Monitoring and Assessment of Exposure and Potential by hse16929

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									                             FIELD REPORT
                          For the Yellow Sea Study
                               April-May 2008



Monitoring and Assessment of Exposure and Potential Biological Effects of
Persistent and Toxic Contaminants in the Yellow Sea (North-Eastern China
                          and Western Korea)




                                Prepared by

                          Jong Seong Khim, Ph.D.
                            Jonathan Naile, B.S.

                             Toxicology Centre
                         University of Saskatchewan
                             44 Campus Drive
                          Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3

                              Tel: 306-966-5206
                      E-mail: jongseong.khim@usask.ca

                               June 16, 2008
Contents


Preface                                            3

1. RESEARCH OVERVIEW                             4-8
    1.1. Research Participants                     4
    1.2. Research Agreement                        5
    1.3. Research Objectives                       8

2. SAMPLING                                     9-64
    2.1. Sampling Area                             9
    2.2. Sample Collection                        10
        2.2.1. Chinese Samples                    10
        2.2.2. Korean Samples                     49

3. ANALYSIS                                    65-66
    3.1. Sample Preparation and Analysis          65

4. FUTURE PLAN                                 67-70
    4.1. Timeline                                 67
    4.2. Manuscript                               69

Field Participants                                70




                                           2
Preface

The present report is prepared to provide the overview and summary of
the field survey that conducted in April to May 2008 in Korea and
China. The survey aimed to collect environmental samples such as
sediment, soil, water, and biological samples from the Yellow Sea
coastal areas including west coast of Korea and north-east coast of
China.

Twelve people participated, three in Korea and nine in China and made a trip over 1,500 km in
Korea (3 days) and 7,000 km in China (2 weeks), respectively. A total of 15 and 37 locations
along the coastal areas in Korea and China, respectively, were selected to cover random
sampling and point sources. More than 50 and 150 samples have been collected in each
country that included soil, sediment, water, and various species of coastal and riverine organisms.

It was a long, huge and comprehensive field trip across two countries the likes of which none of
us had never experienced before and we made good team-work and partnership throughout the
filed period between the groups participated from China (Prof. Lu, RCEES), Canada (Prof. Giesy,
U of S), and Korea (Prof. Koh, SNU).

All the samples are now being processed and will be prepared during upcoming summer based
on the methods (U of S ETL-SOPs) outlined in the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP). Again,
we appreciate all the participants to the field trip and also to the project for their hard and sincere
work made during the preparation of the SAP followed by the filed trip.

Finally, we appreciate Profs Lu, Giesy, and Koh for their kind agreement and strong support for
the long-term research cooperation including the current project.

June 16, 2008


Jong Seong Khim, Ph.D. and Jonathan Naile, B.S.

Toxicology Centre
University of Saskatchewan
44 Campus Drive
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3
Tel: 306-966-5206
E-mail: jongseong.khim@usask.ca




                                                  3
1. RESEARCH OVERVIEW

1.1. Research Participants

China

Yonglong Lu1, Tieyu Wang1, Wentao Jiao1, Wenyou Hu1, Wei Luo1, Xiang Zhang1
1
  State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental
Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.


Canada

John P. Giesy2,3,4,5, Jong Seong Khim2, Jonathan E Naile2, Paul D. Jones2, Yi Wan2, Suqing Li2,6
2
 Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences and Toxicology Centre, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
3
 Zoology Department, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, and Center for Integrative
Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA
4
 Biology and Chemistry Department, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong,
SAR, China
5
    School ofthe Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing China.
6
    Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China


Korea

Chul-Hwan Koh7, Jin-Soon Park7, Bong-Oh Kwon7
7
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National
University, Seoul 151-742, Korea




                                                 4
1.2. Research Agreement




                          5
    (cont.)




       6
    (cont.)




      7
1.3. Research Objectives

      Determine environmental concentrations of target persistent and toxic contaminants and
      total biological activities based on several bioassays and identify novel chemicals in the
      Bohai Sea (north-east China) and Yellow Sea (west Korea) region. If appropriate
      determine loadings and sources.

      Determine distribution and source characteristics (and possibly fate, transport, or food
      web) of target contaminants:
              a) compounds-specific source identifications
              b) regional comparisons
                       - between inland versus coastal region
                       - between north and north-east coasts of China vs. west coast of Korea
              c) fate or food web study for the selected compounds, if applicable
              d) movements and pathways in multi-media

      Address potential biological effects associated with samples:
              Primarily:
              a) Overt toxicity to cells (live dead assay in mammalian cells, Calcaen AM and
                      Ethidium homodimer)
              b) AhR-receptor (dioxin-like) activities (HII4E-luc; luciferase)
              c) Estrogenic activities (MVLN cells-luciferase)
              d) Effects on steroidogenesis (H295R cells)
              Secondly:
              e) Androgenicity (MDA cells or equivalent)
              f) Mutagenicity (Mutatox®, Photobacterium phosphoreum; luminescence).

              g) Retinoid receptor agonists
              h) Thyroid hormone agonists

      Identify potential toxic chemicals based on the TIE and mass balance approach
      (fractionation)

      Establish background monitoring data for target contaminants in the study area and
      possibly develop the site-specific environmental quality guidelines

      Prioritize the site-specific contaminants of concern in the study area




                                               8
2. SAMPLING

2.1. Sampling Area

       Locations from China          Total        (n=37)
              TangShan:              TS1-7        (n=7)
              QinHuangdao:           QH1-5        (n=5)
              HuLudao:               HL1-5        (n=5)
              JinZhou:               JZ1-5        (n=5)
              PanJin:                PJ1-2        (n=2)
              YingKou:               YK1-3        (n=3)
              DaLian:                DL1-6        (n=6)
              DanDong:               DD1-4        (n=4)

       Locations from Korea          Total        (n=15)
              Lake Shihwa:           LS1-4        (n=4)
              ASan:                  AS1-2        (n=2)
              SapGyo:                SG1-2        (n=2)
              SinDuri:               SD           (n=1)
              ManLipo:               ML           (n=1)
              AnMyundo:              AM           (n=1)
              GeumGang:              GG1-2        (n=2)
              YeongSangang:          YS1-2        (n=2)




Map of Study Area and Sampling Location ( )


                                              9
2.2. Sample Collection

2.2.1. Chinese Samples

List of Samples from China

Area           Sample ID and Location             Date Collected   Soil   Sediment   Water   Biological   Field Blank
TangShan:      TS1    Dou Rive                    May 6th           O        O        O          O
               TS2    Qing Long River             May 6th           O        O        O          O
               TS3    Shuang Long River           May 6th                    O        O          O
               TS4    Shuang Long River           May 6th           O        O        O
               TS5    Nuan River Mouth            May 7th           O        O        O          O
               TS6    Nuan River Mouth            May 7th           O        O        O
               TS7    Upstream of Luanne River    May 18th          O        O        O          O            O
QinHuangdao: QH1 Golden Beach                     May 7th                    O        O
               QH2 Upstream of River Tidal Flat   May 8th           O        O        O          O
               QH3 Bracish water Tidal flat       May 8th                    O        O          O
               QH4 Beach                          May 8th           O        O        O          O            O
               QH5 Tian Mu Lake Reservior         May 8th           O        O        O          O
HuLudao:       HL1    Beach                       May 9th                    O        O          O
               HL2    Small River 5km from Sea    May 9th           O        O        O
               HL3    Big River                   May 9th           O        O        O          O
               HL4    WuLi River                  May 10th          O        O        O
               HL5    Beach                       May 10th          O        O        O          O
JinZhou:       JZ1    Cuitun                      May 10th          O                            O
               JZ2    Jinzhou                     May 12th          O        O        O          O
               JZ3    Dalin River                 May 12th          O        O        O          O            O
               JZ4    Dalin River                 May 12th          O        O        O          O
               JZ5    Dalin River                 May 13th          O        O        O
PanJin:        PJ1    Panjung                     May 13th          O        O        O          O
               PJ2    Open Sea (harbor)           May 13th          O        O        O          O            O
YingKou:       YK1 Dalio River                    May 13th          O        O        O
               YK2 Dalio River                    May 13th          O        O        O          O
               YK3 Beach                          May 14th          O        O        O          O
DaLian:        DL1    Salt water Channel          May 14th          O        O        O          O            O
               DL2    Medium Sized River          May 14th          O        O        O          O
               DL3    Black Rock Beach            May 15th                            O          O
               DL4    Big Beach                   May 15th                  O         O          O
               DL5    Biliu River                 May 15th          O       O         O
               DL6    Channel Tidal Flat          May 15th          O       O         O          O
DanDong:       DD1 Dayung River                   May 16th          O       O         O
               DD2 Yalu River                     May 16th          O       O         O
               DD3 Yalu River                     May 16th          O       O         O          O            O
               DD4 Yalu River                     May 16th          O       O         O
no. of samples                                                      31      35        36        26            6




