow migration routes.



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CROWN CHARGES
    All prices, charges, fees, penalties, costs, expenses, interest and fines imposed
    under the Crown Forest Sustainability Act or under a forest resource licence.

CROWN FOREST
    A forest ecosystem or part of a forest ecosystem that is on land vested in Her
    Majesty in right of Ontario and under the management of the Minister of Natural
    Resources.

CROWN FOREST HEALTH
    The health of Crown forests.

    Also see Forest Health
CROWN FOREST SUSTAINABILITY ACT
    An Act of the Ontario legislature to provide for the sustainability of Crown forests
    and, in accordance with that objective, to manage Crown forests to meet social,
    economic and environmental needs of present and future generations.

CROWN LAND
    Land vested in Her Majesty in right of Ontario.

CULTIVATION
      The act of loosening or breaking up the soil about growing plants to foster growth.

CUTTING CYCLE
      The planned interval between partial harvests in an uneven-aged stand.

DATA
             Observations or measurements of the attributes (characteristics) of entities such
             as people, places, things or events.

DEPLETED AREA
     Managed forest area on which merchantable volume has been decreased due to
     harvest, fire, insect, disease, or other causes, and where forest renewal is
     required.

DESIGNATED PURPOSE
     A purpose designated by the Regulations. (CFSA)

DIRECT SEEDING
     See Seeding: Direct

DISCRETE VIEW MANAGEMENT
     Management activities occur in harmony with aesthetic protection. Where
     observable, disturbance must appear natural, conforming to topography and
     slope.
DISEASE

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             Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally
             pathogenic or environmental in origin.

DISTRICT LAND USE GUIDELINES (DLUG)
      A document which indicates how land and water resources within a district are to
      be utilized in the achievement of the resource program objectives assigned to the
      district through a regional Strategic Land Use Plan. District Land Use Guidelines
      identify where and in what manner the Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) may
      use Crown land, and to what extent it may wish to suggest uses of private land, in
      working toward the achievement of MNR objectives and targets.

ECOLOGICAL APPROACH
     The management of human activities so that ecosystems, their structure,
     composition and function and the processes that shaped them can continue at
     appropriate temporal and spatial scales.

ECOLOGICAL LAND CLASSIFICATION (ELC)
     A hierarchical approach to classifying land which is based on a consistent
     framework of landscape and site-level ecosystems by combinations of geologic,
     climatic, vegetative, soil, and landform features.

ECOREGION
     An ecological landscape unit (ranging in resolution from hundreds of thousands
     to tens of thousands of square kilometres) characterized by distinct patterns of
     responses to climate as expressed by soils, hydrology, vegetation (species
     ranges and productivity), and fauna.

ECOSITE (Syn.: General Standard Site Type, Site Type)
     An ecological landscape unit (ranging in resolution from thousands to hundreds
     of hectares) comprised of relatively uniform geology, parent materials, soils,
     topography, and hydrology, occupied by a consistent complex of successionally
     related vegetation conditions.

ECOSYSTEM
     The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions
     within a particular habitat.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA
      A distinguishing set of characteristics for the identification of areas eligible for
      harvest, renewal and tending operations for the 20-year period of the plan.

ENDANGERED SPECIES
     Any native species as listed in the Regulations under the Endangered Species
     Act that is at risk of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its Ontario
     range if the limiting factors are not reversed.

ENVIRONMENT

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             In Ontario the environment is described as:
             (i)            air, land, or water;
             (ii)           plant and animal life, including man;
             (iii)          the social, economic, and cultural conditions that influence the life
                            of man or a community;
             (iv)           any building, structure, machine, or other device or thing made by
                            man
             (v)            any solid or liquid, gas, odour, heat, sound, vibration or radiation
                            resulting directly or indirectly from the activities of man; or
             (vi)           any part or combination of the foregoing and the interrelationships
                            between any two or more of them.

EVEN-AGED MANAGEMENT
     Silvicultural systems in which stands have an even-aged structure (e.g., clearcut
     and shelterwood systems).

EVEN-AGED STRUCTURE
     A forest, stand or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist
     between individual trees. The differences in age are usually 10 to 20 years; if the
     stand will not be harvested until it is 100 to 200 years old, larger differences up to
     25% of the rotation age may be allowed.

FERTILIZATION
      The application of chemical or organic fertilizers with the objective of increasing
      the unit area soil productivity.

FINAL CUT (harvesting operation) (Syn.: Final Felling, Final Removal)
      The removal of seed or shelter trees after regeneration has been effected, or
      removal of the entire crop of mature trees under a clearcut silvicultural system.

FIRST NATION
      A band as defined in the Indian Act (Canada).

FISH HABITAT
      Spawning grounds and nursery, rearing, food supply and migration areas on
      which fish depend directly or indirectly in order to carry out their life processes.

FORECAST HARVEST AREA
     see Harvest Area: Forecast


FOREST
     1.             (Ecology) A plant community predominantly of trees and other woody
                    vegetation, growing more or less closely together;

             2.     (Silvicultural Management) An area managed for the production of timber
                    and other forest products, or maintained under woody vegetation for such

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                  indirect benefits as protection of site or for recreation;

             3.   (Forest Diversity) An aggregate of stands.

FOREST BENEFIT
     see Benefit

FOREST COVER
     All the trees as described by the Forest Resources Inventory (FRI).

