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					   AS HISTORY


Russia 1881-1953
Part 1:
INTRODUCTION
Part 2:
THE MAKING OF REVOLUTION
1881-1905
         OBJECTIVES OF THE
        INTRODUCTION UNIT

For you to understand:

   The key features of 19th Century Russia.
   Key Terms of Russian History, 1881-1905
   What were the challenges facing any Government of 19th
    Century Russia?
   Why reform was problematic?
Context and Time: 1881-1953

   1881: Beginnings of an industrial revolution in
    Russia and the strengthening of capitalism.

Key Dates 1881- 1905

   1881- Assassination of Alexander II
   1881- 9- Reign of Alexander III
   1894- Start of Nicholas II’s reign
   1894-1906 Sergi Witte‟s economic reforms
   1898- Social Democrats come into existence
   1901- Formation of the Social Revolutionary Party
    (SR‟s)
   1903- SD spilt into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
   1904-5 Russo-Japanese War
   1905- Revolution
Autocracy Vs Democracy

   By law and tradition, the tsar was the
    absolute ruler.

   Article 1: “The Emperor of all the Russians is
    an autocratic and unlimited monarch. G-d
    himself ordains that all must bow to his
    supreme power, not only out of fear but also
    out of conscience.”
Society
   Please refer to your 1st worksheet.

   82% of Russians were
    peasants
   The Emancipation of
    the Serfs in 1861
    should have improved
    life for the peasants but
    this didn‟t happen.
   Peasants known by the
    governing class as the
    ‘dark masses’
What was             19th   Century Russia like?

   At the end of your first
    main task you should                     POLITICS
    be able to
       Describe in detail what
        19th Century Russia was
        like in terms of politics, ECONOMY              GEOGRAPHY
        economy, geography and
        society
       Explain the challenges
        faced by any
                                             SOCIETY
        Government in these 4
        areas.
  Population           GEOGRAPHY     Russia covers
                                       8,000,000
Increased from                        Square miles
   40 to 165
Million between
  1815 & 1914


                      WHY WOULD
                       RUSSIA BE
                      DIFFICULT TO
                         RULE?




 There were 22 major nationalities
Russia was ruled
 By a Monarchy.
 Between 1613
                                                              Politics
& 1917 this was
The Romanovs’-
   They were
  AUTOCRATIC


                                   Tsar Alexander II
                                      1855-1881




       Tsar Alexander III
          1881-1894                                    Tsar Nicholas II
   He was known as "The Peasants Tsar",                  1894-1917
    primarily because of his plain tastes.
The class distribution of Russian
Population, 1897
   82%- Peasants
   12%- Upper class (nobility, higher clergy,
    military officers)
   4%- Working class (factory workers and small
    traders)
   1.5%- Commercial class (merchants, factory
    owners, financiers)
   0.5%- Ruling class (tsar, court and
    government)
 Economy




Major industrial growth had not   Despite over 80% of Russian’s
 taken place in Russia, unlike    being peasants, the AGRARIAN
  Britain and other Western              economy had failed.
           countries
Task Two- Use the table to outline
Positives/Negatives for the Tsarist Regime
                  Positive                Negative
            (from Tsar point of view)   (from opponents)

Geography


Political


Social


Economic
Russia: Geography
   You can fit India, China and Canada into Russia in 1900 and
    still have room to spare.
   5,000 miles at it‟s widest; 2,000 north to south.
   Population growth quadruped between 1815 and 1914; from
    40m-165m
   Principal cities; Moscow and St. Petersburg

   Wide variety of races, languages, cultures, religions and
    traditions.
   Poland and Finland under Russian control.
   Vastness of size, scale and variety was one of the many
    challenges facing Russian Tsars and governments.
Geography

         Positive                Negative

Sub tropical climate   1.6%   lived in towns and
Diversity of climate   cities
                        Sheer size of the country

                        Lack of infrastructure

                        Huge parts of the country
                        were infertile.
                        Temperature range -60 to
                        40
Russia: Politics – Inflexible Autocracy

   In theory; one empire, one ruler, one tradition.
   Article 1: “The Emperor of all the Russians is an autocratic and
    unlimited monarch. G-d himself ordains that all must bow to his
    supreme power, not only out of fear but also out of conscience.”

