Key Stages in the Project Life Cycle by sdfwerte

VIEWS: 36 PAGES: 12

									       Stakeholders and
      Project Management

          Riga, 15 November 2007



Paul Guest - Consultant in European Project Management - www.orientra.org
                    What is a Stakeholder?
       “Stakeholders are affected either directly or indirectly by the activities and
           achievements of an organisation, association, partnership or project”

-   In its’ original use, Stakeholder would infer a person or group of persons
    having a stake or share in something, predominantly, in the past, a financial
    stake or share

-   In modern terms, particularly in the field of project management, this extends
    beyond purely financial stakes and considers a wider remit of individuals
    and/or organisations having an interest in the success of an organisation,
    association, partnership or project

-   Stakeholders can be both internal (manager, employee, shareholder) and
    external (government, community, investor, general public)

             Paul Guest - Consultant in European Project Management - www.orientra.org
                Why Manage Stakeholders?
     “traditional, passive approaches to informing Stakeholders of decisions made,
                   need to make way for modern incorporative approaches”


-   In the past, organisations often adopted a passive approach to informing
    Stakeholders of recent developments, relying upon traditional communication
    methods such as newsletters, printed publications and annual (general)
    meetings and frequently adopting a one-way communication strategy


-   Increasingly, organisations choose to more actively involve Stakeholders in
    the decision-making process, particularly with regard to new developments or
    in relation to change management, with the aim of encouraging and hopefully
    ensuring wider, more positive acceptance of the project outcomes or results


             Paul Guest - Consultant in European Project Management - www.orientra.org
        When to Involve Stakeholders
        “involve Stakeholders at all stages of your project”


   Identification / Idea                                    Implementation

  … confirm needs with                                … involve and inform
     Stakeholders                                   Stakeholders throughout
                                                   (research, testing, review)


    Design / Creation                                          Integration


 … involve Stakeholders in                 … project success can be measured
proposing relevant solutions               through acceptance & active take-up
                                                of results by Stakeholders

      Paul Guest - Consultant in European Project Management - www.orientra.org
                     Stakeholder Analysis


-   The first step in Stakeholder Analysis, for any project, is to identify
    who exactly the Stakeholders are… you need to think of your project
    and identify all parties affected by it, all parties who have influence or
    power over it, and all parties who have an interest in a successful (or
    unsuccessful) conclusion
-   Working in groups (count 1, 2, 3), make a list of the Stakeholders for
    your organisations – elect a Spokesperson to report back
-   Time Allowed: 15 minutes
-   A useful next step is to map out your Stakeholders (in groups)…


           Paul Guest - Consultant in European Project Management - www.orientra.org
                         Stakeholder Map
   “Stakeholders can be organisational, financial, sectoral, public or private”

                    FRONTLINE                                 NATIONAL
                   CUSTOMERS;                               GOVERNMENT;
                  CONTRACTORS                                POLITICIANS



 ORGANISATIONAL                                                               COMMUNITY
   EMPLOYEES;                                                             REGION AUTHORITIES;
  COLLEAGUES                                                              CCOMMUNITY BODIES

                                    PROJECT
   MANAGEMENT                                                                EDUCATIONAL
SENIOR EXECUTIVES;                                                        TEACHERS/TRAINERS;
  SHAREHOLDERS                                                            STUDENTS/TRAINEES



                      FINANCIAL                               SECTORAL
                     INVESTORS;                          SECTOR ASSOCIATION;
                       LENDERS                              IDUSTRY BODY



         Paul Guest - Consultant in European Project Management - www.orientra.org
                     Stakeholder Analysis
     “Stakeholder satisfaction with your results is a measure of project success”


-   Now add your Stakeholders to the Template (handout)

-   When thinking about Stakeholders, people often think of
    organisations however it is inevitably an individual that you will have
    contact with thus it is also important to identify the correct person
    (individual) within any Stakeholder organisation

-   Having identified and mapped out your Stakeholders, the next step is
    to prioritise them, charting the levels of Interest and Influence that
    each Stakeholder has on your project.


