Causes of World War I Part 2

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					Causes of World War I
        Part 2
       By Mr. Baker
           Cause #2 – Militarism:
 The army was a symbol of Italy’s unity and
  status as a Great Power
 Italy engaged in a military and naval arms race,
  primarily against Austria-Hungary and France
 They were to have a superiority of 2:1.6
  dreadnoughts over Austria
 Throughout the 1890s, Italian generals had
  planned for war with France, but also with
  Austria-Hungary. Annual maneuvers began to
  be held in the Alps
          Cause #2 – Militarism:
 Knew that if they had war,
  they would have to face war
  against Germany and Austria-
 Believed they were the
  overseer of the Slavs in the
 Approved huge army and
  naval increases in 1913
             Cause #2 – Militarism:
   Plan 19 – The plan for a war against Germany
    and Austria-Hungary. If Germany attacked
    France, Russia would send 9 army corps against
    Germany and 16 army corps to attack Austria-
    Hungary. It was based on the assumption that
    Germany would be too busy in the west to
    intervene effectively on the eastern front
             Cause #2 – Militarism:
   Wanted to regain Alsace-Lorraine and have colonies
    in Africa
   Extended compulsory military service from 2-3 years
   Increased naval expenditures
   Plan XVII – Developed by Ferdinand Foch following
    the Franco-Prussian War and continued by Joseph
    Joffre. Hoped that once a German invasion through
    Alsace occurred, an all-out attack on the diverted
    German forces (because they would be engaged in the
    East by Russia) would achieve a quick win
           Cause #3 – Nationalism
   Why nationalism?
     Competition  between countries for colonies
     Competition to be the greatest power

     Competition to have the biggest army and navy

     War unifies your country

     Social darwinism – your race is the best and your
      country deserves preeminent status
           Cause #3 – Nationalism:
   Kaiser Wilhelm II
       Was emperor
       Was intelligent, but highly
        emotional and unpredictable
       Had a need to show himself
        equal of his British relatives
       Believed in social darwinism
             Cause #3 – Nationalism:
   Election of 1912
     More   Social Democrats, Progressives, and Center
      parties were elected to the Reichstag. They wanted
      reforms that would limit the power of the king and
      deter war
     Conservatives, militarists, and Wilhelm became
      concerned and wanted to defeat democratic
     They started to want war to keep in power and
      started to fear that Germany wouldn’t be a great
          Cause #3 – Nationalism:
 Their Austrian ally was in getting weaker because
  of disputes among the nationalities in their empire
 Russia had recovered from their defeat against
  Japan and was getting stronger
 Russia’s protégés in the Balkans were increasing
  in strength after their victory in the first Balkan
 After the elections of 1912, more Social
  Democrats were in the Reichstag than ever
          Cause #3 – Nationalism:

   All of this contributed to the thinking that
    war was needed now if Germany was to
    maintain their status as a great power
   The Kaiser and his staff contributed to a
    warlike mood in the country because they
    saw war as the only way to unify the
    country and maintain the status of the elite
               Cause #3 – Nationalism:
       Constitutional Settlement of 1867
         Linked Austria with Hungary
       Dualism was seen as a device for excluding the Slav
        majority from their rightful and equal place in the
       By dividing the empire, the Magyars (Hungarians)
        and Germans (Austrians) constituted the majority,
        each in their own half. The majority of the 21
        million Slavs in the empire as a whole was thus
        turned into minorities
             Cause #3 – Nationalism:
                                Ethnic Distribution In Austria:
   All these nationalities     -Germany 24%
    would cause problems        -Hungarian 20%
    because they wanted their   -Czech 13%
    autonomy                    -Polish 10%

