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This policy has been designed primarily as a guide for the SABPP ETQA and its providers to implement
Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) within the Human Resources (HR) sector. Recognition of Prior Learning
(RPL) in South Africa is critical to the development of an equitable HR education and training system. As such
a policy to develop and facilitate implementation of RPL across all sectors of education and training is critical.
The aim is therefore to meet the needs of all the HR role players. The SABPP ETQA will facilitate the
implementation of RPL and quality assurance assessment policies of our constituent providers.
The assessment system of the SABPP ETQA will include a policy on RPL, which is a key principle of the NQF
particularly in as far as accelerated learning, and ensuring the redress of past inequities is concerned.
Irrespective if the learning that took place, such learning should be recognized and credited. The constituent
provider's policy on RPL should make provision for learners to be assessed when so required by the learner and
learners should be awarded such credits as per the outcomes of the assessment. It must be very clear that all
assessments including RPL will be done against nationally recognized HR standards and qualifications.
Outcomes Based Education and Training is not entirely dependent on time spent on learning, the emphasis is
on the learner's ability to demonstrate competence. This makes the recognition of prior learning possible. Once
a HR learner knows what is required and feels ready, they can present themselves for assessment and/or submit
their portfolio of evidence of having achieved competence.
Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is defined in the National Standards Bodies Regulations (No 18787 of 28
March 1998, issued in terms of the SAQA Act 58 of 1995) as follows:
"Recognition of prior learning means the comparison of the previous learning and experience of a learner
howsoever obtained against the learning outcomes required for a specified qualification, and the acceptance for
purposes of qualification of that which meets the requirements".
This definition makes clear a number of principles in the development and execution of RPL:
2.1 Within the HR sector learning occurs in all kinds of situations - formally, informally and non-formally;
2.2 Measurement of the learning takes place against specific HR learning outcomes required for a specific HR
qualification; and
2.3 Credits are awarded for such learning if it meets the requirements of the specific HR qualification.
2.4 The process of RPL is about:
2.4.1 Identifying what the HR candidate knows and can do;
2.4.2 Matching the candidate's skills, knowledge and experience to specific HR standards and the associated
assessment criteria of a HR qualification;
2.4.3 Assessing the candidate against those HR standards; and
2.4.4 Crediting the candidate for HR skills, knowledge and experience built up through formal, informal and
non-formal learning that occurred in the past.
This policy is divided into clear sections directly linked to the content of the South African Qualifications
Authority (SAQA) policy documents. The SABPP ETQA hereby acknowledge the use of the mentioned policy
documents published in 12 June 2002 as well as 13 August 2003.
4.1 A list of the most common SABPP ETQA abbreviations and acronyms used in this document appears
INDICATOR EXPLANATION                                      INDICATOR          EXPLANATION
CEO              Chief Executive Officer                   CHE                Council of Higher Education
ETDP             Education and Training Practitioners ETQA                    Education and Training Quality
                                                                              Assurance Body
HR               Human Resources                           Mou                Memorandum of Understanding
NLRD             National Learner Records Database         SA                 South Africa
SABPP            South African Board for Personnel         SHRP               Small Human Resource Provider
4.2 Acronyms and abbreviations used by SAQA within RPL
APL              Assessment of Prior Learning
APEL             Assessment of Prior Experiential Learning
CALL             Council for Adult and Experiential Learning
CETA             Construction Education and Training Authority
COSATU           Congress of South African Trade Unions
CTP              Committee of Technikon Principals
DTI              Department of Trade and Industry
ETQA             Education and Training Quality Assurance body
EVC              Erkennen van elders of informeel Verworven Competenties
FET              Further Education and Training
FNTI             First Nations Technical Institute
HE               Higher Education
HEQC             Higher Education Quality Committee
MEIETB           Metal and Engineering Industries Education and Training Board
MERSETA          Manufacturing, Engineering and Related Services Education and
                 Training Authority
NGO              Non-governmental organisation
NQF              National Qualifications Framework
NSA              National Skills Authority
NSB              National Standards Body
NUM              National Union of Mineworkers
NUMSA            National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa
PLA              Prior Learning Assessment
PLAR             Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition
QMS              Quality Management Systems
RPL              Recognition of Prior Learning
SAQA             South African Qualifications Authority
SETA             Sector Education and Training Authority
SGB              Standards Generating Body
SMME             Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises
4.1.1 See above point 2 for the definition of RPL.
The following terms and definitions are used within the policies of the SABPP ETQA:
4.1.2 Monitoring is the process by which the SABPP ETQA will confirm that providers
regularly monitor and report on the effectiveness of learning and assessment activities.
