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     NECTAR workshop on Integrated Transport
        12 – 14 September 2008, Oxford, UK


   Reinventing the Wheel -
planning the rail network to meet
mobility needs of the 21st century
                Moshe Givoni
                      and
               David Banister
   Transport Studies Unit, Oxford University


                        Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel
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Work in progress




       Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel
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Aspects covered
• Trends in European rail travel
• High-Speed Train (HST)
• Rail and the environment
• Rail travel time
• Railway stations
• Rail investments and equity
• Synthesis


                         Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel
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           Trends in passenger rail




Development of Passenger Rail in Britain (1830-2007)
Source: ATOC, 2008




                           Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel
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                 Trends in passenger rail (2)
          The share of rail in European passenger transport (%)
                 1970      1980          1990        1995        2000        2005
       EU27      326.4     366.0         400.7       347.7      368.3       373.8
       EU15      220.2     246.9         268.9       273.3      306.9       324.5
       EU12      106.2     119.1         131.8       74.4        61.4        49.3
              The share of rail in EU27 passenger transport (%)
        Passe-     Powered
                              Bus &                   Tram &
         nger       Two-                   Railway                 Air      Sea      Total
                              Coach                    Metro
         Cars      wheelers
2006     72.7        2.4           8.3       6.1        1.3        8.6      0.6      100
2000     72.9        2.3           8.8       6.3        1.3        7.8      0.7      100
1995     73.0        2.3           9.5       6.6        1.3        6.3      0.8      100
    Demand for passenger rail transport is likely to continue growing
              Not so important and maybe not so good news
                              More important
   Can rail increase its share across all modes of transport? And how?

                                           Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel
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                      High Speed Train
Development of the HST: the driver for rail renaissance and important
                in the competition with other modes
  An ideal mode for long distance travel: faster and less polluting
                      Faster travel (time) =>
Increase in (commuting) travel distance
Generation of new demand
           => HST might (only) lead to increased mobility
                        Faster travel (time) =>
increased accessibility and (potential for) economic development


                 But only where the HST stops!
           (and more HST stations => longer travel time)

                                  Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel
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                    High Speed Train (2)
            Can compete with the aircraft and is less polluting
• Competition: not necessarily reduces the number of flights (airlines
still need to maintain their services)
• Low-Cost airlines: tough competitor for HST operators
• When substitution takes place - freed runway capacity is still used
       Mode substitution not so apparent and not so beneficial

      Further development of the HST (in Britain) – with caution!
Crucial:
• Integration between the conventional and high speed networks
• Managing demand for HST services (through pricing)
• Making the main airports (Heathrow) a stop on the network
• Managing demand for runway capacity

                                   Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel
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                     Are the railways green?
   Britain (2006): 40% Diesel, 60% Electric (38% Coal, 34% Gas)

                     Are the railways greener?
    HST vs. Aircraft (London-Paris)                   Rail vs. Car (GB)
           gCO2/seat gCO2/passenger Rail                       60 gCO2/pas-km
HST          7 000         5 000          Car (1.6 pas.) 104 gCO2/pas-km
Aircraft    45 000         30 000         Car (3 pas.)         57 gCO2/pas-km

             Environmental impact from rail operation varies
• Electric traction better than Diesel (GB: 54 vs. 69 gCO2/pas-km)
• Energy consumption increases with speed (mitigated by design)
• Route characteristics affect emission (especially no. of stops)
• Load factor crucial


                                      Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel
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                                 Are railways green? (2)
 Average CO2 emission for a number for different trains (gCOo2/Pass-Km)
                  D - Class 220/221 'Voyager'

               D - Class 222 'Meridian' (9 car)

      D - Class 170 'Turbostar' (average fleet)

                      D - Class 180 'Adelante'

                        E - Class 460 'Juniper'

                        E - Class 458 'Juniper'

                    E - Class 357 'Electrostar'

                            D - Class 43 'HST'

              E - Class 390 'Pendolino' (9 car)

             E - Class 390 'Pendolino' (11 car)

E - IC225: Class 91 locomotive + MK3 coaches

    E - Class 373 'Eurostar' (London-Brussels)

       E - Class 373 'Eurostar' (London-Paris)

                                                  0   10   20     30     40    50     60     70     80      90   100   110
                                                                average emissions [gCO2 per passenger-km]

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              Is rail time (a complete) wasted time?
   Percent of passengers undertaking activities for some time / most of time
                          during the train Journey
                              Window            Talking
                Reading       gazing/           to other         Sleeping Listening
                for           people   Working/ passeng          /        to music
                leisure       watching studying ers              snoozing / radio
Out               53 / 33      56 / 18   26/ 13       16 / 6        13 / 3         9/3
Return            56 / 35      58 / 18   25 / 12      14 / 5        19 / 4         9/3
Source: Lyons et al., 2007.

    ICT developments makes speed and reliability less important
             (but can lead to increase in distance travelled)
       Making rail travel more attractive and more sustainable
• Faster trains?
• More comfortable trains?
• More reliable services?

                                            Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel
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Railways in integrated transport - the dual role of
                     stations
     Rail renaissance a „comeback‟ also for the railway station!
          Railway station - a node on the transport network
               Rail journey consist of „chain‟ of journeys
• Improving access to the station can increase rail use
• Access can be mainly by walking and cycling (58% NL, 55% GB)
 Shorter “distance to station” and/or improve access and interchange

  Railway station – a „place‟ in the urban socio-economic landscape
      Area around station attractive for commercial development
• Financial opportunity for rail operators

         Potential conflict between these roles of the station

                                   Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel
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    Investing in rail infrastructure – who is it for?
Rail travel in the UK by household income
                                                       Percentage
Below £7,000                                                7
£7,000 - £12,500                                            8
£12,501 - £17,500                                           9
£17,501 - £35,000                                           30
£35,501 - £50,000                                           23
£50,501 - £75,000                                           15
More than £75,700                                           9
 A better railway helps high income groups to travel further and faster
• Investment in HST disproportionally benefit higher income travelers
• Investment in local rail (and bus) help low income travelers
                Economies of scale in rail infrastructure
• Invest where rail use is already high – the urban centres
• In the periphery – invest in better access to the rail network

                                     Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel
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  The role of the railway is sustainable transport
            A different type of rail system is required:
one that accommodates more of the existing levels of demand

 The advantages of rail transport together with the promotion of rail
            transport might lead to increased mobility
                       This is unsustainable
  Network development (and investments) must be selective and
considered together with developing the rest of the transport network
                         – INTEGRATION
                    This is (more) sustainable

   Rail needs to be on the mode choice set for
   many more people for many more journeys!
                                  Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel
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And the missing mode?




          Givoni and Banister – Reinventing the wheel

				
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