   Domestic policy was particularly harsh, directed not only against
    revolutionaries but other liberal movements.
   Foreign Policy was limited by the ambitions of the Tsar

   Paranoia: Fearing an attempt on his life, A.III refused to live in the
    Winter Palace; instead, he lived 30km away from St. Petersburg in
    Gatchina – a medieval fortress surrounded by ditches and
    watchtowers.
Where did power(?) lie in Tsarist society
                                                   Imperial Council
   Not elected nor appointed.             Honorary advisors responsible to the Tsar
   Advisory not functionary.
   The word of the Tsar was law. It
    was for they to implement his               Cabinet of Ministers
    commands.                                           Ran govt depts
   Russia was virtually bereft of
    democratic structure.
   A.III had introduced reforms in the                   Senate
                                                 Supervised operation of law
    1860s but this did not extend to
    political rights.
   Built on a fear of the “Dark Masses”
    – the working classes – and            Repressive structure to
    mixture of contempt from a ruling      society
    class of elites.
Political
            Positive                                   Negative
   Imperial council of state proposed   Autocracy,    Tsar- total authority
    new laws                             Imperial council often ignored and
   Senate- tried serious political      had no authority
    offences                             Appointments directly from the Tsar
   Provincial governors                 114,000 administrators- massive
   Judges/chiefs of police elected by   bureaucracy
    district assemblies                  Posts were unpaid and hard work -
   Strong tradition of service to the   led to corruption i.e Local officials -
    crown either in govt or army         free of taxes, lots of paperwork
                                         Tsar had little control
   1,400,000 men in Army
                                         Lack of political freedom resulted
                                         political violence
                                         Few thousand law enforcers

                                         Army used 1,400,000- lifelong
                                         conscription- 25years in the army.
                                         Used against National minorities e.g.
                                         Jews
Russia: Social (concerns and credits)

   Very small commercial and working class
   Enormous peasant population (82%)

       Ruling Class; 0.5%
       Upper Class; 12%
       Commercial Class; 1.5%
       Working Class; 4%
       Peasants; 82%
Social
            Positive                            Negative

Russian   orthodox church             Orthodox church was very
encouraged the population to          controlling
respect authority and support the      Holy Synod- church not
Tsar                                  independent
Social structure strong - no class    Tsar- absolute power over
mobility                              finance and appointments
Peasantry ill educated and            Big mortgages for peasants post
traditionally passive.                1861
                                       100 different languages- an
                                      empire not a country
                                       Nicholas I enforced censorship
Russia: Economy
   Noted for it‟s slow industrial
    development.
   Urals region produced
    considerable amounts of iron.
   Moscow and St.Petersburg
    known for textiles.
   Most villages had a smelting
    works, flaxen and woollen goods
    market – small in scale; cottage
    system.
   Underdeveloped transport and
    limited communications made
    economic development a difficult
    challenge.
   Absence of effective banking
    structure
Economic
         Positive                        Negative

                           1897-  126 million people in the Empire-
Some  Industrialisation   massive population growth.
from 1835 onward.          Unable to compete with Britain and
                           France
15,000 factories=         1 in 7 of population lacked resources

800,000 workers            40% of exports- grain

                           Didn‟t have 1 port that was ice free all
                           year
                           Underdeveloped banking system

                           Lacked labour for new industries

                           Growing population tied to villages by
                           Serfdom
                           No demand for manufactured goods

                           Trans-siberian railway incomplete
Russia: Agriculture and Peasant Class
   Despite Russia‟s land wealth it was also a source of weakness.
   (See geography notes).

   Not enough land to go a round.
   Abolition decree (1861) granted peasants land but most were
    unable to afford prices and mortgages.
          Often took families generations to pay back to repay
   Land was costly and taxation v.high;
     1. Raise government revenues.

     2. Compensate landowners for the loss of their serfs.

   Inefficient and backward; strip farming, antiquated technology.
   Thus; illiterate peasantry, deeply conservative, resistant to change
    and living in extreme poverty.
   Attempts made to educate masses. Elites worried about the „dark
    masses‟ as a source for rebellion.
(Addendum) Russia: Religion
   Essentially Russian in character –
    independent since the 15th century.
   Liturgical, musical, heavy, intense
    and highly conservative in character
    and motivation
   Highly supportive of Tsars,
    autocracy and tradition.
   Opposed political change and
    wholly committed to preservation of
    tsarist system in its reactionary
    form.
   Spiritual authority to teach Russian
    people their duty of total obedience
    to the tsar as G-d‟s anointed.
(Addendum) Russia: Army
   Notorious for its severity,
    discipline, long-service, grimness
    and harsh conditions.
   Belief: Large Army =
    Great/Powerful Russia.
   Source of social control.
   Long service; 25 years.
Question:

   So, how and where would change come from
    in Russia in the 19th Century?

   How could Russian society be reformed?
   Summary of Imperial Russia

                                             THE ECONOMY
    INSTITUTIONS
                                         •Limited industrial growth
•Autocratic Government
                                           •Backward agriculture
 •Corrupt bureaucracy
                                         •80% peasant population
 •Conservative Church
                                                •Inadequate
   •Oppressive Army
                                             communications

                           POLITICS
                        •No parliament
                      •State censorship
                •Prohibition on political parties
                 •An embittered intelligentsia
                 •Underground revolutionary
                            parties
    AS HISTORY


Russia 1881-1953

				
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