4.1.3 A training provider is not limited to an institution or organisation. Providers can
include companies, centres, collaboration among a range of partners (organisations,
institutions, companies, individuals, community structures) and even some forms of
4.1.4 Assessor - who carries out and may develop assessment assignments. The assessment
of candidates/learners is based on NQF registered unit standards and/or qualifications. A
successful assessment exercise results in the recommendation of an award, which will be
registered on the SABPP ETQA database and the candidate/learner will be issued with an
appropriate nationally recognized certificate, diploma or degree.
4.1.5 Internal Moderator - who carries out and verifies the quality of the assessment
process on behalf of the provider. The internal moderator provides qualitative and
quantitative information on performance assessed and moderates assessment/training
practice, retrieves and records assessment results on a database, provides feedback and
management information on assessment and training, and recommends improvements.
4.2 Terms and definitions that have been drawn from the SAQA RPL documentation
4.2.1 Assessment is the process of gathering and weighing evidence in order to determine
whether learners have demonstrated outcomes specified in unit standards and/or
qualifications registered on the NQF. The generic assessor standard registered by SAQA
entitled `Plan and conduct assessment of learning outcomes' outlines the process in detail.
The management of assessment is the responsibility of providers.
4.2.2 Moderation is the process of ensuring that assessments have been conducted in line
with agreed practices, and are fair, reliable and valid. The generic assessor standard
registered by SAQA entitled `Moderate assessment ' outlines the process in detail. One
moderator usually checks the work of several assessors to ensure consistency. The
management of moderation is the responsibility of the provider.
4.2.3 Verification is the process by which the recommendations from the provider about
the award of credits or qualifications to learners are checked. The generic assessor standard
`Verify moderation of assessment' registered by SAQA, outlines this process in detail. It is
an ETQA function to verify the claims of providers that assessment has been properly
conducted and moderated.
4.2.4 Evidence facilitation is the process by which candidates are assisted to produce and
organise evidence for the purpose of assessment. It is not an essential part of every
assessment process, but is useful in many contexts, including RPL. The generic assessor
standard `Facilitate the preparation and presentation of assessment evidence by candidates'
currently being generated by the SGB outlines this process in detail.
4.2.5 RPL advice and support services are additional services needed for effective RPL
which are not covered by the assessor standard or the evidence facilitator standard. These
focus on assisting learners to make effective choices about available programmes, career
and work related opportunities. Practitioners require a thorough knowledge of the relevant
economic sector. They should be trained to identify skills, knowledge and other attributes
developed outside formal knowledge systems, and to interact with cultural sensitivity.
Constituent means belonging to the defined or delegated constituency of an organisation or
body referred to in the SAQA ETQA Regulations. ETQAs have constituent providers,
constituent learners and constituent assessors.
4.2.6 Registered constituent assessor and moderator means a person who is registered by
the relevant ETQA in accordance with criteria established for this purpose by SAQA to
measure the achievement of specified National Qualifications Framework standards or
qualifications. All ETQAs must have a register of assessors; they may also wish to have
similar registers of moderators and verifiers.
4.2.7 Registered constituent verifiers means persons placed on an official register by the
relevant ETQA after meeting agreed criteria. Constituent verifiers may be contracted by
the ETQA to carry out verification activities on its behalf in relation to the achievement of
specified National Qualifications Framework standards or qualifications.
5.1 The vision is to ensure that the HR providers will be able to apply RPL with particular
focus on HR qualifications and standards.
5.2 The mission and main purpose of RPL to the SABPP ETQA is to:
5.2.1 Design and implement an RPL system for HR providers.
5.2.2 Facilitate access to, and mobility and progression within the education, training and
career paths; and
5.2.3 Accelerate redress of past unfair discrimination in education, training and
employment opportunities; without
5.2.4 Compromising HR standards.
As a young ETQA, we will move towards these objectives within the following 3 (three)
5.3 The criteria are based on the values of a flexible approach that will be used to RPL
learners and assist accredit providers in order to meet their different and unique needs. To
ensure that the quality of learning, teaching and assessment are the focus of all RPL
activities. Lastly that RPL is to be carried out in a constructive developmental way.
