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					                  GUIDEBOOK


                      FOR


         MID-CONFERENCE EXCURSION:
        PENGUIN ISLAND - LAKE CLIFTON


               6 FEBRUARY 2002




                  by D.W. Haig


with contributions by M. Apthorpe and W.R. Morgan
          Design and layout by J. Parker




                  FORAMS 2002
 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON FORAMINIFERA
    THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA
           PERTH, 4-8 FEBRUARY 2002
                                                 Preface
   On this excursion our aim is to highlight some of the geological and biological features in southwestern
Western Australia that may be of interest to foraminiferal workers. We hope that you can contribute to our
understanding of these features by joining the discussions and bringing with you knowledge and
experience of other places. You will have an opportunity to collect foraminiferal material from various sites
(some of which require collecting permits). Although these may seem remote localities and “virgin”
territory, much local work is under way on the foraminiferal faunas - both modern and fossil. We welcome
collaboration in our efforts to understand these microfaunas better. If you collect material and prepare this
for study and publication, please contact Western Australian workers to make sure you are not duplicating
local work.

                                                Field Safety
                     YOU TAKE PART IN THE EXCURSION AT YOUR OWN RISK
We will endeavour to make the excursion a pleasant and safe experience. Care will be taken by the UWA
and Cross Country Staff to ensure your safety and well being. We will provide you with safety instructions
at each site and ask that you follow this advice.

The following general safety precautions should be followed.
   1. Keep within sight of other excursion participants at all times while we are at field sites. Do not
      wander off on your own.
   2. Wear a broad-brim hat, dark glasses, and full-length loose-fitting light clothes to guard against the
      effects of the intense sun. In particular make sure your feet, legs and arms are adequately protected
      from sunburn.
   3. On a regular basis apply sun protection lotion (preferably 30+ rating) to exposed parts of your body.
   4. Keep drinking water (at least 2 litres per day). There will be large amounts available on the bus and
       you should sip water throughout the day. Dehydration and heat stroke are real dangers and can
       simply be avoided by drinking water.
   5. When walking over dunes or in the bush, look out for snakes. Do not approach snakes. Make noise
      as you walk - this usually frightens these reptiles.
   6. When wading in water wear protective footwear.
   7. You swim at your own risk. When swimming you should be particularly careful in protecting yourself
       against sunburn. You should remain close to other participants.
   8. The bush flies are harmless, although a nuisance while eating outside. A way to overcome this
       problem is to wet your back - a cloud of flies will settle there and hopefully stay away from your
       face. Mosquitoes and sand flies may be a problem at some sites and you should apply insect
       repellent.
   9. If you smoke, do not discard cigarette butts in the bush. These are major fire hazards.


                                           Acknowledgments
Christopher New and Mathew Kuo provided technical assistance during compilation of this guide. Bill
Morgan thanks Terry Goodlich and Murray Banks, Rangers of the Shoalwater Islands Marine Park, CALM,
for their help and encouragement during this work. He thanks Professor L.B. Collins, Dr J.N. Dunlop, Dr
P.E. Playford, Dr V. Semeniuk and Ms Marie Mitchell for reading his earlier drafts providing some very
useful criticism. His special thanks go to Dave Maxwell, who re-drafted the figures on which Figures 12
and 13 of this guide are based.
                             Introduction

                                                                                                                                                                    Itinery

                                                                                                                                                   7.30:   Bus pickup
                                                                                                                                                   (at back of St George's College)
Itinerary                                                                                                                                          7.30 - 8.45: Perth to Safety Bay
The excursion will leave Perth via the Kwinana Freeway and initially go alongside
the Swan Estuary, and then over the Swan Coastal Plain to the southern satellite city                                                              9.00 - 11.00: Penguin Island
of Rockingham (Figure 1). At Safety Bay, a suburb of Rockingham, the ferry will be
                                                                                                                                                   11.45 - 12.00: Lake Richmond
taken to Penguin Island. On Penguin Island you will be free to roam the island and
look at the birds and the geology, walk the beaches or wade or swim in the sheltered                                                               12.00 - 12.45:
waters on the eastern side of the island. After returning to the mainland, a brief stop
will be made at Lake Richmond to view stromatolites, and then the excursion will                                                                       Rockingham to Mandurah
continue south to Mandurah for lunch. After lunch, a marsh in the microtidal Peel                                                                  1.00 - 2.00: Lunch at Mandurah
Inlet will be visited, and then we will drive along the western shores of the Harvey
Estuary, stopping at a boardwalk on the edge of the estuary at Warrangup Spring.                                                                   2.00 - 3.00:
Lake Clifton, situated between the Harvey Estuary and the open ocean (see Figure                                                                       Marsh at Inlet Channel
1), will be our final destination. Here we will take a boardwalk over the thrombolites
on the eastern edge of the lake, and then retire to sample wines at the adjacent Cape                                                              3.00 - 4.00: Peel-Harvey Estuary
Bouvard Winery.                                                                                                                                    4.00 - 4.30: Lake Clifton

Figure 1. Road Map showing the
                                                                                                                                                   4.30 - 5.30: Cape Bouvard Winery
excursion route and main localities.                                                       St George’s
                                                                                             College               Perth
                                                                                                                                                   5.30 - 7.00: Return to Perth
                                                                                                                                Narrows Bridge
                                                                                                           uar y
                                                                                                           st




                                                                                                  Sw an E                           anning R
                                                                                                                                C




                                                                                                                                            iver
                                                                                                                                    Mount Henry
                                                                                        Fremantle                                     Bridge
                                                                                                                   y
                                                                                                             K wi nana Freewa
                                                                    Gard




                                                                           COCKBURN
                                                                            SOUND
                                                                     en Isla
                                                                        nd




                                                                                       Rockingham
                                                   SHOALWATER BAY                    Lake Richmond
                                              PENGUIN ISLAND
                                                                                      Sa




                                                                                        f e t y B ay R
                                                                                                       d
                                                                  WARNBRO
                                                                   SOUND




                                                                  Marsh
                                                                                       Mandurah

                                             Novara Beach Reserve

                                              Dawesville Cut                      PEEL
                                                                                 INLET
                                            Warrangup Spring
                                              Boardwalk
                                                                    H AR
                                                                        VEY
                                                                           ESTU
                                                                               ARY




                                            LAKE CLIFTON

                                                                           Cape
                                                    Boardwalk              Bouvard
                                                                            Winery




                                                   Lake Preston

                                       10




                                                                                                                                                                                  1
    Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide

                           Geological Setting
                           The Geological Survey of Western Australia recognizes sedimentary basins based on
                           “their earliest structural configuration, the boundaries being carried upwards
                           through the sedimentary sequence” (Trendall & Cockbain, 1990). The area covered
                           by the excursion is situated in the Perth Basin (Hocking et al., 1994), one of the main
                           Phanerozoic basins on the western margin of Australia (see inside cover of this
                           guide). Figure 2 shows the extent of the basin and also shows an alternate view of
                           superimposed basins in this region.
                             The broad Phanerozoic history of the region is best illustrated by the
                           superimposed basins distinguished on Figure 2. A succession from a Permian
                           interior rift basin followed by Triassic and Jurassic interior rift basins, to a Cretaceous
                           (post-Valanginian) to Cenozoic continental margin basin is recognized. The interior
                           basins of the Paleozoic and early Mesozoic were located at great distances from the
                           continent-ocean crust boundary (Li & Powell, 2001) and were the sites of mainly
                           fluvial deposition. After the Valanginian, the sea flooded the continental shelf
                           repeatedly and a mainly shallow-marine succession with many hiatuses developed.
                           The Perth region moved from high southern latitudes during the late Paleozoic and
                           earliest Mesozoic to its present position at 32°S (Li & Powell, 2001).
                             Stratigraphic units known from the region are charted on Table 1. The Permian
                           through lowermost Cretaceous interior-basin deposits represent mainly fluvial
                           facies and are not exposed near Perth. Post-continental breakup deposits are
                           Valanginian to Holocene neritic and shoreline units of the passive continental shelf
                           facing the Indian Ocean. The Cretaceous units are poorly exposed on the
                           Dandaragan Plateau to the north of Perth; whereas Pleistocene and Holocene units
                           entirely cover the Swan Coastal Plain and the adjacent submerged Rottnest Shelf.
                           Large aeolian dunes of Pleistocene age (Tamala Limestone) form most of the
                           offshore islands including Penguin Island, Garden Island, and Rottnest Island.
                           These were deposited during periods of low sea level. During the latest Pleistocene
                           low stand of sea level, the coastline off Perth was more than 40 km west of its
                           present position.

                                       Structural basins
                                                                                   A        G e o l og i c a l c ro s s s e c t i o n                  B
                                       250 km                                                                                                              0 km
                            22°S



                                                                                                                                                           5 km

                                                   SOUTHERN
                                                  CARNARVON                                                                                                10 km
                                                     BASIN
                                                                                                                                                           15 km

                            26°S
                                                                                         Superimposed sedimentar y basins
                                       Hardabut
                                        Fault
                                            Northampton
                                               Block                                          Continental margin basin: Cretaceous-Cenozoic (shallow marine)

                                                                                   Continental breakup: Valanginian
                                   Indian
                                   Ocean
                                                                   PERTH
                            30°S                                   BASIN
                                        Perth
                                       Abyssal
                                        Plain               A                  B
                                                          Penguin Island
                                                                                             Interior rift basin: Triassic-Jurassic (fluvial facies)


                                                             Leeuwin
                                                              Block
                            34°S       Naturaliste
                                        Plateau

                                                                                             Interior rift basin: Permian (mainly fluvial facies)
                                       111°E                           115°E


                           Figure 2 Extent of the Perth Basin (after Hocking et al., 1994). On the right is an alternate “superimposed basin”
                           classification.


2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Introduction
Table 1. Generalised stratigraphy




                                         Paleogene Neogene Quaternary
                                                                          Holocene              Safety Bay Sand ( Quindalup Dunes)
                                                                                                                                                      coastal sand dunes with
of the Perth region (adapted from                                                                                                                     associated shore-line deposits
Playford et al., 1976; Mory, 1995;                                                            Tamala Limestone ( Spearwood Dunes)                     (including coral-algal reefs
                                                                         Pleistocene    Bassendean Sand
Davidson, 1995), showing the                                                            (Bassendean Dunes)




                                                                                                                                                                                        PASSIVE CONTINENTAL MARGIN BASIN
succession of lithostratigraphic
                                                                          Pliocene                                                                    inner neritic mixed
units (with outcropping units in                                                        (5)                      Ascot Formation (3)                  siliciclastic-carbonate sand




                                                                                                                                                                                               FACING INDIAN OCEAN
bold print), facies and basin setting.                                    Miocene                                                                     neritic bioclastic limestone
                                                                                                  Stark Bay Formation (4, 5)
Numbers          after     particular
                                                                          Oligocene
lithostratigraphic units refer to the                                                                                                                 neritic mixed siliciclastic
                                                                           Eocene                 un-named formations (5)                             shale and chalk
following published records of                                                                                                                        neritic siliciclastic mud
foraminifera: 1, Yassini & Kendrick                                                                 Kings Park Shale (4-9)                            confined to channel fill in
                                                                          Paleocene                                                                   Perth area
(1988); 2, Parr (1950); 3, Mallett
                                                                        Maastrichtian
(1982); 4, Quilty (1974); 5, Quilty                                      Campanian
                                                                                              Lancelin       Poison Hill Greensand
                                                                                        (5) Fmn. (10,11) Gingin Chalk (12-18)                         inner neritic siliciclastic mud
                                                                                                                                                      and sand (Albian-




                                                                                                                                           Coolyena
(1978), 6, Parr (1938); 7, Coleman                                        Santonian




                                                                                                                                            Group
                                                                                                                                                      Cenomanian) overlain by
                                         Cretaceous
                                                                          Coniacian
(1952); 8, McGowran (1964); 9,                                                                     Molecap Greensand                                  mid to outer neritic
                                                                          Turonian                                                                    glauconitic and chalk facies
Haig et al. (1993); 10, Edgell (1964);                                  Cenomanian
                                                                                                    Osborne Formation
                                                                                                                                                      (Turonian-Maastrichtian)
                                                                            Albian
11, McNamara et al. (1988); 12,                                             Aptian
                                                                          Barremian           Leederville Formation                                   paralic to inner neritic
Howchin (1907); 13, Glauert                                              Hauterivian
                                                                                                                                 Warnbro
                                                                                                                                                      siliciclastic facies
                                                                                          South Perth Shale (7, 19)              Group
(1910); 14, Chapman (1917); 15,                                          Valanginian                                                                  continental breakup
                                                                          Berriasian
Cushman (1936); 16, Edgell (1957);                                        Tithonian
                                                                                                            Parmelia Formation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               (POSSIBLY >1000 KM FROM OPEN CONTINENTAL SHELF)
17, Belford (1958); 18, Belford                                         Kimmeridgian




                                                                                                                                                                                         RIFT BASIN IN INTERIOR OF CONTINENT
                                                                          Oxfordian                      Yarragadee Formation                         fluvial facies
(1960); 19, Playford et al. (1976,                                        Callovian
                                         Jurassic




citing unpublished work by                                                Bathonian
                                                                                                                                                      inner neritic facies
                                                                           Bajocian                          Cadda Formation
Crespin and Rao).                                                          Aalenian
                                                                           Toarcian                      Cattamarra Coal Measures                     fluvial - swamp facies
                                                                        Pliensbachian
                                                                         Sinemurian
                                                                                                            Eneabba Formation                         fluvial facies
                                                                          Hettangian
                                                                          Rhaetian
                                                                           Norian
                                         Triassic




                                                                                                            Lesueur Sandstone                         fluvial facies
                                                                          Carnian
                                                                          Ladinian
                                                                           Anisian                                                                    fluvial facies
                                                                                                           Woodada Formation
                                                                          Scythian                           Kockatea Shale                           inner neritic to marginal
                                                                                                                                                      marine facies
                                                                          Tatarian
                                                                         Kazanian
                                         Permian




                                                                          Ufimian
                                                                         Kungurian
                                                                         Artinskian
                                                                         Sakmarian                Undifferentiated Lower Permian                      inner neritic to paralic facies
                                                                          Asselian

                                                                                                  PRECAMBRIAN BASEMENT




Marine setting
The present continental shelf of the Perth Basin is a very low gradient submerged
plain which is about 40 km wide in the Perth region but broadens to the north and
south. The geomorphology of the inner shelf is complex with submerged dune
ridges paralleling the coast (Searle
& Semeniuk, 1985). Unlike most                           110°E
west-facing continental shelves,                                Leeuwin Current 120°E
                                                                   source area
the marine waters are warm. This
reflects the influence of the south-
                                        20°S
flowing warm Leeuwin current
(Pearce & Walker, 1991). A large
along-shore pressure gradient
exists between the warm (low-
                                                                      Carnarvon ARID
density) equatorial waters and the                                     Shark
cool     (high-density)    Southern                                    Bay
Ocean. These oceanographic                                             Kalbarri
conditions activate a net eastwards
                                                                          Dongara
geostrophic flow that is deflected      30°S
                                                                                                                                                                   25
                                                                                                                                                      50




south along the pressure gradient
                                                                                                                                                                       0
                                                                                                                                                         0




                                               WASC
down the Australia margin (Pearce,                                           Perth SEMI-
                                                                                   ARID
                                                                                                                                                          750




1991). The current is accentuated
by a flow of warm Pacific Ocean
water through the Indonesian                                                          SUB-HUMID
                                                                     HUMID
Archipelago into the north-eastern
Indian Ocean (the Leeuwin Current
source area, Figure 3). Despite       Figure 3. Map of Western Australia showing terrestrial humid,
upwelling-favourable winds, there     sub-humid, semi-arid, and arid climatic zones, separated by
is no significant upwelling of deep   750 mm, 500 mm, and 250 mm isohyets respectively (taken
oceanic water along the west          from Glassford & Semeniuk, 1995); and the Leeuwin and
Australian margin (Pearce, 1991).     Western Australian Summer Currents (after Pearce, 1991)



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3
    Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide

                                                                 250 km
                                                          22°S



                                                            Indian
                                                            Ocean




                                                                          p         rla
                                                          26°S




                                                                              t Ove
                                                                                       Coas
                                                                                  tern    s
                                                                                          We
                                                          30°S


                                                                                                            rth
                                                                                                          Pe


                                                                                               Rottnest
                                                                                                Island


                                                          34°S
                                                                      111°E




                                                                                                  115°E



                                   Figure 4. Marine zoogeographic provinces off southwestern Australia (after Morgan & Wells, 1991)


                             Off the Perth stretch of coast, the Leeuwin Current runs just beyond the outer edge
                           of the continental shelf at speeds that can exceed 1 knot, as a narrow water mass
                           (100 km wide and more than 100 m deep). Its warm low-salinity waters can spread
                           half way across the shelf toward the coast, except in summer when a wind-driven
                           high-salinity northward flow occupies most of the shelf (Cresswell, 1991). Out to sea,
                           the current often meanders in both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies (Figure 3).
                             The Leeuwin Current greatly influences the marine biogeography of the region. In
                           terms of zoogeographic provinces, the Northern Australian Tropical Province (Figure
                           4) has a biota that is typical for the Indo-West Pacific. Significant elements of this
                           tropical fauna continue to the south along the outer continental shelf around the
                           offshore islands (such as the Houtmann Abrolhos and Rottnest). The inner
                           continental shelf from 20°S to 30°S forms a “Western Coast Overlap Zone” between
                           the tropical province and the Southern Australian Warm Temperate Province. Morgan
                           & Wells (1991) in their review of the zoogeography point out that there is a small
                           proportion of marine species endemic to Western Australia, most having at least part
                           of their range in the overlap zone. The endemism varies with taxonomic group (e.g.
                           20% among shallow-water asteroids; < 10% among prosobranch molluscs).