                                                             10
Species Identification for Biological Samples from China

Location     Species Name                                                              No. of Individual
             Scientific Name                 Common Name                 Korean Name
TS1          Carassius carassius             Crucian Carp                붕어            4
TS2          Helice tridens tridens                                      방게            1
TS3          Helice tridens tridens                                      방게            3
TS5          Portunus trituberculatus        Japanese Blue Crab          꽃게            3
             Helice tridens tridens                                      방게            >20
TS7          Rana rugosa                     Wrinkled Frog               옴개구리          2
QH2          Carassius carassius             Crucian Carp                붕어            8
QH3          Helice tridens tridens                                      방게            3
             Macrophthalmus japonicus        Mud Crab                    칠게            2
QH4          Charybdis japonica              Swimming Crab               민꽃게           1
             Platycephalus indicus           Bartail Flathead            양태            4
             Hemigrapsus sanguineus          Asian Shore Crab            무늬발게          many
QH5          Carassius carassius             Crucian Carp                붕어            4
HL1          Eriocheir sinensis              Chinese Mitten Crab         참게            1
             Philyra pisum                   Purse Crab                  밤게            1
             Hemigrapsus sanguineus          Asian Shore Crab            무늬발게          1
             Omphalius rusticus rusticus     Top Snail                   보말고둥          6
HL3          Carassius carassius             Crucian Carp                붕어            3
             Unio douglasiae                                             말조개           1
             Caridina denticulata sinensis                               새뱅이           many
HL5          Hexagrammos otakii              Greenling                   쥐노래미          5
             Charybdis japonica              Swimming Crab               민꽃게           3
JZ2          Carassius carassius             Crucian Carp                붕어            5
             Misgurnus anguillicaudatus      Oriental Weatherfish        미꾸리           4
JZ3          Caridina denticulata sinensis                               새뱅이           many
JZ4          Caridina denticulata sinensis                               새뱅이           many
PJ1          Rana nigromaculata              Black-Spotted Frog          참개구리          1
             Carassius carassius             Crucian Carp                붕어            1
             Eriocheir sinensis              Chinese Mitten Crab         참게            1
             Rana rugosa                     Wrinkled Frog               옴개구리          1
PJ2          Meretrix petechialis            Hard Clam                   말백합           4
             Portunus trituberculatus        Blue Crab                   꽃게            3
YK2          Macrothalamus japonicus         Mud Crab                    칠게            1
YK3          Hemigrapsus sanguineus          Asian Shore Crab            무늬발게          7
             Mugil cephalus                  Striped Mullet              숭어            1
             Portunus trituberculatus        Blue Crab                   꽃게            2
             Ruditapes philippinarum         Short-Necked Clam           바지락           8
DL1          Hemigrapsus sanguineus          Asian Shore Crab            무늬발게          11
DL2          Carassius carassius             Crucian Carp                붕어            many
             Carassius auratus               Gold Fish                   금붕어           1
             Unio douglasiae                                             말조개           2
DL3          Hexagrammos otakii              Greenling                   쥐노래미          6
             Mytilus edulis                  Blue Mussel                 진주담치          14
DL4          Charybdis japonica              Swimming Crab               민꽃게           some
             Meretrix petechialis            Hard Clam                   말백합           1
             Diogenes edwarsii               Hermit Crab                 넓적왼손집게        some
             Philyra pisum                   Purse Crab                  밤게            some
             Hemigrapsus sanguineus          Asian Shore Crab            무늬발게          some
DL6          Ruditapes philippinarum         Short-Necked Clam           바지락           14
             Portunus trituberculatus        Blue Crab                   꽃게            2
             Platycephalus indicus           Bartail Flathead            양태            2
DD3          Eriocheir sinensis              Chinese Mitten Crab         참게            1
             Acanthogobius hasta             Javelin Goby                풀망둑           2
no. of pooled samples                                                                  53




                                                                    11
Field Photos and Note

Site 1:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/6/08           Weather          24°C, cloudy Sampled by            JSK, JN, TW
Time          2:30 pm
Sampling      TS1 Tang Shan                     Location         Latitude          39.51171°N
Site          Dou River                                          Longitude         118.19920°E
Ambient       Close to bridge, small river due to drought conditions, no more than 10m wide.
Environment   Clear water with lots of vegetation. Lots of agriculture and traffic on the bridge.
Water         width            10m
Description   depth            0.3m
              velocity         Very slow
Sample        ID               Samples          Description
Information   TS1              Water            Rather clear
              TS1              Sediment         Dark, lots of organic
              TS1              Soil             150m from river, top 10cm, middle of newly
                                                tilled unplanted agriculture field
              TS1              Biological       Small (10cm) fish from local fishermen




                                             12
                                            (cont.)

Site 2:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/6/08           Weather           20°C, cloudy Sampled by        JSK, JN, TW
Time          4:35 pm
Sampling      TS2 Tang Shan                      Location        Latitude       39.26820°N
Site          Qing Long River                                    Longitude      118.52379°E
Ambient       Close to a bridge and road, small river, no drought, 15m wide, not clean, soil by
Environment   the river turned over, lots of vegetation and occasional traffic.

Water         width            15m
Description   depth            3.0m
              velocity         0.1m/s
Sample        ID               Samples          Description
Information   TS2              Water            Yellow and sandy
              TS2              Sediment         Dark
              TS2              Soil             100m from river, top 10cm, in a rice field in
                                                which soil is turned over
              TS2              Biological       Crab, from digging on the beach




                                              13
                                         (cont.)

Site 3:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/6/08          Weather          18°C              Sampled by    JSK, JN, TW
Time          6:35 pm
Sampling      TS3 Tang Shan                    Location          Latitude      39.14441°N
Site          Shuang Long River                                  Longitude     118.33938°E
Ambient       Shrimp ponds, salt ponds, no vegetation, river blocked, salt water, dug by man
Environment   twenty years ago, by a bridge, no factories or industry
Water         width           50m
Description   depth           2.0m
              velocity        10+m/s
Sample        ID              Samples          Description
Information   TS3             Water            Not clean, brown and sandy
              TS3             Sediment         Dark
              TS3             Biological       Crab from digging in the dark




                                           14
                                          (cont.)

Site 4:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/6/08           Weather            18°C             Sampled by      JSK, JN, TW
Time          7:05 pm
Sampling      TS4 Tang Shan                       Location         Latitude        39.19876°N
Site          Shuang Long River                                    Longitude       118.33888°E
Ambient       Agriculture fields around, few vegetation, shrubs and grass, 20m from a road,
Environment   occasional traffic, no factories, village nearby.
Water         width            50m
Description   depth            2.0m
              velocity         8.0+m/s
Sample        ID               Samples            Description
Information   TS4              Water              brown and sandy
              TS4              Sediment           Dark
              TS4              Soil               Barren, salty, 100m from the river




                                            15
                                              (cont.)