FOREST DYNAMICS
     The natural processes involved in the development of a forest and associated
     with growth and changes to its structure and composition through time.

FOREST ECOSYSTEM
     An ecosystem in which trees are or are capable of being a major biological
     component.

FOREST HEALTH
     The condition of a forest ecosystem that sustains the ecosystem's complexity
     while providing for the needs of the people of Ontario.

FOREST INFORMATION MANUAL (FIM)
     A Manual prepared under section 68 of the Crown Forest Sustainability Act and
     approved by the regulations, including amendments to the Manual approved by
     the regulations.

FOREST INVENTORY
     A survey of an area to determine such data as area, condition, timber, volume,
     and species, for specific purposes such as planning, purchase, assessment,
     evaluation, management, or harvesting.

FOREST LAND
     Land whose primary use is for forestry, and may include land not currently
     supporting tree growth.

FOREST MANAGEMENT
     Generally, the practical application of scientific, economic and social principles to
     the administration and working of a forest for specified objectives; more
     particularly, that branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative,
     economic, legal and social aspects, and with the essentially scientific and
     technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection and forest regulation

FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN
     A document containing pertinent information and prescriptions by means of which
     forest policy, aims, and objectives are translated into a continuity of specific
     treatments on a management unit for a specified period of years.

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             Current Plan or Currently Approved Plan: An approved forest management
             plan that is in the implementation stage of the planning cycle.

             Past Plan or Previous Plan: The expired forest management plan for the
             planning term immediately preceding the current plan/planning term.

FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANNING MANUAL (FMPM)
     A Manual prepared under section 68 of the Crown Forest Sustainability Act and
     approved by the regulations, including amendments to the Manual approved by
     the regulations.

FOREST MODEL
     A computer-based simulation that within definable parameters forecasts the
     development of the forest and the benefits that become available from a forest
     through time.

             Forest models simulate forest development in response to both natural forces
             (growth, succession, disturbances) and active intervention (harvesting, renewal,
             tending).

FOREST OPERATIONS
     The harvesting of a forest resource, the use of forest resource for a designated
     purpose or the renewal or maintenance of a forest resource, and includes all
     related activities.

FOREST OPERATIONS AND SILVICULTURE MANUAL (FOSM)
     A Manual prepared under section 68 of the Crown Forest Sustainability Act and
     approved by the regulations, including amendments to the Manual approved by
     the regulations.

FOREST OPERATIONS PRESCRIPTION
     A site-specific, integrated plan developed prior to the commencement of forest
     operations. A forest operations prescription links the silvicultural ground rules of
     the forest management plan to the scheduled operations of the annual work
     schedule.

FOREST PRODUCTS
     Any raw material yielded by trees.

FOREST PROTECTION
     The branch of forestry concerned with the prevention, control and management of
     damage to forests arising from pests, insects, diseases, storm, frost, and other
     climatic agents, and also from the action of humans.




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FOREST REGULATION
     A branch of forestry concerned with the technical aspects of organizing and
     maintaining a forest to fulfil the objectives of forest management.

FOREST RENEWAL
     Those silvicultural operations that are undertaken to provide forest cover. This
     normally includes the activities of site preparation and regeneration.

             also see Regeneration

FOREST RENEWAL CHARGES
     The charges to be paid in respect of the area under a Forest Resource Licence
     as required by the Crown Forest Sustainability Act, the Regulations and the
     licence.

FOREST RENEWAL TRUST FUND
     The trust which provides for reimbursement of silvicultural expenses incurred
     after March 31, 1994 in respect of Crown forests in which forest resources have
     been harvested and for such other matters as may be specified by the Minister,
     on such terms and conditions as specified by the Minister.

FOREST RESOURCE
     Trees in a forest ecosystem and any other type of plant life prescribed by the
     regulations of the Crown Forest Sustainability Act that is in a forest ecosystem.

FOREST RESOURCE ASSESSMENT POLICY (FRAP)
     A policy which identifies common principles and standards with which Ontario's
     forests will be assessed. It requires that the impacts of management alternatives
     be identified, and the availability of forest resources such as timber products be
     addressed. All aspects of the resource will be examined as part of the decision-
     making process. The policy serves to integrate policy and planning efforts toward
     ecosystem-based management.

FOREST RESOURCE LICENCE
     A licence issued under Part III of the Crown Forest Sustainability Act which
     authorizes the harvest of forest resources in a management unit or the use of
     forest resources in a management unit for a designated purpose. The term of
     this licence shall not exceed five years.

FOREST RESOURCES INVENTORY (FRI)
     A resource inventory conducted for each management unit on average every
     twenty years. The FRI divides the area into a number of components, such as
     water, non-forested, non-productive forest, and productive forest; and further
     classifies each component by ownership/land use categories. The FRI provides
     descriptive information about the timber resource on each management unit (e.g.,
     stand age, stand height, species composition, stocking level) in the form of
     interpreted aerial photographs, forest stand maps and a set of standard inventory

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             ledgers referred to as reports.

FORESTRY
     Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating,
     conserving, and managing forests (i.e., forest management) and forest lands (i.e.,
     management units) for the continuing use of their resources, material, or other
     forest products.