6.1.1 Clear HR focus.
6.1.2 The SABPP ETQA notes that there is no fundamental difference in the assessment of
previously acquired skills and knowledge and the assessment of skills and knowledge
acquired through a current learning programmes. The HR candidate seeking credits for
previously acquired skills and knowledge must still comply with all the requirements as
stated in HR unit standards or qualifications.
6.1.3 The difference lies in the route to the assessment. RPL is a form of assessment,
which ideally, should be fully integrated into all HR learning programmes. As such, the
principles of good assessment are equally true for RPL and all other forms of assessment.
This includes taking a holistic view of the process of assessment, where the context of the
learning, as well as the context of the person who is being assessed is taken into account.
6.1.4 The SABPP ETQA will address the following key roles and functions: Accredit constituent providers for specific HR standards or qualifications registered
on the National Qualifications Framework; Promote RPL quality amongst constituent providers; Monitor RPL provision by constituent providers; and Evaluate RPL practices facilitate monitoring as well as audits among constituent
6.2.1 Accredited by the SABPP ETQA, they share the primary focus of HR.
6.2.2 These providers must provide evidence of their ability to provide RPL services to
learners within the HR sector.
6.3.1 Key challenge for both the SABPP ETQA and the accredited providers in SA to
develop, implement and manage a HR RPL system within the next three (3) years.
6.3.2 The RPL don't “only have” a redress function or a “limited lifespan”, but will mainly
support the principle of lifelong learning in HR.
6.3.3 This policy provides the criteria and guidelines for the SABPP ETQA and its HR
Providers as the basis for RPL of learners. The SABPP ETQA is the body which accredits
the HR providers and which is responsible for ensuring that the HR provider maintains and
improves the quality of RPL, learning provision and learning achievements.
6.3.4 The relationship of HR providers to the SABPP ETQA is governed through the
notion of “ one provider to one ETQA” based on the principle of a shared primary HR
6.4.1 AN AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The SABPP ETQA will determine the current RPL services rendered by each
constituent provider applying for accreditation. This would form part of the application
form to be accredited as a HR training provider and demonstrated during site visits.
This includes aspects such as their: RPL purpose; Target market; Field of learning; RPL criteria; Assessment methodologies; Accreditation arrangements, and Results management. The SABPP ETQA CEO / ETQA Manager as well as accredited providers will
keep evidence of current RPL regulations and statutory requirements. They will build the
requirements as well as changes into their RPL policy with the necessary notification to
each other.
This includes aspects such as: Professional body statutory requirements; Rules governing access into further education and training; Workplace arrangements; Rules, etc. The SABPP ETQA CEO / ETQA Manager as well as accredited providers will
keep evidence of current RPL access and admission policies and procedures. They will
build the requirements as well as changes into their RPL policy with the necessary
notification to each other.
This includes aspects such as: Access and admissions for non-traditional learners lacking minimum
requirements for entry; Rules governing the awarding of credits towards learning attained, etc. The accredited providers must provide evidence of efficient administrative policies
and procedures to execute RPL.
This includes aspects such as: Transcriptions of credits; Access and awarding of credits; Awarding of credits towards subjects, modules or outcomes (Subjects and
modules are the vehicles through which the outcomes and qualifications are achieved). We
as an ETQA and implementers of RPL will identify clearly which composite parts will
make up the attainment of an outcome and the administrative systems should be able to
capture and transcribe such credits; Credits to be transferable within an institution and between institutions Record-keeping, etc. The SABPP ETQA CEO / ETQA Manager as well as accredited providers will
keep evidence of current RPL funding, cost and regional possibilities. HR providers must
consider financially viable models for RPL delivery.
Statement 1: Fees for delivery of RPL services should not create barriers for candidates.
Statement 2: Fees for the assessment of RPL should be less than the cost for a full-time
module or learning programme.
Statement 3: Strategies will be investigated to provide advice to learners to maintain credit-
bearing portfolio development or other articulation programmes to assist candidates in
their preparation for assessment, and to qualify for available subsidies for selected skills
programmes and learnerships.
Statement 4: Attention will be given to flexible payment options, in line with the policies
and procedures of this ETQA and accredited providers.