                           Overview of modern near-shore foraminifera along the west coast of Australia
                           Table 2 charts the distribution of species found by Haig in the innermost neritic zone
                           (< 20 m water depth) along the Western Australian coast from 25°S to 34° S. The
                           species are illustrated in an on-line digital catalogue accessible in the “Biostrat Gallery”
                           from web site: www.geol.uwa.edu.au/biostrat. This preliminary compilation includes
                           the innermost zone on the Houtmann Abrolhos Islands (where foraminiferal
                           assemblages were initially studied by M. Corkeron in a 1994 unpublished UWA
                           Honours thesis) and on Rottnest Island (where foraminiferal assemblages were initially
                           studied by P. Miklavs in a 1998 unpublished UWA Honours thesis). The Houtmann


4
                                                                                                                                                        Introduction
Table 2. Distribution of foraminifera identified by Haig from the inner neritic zone (< 20 m water depth) between 25°S
and 34°S along the Western Australian coast. Those species that are known north of 25°S on the western and northern
Australian margin are also indicated (see text).




                                                        ABROLHOS (~ 28-29°S)




                                                                                                                              ABROLHOS (~ 28-29°S)
                                                        SHARK BAY (25-27°S)




                                                                                                                              SHARK BAY (25-27°S)
                                                        ROTTNEST (~ 32°S)




                                                                                                                              ROTTNEST (~ 32°S)
                                                        33_34°S (INSHORE)




                                                        29_30°S (INSHORE)




                                                                                                                              33_34°S (INSHORE)




                                                                                                                              29_30°S (INSHORE)
                                                        32-33°S (INSHORE)

                                                        31-32°S (INSHORE)
                                                        30-31°S (INSHORE)


                                                        27-29°S (INSHORE)




                                                                                                                              32-33°S (INSHORE)

                                                                                                                              31-32°S (INSHORE)
                                                                                                                              30-31°S (INSHORE)


                                                                                                                              27-29°S (INSHORE)
                                                        NORTH




                                                                                                                              NORTH
Agglutinated Species                                                           Quinqueloculina sp. cf. Q. arenata Said               XX        X X
Ammotium australiensis (Collins)                                        XX     Quinqueloculina barnardi Rasheed                    XX XX         XXX
Clavulina difformis Brady                               XXX XXXX               Quinqueloculina bradyana Cushman                    XXXXXXXX
Clavulina multicamerata Chapman                         XXXXXXXXXX             Quinqueloculina crassicarinata Collins                             XX
Clavulina pacifica Cushman                                XX XXXXXX            Quinqueloculina sp. cf. Q. cuvieriana d'Orbigny     XXXXXXXXXX
Cribrobulimina mixta (Parker & Jones)                     XX X                 Quinqueloculina distorqueata Cushman                XXX            XX
Eggerelloides australis (Collins)                           X          X       Quinqueloculina eburnea (d'Orbigny)                 XXX            XX
Paratrochammina sp. 1                                       X                  Quinqueloculina sp. cf. Q. eburnea (d'Orbigny)      XXX           XXX
Placopsilina sp. 1                                               X             Quinqueloculina exsculpta (Heron-Allen & Earland)     XX        X XX
Placopsilina sp. 2                                          X                  Quinqueloculina funafutiensis (Chapman)             XXX       X    XX
Pseudogaudryina sp. [? Gaudryina convexa (Karrer)]      XXX X        XX        Quinqueloculina sp. cf. Q. funafutiensis (Chapman) X X             X
Reophax sp.                                                        X           Quinqueloculina granulocostata Germeraad            XXX       XXXXX
Rotaliammina chitinosa (Collins)                          XX         XX        Quinqueloculina sp. 1 cf. Q. granulocostata Germeraad X
Rudigaudryina sp. 1                                         X    X     X       Quinqueloculina sp. 2 cf. Q. granulocostata Germeraad X            X
Sahulia sp. 1                                           X X X XXXX             Quinqueloculina sp. cf. Q. intricata Terquem          X
Scherochorella sp. 1                                        X                  Quinqueloculina neostriatula Thalmann                 XX ? X XX
Septotrochammina sp. 1                                      X                  Quinqueloculina parkeri (Brady)                       XX XXXXXX
Siphoniferoides siphoniferus (Brady)                        X    X XX          Quinqueloculina parvaggluta Vella                   XX             XX
Siphotextularia? sp. 1                                    X                    Quinqueloculina patagonica d'Orbigny                  XX XXXXXX
Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny                          X        XXX         Quinqueloculina philippinensis Cushman                X           X X
Textularia candeiana d'Orbigny                            X          X         Quinqueloculina poeyana d'Orbigny                   XXX X         XXX
Textularia cushmani Said                                  XX   XX XX           Quinqueloculina polygona d'Orbigny                  XXX       X    XX
Textularia foliacea Heron-Allen & Earland                   X          X       Quinqueloculina quinquecarinata Collins               XXX XXXXX
Textularia kerimbaensis Said                             ? X     X     X       Quinqueloculina seminula (Linné)                    XXXXX         XXX
Textularia pseudogramen Chapman & Parr                           X     X       Quinqueloculina subgranulata (Cushman)              XXX XX XXX
Textularia sp. 1                                        XXXXX      XXX         Quinqueloculina subpolygona Parr                    XXXXXXXXXX
Trochammina inflata (Montagu)                             X    X     X         Quinqueloculina sulcata d'Orbigny                   XXX X XXXX
                                                                               Quinqueloculina tropicalis Cushman                    XX           XX
Spicule-secreting (Carterinida) Species                                        Quinqueloculina vandiemeniensis Loeblich & Tappan X X X X X X X X
Carterina spiculotesta (Carter)                                         X      Quinqueloculina wiesneri Parr                                      XX
                                                                               Quinqueloculina sp. 3                                 XX XX        X
Porcellaneous (Miliolida) Species                                              Quinqueloculina sp. 4                               XXX       X XXX
Alveolinella quoyi (d'Orbigny)                                         XX      Quinqueloculina sp. 5                                 X      X X
Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg                         XXX XXXXXX             Quinqueloculina sp. 6                               XXX       X XXX
Articulina alticostata Cushman                          XXX            XX      Quinqueloculina sp. 7                                 XXX XXXXX
Articulina sp. 1                                            X                  Quinqueloculina sp. 8                                 XXX
Articulina sp. 2 [? Articulina mucronata (d'Orbigny)]       X                  Quinqueloculina sp. 9                                 XX
Biloculinella depressa (d'Orbigny)                      X     XX         X     Quinqueloculina sp. 10                                  X     XX X
Biloculinella labiata (Schlumberger)                    XXX          X X       Quinqueloculina sp. 11                                          XXX
Borelis schlumbergeri (Reichel)                                    X     X     Quinqueloculina sp. 12                                XX X X X
Cornuspira planorbis Schultze                           XXX        XXXX        Quinqueloculina sp. 13                              XX             X
Coscinospira hemprichii Ehrenberg                         X    XXX XX          Quinqueloculina sp. 14                                          X
Coscinospira okinawaensis (Ujiié & Hatta)                              XX      Quinqueloculina sp. 15                                X            X
Cribromiliolinella milletti (Cushman)                                  XX      Quinqueloculina sp. 16                              XX
Euthymonacha polita (Chapman)                           XXX        X XX        Quinqueloculina sp. 17                              X              X
Fischerinella diversa McCulloch                             X            X     Rupertianella rupertiana (Brady)                    XX             XX
Hauerina diversa Cushman                                X X        X           Sigmamiliolinella australis (Parr)                  XXXXX XXXX
Inaequalina disparilis (Terquem)                        XXX              X     Sigmoihauerina involuta (Cushman)                   X              XX
Massilina sp. 1                                             X                  Sigmoilinella tortuosa Zheng                          XXXX X         X
Massilina sp. 2                                             X                  Sorites marginalis (Lamarck)                                       XX
Miliolinella baragwanathi (Parr)                        XXXXXXX XX             Sorites orbiculus (Forskal)                           XX XXXXXX
Miliolinella pilasensis McCulloch                       XXXXXXXXXX             Spiroloculina angulata Cushman                      XXXX XX XX
Miliolinella suborbicularis (d'Orbigny)                   X        X XX        Spiroloculina corrugata Cushman & Todd              XXX XXXXXX
Miliolinella sp. of Haig 1997                           XXX X XXXX             Spiroloculina foveolata Egger                           X       X    X
Miliolinella sp. 2                                      XXXXXX X               Spiroloculina hadai Thalmann                        XXX         X XX
Miliolinella sp. 4                                      XXX X          XX      Spiroloculina nummiformis Said                        X
Monalysidium acicularis (Batsch)                                 X     XX      Spiroloculina parvula Chapman                           X            X
Monalysidium? sp. 1                                     X              X       Spiroloculina subimpressa Parr                      XXXXXXXXXX
Nevillina coronata (Millett)                                         X         Spiroloculina sp. 1                                        X
Nubecularia lucifuga Defrance                           XXX XXXXXX             Spiroloculina sp. 2                                                X
Nubeculina advena Cushman                                 X        X XX        Spiroloculina sp. 3
Nubeculinita ramosa Loeblich & Tappan                   XXX X        XXX       Spiropthalmidium prolixum Loeblich & Tappan              ?      X    X
Nummulopyrgo globulus (Hofker)                          XXX XXXX X             Spirosigmoilina bradyi Collins                                  X
Parahauerinoides fragilissimus (Brady)                                 XX      Triloculina barnardi Rasheed                            X       X XX
Parrina bradyi (Millett)                                XXXXXXXXXX             Triloculina bertheliniana (Brady)                     X              X
Peneroplis planatus (Fichtel & Moll)                      XXXXXXXXX            Triloculina earlandi Cushman                                    X XX
Planispirinella exigua (Brady)                          XXX            XX      Triloculina littoralis Collins                                     XX
Pseudomassilina australis (Cushman)                     XX             XX      Triloculina marshallana Todd                        XXXXXXXXXX
Pseudomassilina macilenta (Brady)                                      XX      Triloculina striatotrigonula Parr                   XXX XX XX
Pseudomassilina sp. cf. P. robusta Lacroix                XX           XX      Triloculina tricarinata d'Orbigny                   XXX XXXXXX
Pseudopyrgo milletti (Cushman)                                         XX      Triloculina trigonula (Lamarck)                     XXXXXX XXX
Pyrgo compressioblonga Zheng                                       XXXX        Triloculina vespertilio Zheng                           XX      X XX
Pyrgo pisum Schlumberger                                    X X        XX      Vertebralina striata d'Orbigny                      XXX XXXXXX
Pyrgo striolata (Brady)                                   XXXX XXXX            Wiesnerella auriculata (Egger)                      XXX       XX XX
Quinqueloculina agglutinans d'Orbigny                       X            X     Wiesnerella sp. 1                                   XX
Quinqueloculina arenata Said                            XX             X



                                                                                                                                                                       5
    Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide
                           Table 2. continued...




                                                                                  ABROLHOS (~ 28-29°S)




                                                                                                                                                                 ABROLHOS (~ 28-29°S)
                                                                                  SHARK BAY (25-27°S)




                                                                                                                                                                 SHARK BAY (25-27°S)
                                                                                  ROTTNEST (~ 32°S)




                                                                                                                                                                 ROTTNEST (~ 32°S)
                                                                                  33_34°S (INSHORE)




                                                                                  29_30°S (INSHORE)




                                                                                                                                                                 33_34°S (INSHORE)




                                                                                                                                                                 29_30°S (INSHORE)
                                                                                  32-33°S (INSHORE)

                                                                                  31-32°S (INSHORE)
                                                                                  30-31°S (INSHORE)


                                                                                  27-29°S (INSHORE)




                                                                                                                                                                 32-33°S (INSHORE)

                                                                                                                                                                 31-32°S (INSHORE)
                                                                                                                                                                 30-31°S (INSHORE)


