Coping with Stress - PowerPoint

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					Coping with Stress

Psychological Approaches
     •   There are many schools of
         meditation. In the context of stress
         control, its goal is to calm an
         aroused nervous system and bring
         transcendental calm.
     •   It has its roots in Eastern religion
         and is still practice by most of the
         oriental religions.
     •   By Adopting breathing techniques,
         body positions and repeating of a
         mantra a state of inner calm can
         be achieved, thereby reducing the
         stress response.
     •   Meditation can be thought of as a
         general approach to stress
  Muscle relaxation technique
• This technique involves
  the progressive
  contraction and relaxation
  of muscles throughout the
• This is usually coupled
  with breathing exercises,
  on the relaxation phase,
  sympathetic activity is
  inhibited and overall body
  arousal is reduced.
• This is a non specific way
  of reducing stress. (
Meichenbaum’s stress
 innoculation training
           • This has three stages,
             these are;
           • Conceptualisation.
           • Skill’s Training and
           • Real life application.
         • The client is
           encouraged to relieve
           the stressful situation.
           Analyse what was
           stressful about it, and
           how they attempted to
           deal with the
  Skills Training and practice
• The Client is taught a
  variety of techniques
  such as relaxation,
  social skills, and time
  management in a
  therapeutic setting.
Real life Application
           • The client can put into
             practice the
             techniques learnt in
             Reinforcement of
             techniques learnt in
             therapy makes the
             practice self
• The model focuses on both the nature of
  the stress problem and ways of coping
  with stress.
• The combination of cognitive strategies
  and behavioural techniques makes stress
  inoculation a potentially effective way of
  managing stress.
• Few controlled studies have confirmed its
• Effectiveness: Meichenbaum ( 1996)
  claims that stress inoculation has been
  shown to e successful with acute and
  chronic stressors.
• Deals with causes not symptoms:
• This method of stress management offers
  a tow pronged attack.
• 1. skills to cope with current problems
• 2. Skills to cope with future problems.
• Time consuming and requires a high
  motivation: The therapy would only be
  effective for determined individuals who
  are prepared to invest time and money.
• Unnecessarily complex: It may be that not
  all the elements of SIT are necessary.
• It might be useful just to talk more
  positively and relax more.
         Research on SIT
• Jay and Elliot ( 1990) demonstrated the
  effectiveness of a stress inoculation
  programme for parents whose children are
  undergoing medical procedures.
• Parents were assigned to a stress
  inoculation programme.
• Parents in the stress inoculation group
  reported less anxiety.
           Hardiness Training
• The aim of training programme is to increase self
  confidence and sense of control so that individuals can
  deal more successfully with change.
• Stages:
• Focusing: The client is taught how to recognise signs of
  stress, such as muscle tension and heart rate.
• Reliving the stress encounters: The client relieves the
  stress encounters and is helped to analyse his or her
  stress situations.
• Self improvement: The client is taught to focus on seeing
  stressors as challenges and thus learn to take control .
• Control, challenge and commitment are the basis of
  hardiness training.
         Similarities with SIT
• Both treat the problem rather than the
• Both are concerned with skills acquisition,
  to provide lasting and varied strategies to
  cope with stress.
• Both teach clients to view stress as a
  problem to be solved.
• Both require lengthy training and highly
  motivated clients.
• Maddi et al.( 1998) assessed the progress
  of 54 managers in a hardiness training
  programme, comparing this with a training
• The hardiness training was more effective
  than the other techniques put together.
   Deals with problem rather than
• Skill acquisition leads to long term
• Limited to business executives.
• Does hardiness exist.( funk 1992)
          Study Questions
• Outline two psychological methods of
  stress management. (6)
• For the two outlined, give an evaluation of
  the effectiveness of each. (6)