Statement 5: The SABPP ETQA Committee will give attention to RPL research and
development priorities. A target is to minimize start-up cost for the implementation of
These possibilities include: Direct funding from NSF, specially for unemployed candidates; Private/ business initiatives; SETA funding through tenders and learnerships. SAQA example on charging for RPL: If a National Certificate (120 credits) takes
an average of 1200 hours to complete, then the calculated time spent by a teacher/ lecturer/
trainer on preparation, assessment and judgment of evidence (for example 20% of the
time). This % could be used as a guide for establishment of cost. SAQA stated that international studies have revealed the following three (3)
options for charging fees:
(a) Fees based on the time spent to complete the RPL process;
(b) A common fee irrespective of the time spent or the number of credits awarded;
(c) A fee based on the number of credits applied for and awarded. The SABPP ETQA CEO/ ETQA Manager will identify barriers that will influence
the implementation of RPL and report them to the ETQA Committee for attention.
This includes barriers such as: The perceived lack of reformed HR qualifications, i.e. qualifications developed in
accordance with outcomes-based education principles; Delays in the registration of competent HR RPL assessors/ moderators; Delays in the accreditation of education and training providers in HR. Recognition of Prior Learning suggests that where a candidate can provide
evidence of sufficient and current learning as associated with a matriculation level
learning, a provider could (to continue with the higher education example), grant access or
credits to such a learner based on the evidence. The barrier is to apply the “equivalence”
required standard without conforming to minimum entry levels. A thorough investigation
into how such practices may be undertaken must be done and the appropriate changes to
access and admissions policies will be addressed. Auditing of current practices is equally important for workplaces wanting to
implement RPL and for employment centers, where candidates who seek work could be
assisted to be given recognition and credits for their prior learning.
The SABPP ETQA will determine the current RPL services rendered by each constituent
provider. The SABPP ETQA Committee will refer the following information received from
RPL outcomes to the SGB for Human Resources Practices: HR Curriculum developers will increasingly be confronted with RPL when
curriculum design is based on NQF registered unit standards and qualifications, this
includes the `RPL-ability' of qualifications and unit standards. Through feedback from providers as well as sector surveys attention will be given
to assessment and RPL practice to inform SGB of the need to development of new
standards, qualifications, learning programmes and curriculum. HR providers will have to apply methods of instruction and delivery to provide
curriculae that will to meet the diverse cultural, ethnic, linguistic and educational needs of
learners. The ETQA Committee will give intensive attention to RPL matters such as: HR Learning programmes that take into account the nature and form of
knowledge produced in previously excluded constituencies and locations (indigenous
knowledge, women's knowledge, workers knowledge, etc.); HR learning programmes that reflects the diversity needs and goals of the learner
population; HR Learning programmes indicates how candidates prior knowledge has been
affirmed and taken into account; HR Learning programmes is flexible to allow for flexible entry and exit points to
enhance access and the achievement of learning goals; Advice and forward trends to the SGB for HRP on emerging trends received from
assessment and RPL where these have implications for moderation and redesign of unit
standards and qualifications. Assist in situations where candidates demonstrate knowledge that does not easily
fit existing unit standards or exit level outcomes, credit equivalencies will be established in
consultation with subject experts and where applicable other ETQAs. Ensure that RPL initiatives are HR sector specific and will range from
employability, advanced standing, admission, access, the awarding of credits to HR job
promotion. Move towards the use of Mou's to enhance co-operations that will keep cost
down and prevent competition.
Intensive attention will also be given to:
(a) Reform outdated qualifications;
(b) The absence of registered assessors / moderators;
(c) Delays in the accreditation of education and training providers.
(d) Assist the CEO/ ETQA manager of the SABPP ETQA to develop, implement and
manage criteria for quality assurance of RPL within the HR sector. This includes the
reaching of targets, partnerships and collaboration that may need to take place in order to
(e) SABPP ETQA Committee will appoint work groups to investigate and provide
recommendations concerning the:
E.1 Enhancement of RPL quality processes;
E.2 Establishment of a RPL culture within the HR sector;
E.3 Identification of RPL target areas within the HR sector;
E.4 Identification of target markets (unemployed, under-qualified practitioners, candidates
without formal entry requirements, etc.);
E.5 Establishment of support structures within the SABPP ETQA.
(f) As the above is the first in the form of a policy, these practices will be implemented
over a period of five (5) years.
During an SABPP ETQA audit at a HR training provider, attention will be given if the
RPL evidence reflects the following steps taken in the RPL process:
7.1 RPL evidence facilitator meets candidate to conduct pre-screening to ascertain
viability of application. This includes assistance if application was not viable.