Site 5:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/7/08          Weather          9°C                Sampled by JSK, JN, TW
Time          11:30 am                         Cloudy/raining
Sampling      TS5                              Location           Latitude        39.41793°N
Site          Nuan River Mouth                                    Longitude       118.27580°E
Ambient       Harbour, 1km from the Bohai Sea, few vegetation, grass and shrubs, salt ponds, a
Environment   few houses, lots of ships and fisherman
Water         width           200m
Description   depth           5.0m
              velocity        Faster than previous
Sample        ID              Samples          Description
Information   TS5             Water            Clean, salt water, collected in the Bohai Sea,
                                               salinity 40
              TS5             Sediment         Sandy and dark
              TS5             Soil             2km from water sample, little grass, no
                                               agriculture, sandy
              TS5             Biological A 3 crabs bought from local fisherman, not mature,
                                               captured 5 nautical miles from the mouth

              TS5              Biological B      Crab dug from the beach 5m from the water,
                                                 smaller than biological A




                                                16
                                          (cont.)

Site 6:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/7/08           Weather         9°C              Sampled by      JSK, JN, TW
Time          12:50 am
Sampling      TS6                              Location         Latitude        39.46074°N
Site          Nuan River                                        Longitude       118.13412°E
Ambient       River dammed, landform altered, lots of vegetation, big trees, farmland around,
Environment   not far from a bridge with occasional traffic.
Water         width            150m
Description   depth            55m
              velocity         Very slow because of dam
Sample        ID               Samples         Description
Information   TS6              Water           Clear, brown
              TS6              Sediment        Dark, sandy
              TS6              Soil            20m from the river in the woods, no
                                               agriculture, grass, sandy




                                            17
                                            (cont.)

Site 7:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/7/08            Weather         13°C            Sampled by      JSK, JN, TW
Time          3:05 pm
Sampling      QH1                               Location          Latitude       39.70535°N
Site          Golden Beach                                        Longitude      118.33615°E
Ambient       Beach, a lot of   resorts and restaurants, by the Bohai Sea, Golden beach, Opeau
Environment   Sea, ate lunch
Water         width
Description   depth
              velocity
Sample        ID                Samples         Description
Information   QH1               Water           Clean, salty
              QH1               Sediment        Sandy, brown




                                              18
                                            (cont.)

Site 8:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/8/08           Weather          20°C             Sampled by       JN, JB
Time          10:33 am                          Partly sunny
Sampling      QH2                               Location         Latitude         39.84100°N
Site                                                             Longitude        118.51119°E
Ambient       Upstream of tidal flat, river is dammed but gate is partly open, lots of dead fish,
Environment   100m from the road, 300m from the sea.
              Salinity = 3, lots of plant growth, algae bloom, low water flow on the other side
              of the gate.
Water         width             80m
Description   depth             N/Am
              velocity          Slow

Sample        ID               Samples          Description
Information   QH2              Water            Not very clear
              QH2              Sediment         Very dark – black
              QH2              Soil             Sandy, dry, to 10cm, long grass covering
              QH2              Biological       Small fish purchased from local fishermen,
                                                same fish as before




                                              19
                                          (cont.)

Site 9:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/8/08           Weather        23°C            Sampled by      JN, JB
Time          11:01 am                        Partly sunny
Sampling      QH3                             Location         Latitude          39.83960°N
Site                                                           Longitude         119.51538°E
Ambient       500m from open sea, mix of fresh and salt, tidal flat, low tide, 300m from dam,
Environment   small river flowing to sea.
Water         width
Description   depth
              velocity
              salinity         7
Sample        ID               Samples       Description
Information   QH3              Water         Clear
              QH3              Sediment      Black with a little sand on top
              QH3              Biological    Purchased crabs about 10m from sampling spot




                                            20
                                             (cont.)

Site 10:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/8/08           Weather           23°C           Sampled by      JN, JSK
Time          11:30 am
Sampling      QH4                                Location          Latitude        39.83131°N
Site                                                               Longitude       119.52674°E
Ambient       Beach, lots of boats, sea water, resorts, no fish, open water location
Environment
Water         width
Description   depth
              velocity
              salinity         37
Sample        ID               Samples           Description
Information   QH4              Water             Clear
              QH4              Sediment          Black, a little sand on top
              QH4a             Biological        Purchased fish no more than 500m to beach
                                                 (mixed fish and crab)
              QH4b             Biological        Crab on the beach
              FB2              Field Blank       Taken 5/8/08




                                               21
                                         (cont.)

Site 11:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/8/08          Weather           25°C              Sampled by    JN, JB
Time          3:03 pm                           Partly sunny
Sampling      Tian Ma Lake Area                 Location          Latitude      39.98022°N
Site          QH5 (nearby Funing County)                          Longitude     119.21003°E
Ambient       Very large reservoir, huge dam (1000m), water is clean from Qing Long River
Environment   to Bohai Bay for drinking/irrigating (Qin Haing Dao)
Water         width
Description   depth
              velocity
              salinity
Sample        ID              Samples           Description
Information   QH5             Water             Clear
              QH5             Sediment          Black with a little sand on top
              QH5             Biological        Purchased crabs about 10m from sampling spot




                                           22
                                         (cont.)

Site 12:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/9/08        Weather          25°C sunny      Sampled by      JN, JS
Time          12:00 am
Sampling      HL1 (Hu Ludao)                 Location         Latitude          40.19749°N
Site                                                          Longitude         120.37373°E
Ambient       Temple, open ocean, mostly sand beach (small stones), few people, buildings,
Environment   should have few/no point sources, good reference for entire sea
Water         width          N/A
Description   depth          N/A
              velocity       N/A
              salinity       33
Sample        ID             Samples          Description
Information   HL1            Water            Clean, should be relatively clean
              HL1            Sediment         Sandy, 30m from beach
              HL1            Biological       Caught a crab or two??




                                           23
                                        (cont.)

Site 13:

Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/9/08          Weather       26°C, sunny      Sampled by    JN, JS, WD,
Time          12:50 pm                                                     WH
Sampling      HL2, small river about 5km Location            Latitude      40.25276°N
Site          from sea                                       Longitude     120.35999°E
Ambient       Agriculture fields, small roads, trees, lots of trash, only small insects,
Environment   downstream of juice factory
Water         width           3m
Description   depth           1m
              velocity        slow
              salinity        0
Sample        ID              Samples       Description
Information   HL2             Water         Close to road (10m), turbid, yellowish,
                                            (brown)
              HL2             Sediment      Black, foul odour
              HL2             Soil          Agriculture field 30m from small road – light
                                            brown (corn), very new corn, planted crops at
                                            this time, top 10cm




                                          24
                                           (cont.)

Site 14:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/9/08           Weather          24°C             Sampled by       JN, JS, WD,
Time          2:53 amp                                                            WH
Sampling      HL3 Big river about 1km from Location              Latitude         40.36981°N
Site          sea                                                Longitude        120.25814°E
Ambient       Little water, road construction, maybe same river as HL2 (very wide river with
Environment   many channels). Pesticide cans in water, maybe eutrophication, sheep and cows
              very close.
Water         width            50m
Description   depth            2m
              velocity         slow
              salinity         Must be fresh
Sample        ID               Samples          Description
Information   HL3              Water            Clean, to road about 150m, (above road)
              HL3              Sediment         Kind of black (light), a few stones, bio (weeds)
              HL3              Soil             Ag field – about 1km from river, freshly tilled
                                                (corn), top 10 cm
              HL3a             Biological




                                             25
                                         (cont.)

Site 15:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling       5/10/08         Weather        15°C cloudy    Sampled by     JN, Luo W,
Time           9:30 am                                                      JS, Jiao WT,
                                                                            Hu WY
Sampling    HL4 Wu Li River (nearby Location                 Latitude       40.72748°N
Site        Cishanbei bridge)                                Longitude      120.89366°E
Ambient     300m away from a bridge, there are many factories and trees around, we
Environment collected water and sediment because of deep water. Stored less than one year
            (new dam), zinc smelter, factories – mining/coal plants/navy, man-made river,
            newly constructed, lots of air pollution
Water       width           50m
Description depth           1.5m
            velocity        0 km/h
            salinity        5
Sample      ID              Samples           Description
Information HL4             Water             Collected above the dam, the water overflows
                                              when it rains – used a net, yellowish,
                                              precipitates
            HL4             Sediment          Yellowish black, 30m from dam, few stones
            HL4             Soil              Maybe freshly planted corn, dry, light brown
                                              soil, top 10cm




                                            26
                                           (cont.)