           Paul Guest - Consultant in European Project Management - www.orientra.org
              Charting Interest & Influence
“fully involve and satisfy those Stakeholders with high levels of Interest and Influence”

  High

                                        D                            Place all Stakeholders onto the
                   A
                                                                     Chart according to the level of
                                                        E           Interest and Influence they have
               Keep informed                Manage
                                                                   in the project, divide your chart &
                                                                     decide upon a course of action


                                                                        In this example, the project
                           C
                                                                       should focus upon managing
                                                                          D and E and in building
                                                                            interest levels with B
                                                       B
                 Monitor
             (minimal effort)                    Keep satisfied
  Low



             Low                                            High



             Paul Guest - Consultant in European Project Management - www.orientra.org
            Understanding your Stakeholders
“some Stakeholders will support your project, but others may wish to hinder success”

-   Having identified (mapped) and prioritised (charted) your Stakeholders, the next
    step is to understand whether they have a positive or negative stance regarding
    your project
-   Consider Stakeholder motivation, financial interest, how their own work is
    influenced and by whom (are these also your Stakeholders?), what influence they
    might have on others, what information they might possess (or not) on your
    organisation and your project
-   Often the easiest way to understand the position of an individual Stakeholder is to
    talk to them directly… ask them their opinion… try to win them around
-   One way of remembering who are your supporters and whom you might need to
    win around is to colour-code your Stakeholders within the Interest and Influence
    Chart (using different colours for positive, negative or neutral)

            Paul Guest - Consultant in European Project Management - www.orientra.org
                 Stakeholder Management
“negative Stakeholders will take more time to manage than those who are supportive”

 -   Awareness of your Stakeholders (and their role, position, stance, etc.) is
     only the first step, for the remainder of the project lifetime you and your
     partners need to consider how you will manage and communicate with
     your Stakeholders; for each Stakeholder group you need to consider
     how important their support is to your project, think about…
 -   What information you need to convey to Stakeholders, when and why?
 -   What communication strategy you will adopt?
 -   Whether some stakeholders require more regular updates than others?

           If you have many Stakeholders you might want to use a
                       Stakeholder Management Sheet

            Paul Guest - Consultant in European Project Management - www.orientra.org
              Stakeholder Management Sheet
  Name of         Name of      Stakeholder     Influence    Interest    Support           Required
Stakeholder       Contact         Type           Level       Level       Level             Action
Ministry of                                                                             MONITOR
                 A. Smith     Government        Medium     Medium       Orange
 Labour                                                                               (minimal effort)
                   Paul
 Orientra                        Sector           Low        High        Red        KEEP INFORMED
                   Guest
 European          A. N.                                                          KEEP SATISFIED and
                               Contractor        High      Medium       Green
Commission         Other                                                           BUILD INTEREST
    …                …             …               …          …           …                 …



Use detail from Stakeholder                  Use detail from Interest             Positive, Negative
    Mapping exercise                           & Influence Chart                  or Neutral stance?


 This tool can be used to monitor & manage (monthly/quarterly) Stakeholder activity for your project.

  On the Templates (handouts), introduce some of your Stakeholders and all required
         data – make use of the Stakeholder Map and Interest and Influence Chart.

              Paul Guest - Consultant in European Project Management - www.orientra.org
                                       Summary
-   Identify your Stakeholders at an early stage
-   Involve Stakeholders throughout your project… from idea to implementation
-   Consider the interest and influence levels of your Stakeholders
-   Try to identify individual contact persons within Stakeholder organisations
-   Consider whether Stakeholders have a positive or negative stance
-   Decide what activities you will undergo in relation to different Stakeholder
    groups (inform, manage, monitor, actively involve, etc.)
-   Actively manage Stakeholder communication & activity throughout your project



               Thank you for Participating

             Paul Guest - Consultant in European Project Management - www.orientra.org

								
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