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First Nations and New Nations

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					       First Nations and New
               Nations
I.   Intro
II.  Alliances and Land Surrenders to 1815
III. Humanitarians & Settler Governments in the
     1830s
IV. The Triumph of Settler Interests, 1840s & 50s
V. The Settler Government as Imperial Government:
     the Numbered Treaties
VI. The Imperial Government as Settler Government:
     British Columbia
VII. Conclusion
         Imperial vs Settler
           Governments
» First -- responsible to diff publics
    Settlers want land
    Imperial public more likely to adopt broader
     perspective
» Second -- Imperial gov‟t responsible for
  external relations and security of the
  colonies
              Alliances
» How did the American Revolution
  shape British-First Nations relations?
» Gifts (or “presents”)
» Between 1784-88 -- £20,000 p.a.
» Amherstburg
» Trader/agents -- Matthew Elliot
   James McGill on Native
         Alliances
“The Indians are the
  only Allies who can
  aught avail in the
  defences of the
  Canadas. They have
  the same interests as
  us, and alike are the
  objects of American
  subjugation, if not
  extermination.”
            Land Surrenders
» 1781-- Treaty with Wabakinine & other
  Anishinabeg chiefs -- 300 suits of clothing for strip
  of land 4 miles wide along Niagara River
» 1784 -- Wabakinine & to Governor Frederick
  Haldimand 3 million acres of land near the
  Niagra Peninsula for £1,180 in goods -- majority
  went to Six Nations loyalists (Brant)
» Ojibwe Chief Musquakie (Mayawassino, William
  Yellowhead) -- Collingwood Treaty, 1,592,000
  acres
   Why make these deals?
» Maintain relations
» US Indian Wars
» Small population, no central political
  organization
» Meaning of the Treaties
    assured could keep hunting and fishing grounds
    translators often poor, provisions vague
    “as far back as a man could walk, or go on foot in a
     day”
    as far back as a gunshot fired on the lakeshore could
     be heard in the interior
          “Humanitarians”
» What was the effect of changes in British thought
  about the Empire?
» Liberal reformers
» Evangelicals
» Herman Merivale, Colonial Office, 1840s-50s
» Lord Glenelg
» Methodist Missionaries
» Aborigines Protection Society
» Dominated Colonial Office in 1830s
           “Humanitarians”
» Imperial vs. Settler govts
» Reserves
» Assimiliation

» Treaty of Waitangi
» Protection of the Xhosa (Bantu)
     Native Policy in Upper
           Canada
» How did settler interests interact with
  “humanitarian” policy to shape UC Native
  policy?
» Model farm villages
» Rev Peter Jones (Kahkewaquonaby, Sacred
  Feathers)
» River Credit village
» William Case -- Grape Island
» Coldwater, 1830
» Native affairs transferred from military, 1830
                   Removal
»   Gov-Gen, Sir Francis Bond Head (1836-38)
»   Manitoulin Island
»   Wesleyan Methodist Conference
»   Aborigines Protection Society
»   Lord Gleneg
   Decline of Humanitarian
           Thought
» Why did the influence of Humanitarian thought
  decline?
» Failures of humanitarian policies
» Scientific racism
» Settler control of gov‟ts in BNA
» Indian Mutiny, 1857-58
 Triumph of Settler Interests
» How did the transfer of power over Native
  affairs to Canada affect policy?
» Native lands become Crown Lands in
  1839 and 1850-51
» Status Indians
» Act for the Gradual Civilization of the
  Indian Tribes of the Canadas, 1857 --
  enfranchisement, Canada takes over
  admin of Natives, 1860
          Robinson Treaties
» William Robinson
» Chief Peau de Chat & Lake Superior Chiefs
» Chief Shinguacouse and Lake Huron Chiefs
» Surrendered area 2X what surrendered in south --
  £2,000 payment -- annuities
» Sets pattern carried onto prairies -- negotiate at
  public meetings -- only Crown can do so --
  reserves set out -- annuities to each member --
  retain right to hunt except where private
  property
    The Settler Government as
      Imperial Government
»   Canada and the Royal Proclamation
»   Canada acquires Rupert‟s Land, 1871
»   Dominion Lands Act, 1872
»   NWMP, 1873
»   Numbered Treaties, 1871-77
                Treaty 1
» How did Canada act as imperial
  government in the west?
» Lt.-Gov. Archibald of NW Territories “as
  long as the sun shines”
» Red River Natives respond -- will give up
  small parts of Manitoba, keep most of it
» Archibald threatens to withdraw
The Numbered Treaties
                   Treaty 1
“Your Great Mother wished the good of all races
  under her sway. She wishes her red children to
  be happy and contented…. Your Great Mother,
  therefore, will lay aside for you „lots‟ of land to
  be used by you and your children forever. She
  will not allow the white men to intrude upon
  these lots. She will make rules to keep them for
  you, so that as long as the sun shall shine, there
  shall be no Indian who has not a place he can
  call his home…”
                    Treaty 1
»   Surrender title to all territory
»   Keep the peace
»   Respect property of gov‟t and settlers
»   Cdns give Natives $3 each in gratuity
»   $15 in cash or goods per family of five as annuity
»   Reserves -- 160 acres per family of five
»   School on each reserve
»   Protection from whisky
»   Verbally promise clothing for headmen, farm
    animals and implements
       The Meaning of the
       Numbered Treaties
» Why did Native
  leaders negotiate the
  treaties?
    Subsistence
     problems
    Oncoming settlers
    Good relations
    Buffalo
      The Meaning of the
      Numbered Treaties
» Treaty 3, Mawedopenais: “I take off my
  glove and give you my hand and with it
  my birthright and my land -- and … I hold
  fast all the promises you have made as
  long as the sun shines and the water
  flows…”
» Treaty 7 “the true spirit and original
  intent”?
» Treaty 9 (1905) two treaties
  Native Land Policy in BC
   Before Confederation
» What was different about how BC
  acquired land from Native people
  and why was it different?
» James Douglas
» Douglas Treaties: 14 purchases – 3%
  of VI
» Reserves
Reserves in the Fraser
    Valley, 1864
Reserves in the Fraser
    Valley, 1868
    Making the Reserve System in
                BC
» 1871 – Canada arrives
» Joint Indian Reserve Commission
» Gilbert Malcolm Sproat
» Nlha7kapmx Meeting at Lytton, July
  1879
» Peter O‟Reilly
Reserves by Sproat
Reserves by O‟Reilly
           Conclusion
» Imperial vs Settler interests in
  making Canada’s Native Policy
» A legacy of colonialism

				
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