Site 16:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/10/08        Weather           14°C cloudy     Sampled by       JN, Luo W,
Time          10:08 am                                                          JS
Sampling          HL5 nice beach, cliffs      Location          Latitude        40.69957°N
Site                                                            Longitude       120.94760°E
Ambient       Open sea, close to harbour (opposite side of the bay), small markets, 100m from
Environment   the road (parking)
Water         width           N/A
Description   depth           N/A
              velocity        N/A
              salinity        36
Sample        ID              Samples         Description
Information   HL5             Water           Clear sea water
              HL5             Sediment        Sandy beach
              HL5             Soil            On cliff (not too steep), some grass, small trees
              HL5 bio         Biological      Fish – bought 8km from here (open sea
                                              sample), yellow, dry,
              HL5 bioa        Biological      Crabs – locally bought 8kn (open sea sample)




                                             27
                                           (cont.)

Site 17:

Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/10/08          Weather          10°C             Sampled by       JN, JS
Time          1:30 pm                           light rain
Sampling      JZ1 Cuitun                        Location          Latitude         40.95214°N
Site                                                              Longitude        121.16669°E
Ambient       Bought clams (free) after lunch at local restaurant, a few trees, freshly planted –
Environment   close to salt/shrimp ponds
Water         width
Description   depth
              velocity
              salinity
Sample        ID                Samples        Description
Information   JZ1               Biological     Store bought local clams
              JZ1               Soil           75m from small road, agriculture field - freshly
                                               tilled corn fields




                                             28
                                           (cont.)

Site 18:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/12/08          Weather         Raining          Sampled by       JN, JS, JSK
Time          10:00 am
Sampling      JZ2 Jinzhou                      Location          Latitude         47.08476°N
Site                                                             Longitude        121.13304°E
Ambient       River running through the Jinzhou city (very wide and shallow), lots of
Environment   buildings around, plenty of plants in the river (nuer river), combines with Daling
              River and flows to sea.
Water         width           100m
Description   depth           <1m
              velocity        slow
              salinity
Sample        ID              Samples          Description
Information   JZ2             Water            Fish, shrimp
              JZ2             Sediment
              JZ2             Soil             50m from river, grass, a few trees, dark brown
              JZ2             Biological       Caught a few small fish, fishermen gave us
                                               more




                                             29
                                           (cont.)

Site 19:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling        5/12/08         Weather        11°C strong Sampled by             JN, WD, WH,
Time            2:00 pm                        rain before,                       JSK
                                               light rain
Sampling    JZ3                                Location         Latitude          41.39898°N
Site                                                            Longitude         121.41084°E
Ambient     Dalin River (upstream location), agriculture fields, few people, buildings,
Environment drought conditions – was once a very big river, 100m above is a rather busy
            bridge, one of the biggest rivers so far.
Water       width            100m
Description depth            1.0m
            velocity         Fast
            salinity
Sample      ID               Samples           Description
Information JZ3              Water             Rather clean, just turbid due to rain (I think)
            JZ3              Sediment          Brown, very few stones, mainly sand
            JZ3              Soil              Agriculture field, maize, 75m from river
            JZ3              Biological        JS caught a few shrimp
            FB6              Field Blank




                                             30
                                           (cont.)

Site 20:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling       5/12/08         Weather         12°C Light rain Sampled by JSK, JN, WD
Time           3:00 pm                         (rained heavy
                                               earlier)
Sampling    JZ4 Dalin River (middle Location                      Latitude      41.17702°N
Site        stream)                                               Longitude     121.37771°E
Ambient     Midstream location of Dalin River in the city (kind of), 100m upstream of bust
Environment bridge (road), steel factory in the distance, train bridge 600m away, dam that has
            all gates open
Water       width            75m
Description depth            >1m
            velocity         Fast
            salinity
Sample      ID               Samples           Description
Information JZ4              Water             Turbidity due to rain (I think)
            JZ4              Sediment          Black
            JZ4              Soil              Agriculture field, light brown, maize, 40m from
                                               water up on the bank
            JZ4              Biological        Small shrimp, frog




                                             31
                                          (cont.)

Site 21:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/13/08         Weather         20°C sunny      Sampled by      JN, JSK, TW
Time          10:30 am
Sampling      JZ5 Dalin River (downstream)    Location          Latitude     40.58946°N
Site                                                            Longitude    121.37754°E
Ambient       Small bridge – we sampled 30m above it, no housesm a few cars, close to lots of
Environment   oil wells, downstream of paper plant 10km from sea. Turbid water due to heavy
              rain from yesterday, bad smell from water and sediment.
Water         width           40m
Description   depth           1.0-2.0m
              velocity        fast
              salinity        3
Sample        ID              Samples          Description
Information   JZ5             Water            Turbid, light brown
              JZ5             Sediment         Black
              JZ5             Soil             Brown, Agriculture field (corn), 70m from
                                               river




                                             32
                                           (cont.)

Site 22:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/13/08          Weather         23°C cloudy      Sampled by       WD, JN, JSK
Time          12:30 pm
Sampling      PJ1 Panjung                      Location         Latitude          41.09955°N
Site                                                            Longitude         121.59080°E
Ambient       Busy, big bridge, some construction, agriculture fields, factories in the distance
Environment   – upstream paper plant, powerplant, fish are from a small off shoot
              stream/pond
Water         width           90m
Description   depth           1.0-2.0m
              velocity        Mid
              salinity
Sample        ID              Samples         Description
Information   PJ1             Water           Turbid (due to rain but not too bad)
              PJ1             Sediment        Black, a little brown
              PJ1             Soil            Collect 300m away, rice field
              PJ1 bio         Biological      Frog
              PJ1 bio a       Biological      Fish from local fishermen (collected very close
                                              to soil site) Crab, frog




                                             33
                                          (cont.)

Site 23:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/13/08          Weather          23°C partly Sampled by          TW, JN, JSK
Time          2:30 pm                           sunny
Sampling      PJ2 See Map                       Location           Latitude     40.81268° N
Site                                                               Longitude    121.98571° E
Ambient       Open sea, low tide, fishing village, maybe 40km from Panjung River outlet, old
Environment   boats. Samples from docked boats 30m from shore, tidal flats (very large)
Water         width           N/A
Description   depth           N/A
              velocity        N/A
              salinity        30
Sample        ID              Samples           Description
Information   PJ2             Water             Turbid (water was stuck in small areas due due
                                                to low tide
              PJ2             Sediment          Gray, tidal flat-like
              PJ2             Soil              Collected about 3km away, not ag, maybe
                                                reclaimed, 100m from road, no grass or
                                                vegetation (maybe shrimp ponds)
              PJ2             Blank 7
              PJ2 bio         Biological        Crabs (blue I think) bought from local
                                                fishermen, caught 3km out to sea
              PJ2 bio a       Biological        Clams were given to us (clams and crabs from
                                                same location)




                                            34
                                         (cont.)

Site 24:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/13/08          Weather          15°C             Sampled by      JN, JSK
Time          4:00 pm
Sampling      YK1 (midstream) Daliao Location                    Latitude        40.82095°N
Site          River                                              Longitude       122.13346°E
Ambient       Ag, big bridge, heavy traffic, about 20km from sea, some large housing
Environment   projects, construction, big cranes, grass on both banks, VERY big river
Water         width            200m
Description   depth            N/A
              velocity         slow
              salinity         4
Sample        ID               Samples          Description
Information   YK1              Water            Turbid, maybe due to rain
              YK1              Sediment         Muddy sand, gray, similar to last location
              YK1              Soil             50m from road, 150m from water, tree farm-
                                                possibly freshly tilled




                                           35
                                          (cont.)

