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I cannot see how to refute the arguments for the subjectivity of

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I cannot see how to refute the arguments for the subjectivity of Powered By Docstoc
					I cannot see how to refute the
arguments for the subjectivity of
ethical values, but I find myself
incapable of believing that all
that is wrong with wanton
cruelty is that I don’t like it.



BERTRAND RUSSELL
1st/2nd order scepticism

• Russell’s concern regards the
  possibility of moral argument –
  1st order scepticism
• 2nd order sceptic: do not take
  talk/argument about values as
  something analogous to
  talk/argument about how the
  world is.
• this is a metaphysical point.
 values are not part of
 the fabric of the world
E.g.
We can:
(a) argue about how many
    people are in the room
(b) argue about the colour of my
    hair
(c) argue about whether the Iraq
    war is just
In each case, Mackie
encourages us to keep on
arguing
        metaphysics

In these cases we are arguing
about:
(a) the world
(b) how the world systematically
    affects us
(c) how the world affects us
    dependent on various
    practices/ways of living
values are an effect – not ‘in the
world’, but ‘in us.’
conditional on standards

there are agreed standards for
marking philosophy essays -
there is a practice of this.
• if ‘x is unjust’ is simply true,
  there is no objective
  requirement to refrain from
  doing x.
• if this is true, it is so relative to
  standards
• there is choice in standards
• that does not mean they are
  arbitrary.
argument from queerness

• objective value has to provide
  to someone who knows it both
  direction and overriding motive.
• ‘an objective good would be
  sought by anyone who was
  acquainted with it…it has to-
  be-pursuedness…built into it’
  (p.40)
• values pull, but the world
  doesn’t pull!

				
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