FORESTRY FUTURES TRUST FUND
     The trust which provides for the following matters, on such terms and conditions
     as may be specified by the Minister:
     1.     The funding of silvicultural expenses in Crown forests where forest
            resources have been killed or damaged by fire or natural causes.
     2.     The funding of silvicultural expenses on land that is subject to a forest
            resource licence, if the licensee becomes insolvent.
     3.     The funding of intensive stand management and pest control in respect of
            forest resources in Crown forests.
     4.     Such other purposes as may be specified by the Minister.

FOREST STAND
     see Stand

FOREST TYPE
     A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are
     usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and
     crown closure classes.

FOREST UNIT
     An aggregation of forest stands for management purposes which have similar
     species composition, develop in a similar manner (both naturally and in response
     to silvicultural treatments), and are managed under the same silvicultural system.

FREE GROWING
     see Free-to-Grow

FREE-TO-GROW (FTG), (Syn.: Free Growing)
     Stands that meet stocking, height, and/or height growth rate, as specified in the
     ground rules and are judged to be essentially free from competing vegetation.

GENERAL STANDARD SITE TYPE (GSST)
     (Syn.: Ecosite, Site Type)
     A coding or labelling system in the silvicultural guide to allow for referencing of
     site description information on similar sites across the province. Regional
     ecosites are the working unit of General Standard Site Types.




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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
    An information system that uses a spatial database to provide answers to queries
    of a geographical nature through a variety of manipulations, such as sorting,
    selective retrieval, calculation, spatial analysis, and modelling.

GROSS MERCHANTABLE VOLUME (GMV)
     Volume of the main stem, excluding stump and top but including defective and
     decayed wood, of trees or stands.

GROSS TOTAL VOLUME (GTV)
     Volume of the main stem, including stump and top as well as defective and
     decayed wood, of trees or stands.

GROUND RULES
    see Silvicultural Ground Rules

GUIDELINES
     Statements that lead or direct a course of action.

             In Ontario, this includes all documents cited in Appendix "A" of the Forest
             Operations and Silviculture Manual (i.e., provincial guidelines,
             construction/operational manuals, resource/environmental manuals, and others).

HABITAT
     An area with the combination of resources (food, cover, water) and environmental
     conditions (temperature, precipitation, presence or absence of predators and
     competitors) that promotes occupancy by individuals of a given species (or
     population) and allows those individuals to survive and reproduce.

HARDWOOD
    The wood of an angiospermous tree as distinguished from that of a coniferous
    tree.

HARVEST AREA

             Available: see Available Harvest Area

             Contingency: The area set aside to accommodate unforeseeable
             circumstances (e.g., wildfire). Contingency area will serve as replacement for
             harvest area, and only be used if needed. The area must be sufficient to provide
             for a minimum of three months and a maximum of one year of harvest operations.
              If surplus harvest area has been identified, the contingency area must be
             identified from within the surplus harvest area plus whatever additional area, if
             any, is needed to meet the requirements.

             Forecast: The area selected for harvest during the five-year term of the plan up
             to the level of the available harvest area. The forecast harvest area consists of

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             the planned harvest area plus the surplus harvest area.

             Planned: That portion of the forecast harvest area which is expected to be
             harvested to meet the industrial demand.

             Projected: The levels of harvest through time as predicted in the analysis of
             management alternatives using modelling tools.

             Surplus: That portion of the forecast harvest area on which harvest operations
             are not expected to occur during the five-year term of the plan due to lack of
             industrial demand.

HARVEST CUT
     The cut(s) recorded as depletions from which yield is derived; it may be either a
     single (clearcut) or a series of cuts to produce regeneration (shelterwood,
     selection).

HARVESTING
     The removal of forest products for utilization, comprising cutting and sometimes
     initial processing and extraction.

HARVEST METHOD
     An adjective used to further define or modify one of the three basic silvicultural
     systems, specifically the harvesting component/technique (e.g., strip clearcut,
     group shelterwood).

HEADWATER
     The source (for example, springs, bogs, lakes, etc.) and first order streams of a
     drainage system.

HERBICIDE
     Any chemical preparation used to kill or inhibit the growth of forbs, grasses,
     woody plants, and their seeds.

IMPLEMENTATION MANUALS
     see Guidelines

IMPROVEMENT CUTTING
     A cutting made in a stand past the sapling stage primarily to improve composition
     and quality by removing less desirable trees of any species.

             In Ontario, this term is generally used in relation to uneven-aged management.
             Improvement cutting in even-aged stands if referred to as "thinning".

INDICATOR
      1.            A parameter that is linked to a value or objective and that can be
                    measured in relation to specific criterion. In the Manuals developed under

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                    the Crown Forest Sustainability Act, indicators are related to the concept
                    of forest sustainability.

             2.     An organism or ecological community so strictly associated with particular
                    environmental conditions that its presence is indicative of the existence of
                    these conditions.

INFORMATION
     Information comes from data that have been processed (e.g., selected,
     organized, synthesized) to be meaningful for use in decision-making.

INFORMATION SYSTEM
     A system (manual or automated or computerized) which enables the processing
     and dissemination of information.

INSECTICIDE
     Any chemical or biological preparation used to kill or disrupt the development of
     insects.

INVENTORY
     see Forest Inventory

LANDSCAPE
     A heterogeneous land area composed of a cluster of interacting ecosystems that
     is repeated in similar form throughout.

             A landscape is normally defined by geomorphology or climate.

LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY
     The study of the response of species or communities to patterns across more
     than one patch. A patch refers to an area which has more or less homogeneous
     environmental conditions.