Site 25:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/13/08          Weather          18°C               Sampled by   JN, JSK
Time          5:45 pm
Sampling      YK2 (downstream) at sea Location                     Latitude     40.66532°N
Site          location (Daliao River mouth)                        Longitude    122.16431°E
Ambient       LOW tide, very bid tidal flat, big city, lots of industry, chemical production
Environment   plants, busy harbour, big port, water is 1.5km away
Water         width            N/A
Description   depth            N/A
              velocity         N/A
              salinity         30
Sample        ID               Samples          Description
Information   YK2              Water            Had to dig a hole to collect water, very dirty,
                                                will need to filter
              YK2              Sediment         Gray, a little dry
              YK2              Soil             300m from sediment sample, tree farm, red
                                                soil
              YK2              Biological       Crabs, small fish (too small)




                                             36
                                          (cont.)

Site 26:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/14/08           Weather          20°C windy, a Sampled by         JN, JSK
Time          10:40 am                           few clouds
Sampling      YK3 (beach) Yingkou, Open Location                 Latitude         40.42683°N
Site          sea                                                Longitude        122.27681°E
Ambient       A little ag, a few buildings, long beach (about 1km) with big sand cliffs, muddy
Environment   brown water (maybe due to runoff from days before), small waves, a few small
              boats, more buildings in the far north, a little garbage above, by ag field
              maybe 50m away. Drove by huge steel plant and chemical plant about 10km
              south of YK3, moved these factories from Beijing 10km south of YK3.
Water         width             N/A
Description   depth             N/A
              velocity          N/A
              salinity          36
Sample        ID                Samples          Description
Information   YK3               Water            Brown – see above
              YK3               Sediment         Sand (beach location)
              YK3               Soil             Ag field 200m above water sample – 100m
                                                 from road
              YK3 bio           Biological       Small crabs collected in small tidal pool by
                                                 rocks
              YK3 bio a         Biological       Poichased crabs, fish, clams from local market




                                             37
                                         (cont.)

Site 27:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/14/08          Weather          20°C partly Sampled by          JN, JSK, WD,
Time          2:45 pm                           sunny                           WH
Sampling      DL1                               Location        Latitude        39.61074°N
Site                                                            Longitude       121.49876°E
Ambient       Bridge (big suspension), samples collected 100m from bridge, low tide, channel
Environment   between mainland and island, lots of shrimp ponds, river/channel has been
              altered (Chinese style), channel almost 3km long (open sea at each end).
Water         width           150m
Description   depth           N/A
              velocity        N/A
              salinity        32
Sample        ID              Samples           Description
Information   DL1             Water             Clear
              DL1             Sediment          Tidal, gray/brown
              DL1             Soil              Yellow (light brown) grass and stones
              DL1             Biological        Crabs (small)
              FB3             Field Blank




                                           38
                                         (cont.)

Site 28:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/14/08          Weather        20°C            Sampled by      JN, JSK
Time          3:30 pm
Sampling      DL2                             Location          Latitude      39.69397°N
Site                                                            Longitude     121.73738°E
Ambient       Medium sized river, medium sized bridge, medium traffic, women washing
Environment   cloths nearby, goats, trees, no houses, no industry, rather remote (other than
              bridge)
Water         width           50m
Description   depth           ≤1.0m
              velocity        medium
              salinity
Sample        ID              Samples          Description
Information   DL2 a           Water            Clear – fresh
              DL2 b           Water            Clear – fresh
              DL2             Sediment         Sandy – small stones
              DL2             Soil             100m from small river – light brown, grass,
                                               trees
              DL2             Biological       Fish from local fishermen
              DL2             Biological       Clams – freshwater collected




                                           39
                                          (cont.)

Site 29:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/15/08            Weather     23°C sunny Sampled by              JN, JSK
Time          10:00 am                       (haze)
Sampling      DL3 (Black Rock beach)         Location         Latitude          38.87093°N
Site          Southeast Dalian                                Longitude         121.55736°E
Ambient       Rocky beach (small stones), condos, city (big buildings in the distance), lots of
Environment   fishermen, some big rocks, seaweed, very nice residential, no sediment because
              it is only stones, mid tide
Water         width              N/A
Description   depth              N/A
              velocity           N/A
              salinity
Sample        ID                 Samples     Description
Information   DL3                Water       Open sea water
              DL3                Biological  Fish given to us from local fishermen
              DL3                Biological  Mussels, clam, small snails collected on rocks




                                             40
                                          (cont.)

Site 30:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/15/08        Weather          25°C clear      Sampled by         JN, JSK, WD,
Time          12:00 pm                                                           JS
Sampling      DL4 Big beach, Chang Chen       Location          Latitude         38.99975°N
Site                                                            Longitude        121.30857°E
Ambient       Big open beach (approx 3km long), few houses, more buildings but not too
Environment   many, sand and stones on beach, islands in the distance, low tide.
Water         width          N/A
Description   depth          N/A
              velocity       N/A
              salinity       35
Sample        ID             Samples          Description
Information   DL4            Water            Open ocean, clear, north side of Dalian
              DL4            Sediment         Sand
              DL4            Biological       Small crabs caught in nets just on the beach
                                              (2km), also a few clams




                                            41
                                          (cont.)

Site 31:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/15/08         Weather        21°C windy, Sampled by            JN, JSK, TS
Time          4:00 pm                        sunny
Sampling      DL5 Bilia River, Ming Yang Location            Latitude          39.46474°N
Site          County                                         Longitude         122.50038°E
Ambient       Big river, expressway bridge, lots of construction workers (looking at me),
Environment   downstream location (approx 15km to sea), a few houses, trees, no point sources
              known, maybe just agriculture
Water         width           300m
Description   depth           < 2m
              velocity
              salinity
Sample        ID              Samples        Description
Information   DL5             Water          Very clear water
              DL5             Sediment       Sandy yellow (brown), no stones
              DL5             Soil           Light brown, grass, trees, no agriculture




                                            42
                                           (cont.)

Site 32:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/15/08          Weather         20°C sunny       Sampled by          JN, JSK, WD,
Time          6:00 pm                                                               TW
Sampling      DL6                              Location          Latitude           39.65726°N
Site                                                             Longitude          122.98590°E
Ambient       Tidal flat at (river mouth?), kind of a ghost town, some kind of fish/clam
Environment   processing plants I think (direct discharge), might be channel surrounding an
              island, salt or shrimp ponds (no signs of agriculture), some song birds, deep
              mud, low tide, some unknown industry type buildings around, chemical plants
              on the same channel
Water         width            200m
Description   depth            N/A
              velocity         N/A
              salinity         34
Sample        ID               Samples         Description
Information   DL6              Water           Clear
              DL6              Sediment        Gray (tidal flat), maybe a little black
              DL6              Soil            Agriculture, potato field, brown, 75m from
                                               water
              DL6              Biological      Bought fish, crabs, clams        fisherman caught
                                               15km out to sea




                                             43
                                           (cont.)

Site 33:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/16/08     Weather               sunny            Sampled by       JN, JSK, WD
Time          10:00 am
Sampling      DD1 Da Yang                       Location       Latitude          39.94152°N
Site                                                           Longitude         123.62830°E
Ambient       Big river (muddy, maybe due to rain), big expressway bridge built 2005 maybe
Environment   10km from the sea, very long river, no houses or buildings, lots of agriculture,
              salt water (brackish), local farmers said in summer (lots of rain) the river is all
              fresh, steep river banks
Water         width             200m
Description   depth             N/A
              velocity          medium
              salinity
Sample        ID                Samples         Description
Information   DD1               Water           Turbid, muddy
              DD1               Sediment        Grayish black
              DD1               Soil            Grassland close to agriculture (kind of
                                                wetland)




                                             44
                                           (cont.)