                                                                                                                                                                 27-29°S (INSHORE)
                                                                                  NORTH




                                                                                                                                                                 NORTH
                           Hyaline (Spirillinida) Species                                                Oolina sp. 2                                            X  X
                           Heteropatellina sp. cf. H. frustratiformis McCulloch   XXXXX X                Polymorphina? sp.                                        X
                           Mychostomina peripora Zheng                             XX   XX XX            Procerolagena gracillima (Seguenza)                     XXX               X
                           Mychostomina revertens (Rhumbler)                      XXX X    XX            Procerolagena sp. 1                                     ?XX
                           Patellina corrugata Williams                            XXXXXXX X             Psilocitharella sp. 1                                      X
                           Patellina sp. 1                                        ? X      X             Pyramidulina catesbyi (d'Orbigny)                        X               X
                           Spirillina denticulata Brady                           XXXXX XXXX             Sigmoidella sp. cf. S. elegantissima (Parker & Jones)   XXX             XX
                           Spirillina inaequalis Brady                             XXXXXX XX             Sigmoidella sp. 1                                                   X
                           Spirillina planoconcava Zheng                          XXXXX X
                           Spirillina runiana Heron-Allen & Earland               XXX X    X             Hyaline (Buliminida) Species
                           Spirillina tuberculatolimbata Chapman                  XXXX   X   X           Abditodendrix rhomboidalis (Millett)                    XXXXXXX XX
                           Spirillina vivipara Ehrenberg                          XXX    X XX            Angulogerina sp. 1                                         XX     X   X
                           spirillinid genus and species uncertain 1              XXX    X X             Angulogerina sp. 2                                      XX
                           Turrispirillina sp. 1                                   XX                    Bolivina pseudoplicata Heron-Allen & Earland             X
                                                                                                         Bolivina striatula Cushman                              XXX    X XXX
                           Hyaline (Lagenida) Species                                                    Bolivina vadescens Cushman                               X     X    XX
                           Astacolus sp. 1                                         X                     Bolivina variabilis (Williamson)                         XXXXXX ?XX
                           Behillia sp. cf. B. frailensis McCulloch                           X          Bolivina sp. 1 of Haig 1997                             X XX          X
                           Cushmanina sp. 1                                                   X          Bolivina sp. 4                                             X
                           Dentalina sp. 2                                           X        X          Bolivina sp. 5                                             X
                           Entolingulina pilasensis (McCulloch)                      X                   Bulimina marginata d'Orbigny                             X          XX
                           Fissurina bisulca (McCulloch)                             X      X            Bulimina elongata d'Orbigny                              X      ?
                           Fissurina sp. cf. F. bradyiformata (McCulloch)         XXXX      X            Buliminella elegantissima (d'Orbigny)                    XX           X
                           Fissurina contusa Parr                                 XXXXX X        X       Cheilochanus fimbriatus (Collins)                                 X   X
                           Fissurina favosiformis (McCulloch)                      XX                    Chrysalidinella dimorpha (Brady)                         X X      X   X
                           Fissurina lacunata (Burrows & Holland)                 XXX       X XX         Elongobulla gracilis (Collins)                          XX          X
                           Fissurina sp. F. lacunata (Burrows & Holland)          XXXX XX                Elongobulla sp. cf. E. gracilis (Collins)                  XX
                           Fissurina lucida (Williamson)                          XXX    XX XX           Elongobula hebetata (Cushman & Parker)                  XXXX      X XX
                           Fissurina omniperforata McCulloch                      XXX     ?              Elongobula sp. cf. E. spicata (Cushman & Parker)        XX    X X XX
                           Fissurina radiatomarginata (Parker & Jones)                 X X       X       Fursenkoina schreibersiana (Czjzek)                      XX         XX
                           Fissurina soulei (McCulloch)                              X           X       Globocassidulina minuta (Cushman)                        XX       X XX
                           Fissurina sp. 1                                         XX    XX ?            Hopkinsinella glabra (Millett)                           X            X
                           Fissurina sp. 2                                        ?XX X                  Loxostomina costatapertusa Loeblich & Tappan             X        X XX
                           Fissurina sp. 3                                         X                     Loxostomina costulata (Cushman)                          X            X
                           Fissurina sp. 4                                           X                   Loxostomina limbata (Brady)                             XXXX      XXXX
                           Fissurina sp. 5                                           X                   Loxostomina sp. 1                                        XX       X X
                           Fissurina sp. 6                                           X                   Loxostomina sp. 3                                        X
                           Guttulina bartschi Cushman & Ozawa                     XXX          XX        Millettia limbata (Brady)                                         X   X
                           Guttulina regina (Brady, Parker & Jones)                  X           X       Neocassidulina abbreviata (Heron-Allen & Earland)       XXXXXXXXXX
                           Laevidentalina sp. cf. L. bradyensis (Dervieux)         X   X                 Pavonina flabelliformis d'Orbigny                       XXXX      X   X
                           Laevidentalina sp. 2                                    X ?                   Radiatobolivina okinawaensis Hatta                      XXXX XX       X
                           Laevidentalina sp. 3                                      X                   Reussella? armata Parr                                  XXXXX X
                           Lagena flatulenta Loeblich & Tappan                     XX         XX         Reussella neopolitana Hofker                                      X   X
                           Lagena flexa Cushman & Gray                            XX             X       Reussella? sp. 1                                        XXXXX X XX
                           Lagena oceanica Albani                                  XX          XX        Rugobolivinella elegans (Parr)                          XXXX      X XX
                           Lagena pustulostriatula Albani & Yassini                XX                    Sagrina sp. cf. S. zanzibarica (Cushman)                          X XX
                           Lagena sp. cf. L. semistriata Williamson                X     X               Sigmavirgulina tortuosa (Brady)                         XXX XXX XX
                           Lagena sp. 2                                            X                     Sigmavirgulina sp. 1                                    XXXXXXX       X
                           Lenticulina domantayi (McCulloch)                      XXX       X XX         Sigmavirgulina? sp. 2                                      X   X
                           Lenticulina sp.                                               X               Siphogenerina raphana (Parker & Jones)                  XXXXXXXXXX
                           Oolina sp. cf. O. ampulladistoma (Rymer-Jones)         XXX                    Siphogenerina sp. 1                                     XXXXXXX X
                           Oolina sp. 1                                           XX     X               Siphouvigerina sp. cf. S. porrecta (Brady)               X            X
                                                                                                         Trimosina sp.                                                       X



                           Abrolhos and Rottnest Islands are located near the outer edge of the continental shelf
                           and come under the direct influence of the south-flowing warm Leeuwin Current (see
                           above). Also indicated on the Table, are those species that have been recorded to the
                           north of 25°S (in unpublished records from J. Parker, J. Blakeway, and D. Haig from
                           Ningaloo Reef; Haig, 1997, and Orpin et al., 1999, from Exmouth Gulf; Loeblich &
                           Tappan, 1994, from the Sahul Shelf; and unpublished 2001 UWA Honours work by D.
                           Collins on Ashmore Reef). For some of the rare species, records from the northern
                           (New Guinea) margin of the Australian continent by Haig (1988, 1993) are also noted
                           in the “N” column, if no northern Western Australian record is available.
                             The compilation of the distributions of about 350 near-shore species suggests that
                           many range through the 25-34°S region. Species, common in the south, whose
                           distributions may extend no further north than 25°S (northern part of Shark Bay)
                           include: Triloculina striatotrigonula (> 25°S), Siphogenerina sp. 1 (> 25°S),
                           Annulopatellina annularis (> 25°S), Planoglabratella opercularis (> 25°S), Clavulina


6
                                                                                                                                                                Introduction
Table 2. continued...




                                                         ABROLHOS (~ 28-29°S)




                                                                                                                                       ABROLHOS (~ 28-29°S)
                                                         SHARK BAY (25-27°S)




                                                                                                                                       SHARK BAY (25-27°S)
                                                         ROTTNEST (~ 32°S)




                                                                                                                                       ROTTNEST (~ 32°S)
                                                         33_34°S (INSHORE)




                                                         29_30°S (INSHORE)




                                                                                                                                       33_34°S (INSHORE)




                                                                                                                                       29_30°S (INSHORE)
                                                         32-33°S (INSHORE)

                                                         31-32°S (INSHORE)
                                                         30-31°S (INSHORE)


                                                         27-29°S (INSHORE)




                                                                                                                                       32-33°S (INSHORE)

                                                                                                                                       31-32°S (INSHORE)
                                                                                                                                       30-31°S (INSHORE)


                                                                                                                                       27-29°S (INSHORE)
                                                         NORTH




                                                                                                                                       NORTH
Hyaline (Rotaliida) Species                                                     Glabratellina sp. 4                                            X
Acervulina mahabeti (Said)                               XXXXXXXXXX             Glabratellina sp. 5                                        X       XXXX     X
Ammonia convexa (Collins)                                        ?     XXX      Glabratellina sp. 6                                    X       X      X
Ammonia parkinsoniana (d'Orbigny)                          XX            XX     Glabratellina sp. 7                                      X
Ammonia tepida (Cushman)                                 XXX       XXXXX        Heronallenia lingulata (Burrows & Holland)             XXXX             X
Ammonia sp. of Haig (1998)                                               XX     Heronallenia? sp.                                      X
Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny                          XXXXXXXXXX             Heterostegina depressa d'Orbigny                               X XX X
Amphistegina lobifera Larsen                                             XX     Homotrema rubra (Lamarck)                                      XXXX
Angulodiscorbis corrugata (Millett)                        XXX XX XX            Lamellodiscorbis dimidiatus (Jones & Parker)           XXXXXXXXXX
Annulopatellina annularis (Parker & Jones)               XXXXXXX X              Lamellodiscorbis melbyae Hansen & Revets               XXXXXXXXXX
Anomalinulla glabrata (Cushman)                          XXXX XX XX             Lamellodiscorbis sp. 1                                 XXX XX
Anomalinulla sp. 1                                       XXXXXX          XX     Laminononion sp. 1                                      X
Asanonella tubulifera (Heron-Allen & Earland)            X XX        X     X    Metarotiella? sp.                                                X
Asterigerina sp.                                         X                      Millettiana millettii (Heron-Allen & Earland)           X      X XX
Bronnimannia haliotis (Heron-Allen & Earland)              XX        X     X    Miniacina miniacea (Pallas)                             XX     XX X
Buccella? rara (Yassini & Jones)                           XX                   Monspeliensina sp. 1 of Haig, 1997                      X X        X
Buliminoides williamsonianus (Brady)                       X XXXX XX            Monspeliensina? sp. 2                                  XXXXX
buliminoid? genus & species uncertain                        X       X          Murrayinella murrayi (Heron-Allen & Earland)            X      X XX
Cancris auriculus (Fichtel & Moll)                       XXX       X      ?X    Neoconorbina cavalliensis Hayward et al.               XXXXXXX XX
Cibicides mayori (Cushman)                               XXX         X XX       Neoconorbina sp.                                                 XX
Cibicides sp. cf. C. refulgens Montfort                  XXXXXXXXXX             Neoeponides sp.                                                X
Cibicidoides basilanensis McCulloch                        XX X X          X    Neorotalia calcar (d'Orbigny)                             XXXXXXXX
Cibicidoides sp. of Haig 1997                            XXX X           X      Neorotalia sp.                                         XXX X
Colonimilesia obscura McCulloch                          X                 X    Nonionoides grateloupi (d'Orbigny)                      X    X   XX
Conorbella pulvinata (Brady)                             XXXXX X XX             Orbitina carinata Sellier de Civrieux                  X X XX    XX
Cribrobaggina socorroensis McCulloch                         X       X          Pannellaina earlandi (Collins)                                 X   X
Cymbaloporetta bermudezi (Sellier de Civrieux)           XXX       X XX         Pararotalia nipponica (Asano)                          XXXXXX XXX
Cymbaloporetta bradyi (Cushman)                                      XXXX       Patellinella inconspicua (Brady)                          X    X
Discorbinella sp. 1                                        X                    Pegidia lacunata McCulloch
Discorbinella sp. 2                                      X                      Planodiscorbis sp.                                     XXX
Discorbinoides minogasaformis Ujiié                           ? X XXXX          Planoglabratella opercularis (d'Orbigny)               XXXXX X X
Dyocibicides biserialis Cushman & Valentine              XXXXXXXXXX             Planoglabratella sp. aff. P. opercularis (d'Orbigny)   XXXXX X
Elphidium advenum (Cushman)                              XX        X XXX        Planogypsina acervalis (Brady)                         XXXXXXXXXX
Elphidium botaniense Albani                              XXX XXX XX             Planogypsina squamiformis (Chapman)                    XXXXXXXXXX
Elphidium craticulatum (Fichtel & Moll)                    X             XX     Planulinoides biconcavus (Parker & Jones)              XXXXXX XXX
Elphidium crispum (Linné)                                XXXXXXXXXX             Planulinoides narcotti Hedley, Hurdle & Burdett        XXXXXXX         X
Elphidium spp. aff. E. excavatum (Terquem)               XXXXXXX XX             Poroeponides lateralis (Terquem)                                    XXX
Elphidium mortonbayensis Albani & Yassini                                XX     Pseudoparrella? sp. 1                                        X
Elphidium novozealandicum Cushman                        XXXXXXXXXX             Pyropiloides elongatus Zheng                           XXX XX X X
Elphidium reticulosum Cushman                              XX      XX XX        Rosalina bradyi (Cushman)                                XXXXXXXXX
Elphidium silvestrii Hayward                               XX            X      Rosalina cosymbosella Loeblich & Tappan                    X      X    X
Elphidium sp. cf. E. striatopunctatus (Fichtel & Moll)                   XX     Rosalina sp. 1                                         XXXX         XX
Elphidium sp. 5                                              X       X X        Rosalina? sp. 2                                                  XXXX
Elphidium sp. of Haig 1997                               XX     X XXXX          Rosalina sp. 3                                           X X
Elphidium sp. 7                                            X                    Rotorbis auberi (d'Orbigny)                            XXXXXXX XX
Elphidium sp. 10                                           X                    Rotorboides granulosa (Heron-Allen & Earland)              X XXX XX
Elphidium sp. 11                                                         X      Saintclairoides marlysae McCulloch                     XXX        X    X
Elphidium sp.                                                          X        Siphonina tubulosa Cushman                                 X      X    X
Epistomarioides polystomelloides (Parker & Jones)        X X X X           X    Siphoninoides laevigatus (Howchin)                       XXX      X XX
Eponides repandus (Fichtel and Moll)                       XX        XXXX       Siphoninoides echinatus (Brady)                          X     X X     X
Eupatellinella fastidiosa (McCulloch)                                X     X    Sphaerogypsina globulus (Reuss)                        XXX X X XX
Fijinonion sp. 1                                           XX                   Stomatorbina concentrica (Parker & Jones)              XXX        X    X
Glabratella? sp. 1                                         X             X      Svratkina bubnanensis McCulloch                        X       X       X
Glabratellina australensis (Heron-Allen & Earland)       XXXXXXXXXX             Tretomphalus bulloides (d'Orbigny)                     XXX        XXXX
Glabratellina patelliformis (Brady)                      XXX             X      indeterminant rotaliid                                 X
Glabratellina sp. 3                                          X



difformis (> 27°S), Miliolinella sp. 2 (> 27°S), Quinqueloculina bradyana (> 27°S),
Reussella? armata (> 28°S), Planoglabratella sp. aff. P. opercularis (> 28°S),
Cribrobulimina mixta (> 30°S), Monspeliensina? sp. 2 (> 30°S), and Neorotalia sp. (>
30°S). Species that are well known to the north but come only part of the way south
in this region include Ammonia convexa (< 31°S), Monalysidium acicularis (< 30°S),
Borelis schlumbergeri (< 29°S), Pyrgo compressioblonga (< 29°S), Triloculina
earlandi (< 29°S), Poroeponides lateralis (< 29°S), Alveolinella quoyi (< 27°S),
Coscinospira okinawaensis (< 27°S), Cribromiliolinella milletti (< 27°S),
Parahauerinoides fragilissimus (< 27°S), Pseudomassilina macilenta (< 27°S),
Pseudopyrgo milletti (< 27°S), Quinqueloculina crassicarinata (< 27°S), Triloculina
littoralis (< 27°S), Ammonia sp. (< 27°S), Amphistegina lobifera (< 27°S), and
Elphidium mortonbayensis (< 27°S).


                                                                                                                                                                               7
    Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide

                             Betjeman (1969) reviewed the distribution of foraminifera in sediment samples
                           taken mainly from mid to outer neritic water depths over a similar latitudinal range
                           to that discussed here. His sample coverage was scattered and his characterisation of
                           guide species for temperate and tropical-subtropical faunal regions is, in general, not
                           supported by the present compilation.
                             The near-shore foraminiferal distributions along the south-west coast conform to
                           the marine zoogeographic provinces recognized by Morgan & Wells (1991). Most of
                           the region falls within the “Western Coast Overlap Zone” containing elements of both
                           the Northern Australian Tropical Province (a typical Indo-West Pacific fauna) and the
                           Southern Australian Warm Temperate Province. There seems to be a gradual north-
                           south transition in foraminiferal distributions between these provinces.




