Global perspectives on migrant interdiction François Crépeau Canada Research Chair in International Migration Law University of Montreal François

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Global perspectives on migrant interdiction François Crépeau Canada Research Chair in International Migration Law University of Montreal François Powered By Docstoc
					Global perspectives on
 migrant interdiction
         François Crépeau
  Canada Research Chair in International Migration Law
                University of Montreal




              François Crépeau - CCR Conference          1
                         Toronto 2006
         Historical Context
Mid-eighties:


    Rise in asylum claims
    Sharp reduction of immigration (oil crisis)

    Europe: immigration becomes a political issue

States react:


    Reform of refugee determination
    Security agencies given new mandate

Objective: reducing the numbers





                 François Crépeau - CCR Conference   2
                            Toronto 2006
   Nineties:
       Fortress Europe
       Migrant smuggling (in its many forms) becomes
        the norm rather than the exception
   States make irregular migration part of
    international criminality
   The irregular migrant becomes a dangerous
    character in the government and media
    discourse
                    François Crépeau - CCR Conference   3
                               Toronto 2006
             Deterrence measures
   Faster refugee determination
   Elimination of appeals: credibility issue + RAD
   Restricted access to labour market
   Reduced legal aid and social protection
   Increased detention
   Criminalization of all help to irregular migration
   Excessive penalties for migrant smuggling
   Safe third country agreements

                     François Crépeau - CCR Conference   4
                                Toronto 2006
   Deterrence measures are insufficient
   Migration pressure remains
   Human rights protection in democracies mean
    that authorities cannot do whatever they want
    with irregular migrants
   Some deplore that: Geoffrey Simpson
   Some defend that: lawyers in courts
   Public opinion is probably on side with the
    authorities
                  François Crépeau - CCR Conference   5
                             Toronto 2006
               Preventive measures
   Visa regimes
   Carrier sanctions
   Training of border personnel
   Interception mechanisms en route
   Immigration intelligence
   Personal information databases and exchanges
   Conditionalities on international economic cooperation
   Militarization of borders and seas
   Externalization of asylum protection
   Rejection of international human rights law


                       François Crépeau - CCR Conference     6
                                  Toronto 2006
    The agenda of securitising migration
   Migration as part of a new international security
    paradigm
   Migration controls are now part of the phenomenon
    of “securization of the public space”
   The security paradigm leads to
       New administrative structures
       Policy developments
       Increased international cooperation
       Discriminatory practices that remain unchecked

                       François Crépeau - CCR Conference   7
                                  Toronto 2006
   Human rights paradigm must prevail over the
    security paradigm.
   The judiciary is our last resort, as it has been
    for women, detainees, Aboriginals, gays and
    lesbians, etc.




                   François Crépeau - CCR Conference   8
                              Toronto 2006