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A Modest Proposal
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A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden
to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick [sic], commonly
referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a satirical pamphlet written by Jonathan Swift in 1729. The
work has now become one of the epitomes of satire, and the modern phrase “a modest proposal”
derives from the work.

       1 Theme
       2 Reactions
       3 Modern Usage
       4 External links

Swift proposed that poor Irish families sell their children to be eaten, thereby earning income for the

Written as an attack on the indifference of landlords to the state of their tenants and the political
economists with their calculations on the schemes to raise income, the essay contains scathing
comments about the state of the poor and their landlords.

Swift goes to great lengths to support his argument, including a list of possible preparation styles for
the children and calculating the financial benefits of his suggestion. He uses common methods of
argument throughout his essay, such as appealing to the authority of “a very knowing American of
my acquaintance in London” and “the famous Psalmanazar, a native of the island Formosa” (who
had already confessed to not being from Formosa in 1706). Swift couches his arguments in then-
current events, exploiting common prejudice against Papists and slyly pointing out the predations of
England. After enumerating the benefits of his proposal, Swift addresses possible objections
including the depopulation of Ireland and a litany of other solutions which he dismisses as

This essay is widely believed to be the greatest example of sustained irony in the history of the
English language.. Much of its shock value derives from the fact that the first portion of the essay
describes the plight of starving beggars in Ireland, so that the reader is unprepared for the surprise of
Swift’s solution when he states, “A young healthy child well nursed, is, at a year old, a most
delicious nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no
doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee, or a ragout.”

Even today, readers unacquainted with its reputation as a satirical work often do not immediately
realize that Swift was not seriously proposing cannibalism. It is no longer true, as it was in Swift’s
time, that any educated reader would be familiar with the satires of Horace and Juvenal, and so
recognize that Swift’s essay follows the rules and structure of Latin satires.

The satirical element of the pamphlet is often only understood after the reader notes the allusions

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_modest_proposal                                                24/03/2007
A Modest Proposal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                                           Page 2 of 2

made by Swift to the attitudes of landlords, such as the following: “I grant this food may be
somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for Landlords, who as they have already devoured most of
the Parents, seem to have the best Title to the Children.” Swift extends the metaphor to get in a few
jibes at his perception of England’s mistreatment of Ireland, noting that “For this kind of commodity
will not bear exportation, and flesh being of too tender a consistence, to admit a long continuance in
salt, although perhaps I could name a country, which would be glad to eat up our whole nation
without it.”

In the tradition of Roman satire, Swift introduces the reforms he is actually suggesting by deriding

   Therefore let no man talk to me of other expedients: Of taxing our absentees at five shillings a
   pound: Of using neither cloaths, nor houshold furniture, except what is of our own growth and
   manufacture: Of utterly rejecting the materials and instruments that promote foreign luxury: Of
   curing the expensiveness of pride, vanity, idleness, and gaming in our women: Of introducing a vein
   of parsimony, prudence and temperance: Of learning to love our country, wherein we differ even
   from Laplanders, and the inhabitants of Topinamboo: Of quitting our animosities and factions, nor
   acting any longer like the Jews, who were murdering one another at the very moment their city was
   taken: Of being a little cautious not to sell our country and consciences for nothing: Of teaching
   landlords to have at least one degree of mercy towards their tenants. Lastly, of putting a spirit of
   honesty, industry, and skill into our shop-keepers, who, if a resolution could now be taken to buy
   only our native goods, would immediately unite to cheat and exact upon us in the price, the measure,
   and the goodness, nor could ever yet be brought to make one fair proposal of just dealing, though
   often and earnestly invited to it. Therefore I repeat, let no man talk to me of these and the like
   expedients, ’till he hath at least some glympse of hope, that there will ever be some hearty and
   sincere attempt to put them into practice.

The satirical intent of A Modest Proposal was misunderstood by many of Swift’s peers, and he was
harshly criticized for writing prose in such exceptionally “bad taste.” He came close to losing his
patronage because of this essay. Swift’s audience confused the essay’s subject—indifference to the
suffering of the Irish poor—with the essay’s topic of cannibalism. This effect was accentuated
because nothing in the unrelentingly sincere tone of the narrative voice hints that the proposal is

Modern Usage
A Modest Proposal is included in many literature programs as an example of early modern western
satire. It also serves as an exceptional introduction to the concept and use of argumentative language,
lending itself well to secondary and post-secondary essay courses. Outside of the realm of English
studies, A Modest Proposal is a relevant piece included in many comparative and global literature
and history courses, as well as those of numerous other disciplines in the arts, humanities, and even
the social sciences.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_modest_proposal                                                 24/03/2007

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