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Causes of World War I Part 2

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					Causes of World War I
        Part 2
       By Mr. Baker
           Cause #2 – Militarism:
                   Italy
 The army was a symbol of Italy’s unity and
  status as a Great Power
 Italy engaged in a military and naval arms race,
  primarily against Austria-Hungary and France
 They were to have a superiority of 2:1.6
  dreadnoughts over Austria
 Throughout the 1890s, Italian generals had
  planned for war with France, but also with
  Austria-Hungary. Annual maneuvers began to
  be held in the Alps
          Cause #2 – Militarism:
                 Russia
 Knew that if they had war,
  they would have to face war
  against Germany and Austria-
  Hungary
 Believed they were the
  overseer of the Slavs in the
  Balkans
 Approved huge army and
  naval increases in 1913
             Cause #2 – Militarism:
                    Russia
   Plan 19 – The plan for a war against Germany
    and Austria-Hungary. If Germany attacked
    France, Russia would send 9 army corps against
    Germany and 16 army corps to attack Austria-
    Hungary. It was based on the assumption that
    Germany would be too busy in the west to
    intervene effectively on the eastern front
             Cause #2 – Militarism:
                    France
   Wanted to regain Alsace-Lorraine and have colonies
    in Africa
   Extended compulsory military service from 2-3 years
   Increased naval expenditures
   Plan XVII – Developed by Ferdinand Foch following
    the Franco-Prussian War and continued by Joseph
    Joffre. Hoped that once a German invasion through
    Alsace occurred, an all-out attack on the diverted
    German forces (because they would be engaged in the
    East by Russia) would achieve a quick win
           Cause #3 – Nationalism
   Why nationalism?
     Competition  between countries for colonies
     Competition to be the greatest power

     Competition to have the biggest army and navy

     War unifies your country

     Social darwinism – your race is the best and your
      country deserves preeminent status
           Cause #3 – Nationalism:
                  Germany
   Kaiser Wilhelm II
       Was emperor
       Was intelligent, but highly
        emotional and unpredictable
       Had a need to show himself
        equal of his British relatives
       Believed in social darwinism
             Cause #3 – Nationalism:
                    Germany
   Election of 1912
     More   Social Democrats, Progressives, and Center
      parties were elected to the Reichstag. They wanted
      reforms that would limit the power of the king and
      deter war
     Conservatives, militarists, and Wilhelm became
      concerned and wanted to defeat democratic
      socialism
     They started to want war to keep in power and
      started to fear that Germany wouldn’t be a great
      power
          Cause #3 – Nationalism:
                 Germany
 Their Austrian ally was in getting weaker because
  of disputes among the nationalities in their empire
 Russia had recovered from their defeat against
  Japan and was getting stronger
 Russia’s protégés in the Balkans were increasing
  in strength after their victory in the first Balkan
  war
 After the elections of 1912, more Social
  Democrats were in the Reichstag than ever
  before
          Cause #3 – Nationalism:
                 Germany

   All of this contributed to the thinking that
    war was needed now if Germany was to
    maintain their status as a great power
   The Kaiser and his staff contributed to a
    warlike mood in the country because they
    saw war as the only way to unify the
    country and maintain the status of the elite
               Cause #3 – Nationalism:
                  Austria-Hungary
       Constitutional Settlement of 1867
         Linked Austria with Hungary
       Dualism was seen as a device for excluding the Slav
        majority from their rightful and equal place in the
        empire
       By dividing the empire, the Magyars (Hungarians)
        and Germans (Austrians) constituted the majority,
        each in their own half. The majority of the 21
        million Slavs in the empire as a whole was thus
        turned into minorities
             Cause #3 – Nationalism:
                    Austria
                                Ethnic Distribution In Austria:
   All these nationalities     -Germany 24%
    would cause problems        -Hungarian 20%
    because they wanted their   -Czech 13%
    autonomy                    -Polish 10%