8
                          Swan Estuary & Coastal Plain



  Overview of Swan Coastal Plain
In the Perth region, the Swan Coastal Plain is bordered to the east by the Darling
Scarp (Figure 5), formed by the Darling Fault. Most of the coastal plain is covered by
Pleistocene sand dunes that dominate the local landscape and greatly influence the
vegetation. The dunes are the reason why Western Australians are called “sand-
gropers” (named after a small arthropod, Cylindracheta, which burrows into the sand
dunes). The dunes form ridges that parallel the coast, and are up to 100 m higher
than the interdunal depressions that, in places, contain small permanent lakes and
swamps. The soils developed on the dunes are composed almost entirely of quartz.
Three dune systems are recognized: (1) the Quindalup Dune System which is
forming along the present coast; (2) the Spearwood Dune System which is further
inland and made up of mixed carbonate-quartz sand; and (3) the Bassendean Dune
System which forms the eastern-most dunes of the coastal plain and is characterised
by yellow quartz sand (see Figure 6 for distribution of dune systems).
  During the Pliocene the predominantly siliciclastic Ascot Formation (Table 1) was
deposited on the inner shelf of the Perth Region. The overlying carbonate coastal
dunes reflect a change to high biogenic carbonate productivity in the coastal waters
during the Middle Pleistocene. Kendrick et al. (1991) attributed this to an active
Leeuwin Current flowing, as relatively warm low-salinity water, southward along the
Western Australian continental shelf. During the Pliocene, the Leeuwin Current may
have been inactive or, at least, not as active as during the Middle Pleistocene.
  Just to the east of Perth City lies the Bassendean Dune System, the oldest of the
Pleistocene dunes, now represented through much of the area by a broad sand plain.



                                                          PERTH BASIN -
  N                                                         Phanerozoic
                                                      (layer-cake stratigraphy)
                                                                                                   Darling S




                                                       Swan Coastal Plain
                                                                                                                      Archaean Granitoid-Gneiss Terrane
                                                                                                             ca r p




 Rottnest Island
                                                                                      forme




                                                 UWA
                                                                                                                             YILGARN BLOCK
                                                                                            d by Darling Fault




                                                 Swan Estuary


      Five
    Fathom
     Bank

                                                     Cockburn Sound

   Garden Island                                                             5 km

 Figure 5. Satellite image of the Perth region (reproduce by permission of The Department of Land Administration.


                                                                                                                                                          9
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide

                                                   Quindalup Dune System                   115°45'                       116°00'
                                                   (Safety Bay Sand)
                                                   Spearwood Dune System                             Swan River
                                                   (Tamala Limestone)
                                                   Bassendean Dune System
                                                   (Bassendean Sand)

                                                   Archaean


                                                                        Garden
                                                                        Island


                                          32°15'




                                                                        Penguin
                                                                        Island




                                                                                                                          Fault
                                          32°30'




                                                                                                                  Darling
                                                        Indian          Dawesville
                                                        Ocean           Cut


                                                                                     Peel Inlet



                                                                                           Harvey
                                                                                           Estuary

                                                            Lake Clifton
                                          32°45'




                                                                 Lake Preston




                                         Figure 6. Geological map of region south of Perth, showing the location of the
                                         Holocene and Pleistocene dune systems (after Wilde & Low, 1980).


                            The Bassendean Sand forming the dunes consists of yellow quartz sand. The colour
                            of the sand results from a clay-size coating of goethite and kaolinite on the quartz
                            grains. Considerable controversy exists about the origin of the yellow-sand deposits.
                            One view claims that the quartz sand is a residue from weathering of calcarenites
                            similar to the Tamala Limestone of the younger Spearwood Dune System (e.g.
                            Playford et al., 1976; Wyrwoll & King, 1984; Bastian, 1996). An alternate view is that
                            the yellow quartz sand has an eastern desert origin and was blown to its present site
                            during arid phases of the Pleistocene when winds may have been stronger than at
                            present (e.g. Semeniuk & Glassford, 1988; Glassford & Semeniuk, 1990, 1995).
                              The Tamala Limestone forms the Spearwood Dune System and consists of coarse
                            to medium-grained calcarenite composed mainly of foraminifera, molluscs, and
                            articulate coralline algae. Large-scale aeolian cross-bedding is characteristic of the
                            dune deposits. Soil horizons and calcified root structures are common in the
                            calcarenite sections. Whereas aeolian dune deposits dominate outcrops of the Tamala
                            Limestone, some marine units are included in the formation. These include coral-
                            algal reefs, seagrass meadow deposits, and shelly shore-face and estuary sand-gravel
                            facies. In some of the older literature and in more recent papers by Semeniuk and
                            others (e.g. Semeniuk & Johnson, 1982; Semeniuk & Glassford, 1988) the Tamala
                            Limestone is called the Coastal Limestone.


10
                                                                                                            Swan Estuary & Coastal Plain




                                            INDIAN
                                            OCEAN
                                                                      1
                                                                          2
                                                                           3
                                                                               4        6
                                                                                   5
                                                                                   Perth



                                                                      5
                                                                               Swan Estuary
                                                                          6
                                                                3 4
                                                            2

                                                        1




                                                                                        N




                                                                                       10 km


Figure 7. Pleistocene dune trend lines in the Perth region. Dunes are numbered 1-6: 1, Trigg Dunes; 2, Karrinyup
Dunes; 3, Gwelup Dunes; 4, Balcatta Dunes; 5, Yokine Dunes; 6, Gnangarra Dunes (after Bastian, 1996).


  Bastian (1996) mapped and named individual dune ridges within the Spearwood
Dune System in the Perth region (Figure 7), and showed that these were continuous
dunes that parallel the present coast. Similar dune ridges also are present on the
continental shelf west of the present coast; some occur as islands (e.g. Garden Island
and Rottnest Island), and others are submerged (e.g. Five Fathom Bank; see Figure
5). A systematic study has not been attempted to date each dune ridge. Some dates
for units included in the Tamala Limestone are available. These have been mainly
derived from the marine units in the formation, and include electron spin resonance
dates (Hewgill et al., 1983) and amino acid-racemization dates (Murray-Wallace and
Kimber, 1989). Together with broader stratigraphic evidence, these age
determinations were taken by Kendrick et al. (1991) to indicate that the investigated
shells beds in the Perth region belong to Oxygen Isotope Stage 7 (mid Pleistocene).
  The Yorkine Dunes, the oldest set in the Spearwood Dune System, are present
within the central business area of Perth. As we pass the Narrow Bridge and follow
the river look across to the northern side. The area between the Narrows Bridge and
UWA, looking towards Kings Park (Figure 5), shows a cross-section of the Balcatta
Dunes. Further along the river, prime real estate in the suburbs of Dalkeith and
Claremont sits on the Gwelup Dunes.
  The Freeway leaves the Swan Estuary at its junction with the Canning River and
crosses the Canning River at the Mount Henry Bridge. South of the Mount Henry
Bridge, the Freeway runs parallel to the older Gnangarra Dunes of Bassendean Dune
System. You will see the characteristic yellow sand in the road cuttings. At
Rockingham, the Safety Bay Road exit is taken to the west and the road traverses the
Spearwood Dune System (here reduced to the Balcatta and Karrinyup Dunes) before
crossing the Quindalup Dune System that is now covered by suburban Rockingham.
  The Safety Bay Sand, which forms the Holocene Quindalup Dunes bordering the
present coastline, is made up of biogenic carbonate grains (mainly foraminifera,

                                                                                                                                           11
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide

                            molluscs, articulate coralline algae) with varying amounts of quartz (Playford et al.,
                            1976). Semeniuk & Johnson (1982) established a stratigraphic model for dune
                            deposition along the wave-dominated sandy coastline of south-west Western
                            Australia. Various landforms in the Quindalup Dune System, its internal stratigraphy,
                            and progradational history in the Rockingham area and elsewhere along the south-
                            west coast were described by Searle et al. (1988) and Semeniuk et al. (1989). The
                            Rockingham region belongs within the Cape Bouvard-Trigg Island Sector of the inner
                            Rottnest Shelf (Searle & Semeniuk, 1985). This sector extends along the coast from
                            about 80 km south of the Swan River mouth to about 20 km north of the river mouth.
                            As described by Semeniuk et al. (1989), the Quindalup Dune System in the Bouvard-
                            Trigg Sector is characterised by a low cuspate beach-ridge plain that, at places in the
                            Rockingham region, is up to 10 km wide. Within the Quindalup Dune System, there
                            are parallel beach ridges that represent accretion stages of a prograding shoreline
                            (e.g. see Figure 8 of the Rockingham area). The beach ridges are 1-3 m high and up
                            to 50 m wide. In some places blow-outs have occurred and the associated parabolic
                            dunes are up to 20-30 m high.
                              The dune deposits in the Perth area form a veneer on older Paleocene and
                            Cretaceous units. For example, the upper Paleocene Kings Park Shale was
                            encountered when pylons were dug for the Narrows Bridge; and the Cretaceous
                            Leederville Formation is occasionally exposed under the Bassendean Sand in quarries
                            on the eastern side of Perth.
                                                                           Reef
                                                                             Island




                                                                                                                           5000
                                                                                  Garden




                                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                          60 0




                                                                         A                       Lake Richmond                             B

                                                             Penguin Island                       200
                                                                                                            500




                                                                                                     0
                                                                                                               0




                                                                           Shoalwater
                                                                              Bay
                                                                                                            4000
                                                                             Reef




                                                                                                           300
                                                                                                              0
                                                                            ray




                                                                                                            2000 1000
                                                                        M ur




                                                                                                                                  5 km


                                  A                                                                                                                    B
                                                            ef
                                                         Re




                                                                                                                                                           metres
                                                       nd


                                                                    y



                                                                                       nd
                                                                  Ba
                                                   sla




                                                                                                                                                            16
                                                                                   mo
                                                  nI


                                                              ter




                                                                              ich




                                                                                                                                                            12
                                                 rde


                                                            lwa




                                                                           eR




                                                                                             0
                                               Ga




                                                                                                                                                            8
                                                         oa




                                                                                           00        00
                                                                                                       0
                                                                                                                    00
                                                                                                                      0
                                                                        Lak




                                                                                       3
                                                       Sh




                                                                                                                                         6000               4
                                                                                                             5
                                                                                                 4




                                                                                                                                                7000        0 MSL
                                                                                                                                                            -4
                                                                                                                                                            -8
                                                       2000                                                                                                 -12
                                                                                                                                                            -16
                                                                                                                                                            -20



                            Figure 8. Map and cross section of the Rockingham-Becher Plain showing isochrons based on uncorrected C13 ages.
                            After Searle et al. 1988


12
                                                                                                            Swan Estuary & Coastal Plain

The Swan Estuary
  The Swan River drains a region that has a Mediterranean type climate (with a hot
dry summer and a cool wet winter) and lies in the sub-humid belt of Western
Australia. Water temperatures in this microtidal estuary change markedly with the
season: 12-14°C during winter ; and 22-24°C during summer. Between the Causeway
(upstream) and the Narrows Bridge (downstream), is a very shallow part of the river
(< 2 m deep) called Perth Water (Figure 9). It forms a sill within the river separating
the upper estuary (east of the Causeway) from the lower estuary (downstream from
the Narrows Bridge). In the upper estuary, water depths are generally 2-3 m but some
areas reach 6 m. In the lower estuary, the section of river between Fremantle and
Mosman Park (Figure 9) forms another sill. This part of the river is about 5 deep and
separates an upstream narrow channel (up to 17 m deep) leading into the main basin
of the upper estuary, from a downstream channel (10-15 m deep) open to the ocean
(Figure 9).
  The two sills greatly affect the exchange of river and ocean waters. During summer
(December-February) there is little freshwater inflow into the estuary, and only weak
vertical stratification in the water column of the main basin and the upper estuary. In
the lower estuary, saline water flows across the Mosman Park sill into the main basin
forming a salt wedge that gradually advances upstream (Stephens & Imberger, 1996).
The saline waters extend to about 42 km up the river. In summer the estuary basin
is well oxygenated with no vertical stratification. Most rain falls in winter (June-
August) and, due to freshwater inflow, a low-salinity surface layer develops above
the saline estuarine water and advances downstream. Because of this and because
of the smaller amplitudes of neap tides in winter, very little oxygenated saline oceanic
water flows over the sill near Mosman Park, and the bottom waters of the main basin
become stagnant and de-oxygenated (Stephens & Imberger, 1996; Kurup et al., 1998).
  There is no detailed published account of the sediment distribution in the Swan
Estuary. In general below 1 m water depth the sediment is muddy. In her 1998
unpublished Honours Thesis from The University of Western Australia, Sandra Corr
described the sediment distribution in the upper estuary (upstream of the Causeway;
Figure 9). In areas shallower than 1 m, fine to medium sand forms the substrate. Mud
forms the deeper water substrate and varies from fluid-mud ooze in the main river
channel below 2 m water depth to a cohesive black mud and a shelly organic-rich
mud in other areas. Published studies of relevance to the sedimentology of the




Figure 9. Satellite image of Swan Estuary (reproduced by permission of Department of Land Administration.


                                                                                                                                           13
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide
                            Table 3. List of species identified by Haig from a mud sample collected from the lower Swan Estuary near the
                            Fremantle traffic bridges.

                            Agglutinated Species                                   Hyaline (Lagenida) Species
                            Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny                       Fissurina sp. cf. F. bradyiformata (McCulloch)
                            Textularia cushmani Said                               Fissurina contusa Parr
                            Textularia sp. 1                                       Fissurina sp. F. lacunata (Burrows & Holland)
                                                                                   Fissurina lucida (Williamson)
                            Porcellaneous (Miliolida) Species                      Lagena sp.
                            Articulina alticostata Cushman                         Lenticulina domantayi (McCulloch)
                            Biloculinella labiata (Schlumberger)                   Procerolagena gracillima (Seguenza)
                            Miliolinella baragwanathi (Parr)                       Procerolagena sp. 1
                            Miliolinella sp. 2
                            Nummulopyrgo globulus (Hofker)                         Hyaline (Buliminida) Species
                            Parrina bradyi (Millett)                               Abditodendrix rhomboidalis (Millett)
                            Peneroplis planatus (Fichtel & Moll)                   Angulogerina sp. 2
                            Quinqueloculina bradyana Cushman                       Bolivina striatula Cushman
                            Quinqueloculina sp. cf. Q. cuvieriana d'Orbigny        Bolivina variabilis (Williamson)
                            Quinqueloculina granulocostata Germeraad               Bulimina marginata d'Orbigny
                            Quinqueloculina sp. cf. Q. intricata Terquem           Bulimina elongata d'Orbigny
                            Quinqueloculina neostriatula Thalmann                  Fursenkoina schreibersiana (Czjzek)
                            Quinqueloculina poeyana d'Orbigny                      Pavonina flabelliformis d'Orbigny
                            Quinqueloculina polygona d'Orbigny                     Reussella? sp. 1
                            Quinqueloculina quinquecarinata Collins                Sigmavirgulina tortuosa (Brady)
                            Quinqueloculina seminula (Linné)
                            Quinqueloculina subgranulata (Cushman)                 Hyaline (Rotaliida) Species
                            Quinqueloculina subpolygona Parr                       Ammonia tepida (Cushman)
                            Quinqueloculina transversestriata (Brady)              Cibicides sp. cf. C. refulgens Montfort
                            Quinqueloculina vandiemeniensis Loeblich & Tappan      Conorbella pulvinata (Brady)
                            Quinqueloculina sp. 3                                  Dyocibicides biserialis Cushman & Valentine
                            Quinqueloculina sp. 4                                  Elphidium advenum (Cushman)
                            Quinqueloculina sp. 15                                 Elphidium botaniense Albani
                            Sigmamiliolinella australis (Parr)                     Elphidium spp. aff. E. excavatum (Terquem)
                            Spiroloculina angulata Cushman                         Elphidium novozealandicum Cushman
                            Spiroloculina corrugata Cushman & Todd                 Elphidium reticulosum Cushman
                            Spiroloculina foveolata Egger                          Elphidium sp. cf. E. striatopunctatus (Fichtel & Moll)
                            Triloculina barnardi Rasheed                           Lamellodiscorbis dimidiatus (Jones & Parker)
                            Triloculina marshallana Todd sensu Hatta & Ujiie       Lamellodiscorbis melbyae Hansen & Revets
                            1992                                                   Millettiana millettii (Heron-Allen & Earland)
                            Triloculina striatotrigonula Parr                      Monspeliensina? sp. 2
                            Triloculina tricarinata d'Orbigny                      Murrayinella murrayi (Heron-Allen & Earland)
                            Triloculina trigonula (Lamarck)                        Planogypsina acervalis (Brady)
                            Vertebralina striata d'Orbigny                         Rosalina ?bradyi (Cushman)


                            estuary, include Griffin (2000) on the production and settling rates of faecal pellets
                            produced by copepods as a means of incorporating organic matter in the sediment, and
                            Douglas and Adeney (2000) on diagenetic cycling of trace elements in the sediment.
                              The main benthic plant living in the lower estuary in water depths less than 2 m is
                            Halophila ovalis which covers about 20% of the area of the main estuary basin
                            (Hillman et al., 1995). Because of its small size, fragile leaves, and high leaf turnover,
                            this plant has a low epiphyte load. The lower estuary also has a variety of mainly
                            red and brown macroalgae which show seasonal changes in diversity (John, 1988).
                            John (1983, 1988) described the diatom flora of the Swan Estuary, including the
                            epiphytic species.