7.2 Pre-assessment stage evidence (Preparation of candidate for assessment and
Development of an assessment plan).
7.3 Assessment stage evidence (Practical assessment and Tests, interviews, etc.).
7.4 Judgement stage evidence.
7.5 Moderation stage evidence.
7.6 Feedback stage evidence.
7.7 Credits awarded/ not awarded evidence.
7.8 Post-assessment support evidence.
7.9 Appeal process evidence
8.1 See the SABPP ETQA policy on the accreditation of HR providers for information
concerning site visits/ audits.
8.2 The SABPP ETQA audit team will provide attention to matters such as:
8.2.1 RPL policies, procedures and systems in place.
8.2.2 Information on RPL, administrative and resources support for RPL is readily
8.2.3 The provider has developed a criteria framework within which pre-screening criteria
are readily available to candidates;
8.2.4 Assessment instruments have been developed and moderated;
8.2.5 Alternate pathways/ options as well as additional counseling services.
8.2.6 Where no facilitators are available, assessors will undertake all functions.
8.2.7 Auditing of “Toolkit” for assessors/ moderators: Assessors / moderators guide. Assessment report. Evidence guide. Instruction sheets for candidates. Orientation document. Action plan. RPL evaluation form.
The SABPP ETQA in conjunction with its constituent institutions/ providers will agree and
implement capacity building plans for the following:
9.1 Training of staff, including the registration of assessors and key personnel. Done in line
with SAQA and SABPP ETQA requirements.
9.2 The development of assessors and moderator guidelines, including assessment policies,
processes and procedures.
9.3 Appropriate infrastructure for assessment, including reporting, monitoring and review
9.4 Quality assurance of processes and results, including internal and external moderation
The SABPP ETQA and accredited HR education and training providers will ensure that the
rights of learners and assessors will be protected in a fair manner.
10.1.1 The right to fair and transparent processes.
10.1.2 Access up front to the standards and criteria, which will be used in the assessment
and accreditation processes.
10.1.3 Access up front to the learning outcomes to be met.
10.1.4 Access to competent, trained educators and assessors who want them to succeed and
who explore innovative methods to assist them to do so, who balance adequate subject
knowledge and critical cross-field outcomes with skills, competencies and practical
knowledge and are skilled in working with diverse groups of adult candidates to build
learning communities.
10.1.5 The rights to be assessed by assessment methods, which are flexible, appropriate to
the subject and tailored to the needs of the candidate.
10.1.6 The right to have prior learning evaluated and assessed for academic credit towards
credentials within a reasonable period of time.
10.1.7 The right to transfer credits gained by means of the RPL process.
10.2.1 Grant the level of credit sought by the candidate.
10.2.2 Grant credit in excess of the level sought by the candidate.
10.2.3 Grant credit at a lower level than that sought by the candidate.
10.2.4 Grant such credit as is appropriate in the circumstances.
10.2.5 Refuse to grant credit.
10.2.6 Request that additional information be provided in whatever format necessary.
10.2.7 Refer the candidate for additional learning programmes and request reassessment
after completion.
10.2.8 Review the RPL process and take appropriate actions to improve the performance
where necessary.
10.2.9 Follow national guidelines for an appeals/ grievance procedures for candidates who
may want to appeal against an unfavorable outcome on procedural or academic grounds
and design a procedures template.
The SABPP ETQA will provide intensive attention during an audit on a accredited
provider concerning the following aspects:
Methods and processes used during RPL assessment/ moderation. This includes aspects
such as:
11.1 Clearness of the purpose and expectations during RPL process.
11.2 The form, quality and sources of RPL evidence provided.
11.3 The type of Assessment methods used.
11.4 Integration of international evidence into local RPL processes.
11.5 Candidate support provided.
11.6 Appeals procedure followed.
11.7 Description and motivation of NQF levels at which RPL was conducted.
11.8 Combination and integration use of RPL practices and curriculum development.
11.9 Moderation and review practices applied.
The SABPP ETQA will give attention to ensure that each accredited HR education and
training provider will base their RPL on required SAQA and professional HR conduct
quality processes.