   The thinking was if         -Ruthenian 8%

    Austria allowed them to     -Romanian 6%
                                -Croat 5%
    have it, they would no
                                -Slovak 4%
    longer be a great power
                                -Serb 4%
                                -Slovene 3%
                                -Italian 3%
            Cause #3 – Nationalism:
                    France
    In France in 1912, a tough nationalist, named
     Raymond Poincare, became premier and president
     the following year. He saw two choices:
     Give in the German demands and abandon
       France’s status as a great power (as in the
       Morocco crisis)
     Strengthen her own forces and draw closer to
       Russia (even at the risk of being sucked into a war
       that was purely in the interest of Russia – i.e.-
       Balkans)
    He never wanted to be at the mercy of Germany
          Cause #3 – Nationalism:
                  Serbia
 Serbian ambitions to make Serbia “the Piedmont
  of the southern Slavs” would cause unrest from
  Serbs and Croats living inside Austria-Hungary
 Serbia had grown nationalistic due to their wins in
  the Balkans Wars
 Serbia also felt nationalistic due to their support
  from Russia, who felt as if they were the overseers
  of the Slavs since they had ethnic ties with them
           Cause #4 – Imperialism
   Why imperialism?
     Countries believed that to remain a great nation, or
      become one, you must colonize
     Colonial expansion might produce greater power
      from increased wealth and population
     You would obtain more natural resources &
      markets
           Cause #4 – Imperialism
   Why imperialism?
     Could   make a fortune on gold, diamonds, coffee,
      rubber, etc. or could invest in railway or telegraph
      systems
     Those powers that possessed no colonies, like Italy
      and Germany, began to feel that they should have
      some, on the grounds of prestige and to provide a
      rallying point for national feelings at home
     The Middle East became a source of tension for the
      new oil-driven dreadnoughts
             Cause #4 – Imperialism:
                      Italy
   Believed that they must assert their influence to be a
    modern Great Power
   Sent a force to the Turkish province of Tripoli in
    North Africa
   During the war with Italy, the Turks closed the Straits
    of Constantinople, causing Russia’s trade to suffer
   This caused the acquisition of the Straits to be the
    main aim of Russian foreign policy
     Cause #4 –
    Imperialism:
      Austria
 Austria and Serbia
  both competed over
  Bosnia
 Russia competed for
  the Balkans because
  they had ethnic ties to
  the region
 Italy competed for the
  Balkans due to their
  proximity and Italians
  living there
          Cause #4 – Imperialism:
                 Germany
 In 1903, German railroad promoters were
  backed by the German government and Kaiser,
  who ever since his visit to Constantinople in
  1898, posed as the friend and protector of
  Turkey
 The Russians were opposed to the idea. They
  believed that the Baghdad railway might damage
  existing French railway interests in Syria because
  of rival Turkish orders between Germany and
  France
          Cause #4 – Imperialism:
                 Germany

 The fear of Germany threatening India or
  gaining some control over the Middle East led
  to Britain’s alliance with Russia
 The Turks made a secret treaty with Germany
  the day after the Germany declared war on
  Russia for a guarantee of their territorial
  integrity
          Cause #4 – Imperialism:
                  Russia
 Regarded their expansion and control of
  territories on the periphery of their empire as
  natural and necessary
 They believed that the interest of frontier
  security and trade relations required that the
  more civilized state acquire a certain power over
  its neighbors
 Wanted the Straits of Constantinople and to
  protect the Slavic peoples in the Balkans
             Cause #4 – Imperialism:
                    Britain
   Britain’s ability to maintain its place as the strongest
    imperial power was very important; it’s preservation
    was a matter of life or death
   They believed that military arms were not only for the
    benefit of Britain, but to maintain the Empire and to
    protect trade
   World trade and an open economy was key to
    Britain’s prosperity
   They stressed the British right to rule and the
    superiority of the British race over all others
             Cause #4 – Imperialism:
                    Britain
   Britain’s crown jewel was India, so that prompted the
    entente with Russia; if they lost India, they would lose
    their preeminence in the world
   The Middle East market was threatened by Germany
    and Italy
   With imperial interests in India and the Persian Gulf,
    Britain hoped that an alliance with Russia would check
    Germany’s ambitions in the Middle East and India
          Cause #4 – Imperialism:
                 France
 Although France was really declining, French
  governments followed expansionist aims overseas
  and refused to be intimidated
 They added to the empire in North Africa (Tunis
  was added to Algeria) and in eastern Asia in Indo-
  China
 In 1905, Germany loomed as the biggest obstacle to
  French colonial ambitions and Britain became the
  friend
 France wanted to acquire Alsace-Lorraine and
  establish control over Morocco w/o Germany
  interference
           Cause #4 – Imperialism:
            Morocco Crisis Part I
   Germany and France both had rights in Morocco
   The Kaiser made a dramatic visit to Tangier in 1905
    and promised to support the Sultan of Morocco
    against the French
   The objective was to frighten Britain and France out
    of their recent alliance
   However, the Germans gained nothing and rather
    the British and French began talking about military
    cooperation
          Cause #4 – Imperialism:
           Morocco Crisis Part II
 The Kaiser was annoyed
  because this was not his
  intention, so he withdrew and
  was compensated by France
  with African territory
  relinquished to Germany
 This setback only reinforced
  Germany’s desired to become
  stronger
         Cause #4 – Imperialism:
          Morocco Crisis Part II
   In 1911, a German
    gunboat was sent to
    Agadir in Morocco to
    frighten the French
    (Gunboat Diplomacy)
   The British would
    stand by France if
    Germany attacked her
             Cause #4 – Imperialism:
                 Consequences
   French fears of Germany were strengthened
   Led to an anti-French feeling in Germany
   Since Britain drew closer to France, Germany drew
    closer to Austria
   Britain drew up military plans to land a British army of
    150,000 men in France if Germany invaded France
   French army appropriations were increased; service in
    the French army was lengthened from 2-3 years to
    meet the difference between France’s and Germany’s
    army

				
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