                            Foraminifera of the Swan River
                            In the upper estuary, Sandra Corr (unpublished Honours Thesis, The University of
                            Western Australia) found that Ammonia tepida dominates the foraminiferal
                            assemblage with the highest numbers of tests found in the mud deposits of the
                            channel. Tests of Elphidium advenum , Elphidium spp. cf. E. excavatum, and a few
                            organic-cemented agglutinated species (Haplophragmoides sp. and Morulaeplecta
                            sp.) are also present in the mud.
                              Muds of the more saline lower estuary contain a more diverse foraminiferal
                            assemblage which has not been documented. Patrick Quilty is undertaking a study
                            of this fauna. A sample of mud from the river channel near the Fremantle bridges
                            yielded the assemblage recorded on Table 3. This assemblage is dominated by
                            Elphidium advenum. Shallow-water mud-facies assemblages are uncommon along
                            the south-west coast of Western Australia where sand dominates the soft-bottom
                            marine substrates, and are only found in the deeper parts of estuaries or in restricted
                            embayments (such as Cockburn and Warnbro Sounds to the south of Fremantle).


14
                                   Rottnest Shelf



OVERVIEW OF ROTTNEST SHELF
The Rockingham region occupies a prograding section of coast, formed by the
Quindalup Dune System, adjacent the Rottnest Shelf (Figure 10). The Rottnest Shelf
extends from about 29°S to just below 33°S (Clarke, 1926; Carrigy & Fairbridge, 1954;
Fairbridge, 1955). The Rottnest Shelf (to the 170 m bathymetric contour) is only about
40 km wide at 32°S in the Perth vicinity but widens to the north and south. It has a
very low east-west gradient with most of the shelf in the vicinity of Perth being
submerged by < 50 m of water. Masselink (1996) summarized various oceanographic
parameters that affect the metropolitan coastline. These include one the most
energetic sea-breeze systems in the world (locally known as the “Fremantle Doctor”).

           115˚20’                           115˚30’                                          115˚40’
                                                                                   30


                                                                                                   20

                                                                                                             10




  31˚50’




                                                                                                                                                PERTH
                                                                                                                                                 ry




  32˚00’
                                                                                                                                               ua




                                       Rottnest                                                                                                  t
                                           Island                                                                                      Sw a n Es
                                                                     Ga




                                                                                                        Gage
                                                                       rde
               100




                                                                                                        Roads
                          50




                                                           10



                                                                             n




                                                                                                                                  FREMANTLE
                                                                                   Isla
                                                            10




                                                                                        nd
                                                                                             Ridge




                                                                            20
                                                                10




                                                                                                                            10




                                                                                                     Carnac
                                                                                                     Island
                                                                 Five
                                                                    e




  32˚10’
                                                                                                                       20


                                                                                                                             10
                                                                                                   Gard
                                                           30




                                                                                        20




                                                                                                             Cockburn
                                                                           10




                                                                                                     en Is
                                                                     20




                                                                                                               Sound
                                                                          Fathom
                                                                          Fa m



                                                                                                        land
                                                                                              20
                                                                             Bank
                                                                             Ban




                                                                                                                        ROCKINGHAM

                                                                            Penguin Island
                                                                                                                             10




                                                                                              20
  32˚20’                                                                                                       Warnbro
                                                                                                        10




                                                                                                                Sound
                                                                                                          Murray eef
                                                                                                                R




                     0         5     10 km



               Figure 10. Map of the Rottnest shelf in vicinity of Perth (from Playford & Leech, 1977)


                                                                                                                                                        15
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide

                            A persistent south to south-west swell impacts the coast, and superimposed on this
                            are northwesterly to westerly storm waves during winter, and waves generated by the
                            strong south to southwesterly summer sea breezes (which blow on about 60 % of
                            summer days, frequently exceeding 10 mS-1)). The tides along the coast have a mean
                            spring tidal range of 0.4 m (microtidal).
                               The nearshore marine geomorphology consists of a series of partly submerged
                            dune ridges which parallel the Rockingham coast but further north swing outwards
                            to Rottnest Island. (e.g. Murray and Garden Island Reefs, and Five Fathom Bank; see
                            Figures 5 and 10) The submerged dune ridges are separated by interdunal hollows.
                            These ridges attenuate the oceanic swell and complicate the influence of waves
                            generated by storms and sea breezes. They also influence the accumulation and types
                            of sediment.
                               Collins (1988) outlined the sediment distribution on the Rottnest Shelf to the south
                            of Rottnest Island. James et al. (1999) described the sediment distribution pattern on
                            the middle and outer shelf in the region north of the island. According to Collins
                            (1988), the thin Holocene veneer on the inner shelf between Fremantle and Rottnest
                            is a mixed quartz-carbonate sand with sediment reworked from the Pleistocene
                            dunes as well as contributed by local biota. In grab-samples studied by Collins, the
                            quartz content varied from 50% to 98% of the sand, and the dominant biogenic grains
                            recorded by him were bryozoans, molluscs, coralline algae and benthic foraminifera.
                            West of Rottnest Island the mixed quartz-carbonate sand grades into foraminiferal-
                            rich algal-bryozoan sand and in deeper water on the outermost shelf the sand passes
                            into skeletal mud. According to James et al. (1999), the middle part of the northern
                            Rottnest Shelf has coralline algae-encrusted hardgrounds and carbonate sand with
                            abundant coralline algae, “larger” (symbiont-bearing) foraminifera, together with
                            abundant “cool-water” elements such as bryozoans, molluscs, and “smaller”
                            foraminifera. This part of the shelf has dense stands of seagrass and macroalgae. The
                            deep outer shelf and upper slope in this region (below the photic zone) has sediment
                            dominated by bryozoa with abundant smaller foraminifera and sponge spicules.
                               Seagrasses are a major component of the ecosystem on the inner and middle
                            Rottnest Shelf, and have a major influence on the production of carbonate sediment
                            here (through habitat provision for calcareous epiphytes). As summarized by Walker
                            (1991), seagrasses occupy about 20 000 km2 on the Western Australian coast; their
                            water-depth range is from intertidal to 45 m; and their diversity (including 10 genera
                            and 25 species) is higher than elsewhere in the world. As Walker (1991) pointed out,
                            the presence of abundant seagrass meadows on the Western Australian shelf contrasts
                            with a lack of similar seagrass stands on the western African and the western South
                            American continental shelves. Extensive subtidal large-kelp forests such as are
                            present in South Africa and South America are lacking in Western Australia. However,
                            over 340 species of macroalgae (including 54 species of green algae, 71 species of
                            brown algae, and 222 species of red algae) were recorded by Huisman & Walker
                            (1990) from rock platforms around Rottnest Island. Walker (1991) suggested that the
                            total number of macroalgal species from Western Australia may be about 700 through
                            a water-depth range of 0-50 m.
                               According to Huisman & Walker (1990), seagrasses that have a distributional range
                            encompassing the Perth region, include Amphibolis antarctica, A. griffithii,
                            Posidonia australis, P. sinuosa, Heterozostera tasmanica, Syringodium isoetifolium,
                            Thalassodendron pachyrhizum, and Halophila ovalis. All of the species, except the
                            cosmopolitan S. isoetifolium and H. ovalis, are endemic to warm temperate parts of
                            southern Australia. Calcified green algae recorded at Rottnest Island by Huisman &
                            Walker (1990) include species of Halimeda, Penicillus, and Acetabularia . Calcified
                            red algae that they recorded from around Rottnest include species of the encrusting
                            Peyssonnelia and many unnamed encrusting coralline types; “articulate” species of
                            Amphiroa, Cheilosporum, Corallina, Galaxaura, Haliptilon, Jania, Metagoniolithon,
                            Rhodopeltis, and Tricleocarpa; and non-articulate species of Dotyophycus,
                            Galaxaura, Liagora, Metamastophora. James et al. (1990) noted that Halimeda is
                            weakly calcified on the mid Rottnest Shelf and does not contribute to the sediment.
                               Other seagrass studies on Rottnest Shelf meadows that are of interest from a
                            sedimentological point of view, include: (1) changes in sea-grass cover (viz. a 21%
                            increase) on submerged sand banks over a 30 year period (Kendrick et al., 2000) ;
                            (2) loss of seagrass in embayments on Rottnest Island, and the consequent de-
                            stabilisation of sand, due to boat moorings (Hastings et al., 1995); effect on seagrass

16
                                                                                             Rottnest Shelf

meadows of an increased input of anthropogenic nutrients (McMachon et al., 1997);
documentation of light incidence and energy flow in a seagrass canopy (Carruthers
& Walker, 1997); and seagrass growth strategies (Cambridge, 1999). Various other
papers on seagrasses around Rottnest Island and their faunal communities are
presented in Walker & Wells (1999).
  Few studies of living foraminifera have been made on the Rottnest Shelf. Semeniuk
(2000) studied spatial variability, at micro- to regional scales, in epiphytic populations
in monospecific meadows of Posidonia australis. Her study sites on the Rottnest
Shelf were inshore meadows near Dongara (at about 29°30’S) and in the Perth region.
She also studied a seagrass meadow on the southern Western Australian coast. The
foraminiferal distribution along individual seagrass leaf blades is typically
heterogeneous, with foraminiferal density ranging from 0 to 3.7 tests/cm2. The
highest densities are in areas where there is epiphytic algal growth on the leaves. The
species composition of populations inhabiting different leaves at the same site also
varies, especially for miliolids, buliminids, and spirillinids. Semeniuk found that on a
typical leaf, Lamellodiscorbis dimidiatus and Crithionina sp. live on the basal 15 cm
section of a leaf in detritus-rich areas; soritids and discorbids occupy the middle
section of the leaf; and smaller miliolids, buliminids, glabratellids, spirillinids,
cibicidids and encrusting rotaliids occupy the top 10 cm section of leaf that is often
algal covered. Among other associations she often found Rosalina spp. living near
serpulid tubes; and Peneroplis and Quinqueloculina in aggregations in algal growth
on leaves. Most species are homogeneously distributed within each of the meadows
Semeniuk studied, but a number of species show significant heterogeneity at a local
scale. (e.g. Peneroplis planatus, Triloculina trigonula and L. dimidiatus in the
Dongara meadow). Semeniuk (2001) found variations on a regional scale between
the epiphytic foraminiferal populations at the three sites she studied. She suggested
that Peneroplis, Vertebralina, Amphisorus and Marginopora* characterise warmer
water assemblages and Lamellodiscorbis and Rosalina characterise cooler water
assemblages. [*The Marginopora vertebralis identified by Semeniuk is probably not
this species, but may be similar to M. kudakajimaensis and may be closely related,
perhaps con-specific, to Amphisorus hemprichii, based on the molecular phylogeny
suggested by Holzmann et al., 2001]




                                                                                                              17
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide




18
                               Penguin Island



Introduction
Penguin Island (Figure 11) is part of a mostly submerged dune ridge composed of
Tamala Limestone of mid to late Pleistocene age. A tombolo joins the island to the
mainland and separates Warnbro Sound to the south from Shoalwater Bay to the
north. Because of prolific bird-life and a lack of predators (including snakes),
Penguin Island is protected by CALM (the Western Australian Department of
Conservation and Land Management). Shoalwater Bay is a marine reserve.
Rippey and Rowland (1995) provided a brief description of the vegetation of Penguin
Island. Sea Spinach (Tetragonia decumbens) forms a dense cover on the sand dunes
under which Fairy Penguins (Eudyptula minor) nest. The island is closed to visitors
during the nesting season (winter) of this rare species. Over 1000 penguins are
present on the island during the nesting season. The other plants that grow on the
sand dunes include Spinifex longifolius. Limestone areas are vegetated by Seaberry
Saltbush, Pigface, Seaheath, and Wild Grape. Acacia thickets are present in sheltered
areas of the island.




                                                                                          Lake
                                                                                         Richmond




                                                                     ROCKINGHAM
                         SHOALWATER


                                                                            PLAIN
                                                     ow
                                                             ad
                                                       ss me




                               BAY
                                                       gra
                                                     ea




                             Dar               s
                                     k areas -                              int
                           X                                          ey Po
                                                                  Mers
                                         Tombolo

                                                             WARNBRO SOUND

                                 Penguin Island


Figure 11. Aerial view of the Penguin Island - Shoalwater Bay Region. Part of aerial photograph WA Coastline Kalbarri-
Israelite Bay, 5004, 29.10.65, Project E51 (reproduced by permission of The Department of Land Administration.


                                                                                                                         19
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide

                            Geology (by W.R. Morgan, geologist and CALM Volunteer)
                            Introduction
                            A geological sketch map of Penguin Island is shown on Figure 12. This map represents
                            two days of field investigation carried out by Morgan during May 2000. Previous studies
                            describing the geology of Penguin Island were by Playford (1950) and Chape (1983).
                            Tingay (1995) provided a review of coastal studies in the Rockingham area.




                                                      Figure 12. Geological sketch map of Penguin Island.


20
                                                                                                                                 Penguin Island

                                        115˚30                                                     115˚45




                                                                                                                   L. Monger


                                                                                                                       PERTH




 32˚00                                     Rottnest
                                            Island




                                                                   Garde
                                                                        n
                                                                                                    FREMANTLE


                                                                                                            Bibra L.
                                                                             Carnac
                                                                              Island                   Yangebup L.
                                                                              Island
                                                                                                       Thompsons L.




                                                                  Garden
                                                                    Island
                                                                                           Ridge




 32˚15
                                                                  Cape Peron

                                                                Shoalwater Bay
                                                                                                                 L. Cooloongup
                                                                 Penguin Island

                                                                                          Warnbro
                                                                                           Sound
                                                                                                               L.Walyungup
                                                                                       Murray
                                                                                 Reef




          10 kilometres




                          Figure 13. Perth-Rottnest-Penguin Island area showing faults.