Site 34:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/16/08          Weather         15°C partly Sampled by             JN, JSK, WD,
Time          1:30 pm                          sunny                              WH, TW
Sampling      DD2 Yalu River, upstream of Location               Latitude         40.17621°N
Site          Dangdon                                            Longitude        124.45491°E
Ambient       Small park (roadside), agriculture fields on other side of road/river, North Korea
Environment   is only 200m away, upstream of big city – Dangdon, small islands and many
              river channels, nice clean looking water, rocky river bottom, collection of river
              sand downstream to make cement.
Water         width            200-300m
Description   depth            1.0-2.0m
              velocity         fast
              salinity         4
Sample        ID               Samples         Description
Information   DD2              Water           Clear clean looking
              DD2              Sediment        Gray, brown, a little black
              DD2              Soil            100m from road, 200m from river, ag field
                                               (light brown)




                                             45
                                         (cont.)

Site 35:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling    5/16/08         Weather          20°C sunny         Sampled by  JN, JSK, WD
Time        5:00 pm
Sampling    DD3 Yalu River (China Location                      Latitude    39.94077°N
Site        branch)    Downstream       of                      Longitude   124.28782°E
            Dangdon
Ambient     Rice patties, wetlands, tidal flat like, new road 30m away, fishing villages
Environment downstream of industrial plants (including chemical), lots of fishing boats,
            North Korea is 25m away, maybe switching from low to high tide
Water       width           50m
Description depth           1.0-3.0m
            velocity        slow
            salinity        5
Sample      ID              Samples          Description
Information DD3             Water            Turbid, brown
            DD3             Sediment         Gray, tidal flat-like
            DD3             Soil             200m from roaf, ag (no crops), brown (rice
                                             pattie)
            DD3             Biological       Crab and fish given to us; collected at river
                                             mouth
            FB10            Field Blank




                                            46
                                          (cont.)

Site 36:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/16/08          Weather         20°C partly Sampled by         JN, JSK, WD
Time          5:40 pm                          sunny
Sampling      DD4 (midstream) downstream Location               Latitude      40.00564°N
Site          of Dandong                                        Longitude     124.36262°E
Ambient       Wide river, North Korea is 500m away, future development on other side of
Environment   road, but now currently empty, road is 30m from the water, looks like sea water
              is flowing back, switched from low to high water flowing back upstream
Water         width            500m
Description   depth            N/A
              velocity         fast
              salinity         6
Sample        ID               Samples         Description
Information   DD4              Water           Clear
              DD4              Sediment        Gray/black tidal flat
              DD4              Soil            Open land for future development 100m from
                                               road (not too busy)




                                            47
                                          (cont.)

Site 37:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      5/18/08          Weather        23°C sunny, Sampled by             JN, JSK, TW
Time          3:20 pm                         windy
Sampling      TS7 upstream of Luanne Location                   Latitude         39.58211°N
Site          River                                             Longitude        118.80655°E
Ambient       Tree farm with lots of dead trees, wide swollen river due to rain I think,
Environment   agriculture, sandstorm, downstream of river alterations (sand and stone removal
              for cement), cement plant downstream, a few houses, kind of busy road/ridge,
              busy superhighway upstream about 1-2km.
Water         width            150m
Description   depth            1.0-3.0m
              velocity         medium
              salinity         32
Sample        ID               Samples        Description
Information   TS7              Water          A little turbid, collected 100m from bridge
              TS7              Sediment       Sandy, a little black
              TS7              Soil           Agriculture field 150m from road, 30m from
                                              river
              FB11             Field Blank




                                            48
2.2.2. Korean Samples

List of Samples from Korea

Area           Sample ID and Location                 Date Collected   Soil       Sediment   Water   Biological   Field Blank
Lake Shihwa:   LS1    Outside of lake, Gyeonggi Bay   April 29th        O            O        O          O             O
               LS2    Outside of lake, Gyeonggi Bay   April 29th                              O          O
               LS3    Inside of lake                  April 29th                              O          O
               LS4    Inside of lake                  April 29th                              O          O
ASan:          AS1    Inside of lake                  April 30th                     O        O                        O
               AS2    Outside of lake, Asan Bay       April 30th        O            O        O
SapGyo:        SG1    Inside of lake                  April 30th        O            O        O
               SG2    Outside of lake, Asan Bay       April 30th        O            O        O          O
SinDuri:       SD     Beach                           April 30th        O            O        O          O
ManLipo:       ML     Beach                           April 30th        O            O        O          O
AnMyundo:      AM     Beach                           April 30th        O            O        O          O
GeumGang:      GG1 Upstream, inside of dam            May 1st           O            O        O                        O
               GG2 Downstream, outside of dam         May 1st           O            O        O
YeongSangang YS1      Downstream, outside of dam      May 1st           O            O        O          O
               YS2    Upstream, inside of dam         May 1st           O            O        O
no. of samples                                                          11           12       15         9             3




Species Identification for Biological Samples from Korea

Location     Species Name                                                                                No. of Individual
             Scientific Name                Common Name                       Korean Name
LS1          Mactra veneriformis            Surf Clam                         동죽                         7
LS2          Crassostrea gigas              Oyster                            굴                          20
LS3          Littorina brevicula            Asian Periwinkle                  총알고둥                       50
LS4          Littorina brevicula            Asian Periwinkle                  총알고둥                       50
SG2          Macrothalamus dilatatus        Crab                              칠게                         10
             Macrothalamus dilatatus        Crab                              칠게                         4
             Macrothalamus dilatatus        Crab                              칠게                         10
             Macrothalamus dilatatus        Crab                              칠게                         10
SD           Mugil cephalus                 Striped Mullet                    숭어                         1
             Mugil cephalus                 Striped Mullet                    숭어                         1
             Mugil cephalus                 Striped Mullet                    숭어                         1
ML           Littorina brevicula            Asian Periwinkle                  총알고둥                       200
AM           Littorina brevicula            Asian Periwinkle                  총알고둥                       100
             Nerita (Heminerita) japonica                                     갈고둥                        40
             Mytilus edulis                 Blue Mussel                       진주담치                       15
             Mytilus coruscus               Mussel                            홍합                         4
YS1          Littorina brevicula            Asian Periwinkle                  총알고둥                       75
             Sebastes schlegeli             Rockfish                          조피볼락                       1
             Sebastes schlegeli             Rockfish                          조피볼락                       1
             Sebastes schlegeli             Rockfish                          조피볼락                       1
             Sebastes schlegeli             Rockfish                          조피볼락                       1
no. of pooled samples                                                                                    21




                                                                 49
Field Photos and Note

Site 1:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      04/29/08        Weather         sunny, clear        Sampled by JSK, JN, BK
Time          1:57 pm
Sampling      LS1, outside of lake, open to Location              Latitude    N37° 20.093’
Site          Gyeonggi Bay                                        Longitude   E126° 41.370’
Ambient       industrial complex developed along the inside of the lake, beginning point a
Environment   dike Shihwa, muddy tidal flat outside of the lake but also rocky little bit,
              biological samples were collected little bit far from dike, 1km
Water         width           open sea
Description   depth           N.A.
              velocity        N.A.
              salinity        33 ppt (12.6oC)
Sample        ID              Samples         Description
Information   LS1             Water           a little turbid, seawater
              LS1             Sediment        muddy
              LS1             Soil            collected from 100 m from road and 50 m from
                                              dike
              LS1             Biological       surf clam
              FB-08-04-29 Field Blank




                                           50
                                           (cont.)

Site 2:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      04/29/08        Weather          sunny, clear     Sampled by JSK, JN, BK
Time          2:19 pm
Sampling      LS2, outside of lake, open to Location            Latitude           N37° 19.543’
Site          Gyeonggi Bay, ca 4km from                         Longitude          E126° 39.427’
              LS1
Ambient       small docking spot for fishing boat, middle of dike, little bit turbid
Environment
Water       width              open sea
Description depth              N.A.
            velocity           N.A.
            salinity           34 ppt (15oC)
Sample      ID                 Samples          Description
Information LS2                Water            a little bit turbid, seawater
            LS2                Sediment         not collected, too deep
            LS2                Soil             not collected, no soil available
            LS2                Biological       Oyster




                                               51
                                          (cont.)