This will be done by:
12.1 Pre-agreed quality assurance mechanisms as part of provider policies and procedures.
12.2 Quality assurance through high standard moderation practices.
12.3 The view that quality management is not a once-off process.
12.4 Request production of RPL on an accountable system basis.
12.5 Ensure high premium to fairness, validity, reliability and practicability.
12.6 Give attention to input from all key stakeholders.
12.7 Support in meeting quality development targets.
12.8 Ensure that quality aspects are clearly spelt out.
12.9 Evidence provided maintains high standards.
12.10 RPL recording will be done in accordance with the SABPP ETQA and SAQA's
NLRD requirements.
12.11 Monitor of RPL progress.
12.12 In-depth attention to reporting and RPL results feedback.
13.1 An appeals procedure for learners is a necessary part of any RPL system. The
legitimacy of the RPL process is assured by establishing a mechanism to allow learners to
revoke their rights in the event of a dispute with an RPL outcome.
13.2 Learners will have access to appeal an outcome to the Assessor/ practitioner who will
acknowledge and deals with it.
13.3 If the learner is still not satisfied, appeal is lodged with the internal provider
moderation committee/ management within five (5) working days the assessor/ practitioner
notified the learner/ candidate of his/her final outcome.
13.4 If not satisfied, appeal is lodged with external moderation structures such as the
SABPP ETQA. Notice of an RPL appeal may be lodged in writing with the Board of the
SABPP within five (5) working days of the receipt of notification of the decision from the
internal provider.
13.5 Within a further ten (10) working days the appellant should submit a statement setting
out the grounds for the appeal, together with any relevant documentation to the SABPP
13.6 The SABPP Board will consider the grounds of the appeal on the basis of the written
evidence provided and may call for further evidence if required. The SABPP ETQA
decision will be the final decision.
14.1 The SABPP ETQA undertakes that no information supplied to it as part of the RPL
process will be divulged to any unauthorised third party.
14.2 SABPP accredited assessors / moderators will be promoted and recommended to the
industry served by the SABPP.
The SABPP ETQA wants to provide the due respect to the contributors whom assisted the
South African Qualification Authority to develop the Criteria and Guidelines for the
Implementation of Recognition of Prior Learning. Adopted 13 August 2003.
Construction Education and Training Authority (2002). Assessor- Guide; Evidence Guide
Council for Higher Education (2001). New Academic Policy. Pretoria
Department of Education (1997). Education White Paper 3: A programme for the
transformation of Higher Education, Pretoria.
Department of Education (2001). National Plan for Higher Education. Pretoria.
Du Pre, R.H. and Pretorius, K. (2001). CTP policy on RPL. Committee of Technikon
Principals. Pretoria.
Harris, Judy., 2000. RPL: Power, Pedagogy and Possibility. Conceptual and
Implementation Guides. HSRC. Pretoria
Heyns, Ronel: Recognition of Prior Learning: In search of a valid and sustainable system
for South Africa. (Unpublished Master's dissertation).
Mays, Tony. (2002). The National Professional Diploma in Education. Pretoria.
Nyatanga, L., Forman, D. and Fox, J. (1998). Good practice in the accreditation of prior
learning. Cassel Education. London.
Osman, R. and Castle, J. (2001). RPL: Early lessons, challenges and promise. SAJHE.
Volume 15:1, pp. 54 - 60.
SAQA, (2001). Criteria and Guidelines for the Assessment of NQF registered unit
standards and qualifications. Pretoria.
SAQA, (2001). Criteria and Guidelines for the Registration of Assessor s. Pretoria. SAQA,
(1998). National Standards Bodies Regulations, Number 18787of 28 March 1998. Pretoria.
SAQA, (2002). The Recognition of Prior Learning in the contazt of the National
Qualifications Framework. Pretoria.
Simosko, S and Cook, C., (1996). Applying APL principles inflexible assessment: A
practical guide. Kogan. 2°d Edition. London.
Strydom, Francois, (2002). Access to Higher Education. A research project for the FOTIM
and FSHFETT. Johannesburg.
Technikon Southern Africa, (2003). RPL Implementation. Johannesburg.
UNISA, (2002). Recognition of Prior Learning.
Van Kleef, J., (1999). A slice of the iceberg: Largest study on Prior- Learning Assessment
and Recognition ever conducted. The Ontario Network of Employment Skills Training
Project. Volume 9, issue 5. Ontario.
Whitaker, Urban, (1989). Assessing Learning. Council for Adult and Experiential
Learning. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
                                       End of the policy.

Lingjuan Ma Lingjuan Ma MS
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