Regional setting
Penguin Island is part of the largely submerged Garden Island Ridge (Searle et al.,
1988). The ridge is built of Pleistocene Tamala Limestone and extends from Rottnest
Island southwards through Carnac Island, Garden Island, Point Peron and Penguin
Island to the Murray Reef (Figure 13). A raised coral reef on the ridge, exposed at
Rottnest Island, has been dated by U-series dating of corals at 132±5 Ka by Szabo
(1979) and 127-122 Ka by Stirling et al., (1995). The Garden Island Ridge represents
a “fossil coastline” built of sand dune material, and probably originated from a rise
in sea level at the close of the Riss Glaciation about 130,000 years ago.
   At Penguin Island, the geological units defined by the accompanying map are, in
descending order of age:

                     Qhb: Modern beach sand and rock rubble
                     Qhd(y): Younger dune sand
                     Qhd: Dune sand
                     Qhp: Penguin Island Calcarenite (informal name)
                     Qtc: Calcrete surface of Tamala Limestone
                     Qt: Tamala Limestone



                                                                                                                                                  21
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide

                            Tamala Limestone (Qt)
                            The Tamala Limestone is an aeolian calcarenite. The limestone is composed of wind-
                            blown shell fragments, foraminifera and calcareous algae, with some quartz-sand
                            grains. The limestone is characterised by large-scale “aeolian cross-bedding”, each
                            layer marking successive sand-dune slopes. Some very good examples of aeolian
                            bedding can be seen along the west beach southwards from the northern walkway
                            exit to the rocky foreshore of the southwestern coast. The aeolian bedding planes are
                            parallel to the original sand dune surfaces inclined towards the northeast, away from
                            the prevailing southwesterly winds (Playford, 1950; Chape, 1983).
                              In a number of places around the coast of Penguin Island evidence of the former
                            vegetation of the old sand dunes can be seen. The limestone contains fossilized shrub
                            and tree roots. The former wood of the roots is now replaced by calcium carbonate;
                            in some places, the wood-like structure of the fossil casts is remarkably well
                            preserved (Figure 14). However, in many places the detailed appearance of the roots
                            has been obscured by the precipitation of lime from groundwater to form envelopes
                            of fine crystalline calcite around the roots. The resultant structures are called
                            rhizoliths (Figure 15). Excellent examples of tree and shrub root systems - as
                            rhizoliths and as fossil casts - can be seen at “The Bluff”, which is adjacent to the
                            northern walkway exit on the west beach.
                              Within the rhizolith zones are conspicuous “solution pipes” (Figure 16). The outer
                            cylindrical casing of the pipes can be up to 0.5 m in diameter and several metres
                            long. They are thought to have formed around the tap roots of large trees by ground
                            water circulating along the zone of the root, dissolving and precipitating calcium
                            carbonate. The outer casing of the pipes consists of strongly cemented limestone.
                            Inside the pipes, petrified roots are commonly present; quite often, as original roots
                            rot away, sand grains enter the pipes.
                            Tamala Limestone Calcrete (Qtc)
                            At the northern and southern ends of the island, the surface of the Tamala Limestone
                            consists of a hard calcrete ranging from 0.2 to 3 m thick (Figure 17). The calcrete is
                            an expression of an old landscape form. It is thought to have been formed as a
                            subsoil zone during humid periods of the Pleistocene (Semeniuk, 1986). In one or
                            two places at the southern tip of the island, relics of a fossil soil lying on top of the
                            calcrete are present; it consists of round cobbles of limestone enclosed in a brown
                            sandy material. Chape (1983) stated that the northern and southern plateaus of the
                            island were scraped clear of their soils early last century to provide fertiliser.
                               The calcrete surface is not flat. The contours on the map indicate directions of
                            slope of the calcrete surface, and suggest the form of the old landscape. In the south,
                            the calcrete slopes to the east. In the north, the Lookout is located on a “hill” of the
                            calcrete surface, sloping north to a “valley” that separates it from another low calcrete
                            “hill” at the northern end of the island. These landscape relics must be tens of
                            thousands of years old, and are now being destroyed by modern coastal erosion
                            around the cliffs.
                               Within the cliffs on the northwest coast there are one or two thin calcrete layers
                            that occur within the Tamala Limestone. These are overlain by thin layers of fossil
                            soil. These horizons mark interruptions in the deposition of the aeolianite dune sand,
                            when plant growth allowed soil to form, with development of the associated calcrete
                            below it.
                               Bird Island and Seal Island, 2.8 and 1.4 km north of Penguin Island respectively,
                            also show a solid layer of calcrete overlying the Tamala Limestone. On both islands,
                            the limestone beneath the calcrete contains strong rhizolithic structures, indicating the
                            former existence of plant growth on the former sand dunes. Passage Rock, 2.5 km
                            south of Penguin Island, is capped by an eroded, residual layer of calcrete. It has the
                            appearance of a snow cap.

                            Penguin Island Limestone (Qhp; informal name)
                            This limestone crops out at the southern end of the west beach at about current
                            beach level. It probably also forms the wave-cut platform that can be seen below the
                            low-water mark. The limestone is a somewhat friable mud-brown coloured rock
                            consisting of calcium carbonate shell fragments and sparse quartz grains, all about 1-
                            2 mm in size. As Semeniuk & Searle (1987) found, only two facies of the beach

22
                                            Penguin Island
           Figure 14. A Tamala Limestone
           slab showing petrified shrub
           roots; north end of the west
           beach.




           Figure 15. Rhizoliths: shrub
           roots coated by fine calcite
           crystals deposited from ground
           water. South eastern beach.




           Figure 16. Solution pipe near
           “The Bluff”, west beach.




           Figure 17. Calcrete layer
           overlying Tamala Limestone:
           north west coast.


Calcrete




                                                             23
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide

                            sequence described by Semeniuk & Johnson (1982) are present. At sea level, near the
                            southern walkway exit, an inshore trough-bedded sand is present (Figure 18). A
                            laminated seaward-dipping swash-zone deposit is exposed to the north of the
                            walkway exit, extending up to 1 m above the current sea level (Figure 19). The
                            Penguin Island Limestone overlies and overlaps on to a strongly eroded surface of
                            Tamala Limestone aeolianite. In places where it is only tens of centimetres thick,
                            inliers of aeolianite occur. The full thickness of the limestone is not yet known.
                              The age of the Penguin Island Limestone can only be guessed at present. At Cape
                            Peron, the limestone is about 1.5 m above the current sea level; about 4000 to 3000
                            years ago, the sea level was at this height (Semeniuk & Searle, 1986). This, therefore,
                            might be when the limestone formed.

                            Safety Bay Sand
                            Two facies of the Safety Bay Sand are present. One is represented by the “Dune
                            Sand” and the “Younger Dune Sand”; and the second is the current beach deposit -
                            mainly sand, but including rock rubble from erosion of the cliffs.
                              Dune Sand, Qhd. In the central portion of the island, the Tamala Limestone and its
                            calcrete are overlain by a system of high sand dunes forming a somewhat rugged
                            landscape, with a very steep slope down to the “Young Dune Sand” on the eastern side.
                              Young Dune Sand, Qhd(y). These sands occupy the low flat area extending from
                            the jetty to the Penguin Island Experience, the toilet block and the generator building.
                            They are probably built on the former beach sand that formed an early phase of the
                            current sand bar that extends to Mersey Point on the mainland.
                              Beach Sand and Rock Rubble, Qhb. This material represents the modern beach
                            deposits, mainly sand on most of the beaches, but rock rubble at the base of the cliffs
                            at the northern and southern ends of the island. On the western beach, the sand
                            movements between summer and winter are dynamic. Waves from winter gales strip
                            sand off the beach; the calm summer breezes generate constructional waves that
                            rebuild the beaches: compare Figures 20 (taken 7 September 2000) and 21 (taken 25
                            March, 2000).

                                                                                            Figure 18. Penguin Island
                                                                                            Limestone, showing trough
                                                                                            bedding: south end of west
                                                                                            beach.




                                                                                            Figure 19. Penguin Island
                                                                                            Limestone, showing laminated
                                                                                            bedding: location close to that
                                                                                            of Figure 18.




24
                                                                                                                        Penguin Island




Figure 20. The 1.5 m emergent platform at “The Bluff”. This photograph was taken on 17th September 2000, at the
end of Western Australia’s winter season. The beach sand deposited by the summer sea breezes has been washed away
by waves created by the north westerly gales to show the current wave cut platform compare this photo with Figure 21.




Figure 21. Another photograph of “The Bluff”, taken on 25 March 2000, near the close of our summer, six months
before Figure 20. The prevailing south westerly sea breezes build up the beaches. The 1.5 m emergent platform can
hardly be seen.




Figure 22. The 3 m emergent platform, south west coast.


                                                                                                                                         25
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide




                            Figure 23. The 0.5 m emergent platform, south west coast.


                              In a few places, for example, on the south-east beach near the Penguin Experience,
                            a reddish-brown partly cemented beach rock is present. This is modern material
                            partly lithified at deeper levels in the beach, and only exposed during rough weather,
                            when the upper levels of the beach are washed away.

                            Wave-cut Benches
                            A three-metre high bench is present along the northwestern coast of the island (Figure
                            22); this level is thought to be about 5400 to 4400 years old. On the immediate south
                            side of “The Bluff” on the west beach is a rock platform about 1.5 m higher than the
                            winter level of the beachsand (Figure 21). This was formed by wave erosion when the
                            sea level was somewhat higher than at present, possibly about 4000 to 3000 years ago.
                            A similar bench 0.5 m high can be seen in a small bay at the south-west corner of the
                            island (Figure 23). This may be about 1000 years old. These features indicate changes
                            in sea level in past times (the estimated dates are from Semeniuk & Searle, 1986).

                            Reef Platforms
                            Reef platforms (Figure 24) are present along the southern, western and northern
                            coasts of the island. They are the result of sea erosion within the current tidal zone.
                            It is possible that the planation of the limestone is brought about by a combination
                            of chemical dissolution, mechanical erosion by wave action, and attack by grazing
                            and boring organisms.
                            Tombolos and Banks
                            Shallow tombolos and banks connect Penguin, Seal and Bird Islands to the adjacent
                            mainland (Figure 11). These form where waves are refracted and diffracted by the
                            islands and reefs, and intersect. This leads to deposition of the sands transported by
                            breaking waves. The sand is derived from erosion of the reefs and islands of the
                            Garden Island Ridge, and from the modern biogenic carbonate being produced in
                            Warnbro Sound and Shoalwater Bay. Cape Peron, 3.5 km north of Penguin Island,
                            was formerly an island. It is now connected to the mainland by a tombolo that has
                            subsequently built up to form the current sand dunes that form the peninsular on
                            which much of Rockingham sits.

                            Holocene Sea-level Changes
                            It seems likely that both global climate change (affecting eustatic sea level) and local
                            tectonic movements may account for fluctuations in the relative sea level around
                            Penguin Island that occurred during the Holocene. During the Würm Glaciation, sea
                            levels dropped to about 100 m below the current level. Sea level rose to near current
                            levels by about 6000-7000 years ago. Semeniuk & Searle (1986) noted evidence that
                            some of the local sea-level changes along the south-west coast between Whitfords (55

26
                                                                                            Penguin Island




Figure 24. Current reef platform: south end of west beach.


km north of Penguin Island) and the Leschenault Peninsula (105 km south of Penguin
Island) may have been due to crustal warping. Seismic surveys during petroleum
exploration have shown the presence of a number of major faults cutting Cretaceous
and older rocks (see Figure 13). Movement probably occurred along these faults in
late Pleistocene and Holocene times. That movement along the faults has taken place
in historic times is shown by, for example, the 1968 Meckering earthquake and the
1979 Cadoux earthquake (Gordon & Lewis, 1980; Lewis et al., 1981).

Warnbro Sound and Shoalwater Bay
Warnbro Sound is on the south side of the Penguin Island tombolo (Figures 10, 11).
Shoalwater Bay is on the northern side of the tombolo, and is crossed by the island
ferry. These embayments are separated from the open Rottnest Shelf to the west by the
Garden Island Ridge (a Pleistocene aeolian dune) comprising Murray Reef - Penguin
Island - Garden Island - Rottnest Island (Figure 10, 13). They are in effect, as Carrigy
(1956) noted, silled basins.
   Most of Warnbro Sound is deeper than 11 m, and has a flat seafloor, although the
deepest parts exceed 16 m. Two sandbanks, one from the south and the other from
the north, have accumulated along the eastern side of the Murray Reefs forming the
western (silled) margin of the Sound. Coasters Channel separates the north and south
sandbanks and connects the deep basin of Warnbro Sound with the open Rottnest Shelf
via a passage in the Murray Reefs. Posidonia and Amphibolis meadows inhabit the
sandbanks, partly stabilising the sediment. Carruthers & Walker (1997) undertook
studies on A. griffithii in this region to document the absorption of light and energy
flow in its leaf canopy.
   Organic-rich mud forms the substrate in deepest parts of Warnbro Sound (Carrigy,
1956). The sandbanks are composed mainly of biogenic skeletal material, dominated
by mollusc fragments and, locally, foraminifera, according to Carrigy (1956). Minor
well-rounded quartz (reworked from Pleistocene dunes) is also present.
   Shoalwater Bay is very shallow and has a sandy substrate with much seagrass cover
in the south and east (see Figure 11). As in Warnbro Sound, the sand is composed
mainly of biogenic grains.
   The foraminiferal fauna of Warnbro Sound and Shoalwater Bay has not been studied
in any detail. The only published record from Warnbro Sound is the occurrence of
“Marginopora” (probably Amphisorus) living on Posidonia, noted by Carrigy (1956). A
small sand sample collected near seagrass from Shoalwater Bay adjacent Penguin Island
yielded the tests of about 150 species of foraminifera (Table 4). This suggests that very
high diversity is present among the seagrass foraminifera in these embayments.


                                                                                                             27
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide
                            Table 4. Foraminifera from Shoalwater Bay off Penguin Island identified by Haig.