Site 3:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling    04/29/08          Weather         sunny, clear       Sampled by JSK, JN, BK
Time        2:31 pm
Sampling    LS3, inside of lake, sandy, a Location               Latitude      N37° 18.657’
Site        little bit rocky, ca 8km from                        Longitude     E126° 36.618’
            LS1
Ambient     inside of lake, samples collected from 100m from dike, water quality seems bad,
Environment eutrophication little bit
Water       width             N.A.
Description depth             N.A.
            velocity          N.A.
            salinity          34 ppt (15oC)
Sample      ID                Samples         Description
Information LS3               Water           a little turbid, saltwater
            LS3               Sediment        rocky, no sediment available
            LS3               Soil            not collected, no soil available
            LS3               Biological      Asian Periwinkle




                                            52
                                          (cont.)

Site 4:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling    04/29/08          Weather         sunny, clear       Sampled by JSK, JN, BK
Time        2:53 pm
Sampling    LS4, inside of lake, rocky, ca Location              Latitude      N37° 19.494’
Site        4km from LS1, opposite to                            Longitude     E126° 39.340’
            LS2
Ambient     inside of lake, samples collected from 100m from dike, water quality seems bad,
Environment similar to LS3
Water       width             N.A.
Description depth             N.A.
            velocity          N.A.
            salinity          32 ppt (15oC)
Sample      ID                Samples         Description
Information LS4               Water           a little turbid, brackish
            LS4               Sediment        rocky, no sediment available
            LS4               Soil            not collected, no soil available
            LS4               Biological      snails




                                            53
                                          (cont.)

Site 5:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      04/30/08         Weather         sunny, clear     Sampled by        JSK, JN, BK
Time          12:23 pm
Sampling      AS1                              Location         Latitude          N36° 53.600’
Site                                                            Longitude         E126° 54.742’
Ambient       inside of Asan dam
Environment
Water         width            N.A.
Description   depth            N.A.
              velocity         N.A.
              salinity         1 ppt (17oC)
Sample        ID               Samples         Description
Information   AS1              Water           freshwater
              AS1              Sediment        sandy
              AS1              Soil            not collected, no soil available
              AS1              Biological      not collected, not available
              FB-08-04-30      Field Blank




                                              54
                                          (cont.)

Site 6:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      04/30/08         Weather          sunny, clear    Sampled by     JSK, JN, BK
Time          12:54 pm
Sampling      AS2                               Location       Latitude      N36° 54.929’
Site                                                           Longitude     E126° 54.317’
Ambient       outside of Asan dam, rive flow into Asan Bay, algae developed, muddy
Environment
Water         width            N.A.
Description   depth            N.A.
              velocity         N.A.
              salinity         28 ppt (16oC)
Sample        ID               Samples          Description
Information   AS2              Water            brackish water, close to Asan Bay
              AS2              Sediment         muddy
              AS2              Soil             Collected from 50m from load
              AS2              Biological       not collected, not available




                                               55
                                          (cont.)

Site 7:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      04/30/08         Weather         sunny, clear   Sampled by      JSK, JN, BK
Time          13:38 pm
Sampling      SG1                              Location     Latitude          N36° 52.728’
Site                                                        Longitude         E126° 49.633’
Ambient       Inside of Sapgyo dam, a few km from dike toward upstream
Environment
Water         width            N.A.
Description   depth            N.A.
              velocity         N.A.
              salinity         0 ppt (17oC)
Sample        ID               Samples         Description
Information   SG1              Water           freshwater, clean
              SG1              Sediment        sandy
              SG1              Soil            collected from 50m from load
              SG1              Biological      not collected, not available




                                              56
                                          (cont.)

Site 8:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      04/30/08         Weather          sunny, clear   Sampled by      JSK, JN, BK
Time          14:01 pm
Sampling      SG2                               Location       Latitude         N36° 53.704’
Site                                                           Longitude        E126° 49.148’
Ambient       outside of Sapgyo dam, tidal flat developed along the side of river
Environment
Water         width            N.A.
Description   depth            N.A.
              velocity         N.A.
              salinity         28 ppt (18oC)
Sample        ID               Samples          Description
Information   SG2              Water            salt water, turbid
              SG2              Sediment         muddy
              SG2              Soil             collected from 50m from load
              SG2              Biological       crab




                                               57
                                           (cont.)

Site 9:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      04/30/08         Weather          sunny, clear     Sampled by     JSK, JN, BK
Time          15:08 pm
Sampling      SD                                Location             Latitude      N36° 50.312’
Site                                                                 Longitude     E126° 11.004’
Ambient       Sinduri beach, resort area, green algae, water clean, close to Taean oil spill site
Environment   south direction, little bit oil smells at the depth of 30-50cm in sediment
Water         width             N.A.
Description   depth             N.A.
              velocity          N.A.
              salinity          32 ppt (19oC)
Sample        ID                Samples            Description
Information   SD                Water              sea water, clean
              SD                Sediment           sandy
              SD                Soil               collected from 150 from beach
              SD                Biological         striped mullet (dead ones)




                                             58
                                           (cont.)

Site 10:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      04/30/08         Weather          sunny, clear    Sampled by      JSK, JN, BK
Time          16:24 pm
Sampling      ML                                Location       Latitude           N36° 47.027’
Site                                                           Longitude          E126° 08.185’
Ambient       Manlipo beach, resort area, water looks clean, Taean oil spill site
Environment
Water         width            N.A.
Description   depth            N.A.
              velocity         N.A.
              salinity         35 ppt (12oC)
Sample        ID               Samples          Description
Information   ML               Water            sea water, clean
              ML               Sediment         sandy
              ML               Soil             collected from 150 from beach
              ML               Biological       snails




                                               59
                                         (cont.)

Site 11:




                                            


Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      04/30/08         Weather         sunny, clear   Sampled by    JSK, JN, BK
Time          17:39 pm
Sampling      AM                               Location      Latitude      N36° 32.403’
Site                                                         Longitude     E126° 19.588’
Ambient       Anmyeon beach, resort area, water looks clean, far south from Taean oil spill
Environment   site
Water         width        N.A.
Description   depth        N.A.
              velocity     N.A.
              salinity     28 ppt (18oC)
Sample        ID           Samples          Description
Information   AM           Water            sea water, clean
              AM           Sediment         sandy
              AM           Soil             collected from 150 from beach
              AM           Biological       snails and mussels




                                           60
                                          (cont.)

Site 12:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      05/01/08         Weather         sunny, clear    Sampled by       JSK, JN, BK
Time          11:14 pm
Sampling      GG2                              Location       Latitude          N36° 00.510’
Site                                                          Longitude         E126° 44.117’
Ambient       outside of Geumgang dam, downstream, little bit turbid
Environment
Water         width            N.A.
Description   depth            N.A.
              velocity         N.A.
              salinity         4 ppt (22oC)
Sample        ID               Samples         Description
Information   GG2              Water           freshwater
              GG2              Sediment        muddy
              GG2              Soil            collected from 20 m from liver
              GG2              Biological      not collected, not available
              FB-08-05-01      Field Blank




                                              61
                                          (cont.)

Site 13:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      05/01/08         Weather         sunny, clear    Sampled by       JSK, JN, BK
Time          11:32 pm
Sampling      GG1                              Location         Latitude        N36° 01.347’
Site                                                            Longitude       E126° 44.532’
Ambient       inside of Geumgang dam, upstream, little bit turbid
Environment
Water         width            N.A.
Description   depth            N.A.
              velocity         N.A.
              salinity         0 ppt (20oC)
Sample        ID               Samples         Description
Information   GG1              Water           freshwater
              GG1              Sediment        muddy
              GG1              Soil            collected from 20 m from liver
              GG1              Biological      not collected, not available




                                              62
                                         (cont.)