LANDSCAPE PROCESSES
     In relation to the Regional HydroEcological Simulation System, it is composed of
     two components, net primary productivity and water yield. These components are
     measurable indicators of forest sustainability.

LEVEL (forest sustainability)
     In relation to acceptable levels of indicators of forest sustainability criteria: a
     standard or range of values.

LICENSEE
     A person or company to whom a Forest Resource Licence has been granted.

LOCAL CITIZENS COMMITTEE (LCC)
     A standing advisory committee of local citizens representing a range and balance

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             of interests, appointed by the Ministry of Natural Resources to participate in the
             forest management planning process.

LOGGING METHOD
     A term which indicates the process used to move wood products from stump to
     roadside during a harvesting operation (e.g., full tree, tree length, shortwood).
     The choice of process has nutrient cycling implications.

MANAGED FOREST
    Crown forest for which there is no legal or land use planning decision which
    prevents the land from being managed for timber production.

MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVE
    A set of specific management objectives, each with quantified targets, and
    management strategies which aim to achieve those objectives.

             also see Selected Management Alternative

MANAGEMENT UNIT (MU)
    All or part of a Crown forest which has been designated as a management unit
    for the purposes of the Crown Forest Sustainability Act.

MEASURABLE INDICATOR
     Any variable that facilitates data collection over time and can be analyzed to
     establish trends in order to monitor or evaluate progress.

MERCHANTABLE TIMBER
    A conifer, poplar or white birch log of which more than one-half of the total
    content is sound wood when the content is measured in cubic metres, or;

             A hardwood log other than poplar or white birch of which more than one-third of
             the total content is sound wood when the content is measured in cubic metres.

MERCHANTABLE TREE
    A standing conifer, poplar or white birch tree where more than one-half of the total
    content of wood is sound, and;

             A standing hardwood tree, other than poplar or white birch, where more than one-
             third of the total content of wood is sound.

MIXEDWOOD(S):
     1.   Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or
          Angiospermae and which are substantially intermingled in stands. Also,
          the wood of such trees mixed together in substantial quantities.

             2.     A forest type in which 26-75% of the canopy is softwood.


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FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                  Glossary of Terms



MONITORING
     The collection and analysis of data over extended periods of time. It provides
     information on past and present ecological, social, cultural, and economic trends,
     and a basis for predictions about future conditions.

NATIVE (Syn.: Aboriginal)
     Aboriginal and Native are currently interchangeable adjectives which are, at
     present, most frequently used to designate the descendants of the original
     inhabitants of Canada.

NATURAL FOREST
     A forest that has evolved and reproduced itself naturally from organisms
     previously established, and that has not been significantly altered by human
     activity.

NATURAL REGENERATION
     Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering.

             also see Regeneration

NATURAL RESOURCE
     A renewable (forest, water, wildlife, soil, etc.) or non-renewable (oil, coal, iron,
     etc.) resource that is a natural asset.

NET CANOPY CARBON ASSIMILATION
     The extent to which the rate of carbon used exceeds carbon given off by the
     forest. Net canopy carbon assimilation is a measure of net primary productivity
     and is expressed in kilograms of carbon per hectare per day.

NET MERCHANTABLE VOLUME (NMV)
     Volume of the main stem, excluding stump and top as well as defective and
     decayed wood, of trees or stands.

NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY
     The rate of storage of organic matter in plant tissues in excess of the respiratory
     utilization by the plants during the period of measurement.

NON-PRODUCTIVE FOREST LAND
     In the Forest Resources Inventory, it is that part of the forest ecosystem
     consisting of treed muskeg, open muskeg, rock, and brush and alder.

NON-SPATIAL
     Refers to information stored in a form or format that is not directly usable by
     geographic information systems (e.g., hard-copy maps or tabular datasets).

             also see Geographic Information System, Geographically Referenced, and
             Spatial Database

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FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                  Glossary of Terms



OBJECTIVE
     An object of action; an end as a cause of action.

OLD GROWTH
     A stand of mature or overmature trees relatively uninfluenced by human activity.

OLD GROWTH FORESTS
     1.  Old growth forests are well past the age of maximum growth, frequently
         showing great horizontal and vertical density of structure and plant
         species composition, and possessing one or more features not seen in
         much younger forests such as snags, down woody material, or arboreal
         lichens.

             2.    Ecosystems characterized by the presence of old trees with their
                   associated plants, animals, and ecological processes. They show little or
                   no evidence of human disturbance.

OTHER (LANDS)
     All remaining patent land.

OVERMATURE
     In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage.

OWNERSHIP (land)
    Classification of the provincial land base into the categories of Crown, patent and
    other vested interest.

PARKS
     Provincial Parks.

PATENT LAND
      Land transferred from Her Majesty the Queen in the Right of Ontario to an
      individual, company or corporation in perpetuity.
PESTICIDE
      Any organism, substance or thing that is manufactured, represented, or sold or
      used as a means of directly or indirectly controlling, preventing, destroying,
      mitigating, attracting, or repelling any pest or of altering the growth, development
      or characteristics of any plant life that is not a pest and includes any organism,
      substance or thing registered under the Pest Control Products Act (Canada).

PLAN
             see Forest Management Plan

PLAN AMENDMENT
     Any change to a forest management plan during its five-year term which does not
     alter the intent of the plan. Amendments could range from simple corrections to
     the text of an approved forest management plan to substantial alterations which

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FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                    Glossary of Terms



             require comprehensive planning, including opportunities for public consultation.
             There are three categories of amendments: administrative, minor, and major.
             Granting requests for amendments and the categorization of proposed
             amendments is the responsibility of the MNR District Manager as specified in the
             Forest Management Planning Manual.