   The thinking was if         -Ruthenian 8%

    Austria allowed them to     -Romanian 6%
                                -Croat 5%
    have it, they would no
                                -Slovak 4%
    longer be a great power
                                -Serb 4%
                                -Slovene 3%
                                -Italian 3%
            Cause #3 – Nationalism:
    In France in 1912, a tough nationalist, named
     Raymond Poincare, became premier and president
     the following year. He saw two choices:
     Give in the German demands and abandon
       France’s status as a great power (as in the
       Morocco crisis)
     Strengthen her own forces and draw closer to
       Russia (even at the risk of being sucked into a war
       that was purely in the interest of Russia – i.e.-
    He never wanted to be at the mercy of Germany
          Cause #3 – Nationalism:
 Serbian ambitions to make Serbia “the Piedmont
  of the southern Slavs” would cause unrest from
  Serbs and Croats living inside Austria-Hungary
 Serbia had grown nationalistic due to their wins in
  the Balkans Wars
 Serbia also felt nationalistic due to their support
  from Russia, who felt as if they were the overseers
  of the Slavs since they had ethnic ties with them
           Cause #4 – Imperialism
   Why imperialism?
     Countries believed that to remain a great nation, or
      become one, you must colonize
     Colonial expansion might produce greater power
      from increased wealth and population
     You would obtain more natural resources &
           Cause #4 – Imperialism
   Why imperialism?
     Could   make a fortune on gold, diamonds, coffee,
      rubber, etc. or could invest in railway or telegraph
     Those powers that possessed no colonies, like Italy
      and Germany, began to feel that they should have
      some, on the grounds of prestige and to provide a
      rallying point for national feelings at home
     The Middle East became a source of tension for the
      new oil-driven dreadnoughts
             Cause #4 – Imperialism:
   Believed that they must assert their influence to be a
    modern Great Power
   Sent a force to the Turkish province of Tripoli in
    North Africa
   During the war with Italy, the Turks closed the Straits
    of Constantinople, causing Russia’s trade to suffer
   This caused the acquisition of the Straits to be the
    main aim of Russian foreign policy
     Cause #4 –
 Austria and Serbia
  both competed over
 Russia competed for
  the Balkans because
  they had ethnic ties to
  the region
 Italy competed for the
  Balkans due to their
  proximity and Italians
  living there
          Cause #4 – Imperialism:
 In 1903, German railroad promoters were
  backed by the German government and Kaiser,
  who ever since his visit to Constantinople in
  1898, posed as the friend and protector of
 The Russians were opposed to the idea. They
  believed that the Baghdad railway might damage
  existing French railway interests in Syria because
  of rival Turkish orders between Germany and
          Cause #4 – Imperialism:

 The fear of Germany threatening India or
  gaining some control over the Middle East led
  to Britain’s alliance with Russia
 The Turks made a secret treaty with Germany
  the day after the Germany declared war on
  Russia for a guarantee of their territorial
          Cause #4 – Imperialism:
 Regarded their expansion and control of
  territories on the periphery of their empire as
  natural and necessary
 They believed that the interest of frontier
  security and trade relations required that the
  more civilized state acquire a certain power over
  its neighbors
 Wanted the Straits of Constantinople and to
  protect the Slavic peoples in the Balkans
             Cause #4 – Imperialism:
   Britain’s ability to maintain its place as the strongest
    imperial power was very important; it’s preservation
    was a matter of life or death
   They believed that military arms were not only for the
    benefit of Britain, but to maintain the Empire and to
    protect trade
   World trade and an open economy was key to
    Britain’s prosperity
   They stressed the British right to rule and the
    superiority of the British race over all others
             Cause #4 – Imperialism:
   Britain’s crown jewel was India, so that prompted the
    entente with Russia; if they lost India, they would lose
    their preeminence in the world
   The Middle East market was threatened by Germany
    and Italy
   With imperial interests in India and the Persian Gulf,
    Britain hoped that an alliance with Russia would check
    Germany’s ambitions in the Middle East and India
          Cause #4 – Imperialism:
 Although France was really declining, French
  governments followed expansionist aims overseas
  and refused to be intimidated
 They added to the empire in North Africa (Tunis
  was added to Algeria) and in eastern Asia in Indo-
 In 1905, Germany loomed as the biggest obstacle to
  French colonial ambitions and Britain became the
 France wanted to acquire Alsace-Lorraine and
  establish control over Morocco w/o Germany
           Cause #4 – Imperialism:
            Morocco Crisis Part I
   Germany and France both had rights in Morocco
   The Kaiser made a dramatic visit to Tangier in 1905
    and promised to support the Sultan of Morocco
    against the French
   The objective was to frighten Britain and France out
    of their recent alliance
   However, the Germans gained nothing and rather
    the British and French began talking about military
          Cause #4 – Imperialism:
           Morocco Crisis Part II
 The Kaiser was annoyed
  because this was not his
  intention, so he withdrew and
  was compensated by France
  with African territory
  relinquished to Germany
 This setback only reinforced
  Germany’s desired to become
         Cause #4 – Imperialism:
          Morocco Crisis Part II
   In 1911, a German
    gunboat was sent to
    Agadir in Morocco to
    frighten the French
    (Gunboat Diplomacy)
   The British would
    stand by France if
    Germany attacked her
             Cause #4 – Imperialism:
   French fears of Germany were strengthened
   Led to an anti-French feeling in Germany
   Since Britain drew closer to France, Germany drew
    closer to Austria
   Britain drew up military plans to land a British army of
    150,000 men in France if Germany invaded France
   French army appropriations were increased; service in
    the French army was lengthened from 2-3 years to
    meet the difference between France’s and Germany’s

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