                               Agglutinated Species                                     Hyaline (Lagenida) Species continued
                               Clavulina multicamerata Chapman                          Fissurina sp. 1
                               Clavulina pacifica Cushman                               Guttulina bartschi Cushman & Ozawa
                               Cribrobulimina mixta (Parker & Jones)                    Lagena flatulenta Loeblich & Tappan
                               Rotaliammina chitinosa (Collins)                         Oolina sp. cf. O. ampulladistoma (Rymer-Jones)
                               Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny                         Procerolagena gracillima (Seguenza)
                               Textularia cushmani Said                                 Procerolagena sp. 1
                               Textularia sp. 1                                         Pyramidulina catesbyi (d'Orbigny)
                                                                                        Sigmoidella sp. cf. S. elegantissima (Parker & Jones)
                               Porcellaneous (Miliolida) Species
                               Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg                          Hyaline (Buliminida) Species
                               Biloculinella labiata (Schlumberger)                     Abditodendrix rhomboidalis (Millett)
                               Cornuspira planorbis Schultze                            Bolivina striatula Cushman
                               Miliolinella baragwanathi (Parr)                         Bolivina variabilis (Williamson)
                               Miliolinella pilasensis McCulloch                        Elongobula hebetata (Cushman & Parker)
                               Miliolinella suborbicularis (d'Orbigny)                  Loxostomina limbata (Brady)
                               Miliolinella sp. of Haig 1997                            Neocassidulina abbreviata (Heron-Allen & Earland)
                               Miliolinella sp. 2                                       Pavonina flabelliformis d'Orbigny
                               Nubecularia lucifuga Defrance                            Radiatobolivina okinawaensis Hatta
                               Nubeculinita ramosa Loeblich & Tappan                    Reussella ? armata Parr
                               Nummulopyrgo globulus (Hofker)                           Reussella ? sp. 1
                               Parrina bradyi (Millett)                                 Rugobolivinella elegans (Parr)
                               Peneroplis planatus (Fichtel & Moll)                     Sigmavirgulina sp. 1
                               Pyrgo striolata (Brady)                                  Siphogenerina raphana (Parker & Jones)
                               Quinqueloculina bradyana Cushman                         Siphogenerina sp. 1
                               Quinqueloculina sp. cf. Q. cuvieriana d'Orbigny
                               Quinqueloculina eburnea (d'Orbigny)                      Hyaline (Rotaliida) Species
                               Quinqueloculina sp. cf. Q. funafutiensis (Chapman)       Acervulina mahabeti (Said)
                               Quinqueloculina neostriatula Thalmann                    Ammonia parkinsoniana (d'Orbigny)
                               Quinqueloculina poeyana d'Orbigny                        Ammonia ?tepida (Cushman)
                               Quinqueloculina polygona d'Orbigny                       Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny
                               Quinqueloculina quinquecarinata Collins                  Angulodiscorbis corrugata (Millett)
                               Quinqueloculina seminula (Linné)                         Annulopatellina annularis (Parker & Jones)
                               Quinqueloculina subgranulata (Cushman)                   Anomalinulla sp. 1
                               Quinqueloculina subpolygona Parr                         Bronnimannia haliotis (Heron-Allen & Earland)
                               Quinqueloculina tropicalis Cushman                       Buccella ? rara (Yassini & Jones)
                               Quinqueloculina vandiemeniensis Loeblich & Tappan        Cancris auriculus (Fichtel & Moll)
                               Quinqueloculina sp. 4                                    Cibicides sp. cf. C. refulgens Montfort
                               Quinqueloculina sp. 5                                    Cibicidoides basilanensis McCulloch
                               Quinqueloculina sp. 6                                    Cibicidoides sp. of Haig 1997
                               Quinqueloculina sp. 8                                    Conorbella pulvinata (Brady)
                               Quinqueloculina sp. 12                                   Cymbaloporetta bermudezi (Sellier de Civrieux)
                               Quinqueloculina sp. 13                                   Dyocibicides biserialis Cushman & Valentine
                               Quinqueloculina sp. 15                                   Elphidium advenum (Cushman)
                               Sigmamiliolinella australis (Parr)                       Elphidium botaniense Albani
                               Sigmoilinella tortuosa Zheng                             Elphidium crispum (Linné)
                               Sorites orbiculus (Forskal)                              Elphidium spp. aff. E. excavatum (Terquem)
                               Spiroloculina angulata Cushman                           Elphidium novozealandicum Cushman
                               Spiroloculina corrugata Cushman & Todd                   Elphidium reticulosum Cushman
                               Spiroloculina subimpressa Parr                           Glabratellina australensis (Heron-Allen & Earland)
                               Triloculina marshallana Todd sensu Hatta & Ujiie 1992    Glabratellina patelliformis (Brady)
                               Triloculina striatotrigonula Parr                        Glabratellina sp. 5
                               Triloculina tricarinata d'Orbigny                        Glabratellina sp. 7
                               Triloculina trigonula (Lamarck)                          Heronallenia lingulata (Burrows & Holland)
                               Vertebralina striata d'Orbigny                           Lamellodiscorbis dimidiatus (Jones & Parker)
                               Wiesnerella auriculata (Egger)                           Lamellodiscorbis melbyae Hansen & Revets
                               Wiesnerella sp. 1                                        Lamellodiscorbis sp. 1
                                                                                        Monspeliensina sp. 1 of Haig, 1997
                               Hyaline (Spirillinida) Species                           Monspeliensina ? sp. 2
                               Heteropatellina sp. cf. H . frustratiformis McCulloch    Neoconorbina cavalliensis Hayward, Grenfell, Reid, & Hayward
                               Patellina corrugata Williams                             Neorotalia sp.
                               Spirillina denticulata Brady                             Nonionoides grateloupi (d'Orbigny)
                               Spirillina inaequalis Brady                              Pararotalia nipponica (Asano)
                               Spirillina planoconcava Zheng                            Planoglabratella opercularis (d'Orbigny)
                               Spirillina runiana Heron-Allen & Earland                 Planoglabratella sp. aff. P. opercularis (d'Orbigny)
                               Spirillina tuberculatolimbata Chapman                    Planogypsina acervalis (Brady)
                               Spirillina vivipara Ehrenberg                            Planogypsina squamiformis (Chapman)
                               spirillinid genus and species uncertain 1                Planulinoides biconcavus (Parker & Jones)
                               Turrispirillina sp. 1                                    Planulinoides narcotti Hedley, Hurdle & Burdett
                                                                                        Pyropiloides elongatus Zheng
                               Hyaline (Lagenida) Species                               Rosalina sp. 3
                               Fissurina contusa Parr                                   Rotorbis auberi (d'Orbigny)
                               Fissurina favosiformis (McCulloch)                       Siphoninoides echinatus (Brady)
                               Fissurina lacunata (Burrows & Holland)                   Sphaerogypsina globulus (Reuss)
                               Fissurina sp. F. lacunata (Burrows & Holland)            Stomatorbina concentrica (Parker & Jones)
                               Fissurina omniperforata McCulloch                        Tretomphalus bulloides (d'Orbigny)




28
                      Lake Richmond



Western Australia is noted for its lakes and restricted embayments containing
extensive microbial mats and stromatolites-thrombolites. In Western Australia,
extensive microbial mats were first described by Clarke & Teichert (1946) from Lake
Cowan about 600 km east of Perth. The best known sites for stromatolites are
Hamelin Pool in Shark Bay (Logan et al., 1974); Lake Thetis near Cervantes, about
150 m north of Perth (Grey et al., 1990); Lake Clifton on the Swan Coastal Plain south
of Perth (Moore et al., 1984; Burne & Moore, 1993; Moore & Burne, 1994); and the
salt lakes on Rottnest Island described by Playford (1988).
  Lake Richmond in the Rockingham area (Figure 11) also contains stromatolites, but
no detailed research has been undertaken on them. According to McNamara (1997),
the lake is “freshwater” and is up to 15 m deep. Stromatolites, some to 0.5 m in
diameter, have formed around the edge of much of the lake. The stromatolites should
be contrasted with those in Lake Clifton (see p.37-39) that are growing under normal
salinity conditions.
  Lake Richmond apparently formed between prograding beach-ridge dunes
between 3670 and 2340 14C years BP (or 4080 ±250 and 2760±220 corrected years
BP), following Searle et al. (1988). Figure 8 shows their interpretation of Holocene
progradation of sand ridges in the Lake Richmond area.




                                                                                         29
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide




30
                            Peel-Harvey Estuarine System



Estuary setting
The estuarine system consists of Harvey Estuary, a north-south elongate body of
water that opens into the broad sub-circular Peel Inlet (Figure 25). The Inlet is
connected to the open ocean by the Inlet Channel which runs through the city of
Mandurah. The estuarine system is bordered on the west by the Mandurah-Eaton
Ridge , part of the Spearwood Dune System (Semeniuk, 1995, 1997). A man-made
channel, the Dawesville Cut, was recently constructed traversing the Mandurah-Eaton
Ridge, to provide a connection between the Harvey Estuary and the open sea and to
alleviate a recurring algal problem in the estuary (see Hodgkin et al., 1985). The
Harvey River flows into Harvey Estuary at its southern end; and the Murray and
Serpentine Rivers flow into the north-eastern side of Peel Inlet. Most freshwater
inflow from these rivers occurs in winter. Their catchment areas occupy about 11,300
km2 mainly on the Swan Coastal Plain.
  Harvey Estuary is about 2.5 m deep in its central north-south depression (Figure 26).
Peel Inlet which occupies an area of 75 km2 has a maximum depth of 2 m. Over half
of its area is less than 0.5 m deep and forms a broad peripheral platform (Figure 26).
  The estuarine system is microtidal. Before construction of the Dawesville Channel
in 1994, the daily tidal range rarely exceeded 0.1 m, and long-period meteorological
changes in water level (e.g. related to changes in barometric pressure) had a range
of up to 0.5 m. There was also a seasonal difference in water level, with the summer
level 0.2-0.3 m lower than the winter level (Hodgkin et al., 1985). These tidal ranges




                                                      Lake Clifton
                                                                               Warrangup Spring
                                                 Harvey Estuar                   Boardwalk
                                                                    y

                                   Peel Inlet
                                                                                      Novara Beach Reserve

                                                       Marsh




           MANDURAH




Figure 25. Oblique aerial view of the Peel-Harvey Estuarine System showing excursion stops (from Hodgkin et
al., 1985)


                                                                                                              31
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide




                                                Figure 26. Map of the Peel Harvey Estuarine System showing the
                                                0.5m bathymetric contour line (from Hodgkin et al., 1985)


                            have increased a little since the opening of the Dawesville Cut. There are long
                            residence times for water in the estuary, particularly during summer (e.g. up to 12
                            weeks during summer in the Harvey Estuary pre-Dawesville Cut, compared to 2.4
                            weeks in winter ).
                              Dramatic salinity changes occur between seasons, with surface salinity varying from
                            nearly fresh (< 3 ‰) in winter to hypersaline (up to 50 ‰) in summer (Hodgkin et
                            al., 1985). This varies between years, depending on rainfall and evaporation rates,
                            and in some years the salinity range is 15-40 ‰. At the Mandurah Inlet Channel, daily
                            differences in surface salinity may be 35 ‰ to 10 ‰ on a flood/ebb tide. Under quiet
                            conditions the water in the estuarine system is stratified and there may be a
                            difference of more than 10 ‰ between bottom and surface salinity levels. For
                            example, at the Inlet Channel, when the measurements above were taken, the bottom
                            salinity dropped to only 20 ‰. Within the main estuarine basin, water circulation is
                            wave-dominated, and during periods of persistent strong winds the shallow waters
                            become well mixed to a uniform salinity. As soon as calm conditions return, the
                            salinity stratification is re-established.
                              Estuarine sedimentation processes are wave-dominated. Wave action and resultant
                            suspension of fine sediment add to the turbidity of the water, particularly in Harvey
                            Estuary. Phytoplankton blooms also contribute to water turbidity. The bottom waters
                            can become de-oxygenated because of the persistent stratification of the water
                            column and the amount of organic matter in the bottom sediment. In particular,
                            anoxic conditions develop below the living mats of the benthic green macroalga
                            Cladophora montagneana, and below massive blooms of the cyanobacterium
                            Nodularia spumigena.

                            Holocene history (by Marjorie Apthorpe)
                            The Holocene history of the estuarine system was reviewed by Hodgkin et al. (1980)
                            based mainly on work done by Brown et al. (1980). The oldest part of the system
                            lies beneath the Mandurah Inlet Channel but covers a wider area. This smallish
                            estuary formed in a cut through the Spearwood Dunes, and flooded at about 8000

32
                                                                                                                             Peel-Harvey Estuarine System
14C  years BP. The main lagoonal basin, in a 5 m depression in the coastal plain
floored by the Pinjarra Soil, flooded by 6000 14C years BP. During the next 2000 years,
a slightly higher than present sea level prevailed (see Semeniuk & Searle, 1986;
Semeniuk & Semeniuk, 1991, Semeniuk, 1995). At about 4000 years BP, there was a
relatively rapid decrease in marine influence. Sediment deposition abruptly became
sandy and silty, and the marine salinity regime gave way to the pre-1994 very variable
salinity conditions (see Figure 26). Likely causes of the change to a semi-closed
estuary are infilling of the basin during high-stand progradation and formation of the
wide sandy delta within the estuary, a fall in sea level; periodic closure of the marine
entrance by a sand bar; and considerable infilling of the entrance channel.

Sediments and biota
Sediment in the central depression of Harvey Estuary (> 1.5 m water depth) is
generally black, silty mud with high organic content and high phosphorus levels
(Brown et al., 1980; McComb et al., 1998). The sediment in the central part of Peel
Inlet (> 1.5 m water depth) is fine, brown, silty quartz sand with relatively low
organic content; whereas the peripheral platform is composed of coarse, brown
quartz sand (Brown et al., 1980; McComb et al., 1998). Brown et al. (1980) recorded
that the sands of the estuary are extensively bioturbated, particularly by the large blue
manor crab which disturbs the top 10 cm of sediment. Other bioturbators are other
crustaceans, polychaete worms (to depths of 1 m in the sediment), and fish. Below
the dense macroalgal stands, McComb et al. (1998) recorded silty, black ooze with
high organic and phosphorus content.
  Since about 1965, the estuarine system has been prone to eutrophication and
excessive growth of benthic algae (including Cladophora, Chaetomorpha,
Enteromorpha, and Ulva) and massive blooms of the cyanobacterium Nodularia
spumigena (as recorded by McComb et al., 1998, from available records). Because of
this and smells that affected the growing urban population of rapidly expanding
Mandurah, the Dawesville Cut was opened in 1994. The algal problem was attributed
to an anthropogenic increase in levels of phosphorus in estuarine sediment (see
recent papers by Gerritse et al., 1998; McComb et al., 1998; and Summers et al., 1999).
  Hodgkin et al. (1980) reviewed the estuarine fauna. In general, the fauna is of low
diversity. The mollusc fauna consists of a few estuarine species (18 in Peel Inlet and
7 in Harvey Estuary, recognized pre-1980). The common species (forming more than
90% o the mollusc biomass) are the gastropod Hydrococcus graniformis, and the
bivalves Arthritica semen, Spisula trigonella, and Anticorbula amara.


      MARGINAL SHEET                                    BASIN SHEET                                    FLUVIAL DELTA

 Mandurah-Eaton Ridge
                                                                                                                              1
A                                                          0                                                            B
       MWL                                                                                                                    0

                                                                                                                              1

                                                                                                                              2
                                                                                                                                  METRES




                                                                                                                              3
                                                                                                             Bassendean
                                                                                                                Sand          4
                 Tamala Limestone
                                                      Pinjarra Soils                                                          5
                                                                                    0                     2 km
                                PLIESTOCENE SEDIMENTS

    4 km
                                                                 HOLOCENE DEPOSITS
                                                 MARGINAL SHEET (Peripheral platform)
                                                 Fine quartz sand - restricted estuarine conditions.
                              B
      A                                          Skeletal silty sand - normal-marine estuarine conditions, (about 6-4 ka).
                                                 BASIN SHEET
                                                 Sandy silty mud - restricted estuarine conditions.
                   0
                                                 Skeletal mud - normal-marine estuarine conditions, (about 6-4 ka).
              PEEL
                 INLET                           FLUVIAL DELTA UNIT
                                                 Medium/coarse quartz sand


           Figure 27. Cross section of Peel Inlet to show stratigraphic succession (from Hodgkin et al., 1980)


                                                                                                                                                            33
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide

                            Overview of foraminifera (by Marjorie Apthorpe)
                            The following summary is based on unpublished work done in 1976. Figure 27
                            presents a summary of the foraminiferal distributions found at that time. Table 5 lists
                            some of the species found in 1976 in the Mandurah Inlet Channel.
                            The foraminifera living in very shallow water in the estuary are subject to both daily
                            and seasonal variations in salinity. In the deepest central locations they have to
                            withstand much less variation. Where anoxia has developed in bottom sediment due
                            to phytoplankton blooms or below Cladophora mats, there is a predominance of
                            epifaunal foraminifera (Ammonia and Ammovertellina) at the expense of sediment
                            dwellers (e.g. Elphidium). In the 1976 survey, Elphidium was patchily present, and
                            clear areas of sandy bottom were seen to be present between dense beds of algae.
                            The preservation of calcareous faunas in the sediment succession is impacted by the
                            low pH in the anoxic black mud below the algal habitat. Thus, although Ammonia
                            was abundant here, after death many tests were partly or wholly dissolved, leaving
                            only organic linings.
                              The Mandurah Inlet Channel in 1976 contained an abundant microfauna, mainly
                            miliolids in the seaward half, but dominated by Ammonia in the landward half, and
                            on the extensive sand banks (the tidal delta) developed adjacent to the channel.
                            Species present ranged from 20 to 45 in number.


                                    Ammonnia spp.                                        Ammonia spp.
                                                                                         Elphidium cf. crispum
                                    Ammovertellina sp.                                   Elphidium spp.
                                    (on Cladophora algae)
                                                                                         Quinqueloculina spp.
                                    Reophax sp.                                          20-45 minor species
                                    Haplophragmoides sp.
                                    Cribrononion/ Porosononion sp.       ENTRANCE                                Ammonia spp.
                                                                          CHANNEL
                                    Elphidium cf. hispidulum                                                     Elphidium hispidulum
                                                                                                                 Elphidium / ?Cribrononion

                                                                     O
                                     INDIAN
                                     OCEAN                                                                              Elphidium hispidulum
                                                                                                                        Ammonia spp.