PLAN AUTHOR
     The professional forester, registered under The Ontario Professional Foresters
     Association Act, 1957, who is responsible for preparing the plan.

PLANNED HARVEST AREA
     see Harvest Area: Planned

PLANNING CYCLE
     That period of time beginning with the initiation of plan preparation and ending
     with the expiration date of the plan. The cycle includes both the plan preparation
     and plan implementation.

PLAN RENEWAL
     The time in the planning cycle marked by the approval of a forest management
     plan.

PLAN TERM
     The five-year interval for which a forest management plan is prepared and
     approved for implementation on a management unit.
POPULATION
     The aggregate of all units, finite or infinite, forming the subjects of study.

PRE-COMMERCIAL THINNING
     see Thinning: Pre-Commercial

PRESCRIBED BURNING
     The knowledgeable application of fire to a specific land area to accomplish
     predetermined forest management or other land use objectives.

PRESCRIPTIONS
     see Forest Operations Prescriptions

PRIMARY ROAD
     see Road: Primary

PRINCIPLE
      A fundamental law or rule as a guide to action; a rule of conduct; a fundamental
      motive for action, especially one consciously recognized and followed.

PRODUCTION FOREST
     Productive forest land, at various stages of growth, with no obvious physical

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FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                Glossary of Terms



             limitations on the ability to practice forest management.

PRODUCTIVE FOREST LAND
     All forest areas which are capable of growing commercial trees, irrespective of
     planning decisions, and which is further sub-divided into "protection forest" and
     "production forest".

PRODUCTIVITY
     A change in biomass (volume) per unit area and time (yield, increment).

PROFESSIONAL FORESTER
     see Registered Professional Forester

PROJECTED HARVEST AREA
     see Harvest Area: Projected

PROTECTION FOREST
     Productive forest land on which forest management activities cannot normally be
     practised without incurring deleterious environmental effects because of obvious
     physical limitations such as steep slopes and shallow soils over bedrock.

PROVINCIAL PARKS
     These are lands and waters that protect provincially significant natural, cultural
     and recreational environments and that provide a variety of outdoor recreational
     opportunities. They are dedicated to the people of the province of Ontario and
     others who may use them for their healthful enjoyment and education and they
     are to be maintained for the benefit of future generations.

RARE SPECIES (Syn.: Vulnerable Species)
     Any indigenous species of fauna or flora that is particularly at risk because of low
     or declining numbers, occurrence at the fringe of its range or in restricted areas,
     or for some other reason, but is not a threatened species.

             NOTE: This term being replaced with "Vulnerable Species" in Ontario.

REGENERATION
     The renewal of a tree crop whether by natural (self-sown seed or by vegetative
     means) or artificial means (seeding and planting). This term may also be used to
     describe the young crop itself.


REGENERATION CLASS
     The area, and the young trees in the area, being managed during the
     regeneration interval in the shelterwood silvicultural system. In this interval old
     and young trees occupy the same area, young being protected by the old.



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FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                  Glossary of Terms



REGENERATION INTERVAL
     The period between the seed cut and the final cut on a particular area under one
     of the shelterwood systems.

REGION or REGIONAL
     An administrative geographical unit of the Ministry of Natural Resources.

REGIONAL HYDROECOLOGICAL SIMULATION SYSTEM (RHESSys)
     A landscape ecological data processing and simulation system which computes
     landscape level forest ecosystem productivity, forest evapotranspiration and run-
     off production as well as the spatial patterns of soil and litter water content.

REGISTERED PROFESSIONAL FORESTER (R.P.F.)
     A person registered under The Ontario Professional Foresters Association Act,
     1957.

RENEWAL
     see Forest Renewal, Plan Renewal

RESERVE
     Areas which were initially selected for harvest, but were subsequently removed
     from selected harvest areas through the area of concern planning process.

ROAD
             Primary: A road which provides access to Crown land for more than 15 years.

             Secondary: A road which provides access to Crown land for 5 to 15 years.

             Tertiary: A road which provides short term access to Crown land for no more
             than 5 years.

ROAD CLASS
     The type of road (primary, secondary, tertiary) as determined by length of use.

             see Road

ROAD MAINTENANCE
     Routine: Those day to day activities necessary to maintain a road for the traffic
     using it.

             Emergency: Road maintenance that requires immediate attention to restore
             access and reduce the chance of personal injury, damage to equipment,
             inconvenience to road users and further road damage (major washouts, blocked
             culverts, damaged bridges, etc.).

SALVAGE
     The recovery or harvesting of timber that has been killed or damaged by natural

April 2004                                                                                xxxix
FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                Glossary of Terms



             causes, such as fire, wind, flood, insects, and disease.

SCALING MANUAL
     A Manual prepared under section 68 of the Crown Forest Sustainability Act and
     approved by the regulations, including amendments to the Manual approved by
     the regulations.
SCARIFICATION
     Mechanical loosening of the topsoil of open areas, or breaking up the forest floor,
     in preparation for regeneration by natural seeding.

