A Little History by rt3463df

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									A Little History
 Psychology 1106
             A little History
   Before the beginning of science (mid
    1600s) psychology was clearly in the
    domain of the philosophers
   Indeed, all sciences were
   Physics was the first to leave the
    nest
   Then chemistry
   Biology
   Finally, us
                  Aristotle
   Believed that the
    heart was the seat
    of behaviour
   He noted the
    importance of the
    brain (but it was
    for cooling blood
    he figured)
           British Empiricists
   Thomas Hobbes
    (1588-1679)
   Contents of mind
    rest on experience
   John Locke (1632-
    1704)
   ‘white paper’ or
    tabula rasa
             Rene Descartes
   Descartes said that
    we were machines
    with a soul
   The notion was
    that the mind and
    the body were
    separate
   Animals have no
    soul
     And yadda yadda yadda….
   By the 19th century people were
    talking about psychology
   Still the philosophers held sway
   Last half of the 19th century changed
    this
   The zeitgeist of the time changed
What the hell does zeitgeist mean?
   I don’t speak freaky deaky Dutch Mr.
    Goldmember
   The spirit of history
   The enlightenment of the 18th
    century was affecting the common
    person
   Science and technology could explain
    everything
               Gesundheit
   Even the origins of
    humanity could be
    explained without
    appealing to
    religion!
   Charles Darwin and
    the Origin of
    Species
   So like you could
    figure out anything
    with science!!
              Wilhelm Wundt
   1879 Leipzig
   Established his lab
    at the University of
    Leipzig
   Studied
    psychophysics
   Many of those
    methods are still
    used today
               William James
   Published his
    ‘Principles of
    Psychology’ in
    1890
   Lots of
    introspection
    • Looking into
      yourself
   Got lots of stuff
    right
John B. Watson and Behaviourism
   Became president of
    the APA in 1915
   A reaction against
    introspection
   For Watson and his
    ilk, introspection was
    a very bad thing
   Turning psychology
    back into philosophy
                Behaviourism
   BF Skinner and Ivan
    Pavlov
   Consciousness is an
    epiphenomenon
   Only concerned with
    the observable
   Skinner really became
    the spokesman for
    this view, Pavlov was
    not a behaviourist
   Skinner had a huge
    hold on psychological
    thinking in North
    America
    Meanwhile in Europe….
   Freud
    • Boooooooo
    • Dirty old man crack
      head from Vienna
    • Psychoanalysis
    • It is all about sex,
          With your mother….
    Those wacky Europeans, they are
             so, European
   Piaget
     • Child development
   Lorenz
     • Imprinting
   Kohler
     • Insight learning
   Gestalt psychology
   Clearly different
    from Behaviourism
           Cognitive Revolution
   This stuff, and a lot of
    interesting data
    (especially HM) lead
    to the idea that we
    should be more
    concerned about
    thinking
   Brenda Milner
    • She is the one on the
      left…
   The cognitive
    revolution hit every
    part of psychology
     More recent developments
   Brain imaging
    • PET fMRI
    • Watch people think!
   Computers
    • Modeling and AI
   Now we are splitting up into cognitive
    science, neuroscience and AI
   Many old ideas have been rediscovered
    • Species differences
    • Ideas about memory
    • Going through stages
               In Canada
   Psychology has always been strong
    in Canada
   First lab in Canada was in 1890 at U
    of T
    • James Mark Baldwin
   Research in Canada is funded by
    NSERC, SSHRC and CIHR
    Many big names are from Canada
   Bandura                         Roberts
   Tulving                         MacLoed
   Hebb                            Paivio
   Milner                          Pylishyn
   Baldwin                         Kolb
   Craik                           Wishaw
   Lockhart                        Honig
   Shettleworth                    Staddon
The most cited psychology Department in the WORLD is U of T

								
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