                                                                                            PEEL
                                                                                                                   Ammonia spp.
                                                                                           I N L ET




                                                                                   Ammonia spp.
                                                            H A RV EY              Porosonoion sp. (rare)
                                                                                   Reophax sp. (rare)
                                                                                   Quinqueloculina spp. (rare)


                                                                               Ammonia spp.
                                                                               Reophax sp. (rare)
                                                                               Haplophragmoides sp. (rare)
                                                                               Textularia cf. earlandi (rare)
                                                                               Elphidium cf. hispidulum (rare)


                                                                     E ST U A RY




                                                                                                 Difflugia cf. proteiformis




                                  Figure 28. Map of the Peel-Harvey Estuarine System summarizing the distribution of foraminifera as
                                  identified by Apthorpe in an unpublished 1976 study.


34
                                                                                                    Peel-Harvey Estuarine System
Table 5. Foraminifera identified by Apthorpe from Mandurah Inlet Channel as part of a 1976 study.

Agglutinated species                                Cibicides pseudoungerianus (Cushman)
Eggerella cf. scabra (Williamson)                   Cibicides refulgens Montfort
Reophax cf. barwonensis Collins                     Cribroelphidium poeyanum (d’Orbigny)
Textularia pseudogramen Chapman and Parr            Cymbaloporetta bradyi (Cushman)
Textularia sp.                                      Discorbina sp.
Trochammina inflata (Montagu)                       Discorbinella biconcavus (Jones and Parker)
                                                    Discorbinella subbertheloti (Cushman)
Miliolina                                           Elphidium advenum (Cushman)
Cornuspira sp.                                      Elphidium articulatum (d’Orbigny)
Hauerinella tumidulum (Brady)                       Elphidium crispum (Linne)
Miliolinella australis (Parr)                       Elphidium macellum (Fichtel and Moll)
Miliolinella subrotunda (Montagu)                   Elphidium cf. hispidulum Cushman
Quinqueloculina costata d’Orbigny                   Elphidium spp.
Quinqueloculina lamarckiana d’Orbigny               Eponides repandus (Fichtel and Moll)
Quinqueloculina seminulum (Linne)                   Fissurina cf. annectens (Burrows and Holland)
Quinqueloculina spp.                                Fissurina lacunata (Burrows and Holland)
Quinqueloculina tropicalis Cushman                  Fissurina cf. quadrata (Williamson)
Sigmoilina sp.                                      Geminospira bradyi Bermudez
Spiroloculina sp.                                   Glabratella sp.
Triloculina ?subvalvularis Parr                     Globigerina sp.
Triloculina tricarinata d’Orbigny                   Heronallenia lingulata (Burrows and Holland)
Triloculina trigonula (Lamarck)                     Lagena gracillima (Seguenza)
Vertebralina sp.                                    Lagena cf. gracilis Williamson
                                                    Lagena montagui Silvestri
Hyaline species                                     Lagena striata (d’Orbigny)
Ammonia cf. beccarii (Linne)                        Lagena spp.
Ammonia tepida (Cushman)                            Lamellodiscorbis dimidiatus (Parker and Jones)
Ammonia spp.                                        Neouvigerina porrecta (Brady)
Anomalinoides colligerus (Chapman and Parr)         Nonion depressulum (walker and Jacob)
Angulogerina angulosa (Williamson)                  Oolina lineata (Williamson)
Astrononion stelligerum (d’Orbigny)                 Parvicarinina altocamerata (Heron-Allen and Earland)
Bolivina cf. earlandi Parr                          Patellina corrugata Williamson
Bolivina variabilis (Williamson)                    Pileolina patelliformis (Brady)
Bolivina pseudoplicata Heron-Allen and Earland      Planodiscorbis rarescens (Brady)
Bolivinita quadrilatera (Schwager)                  Rectobolivina limbata (Brady)
Bulimina sp.                                        Reussella simplex (Cushman)
Buliminella elegantissima (d’Orbigny)               Rosalina vilardeboana d’Orbigny
Calcarina cf. venusta (Brady)                       Rosalina pellucida (Said)
Calcarina cf. stellata de Ferussac                  Sigmavirgulina tortuosa Brady
Cancris auriculus (Fichtel and Moll)                Spirillina sp.
Cibicides lobatulus (Walker and Jacob)              Uvigerina sp.


   In the main estuary, Ammonia (often abundant) dominated low diversity
assemblages throughout, except in the tidal Murray River. The minor species varied,
in response to distance to the entrance channel, and in response to substrate.
Ammovertellina sp. was living on and clearly associated with living masses of the
green alga Cladophora, the irregular tubular test being coiled around stems of the
alga. Reophax sp. occurred in greatest size and abundance on fine sand in shallows
on the west side of the Peel Inlet, where it preferentially collected heavy minerals for
its test. It was present also as much smaller specimens in the mud at the centre of
the Harvey Estuary. The test composition of Reophax in the Harvey Inlet appeared
similar to that in specimens from Peel Inlet.
   In Harvey Estuary, foraminiferal specimen numbers were lower than in Peel Inlet,
probably due to very low light levels (because of water turbidity), and a flocculent
substrate of organic mud. A number of small agglutinated species were present, along
with sparse Ammonia and rare very small Elphidium (cf. E. hispidulum).

Excursion stops
We will have time to make only three stops. The first stop is to view a marsh besides
the Inlet Channel just north of the Mandurah Bypass Bridge. The second stop is to
view Peel Inlet from the Novara Beach Reserve. The final stop is a boardwalk on the
edge of Harvey Estuary at Warrangup Spring.
   Based on radiocarbon ages, Semeniuk & Semeniuk (1991) suggested that there may
be a different sea-level history for the Peel Inlet and the Harvey Estuary. The sea first
flooded the estuarine system by about 8.5 Ka. In the Peel Inlet (northern part of the
system), sea level was apparently 1.5-2 m above present MSL at around 7 Ka to 6.1
Ka, and fell from this time to the present. However, in the Harvey Estuary (southern
part of system), relative sea level was 1-2 m below present MSL at 7.4-6.4 Ka (similar


                                                                                                                                   35
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide

                            to that in the Leschenault Peninsula to the south, at that time). Semeniuk & Semeniuk
                            (1991) suggested that tectonic factors may explain the discrepant records.
                            Marsh adjacent Mandurah Inlet Channel
                               Semeniuk & Semeniuk (1990) mapped three vegetated “tidal shoals” on the edges
                            of the Mandurah Inlet Channel. Each is attached to the shore at the southern end and
                            is about 300 m long and 80 m wide paralleling the tidal Inlet Channel (Figure 25).
                            They partly enclose small bays with muddy substrates. The shoals are composed of
                            muddy sand, are emergent at low tide, and are vegetated by mainly saltmarsh species
                            including Halosarica halocnemoides, H. bidens, Suaeda australis, Frankenia
                            pauciflora, and Muellerolimon salicorniaceum.
                               No detailed study of foraminifera from the marsh has been made. Common species
                            living in ponded mud amongst the vegetation include Trochammina inflata,
                            Ammonia tepida, and various small Elphidium spp. including morphotypes that may
                            be variants of E. advenum and E. botaniensis. Mud of the open gutters through the
                            bank contains tests of Ammonia tepida, Elphidium sp., Ammobaculites, and
                            Quinqueloculina seminula.
                            Western edge of Peel Inlet (at Novara Beach Reserve)
                            From this stop, the broad expanse of Peel Inlet can be seen. The sediment of the
                            peripheral platform is well-sorted, well-rounded quartz sand. Foraminifera at this site
                            include many relict specimens and a very sparse contemporaneous fauna.
                            Western shore of Harvey Estuary (boardwalk at Warrangup Spring)
                            As we drive south along the western shore of Harvey Estuary, we see erosional sandy
                            shores alternating with marginal platforms (following the classification of Semeniuk
                            & Semeniuk, 1990). The erosional shores are narrow and backed by a small erosional
                            step (< 1 m high), and have a substrate of fine to coarse quartz sand. The marginal
                            platforms are developed in flats or very shallow basins between limestone ridges, and
                            have mud and muddy sand substrates. The marginal platforms are inundated
                            seasonally by estuarine water, and are vegetated by mixed low woodland (mainly
                            Melaleuca) with an understorey of marsh plants and sedges (Sarcocornia spp.,
                            Suaeda australis, Juncus kraussii, and Gahnia trifida).
                              The boardwalk extends out from an erosional sandy shore. To the north and south
                            are marginal platforms. The sediment under the boardwalk is a mixture of slightly
                            muddy quartz sand and shelly debris. Isolated macroalgal stands are present. The
                            main foraminiferal species found here are Ammonia tepida (and/or related species),
                            Trochammina inflata, and small Elphidium spp., Quinqueloculina seminula, and
                            Haplophragmoides sp.
                              Lake Clifton is part of a system of north-south elongate lakes that lie on the
                            Yalgorup Plain which extends between the Mandurah-Eaton Ridge (part of the
                            Spearwood Dune System) to the east and the Quindalup Dune System to the west
                            (Figure 29). Eleven lakes on the plain are aligned in three parallel series in what is
                            called the Clifton-Preston Lakeland system. Lake Clifton which is 21.5 km long and
                            has a maximum width of 1.5 km, is the eastern-most lake. Immediately to the west
                            of Lake Clifton across a low sand ridge is a line of smaller lakes that includes Lake
                            Hayward, one of Australia’s few meromictic lakes (with a chemocline producing
                            near-permanent stratification in the water column). To the west of Lake Hayward is
                            the largest lake of the system, Lake Preston (27.5 km long and 2 km wide) which is
                            separated from the ocean by Holocene dune ridges. Lake Clifton differs from the
                            other lakes in the system because its salinity ranges between brackish and normal
                            marine levels whereas the other lakes are hypersaline, and it contains much more
                            diverse metazoan and microbial communities. Lake Clifton is the only lake in the
                            Clifton-Preston Lakeland that has active thrombolites and stromatolites.
                              The lakes of the Clifton-Preston Lakeland are maintained only by a combination of
                            groundwater inflow and rain precipitation (mostly in winter). The superficial fresh
                            groundwaters that feed into the lakes are sourced in the Yanget Mound about 10 km
                            east of Lake Preston (see review of hydrology by Rosen et al., 1996). Groundwater
                            from this source flows west and in the vicinity of Lake Clifton turns northwest. The
                            superficial groundwater overlies a wedge of hypersaline water which maintains the
                            lake levels at, or slightly below, mean sea level. In the northern area occupied by
                            Lake Clifton (Figure 27), there may be a significant intrusion of water from the Peel-
                            Harvey Estuary into the aquifer.

36
                        Lake Clifton



  Lake Clifton is very shallow. Only in the northern part of the lake (shown in Figure
30) do water depths exceed 0.5 m, and reach as deep as 2m in a channel that runs
north-south just in front of the boardwalk. The salinity in Lake Clifton varies between
seasons (and apparently between years). Rosen et al. (1996) noted a salinity range of
14.5 kg m-3 (November 1991) to 31.5 kg m-3 (May 1991). Seepage from the fresh
groundwater occurs mainly along the eastern shores of the lake (see review by
Moore & Burne, 1994, and Rosen et al., 1996) and apparently greatly influences the
positions of the microbial communities . Rosen et al. (1996) noted that groundwater
seeps along the shore and through the middle of the thrombolites on the bottom of
the eastern shore.
  The microbialites form a “reef” platform on the eastern shore of the northern part
of the lake (where the boardwalk is located; Figure 31). According to Moore & Burne
(1994) these are mainly thrombolites, structures that lack fine laminations but have a
clotted internal texture. Stromatolites, with fine internal lamination, are rare, small,
and weakly lithified at Lake Clifton. Moore & Burn (1994) record a variety of
cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae associated with the microbialites. The
cyanobacteria include Oscillatoria, Dichothrix, Chroococcus, Gleocapsa,
Johannesbaptista, Gomphosphaeria and Spirulina. Diatoms, which also occur
throughout the lake, include Amphora, Brachysira, Cymbella, Entomoneis,
Mastogloia, Navicula, Nitschia, and Synedra. The fenestrae within the thrombolites
provide habitats for isopods, amphipods, coleopteran and trichopterian larvae,
shrimps, and juvenile gobiid fishes. Other metazoans associated with the thrombolite
reef platform are nematodes, polychaetes, ostracods, copepods and two other species
of teleost fish (Moore & Burne, 1994). The gastropods Coxiella striatula and


                                Yalgorup Plain
                                Holocene Barrier Dunes
                                Mandurah-Eaton Ridge
                                Undifferentiated

                                                                      PEEL
                                                                     INLET
                                                        HAR
                                                           VEY
                                                           ESTU
                                                               ARY




                                         Lake
                                        Clifton




                                          Lake
                                         Hayward



                                         Lake Preston

                              5 km


                 Figure 29. Map of the Clifton-Preston Lakeland (after Semeniuk, 1995)


                                                                                           37
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide

                            Potamopyrgus sp. graze on sediment in shallow water of the foreshore, and
                            macroalgae (including Ruppia, Cladophora, and charophytes Lamprothamnium and
                            Nitella) also occur in the lake.
                               The modern sediment and foraminifera in Lake Clifton have been studied by
                            Michael Gartrell (in unpublished Postgraduate Diploma work at The University of
                            Western Australia). A dark-red gelatinous mud is present in the deep northern
                            channel. A well-sorted, light-grey, fine calcareous sand forms the basinal substrate in
                            the more southern parts of the lake. In places, shells of the gastropod Coxiella
                            striatula are conspicuous in the basinal sediment. The foreshore sand between the
                            thrombolites on the northeastern margin of the lake is coarse and includes carbonate
                            aggregates up to 1 cm long and 0.5 cm wide. Elsewhere around the lake, the
                            foreshore sand is well sorted.
                               Ostracod valves dominate the 150µm to 2mm fraction of the sediment ooze in the
                            deeper parts of northern portion of the lake. Indeterminate carbonate grains also are
                            abundant here, together with minor bivalve and gastropod shell debris, foraminiferal
                            tests, bryozoan fragments, charophyte oogonia, quartz, agglutinated tubes, and
                            sponge spicules.
                               The foraminifera include Ammonia tepida and Elphidium excavatum which
                            dominate both the living and total assemblages in the sediment. Michael Gartrell also
                            recorded rare examples of Trichohyalus tropicus, Trochammina inflata, Rosalina
                            sp., Lamellodiscorbis melbyae, small Quinqueloculina spp. and Peneroplis. Some of
                            the latter species may be relict from older Holocene deposits.

                                                                                   Figure 30. Aerial view of the northern part
                                                                                   of Lake Clifton showing the position of the
                                                                                   boardwalk and illustrating changes in water
                                                                                   depth in the lake. Dark areas along the
                                                                                   eastern strandline are concentrations of
                                                                                   thrombolites as illustrated in Figure 31.
                                                                                   Mosaic using parts of aerial photographs
                                                                                   WA 3832(C) Metro Regional Area, Run 4C
                                                                                   5110 and 5112, taken 05/01/97 (reproduced
                                                                                   by permission of The Department of Land
                                                                                   Administration).




                                                                   ➔
                                                                   ➔
                                                                   ➔   Boardwalk




38
                                                                                                        Lake Clifton




Figure 31. View of peripheral platform on eastern side of Lake Clifton, looking north from boardwalk.
Thrombolites grow on the platform, and in places form reef-like structures.




                                                                                                                       39
     Forams 2002 Penguin Island & Lake Clifton field guide




40
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