SECONDARY ROAD
     see Road: Secondary

SEED COLLECTION AREA (SCA)
     An area established in a large, relatively pure, uniform stand of mature or semi-
     mature trees, average or above average in form and vigour. Such an area
     provides an interim source of identified seed for use in an artificial regeneration
     program. The area will be assigned a seed source number; any seed collected
     should be identified by that number. These areas receive minimal treatment as
     the trees are normally cut for seed collection.

SEED CUT
     Removing trees in a mature stand so as to effect permanent opening of its
     canopy and so provide conditions for securing regeneration from the seed of
     retained trees; the first (if there was no preparatory cutting) of the shelterwood
     cuttings under a shelterwood system.

SEEDING - DIRECT
     The scattering of seed more or less evenly over a whole area.

SEED ORCHARD
     A relatively small area, established with superior stock derived from selected
     parent material, and intensively managed to provide a sustained supply of
     genetically improved seed for use in an artificial regeneration program. The
     orchard will be assigned a seed source number; any seed collected should be
     identified by that number.

SEED PRODUCTION AREA (SPA)
     A relatively small area, that is medium-aged, sexually mature, and above average
     in form and vigour. Seed production areas are managed specifically for the
     production of seed. Such an area provides an interim supply of source identified
     seed for use in an artificial regeneration program. Seed is usually collected from
     standing trees using non-destructive collection techniques. The area will be
     assigned a seed source number; any seed collected should be identified by that
     number.
SEED-TREE (harvest method)
     A method of harvesting and regenerating a forest stand in which all trees are

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FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                   Glossary of Terms



             removed from the area except for a small number of seed-bearing trees that are
             left singly or in small groups. The objective is to create an even-aged stand.

SELECTED MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVE
     The management alternative which achieves a realistic set of benefits (timber and
     non-timber) and achieves a sustainable future forest condition over time.

             also see Management Alternative

SELECTION
     Choosing individuals with desired qualities to serve as parents for the next
     generation.

SELECTION CRITERIA
     A distinguishing set of characteristics that allows the determination and ranking of
     areas for harvest, renewal and tending operations for the five-year term of the
     plan.

SELECTION CUT (harvest method)
     Periodic cutting of trees chosen individually or by groups, in an uneven-aged
     stand, in order to recover the yield and develop a balanced uneven-aged
     structure, while providing the cultural measures required for tree growth and
     seedling establishment. The cuts are usually a mix of regeneration cuts and
     improvement cuts.

SELECTION SYSTEM
An uneven-aged silvicultural system where mature and/or undesirable trees are removed
individually or in small groups over the whole area, usually in the course of a cutting
cycle. Regeneration is generally natural.
        also see Silvicultural System

SHELTERWOOD CUT (harvest method)
     A method of harvesting in which mature trees are removed in a series of two or
     more cuts (preparatory, seed, first removal, final removal) whether by cutting
     uniformly over the entire stand, in strips or in groups. This harvest method is
     designed to establish a new crop under the protection (overhead or side) of the
     old, as typified in shelterwood systems, or where the resultant crop will be more
     or less regular. The seeding cut is considered a regeneration and harvest
     activity.

             Group Shelterwood System: Patches of advanced regeneration arising from
             thinnings or from natural disturbances, commonly developed in even-aged
             stands. Where this condition is prominent, shelterwood cuttings can be made
             specifically in relation to the requirements of each group of advanced
             regeneration. These clumps of regeneration are enlarged by the removal of all or
             most of the trees above them and starting preparatory or seeding cuttings around
             them. The holes created in the canopy are gradually enlarged to keep pace with

April 2004                                                                                 xli
FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                        Glossary of Terms



             the establishment of reproduction.

             Irregular Shelterwood System: Harvest cutting in which opening of the canopy
             is irregular and gradual; generally in groups, with the final cutting often in strips;
             regeneration natural; regeneration interval long, often up to half the rotation, and
             the resultant crop considerably uneven-aged and irregular. Much of the
             harvesting of Canadian old-growth conifer stands composed of tolerant species
             has been a type of irregular shelterwood.

             Strip Shelterwood System: A shelterwood system in which regeneration
             cuttings are carried out on fairly wide strips, generally against the prevailing wind,
             and progress rapidly; regeneration is mainly natural, regeneration interval short,
             and resultant crop fairly even-aged and regular.

     Uniform Shelterwood System: A shelterwood system in which the canopy is
     opened fairly evenly throughout the regeneration area; regeneration is mainly
     natural, though it may be supplemented artificially; regeneration interval fairly
     short and resultant crop more or less even-aged and regular.
SHELTERWOOD SYSTEM
     An even-aged silvicultural system where mature trees are harvested in a series of
     two or more cuts (preparatory, seed, removal, final) for the purpose of obtaining
     natural regeneration under shelter of the residual trees, whether by cutting
     uniformly over the entire stand area or in narrow strips. Regeneration is natural
     or artificial. Regeneration interval determines the degree of even-aged uniformity.

             also see Silvicultural System

SILVICS
      The study of the life history, requirements, and general characteristics of forest
      trees and stands in relation to the environment and the practice of silviculture.

SILVICULTURAL GROUND RULES
      Specifications, standards, and other instructions which direct management on
      management unit areas during the period of the forest management plan.

SILVICULTURAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
      The means by which forest cover is managed to achieve objectives. Silvicultural
      management strategies broadly define the harvest method and pattern, the kinds
      and levels of renewal and tending activities, necessary road access, and the
      associated funding requirements.