Site 14:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      05/01/08         Weather       sunny, clear   Sampled by   JSK, JN, BK
Time          13:36 pm
Sampling      YS2                            Location     Latitude       N36° 47.198’
Site                                                      Longitude      E126° 27.767’
Ambient       inside of Yeongsangang dam, upstream, several km from dam, turbid, near
Environment   Mokpo City
Water         width          N.A.
Description   depth          N.A.
              velocity       N.A.
              salinity       0 ppt (20oC)
Sample        ID             Samples      Description
Information   YS2            Water        freshwater
              YS2            Sediment     sandy
              YS2            Soil         collected from 50 m from liver
              YS2            Biological   not collected




                                           63
                                          (cont.)

Site 15:




Site and Sample Description:

Sampling      05/01/08         Weather          sunny, clear    Sampled by       JSK, JN, BK
Time          14:28 pm
Sampling      YS1                               Location    Latitude     N36° 46.930’
Site                                                        Longitude    E126° 26.648’
Ambient       outside of Yeongsangang dam, downstream, clean, near Mokpo City
Environment
Water         width            N.A.
Description   depth            N.A.
              velocity         N.A.
              salinity         25 ppt (18oC)
Sample        ID               Samples          Description
Information   YS1              Water            brackish water
              YS1              Sediment         sandy
              YS1              Soil             collected from 50 m from liver
              YS1              Biological       rockfish and snails




                                               64
3. ANALYSIS

3.1. Sample Preparation and Analysis

For Korean Samples:

Soil and sediment samples collected from Korea have been freeze dried and shipped to China for
further extraction. Water samples collected from Korea have been extracted for PFCs in Korea
and cartridge samples have been shipped to Canada for further instrumental analysis.
Biological samples were identified, dissected, and tissue samples were freeze dried in Korea and
all the dried samples were shipped to China for further extraction.

Stepwise Procedure for Sample Analysis:

    STEP        Dioxin-like PAHs         OCPs            PFCs         Metals       Others       Total
    Sampling    20 g        10g          10 g            5g           10 g         50 g         ca.
                                                                                                150 g
               Korea        Korea        Korea           Korea        Korea        Korea
    Treatment  Freeze dry   Freeze dry   Freeze dry      Freeze dry   Freeze dry   Freeze dry
               Korea        Korea        Korea           Korea        Korea        Korea
    Extraction Soxhlet      Soxhlet      Solvent ext     Solvent      Archives     Archives
               China        China        China           China        Canada       Canada
    Clean-up Al, Si, C      Si           SPE(florisil)   SPE(HLB)
               Canada       China        China           China
    Instrument HRGC/MS      GC/MS        GC/ECD          LC/MS
               Canada       China        China           Canada
    Bioassay Bioassays
               Canada

Note: Water samples are analyzed for PFCs only




                                                    65
For Chinese Samples:

All the samples collected from China are now being processed similar to Korean samples.
Sample extraction and clean-up procedures have been summarized below step by step and
further detailed procedures are provided in the corresponding SOPs.

Stepwise Procedure for Sample Analysis:

    STEP        Dioxin-like PAHs         OCPs            PFCs         Metals       Others       Total
    Sampling    20 g        10g          10 g            5g           10 g         50 g         ca.
                                                                                                150 g
               China        China        China           China        China        China
    Treatment  Freeze dry   Freeze dry   Freeze dry      Freeze dry   Freeze dry   Freeze dry
               China        China        China           China        China        China
    Extraction Soxhlet      Soxhlet      Solvent ext     Solvent      Archives     Archives
               China        China        China           China        Canada       Canada
    Clean-up Al, Si, C      Si           SPE(florisil)   SPE(HLB)
               Canada       China        China           China
    Instrument HRGC/MS      GC/MS        GC/ECD          LC/MS
               Canada       China        China           Canada
    Bioassay Bioassays
               Canada

Note: Water samples will be analyzed for PFCs and metals only




                                                    66
4. FUTURE PLAN

4.1. Timeline

Overall Timeline:

The overall duration of project would be approximately one year (Jan to Dec 2008) but
manuscript will be prepared during the following year of 2009 depending on the process. All
samples are targeted to be analyzed by the end of 2008.

      Mon, 2008     1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9      10    11    12
Task
Study plan
Field SOPs
Analytical SOPs
Sampling
Analysis
Data Analysis
Manuscript prep.
Manuscript sub.




                                            67
Detailed Timeline:

                                Detailed Timeline (2008)
Date    Korea                        China                       Canada
Jun     Mail samples to China        Mail water SPE cartridges   Ms preparation
                                     to Canada                   from 2006 study
        Collect more Samples         Freeze dry soil and         Water sample cleanup
                                     sediment
                                     Finish extraction of
                                     biological samples
Jul     Collect more samples         Mail biological extracts    Start water sample analysis
        in necessary                 to Canada
                                     Start soil and sediment     Biological sample analysis
                                     extractions
                                                                Ms preparation
                                                                from 2006 study
Aug                                  Mail soil and sediment     Soil and sediment analysis
                                     PFCs extracts              for PFCs
                                     Continue extracting soil   Ms preparation
                                     and sediment               from 2006 study
Sep                                  Mail soil and sediment     Analysis soil and sediment
                                     raw extracts               for dioxin etc.
                                                                Submit ms from 2006 study
Oct                                  Analysis soil and sediment Prepare posters for SETAC
                                     for organics               Start bioassays
Nov                                  Data analysis              Bioassays
                                                                Present at SETAC
Dec     Prepare end of year report   Prepare end of year report Prepare end of year report




                                            68
4.2. Manuscript

Proposed Authors: will be selectively involved according to the subject

Yonglong Lu*, Tieyu Wang, Wentao Jiao, Wenyou Hu, Wei Luo, Xiang Zhang (RCEES, China)
John P. Giesy*, Jong Seong Khim, Jonathan E Naile, Paul D. Jones, Yi Wan (U of S, Canada)
Chul-Hwan Koh, Jinsoon Park, Bong-Oh Kwon (SNU, Korea)


Team Leaders: for sample collection, analysis, and manuscript preparation

Tieyu Wang (RCEES, China)
Jong Seong Khim (U of S, Canada)


Proposed Manuscript Topics:

Expected >15 papers from the samples collected in the Yellow Sea in 2008. Target is for three
papers in ES&T and at least one paper in Nature or Science.

Topic                                                    Lead by                 # of paper
1 Residue analysis & source identification
       - PFCs                                            Dr. Wang or Mr. Naile   2
       - PCDD/DFs, co-PCBs                               Dr. Khim or Dr. Wan     2
       - PAHs                                            Dr. Khim or Mr. Jiao    2
       - OC pesticides                                   Dr. Wang or Mr. Hu      1
       - heavy metals                                    Dr. Luo                 1
2 Assessment of soil/sediment & water qualities
    - sediment and water                                 Dr. Khim                1
    - soil                                               Mr. Zhang               1
3 Mass balance for TIE & potential biological effects
       - dioxin-like                                     Dr. Khim or Dr. Wang    1
       - estrogenic                                                              1
       - steroidogenesis                                                         1
4 Fate and food web study
       - PFCs                                            Mr. Naile               1
       - PCDD/DFs                                        Dr. Wan                 1
5 Mass balance of Cl-, Br- and F- compounds
       - F-                                              Mr. Naile               1
       - Cl-, Br-                                        Dr. Wan
6 Environmental Management
       - PTS versus land use, human health, protection   Dr. Lu or Dr. Wang      2
                                                                                 18
 




                                              69
Field Participants

                            Korea Trip: April 29-May 1, 2008
    Jong Seong Khim, Jonathan Naile (U of S, Canada) and Bong-Oh Kwon (SNU, Korea)




                              China Trip: May 6-18, 2008
      Tieyu Wang, Wentao Jiao, Wenyou Hu, Wei Luo, Xiang Zhang (RCEES, China)
     Jong Seong Khim, Jonathan Naile (U of S, Canada) and Jinsoon Park (SNU, Korea)




                                                                          




                                          70

								
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