SILVICULTURAL SYSTEM
      A process, following accepted silvicultural principles, whereby crops constituting a
      forest are tended, harvested, and regenerated, resulting in the production of
      crops of distinctive form. Systems are conveniently classified according to the
      method of harvesting the mature stands with a view to regeneration and

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FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                    Glossary of Terms



             according to the type of crop produced thereby.

             also see Clearcut System, Selection System, Shelterwood System

SILVICULTURAL TREATMENT
      An activity, whether biological or managerial, through which a forest operations
      prescription is met.
SILVICULTURAL TREATMENT PACKAGE
      The range of acceptable treatments (harvest, renewal, tending) for the
      appropriate forest unit and site type combination which can be undertaken at
      various intervals throughout the life of a forest stand to achieve the desired future
      forest condition.

SILVICULTURE
      Generally, the science and art of cultivating forest crops, based on a knowledge
      of silvics (URN 5384). More particularly, the theory and practice of controlling the
      establishment composition, constitution, and growth of forests.

SITE
             An area considered in terms of environment, particularly as this determines the
             type and quality of the vegetation the area can carry.

SITE PREPARATION
      Disturbance of the forest floor and the topsoil to create suitable conditions for
      natural or artificial regeneration by mechanical or chemical means, or by
      prescribed burning.

SITE TYPE
      see Ecosite, General Standard Site Type

SOFTWOOD(S)
     Cone-bearing trees with needles or scale-like leaves belonging to the botanical
     group Gymnospermae. Also, stands of such trees and the wood produced by
     them.

SPATIAL or SPATIAL DATABASE (geographic information system)
      A collection in interrelated geographically referenced data stored without
      unnecessary redundancy to serve multiple applications as part of a geographic
      information system.




April 2004                                                                                  xliii
FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                       Glossary of Terms



SPECIES
     A singular or plural term for a population or series of populations of organisms
     that are capable of interbreeding freely with each other but not with members of
     other species.

STAGE OF MANAGEMENT
     One in a series of harvest cuts performed over the life of a stand. The type and
     number of cut stages depends upon the silvicultural system being used.

STAND (Syn.: Forest Stand)
     A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, constitution,
     age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from adjacent communities.

STANDARD
     1.           A standard is a document that provides, for common and repeated use,
                  rules, guidelines, or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at
                  the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context.

             2.   Measurable parameters established for use as a rule or basis for
                  comparison in measuring or judging quantity, quality, value, capacity, or
                  other characteristics.

STAND IMPROVEMENT
     see Improvement Cutting

STOCKING
     An expression of the adequacy of tree cover on an area, in terms of crown
     closure, percentage of stocked quadrats, number of trees, basal area, or volume,
     in relation to pre-established managerial norm.

STRATEGIC LAND USE PLAN (SLUP)
     A document which indicates at a broad level how the Ministry of Natural
     Resources will use Crown lands and encourage the use of private lands in
     meeting its goal of managing natural resources on a sustained yield and multiple-
     use basis. Strategic Land Use Plans are developed at a regional level and
     contain objectives and related targets. These plans provide the policy framework
     for district land use plans/guidelines.

STRATEGY
     The means or steps to achieving an objective.

STREAM
     A flowing, channelized body of water of any size.
STREAM ORDER
     The laws of drainage composition using Strahler's system in which streams of a
     given order only have tributaries of lower order.


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FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                Glossary of Terms



             First-Order Streams:
                    Streams which have no tributaries.

             Second-Order Streams:
                  Streams or stream segments which have
                  only first-order tributaries. A second-
                  order stream begins where two first-
                  orders meet, and ends where it meets
                  another second-order stream, so starting
                  a third-order stream.

SUB-MANAGEMENT UNIT
     Generally refers to any sub-division of a
     management unit. In relation to forest diversity
     and landscape pattern it refers to portions of the
     same management unit that are
     physically/geographically separated from each
     other.

SUB-REGION or SUB-REGIONAL
     A geographic subdivision of a region for the purposes of collecting and analyzing
     data, and planning.

SUCCESSION
     Changes in species composition in an ecosystem over time, often in a predictable
     order.

SUPPLEMENTARY DOCUMENTATION
     Supporting/additional text, tables, maps, etc., which summarize the background
     information which was used in preparation of a forest management plan and
     which documents a number of elements of the planning process, particularly the
     participation of the Local Citizens Committee, the results of public consultation,
     road planning, and area of concern prescription setting.

SURPLUS HARVEST AREA
     see Harvest Area: Surplus

SUSTAINABILITY
     Long term Crown forest health.

SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA
     Standards by which forest sustainability are judged. For each criterion, there may
     be one or more indicators which demonstrate whether or not a standard is being
     attained.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
     Consistent, deliberate, and sustained, yet flexible, action to maintain in a

April 2004                                                                              xlv
FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                    Glossary of Terms



             balanced manner the goods and services of the forest and to use these to
             increase the contribution of the forest to social well-being.

SUSTAINABLE FOREST LICENCE
     Under Part III of the Crown Forest Sustainability Act, a renewable licence to
     harvest forest resources in a management unit that requires the licensee to carry
     out renewal and maintenance activities necessary to provide for the sustainability
     of the Crown forest in the area covered by the licence. This type of licence may
     be granted for a term of up to 20 years.

TENDING
     Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest at any stage of its
     life (e.g., cleaning, fertilization, spacing, pruning).

TERTIARY ROAD
      see Road: Tertiary

THINNING
      A cutting made in an immature crop or stand primarily to accelerate diameter
      increment but also, by suitable selection, to improve the average form of the trees
      that remain. The removal of trees may be from the dominant and codominant
      crown classes to favour the best trees of those same crown classes (known as
      crown thinning), or the removal of trees may be to control stand spacing and
      favour desired trees using a combination of thinning criteria without regard to
      crown position (know as free thinning).

             Commercial Thinning: A thinning in which the harvested trees are removed
             from the site and used for commercial purposes.
             Pre-Commercial Thinning: A thinning that does not yield trees of commercial
             value, and is usually designed to improve crop spacing. (modified STC) In
             Ontario, the term pre-commercial thinning is generally used in relation to even-
             aged management only. Pre-commercial thinning in uneven-aged management
             is referred to as "improvement cutting" or stand improvement.

THREATENED SPECIES
     Any native species that is at risk of becoming endangered through all or a portion
     of its Ontario range if the limiting factors are not reversed.

TREATMENT
     see Silvicultural Treatment

TREE IMPROVEMENT
     The control of parentage combined with other silvicultural activities (such as site
     preparation or fertilizing) to improve the overall yield and quality of products from
     forest lands.



April 2004                                                                                  xlvi
FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                   Glossary of Terms



UNAVAILABLE MANAGED (LANDS)
     Areas in which timber production is permitted but is unavailable for timber
     production as a result of forest management planning decision (e.g., area of
     concern reserves from previous plans).

UNEVEN-AGED MANAGEMENT
     Silvicultural systems in which stands have an uneven-aged structure (i.e.,
     shelterwood or selection systems).

UNEVEN-AGED STRUCTURE
     A forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age.
     The differences in age in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10 to 20
     years.

UNMANAGED (LANDS)
    Areas which are not available for timber production through legal designation
    (e.g., conservation reserves under the Public Lands Act), policy direction (e.g.,
    areas of natural and scientific interest (ANSIs) in which timber production is not
    permitted), or a higher order land use decision (e.g., Lac Seul reserve).

UNMERCHANTABLE
    A tree or stand that has not attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to
    make it suitable for harvesting.

USE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY (road)
     A statement outlining the purpose and description, and defining the roles and
     responsibilities related to use, maintenance, use control, abandonment and
     monitoring of roads on Crown land.

VALUE
     In relation to Values Mapping: A benefit or condition of the forest that is linked
     to a specific geographic area, that could be of interest from various points of view,
     and which may need to be protected as a results of timber management activities.

             In relation to Indicators of Forest Sustainability Criteria and Objective
             Achievement: The numerical measure of a quantity or a number denoting
             magnitude.

VALUE ADDED
     This is a measure of net output. It avoids double counting of products sold during
     the accounting period by including only final goods. For instance, only chairs are
     included, whereas the wood that goes into making them does not appear
     separately. It is equal to income (Gross Provincial Income). It may be calculated
     by adding wages, interest, rent and profits. Alternatively, it is equal to revenues
     minus the total cost of purchased inputs. (SEIM)



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FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                       Glossary of Terms



VOLUME
     The amount of wood in a tree, stand, or other specified area, according to some
     unit of measurement or some standard of use.

             also see Gross Merchantable Volume, Gross Total Volume, and Net
             Merchantable Volume.

VULNERABLE SPECIES (Syn.: Rare Species)
     NOTE: A definition for this term is currently under review.

             See Rare Species

WARMWATER BODIES
    Those lakes, rivers and streams which support mainly centrarchids, such as
    smallmouth bass or pumpkinseeds.

WATER
     Lakes, rivers, etc., taken to the high-water mark of generally flooded area.

WATERSHED
     The area drained by an underground or surface stream, or by a system of
     streams.

WATER YIELD
     In relation to the Regional HydroEcological Simulation System, this is a function
     of two major variables, evapotranspiration and run-off.

WETLAND
     Land that is seasonally or permanently covered by shallow water, as well as land
     where the water table is close to or at the surface. In either case, the presence of
     abundant water has caused the formation of hydric soils and has favoured the
     dominance of either hydrophytic or water-tolerant plants. The four major types of
     wetlands are swamps, marshes, bogs and fens.

WILDLIFE
     Nonhuman, nondomesticated, noncultivated organisms; all wild mammals, birds,
     reptiles, amphibians, fishes.

             NOTE: It is recognized that there are other definitions for wildlife, but in this
                            manual, active planning for wildlife covers only vertebrates and
                            rare species of other taxonomic groups.

WILDLIFE HABITAT
     Areas of the natural environment where plants, animals, and other organisms,
     excluding fish, survive in self-sustaining populations, and from which they derive
     services such as cover, protection, or food.


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FMP for Temagami MU 2004-2024                                                     Glossary of Terms



WILDLIFE TREES
     A wildlife tree is a standing live or dead tree with special characteristics that
     provide valuable habitat for the conservation or enhancement of wildlife.
     Characteristics include age, diameter and height for the site, current use by
     wildlife, species value, location, and relative scarcity.

WORKING GROUP
    An aggregate of stands, including potential forest areas assigned to this category,
    having the same predominant species, and managed under the same broad
    silvicultural system.

YIELD
             The actual or estimated harvest of forest products over a given period of time.




April 2004                                                                                   xlix

				
DOCUMENT INFO