Biological effects of Chitin-synthesis inhibitor by hse16929

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									Egypt. Acad. J. biolog. Sci., 1 (1): 49 – 57 (2009)        F. Toxicology & pest control
Email: egyptianacademic@yahoo.com                              ISSN: 2090 - 0791
Received: 17/11/2009                                               www.eajbs.eg.net

Biological effects of Chitin-synthesis inhibitor, Hexaflumuron compound on the
                   desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal)

Reda F.A. Bakr 1; Mona I. Mohammed1; Abd Elazim M. El-Gammal2; and Nou-
                                 ra M. Mahdy2
    1-Departement of Entomology Faculty of Science, Ain-Shams University
            2- Plant Protection Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center

                                     ABSTRACT
       Feeding application of different concentrations of Consult on one day old and
six day old of the 5th nymphal instar of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Fors-
kal) showed mortal action on treated nymphs, failure in ecdysis to adults and prolon-
gation in the 5th nymphal age and adults had malformed wings, colour changes of
body and failure of completely getting rid the last nymphal exuvia.

Keywords: Chitin-synthesis inhibitor, Hexaflumuron, the desert locust, Schistocerca grega-
      ria

           INTRODUCTION                           nile hormone analogues and chitin syn-
         The desert locust, Schistocerca          thesis inhibitors (Parrella and Murphy,
gregaria (Forskal) is one of the most             1998).
economic pests causing severe damage                 MATERIALS AND METHODS
to crops, which consider the main food            1. Maintenance of the culture:
for human and animals. So, it seemed               1.1.Origin of stock culture and rear
necessary to develop an effective pre-            ing in the laboratory:
ventive control strategy depends upon                     The stock colony of Schisto-
the early warning to suppress this mul-           cerca gregaria was maintained for
tiplication and prevent the outbreak of           several years at the Locust research
the mobile swarms by an effective con-            Division, Plant Protection Research
trol tool against its nymphal instars.            Institute, Agricultural Research Center,
         In the last few years, scientists        Dokki, Giza. The insects were reared
directed their efforts towards the con-           and handled under the following tech-
trol of insects by the use of insect              nique described by Abbassi et al. 2003
growth regulators to avoid the hazards            and Bakr et al 2008.
of insecticides (Bakr et al.1984                           Leaves of leguminous plant,
&1989).                                           Medicago sativa were daily placed as
        IGRs are diverse groups of                feeding material. The cages were incu-
chemical compounds that are highly                bated in a constant room temperature
active against immature stage of in-              (32±2ºC) and (30-50% RH).
sects and have a good margin of safety            1.2. Experimental insects:
to most non-target biota including in-                    The experimental nymphs were
vertebrates, fishes, birds and other wild         segregated from the gregarious stock
life, they are also safe to man and do-           colony at the beginning of the first
mestic animals, they will play an im-             nymphal instar and held up in cages
portant role in vector control programs           (30x30x30 cm) in diameter. The cages
in the future (Mulla, 1995 and Bakr et            were a wooden farmed equipped with
al. 2008).                                        zinc bottom covered by thin layer of
        The main types of insect growth           sand, glass covered sides and a wire-
regulators used commercially are juve-            gauze top provided with a little door.
                                  Reda F.A. Bakr et al.                                                                                                                             50


All cages were incubated at (32±2ºC)                                              Results in Table (1) and graph-
and (30-50% RH). Unconsumed food,                                        ically illustrated in Figs (1&2) showed
dead locusts and faces were removed                                      that the effects of Consult (chitin syn-
daily.                                                                   thesis inhibitor) on the 5th nymphal in-
        The whole cage was thoroughly                                    star of S. gregaria during one day old
washed and effectively sterilized with                                   by feeding technique.
an antiseptic agent every (4-6 weeks)
                                                                         Table (1): Effect of Consult on some biological
or when ever it becomes empty or at                                               aspects of the desert locust, Schistocerca
the end of any experiment.                                                        gregaria treated as 1-day old of the 5th
2. Insecticides used:                                                             nymphal instar.
2.1. Chitin-synthesis inhibitor, Hex-                                                     Nymphal instar

                                                                                                           %
                                                                                                                                                    Adult stage
                                                                                                                                                                                                %Total

aflumuron (10% EC):                                                      Conc.
                                                                         (ppm)
                                                                                          %
                                                                                          Nymphal
                                                                                          mortality
                                                                                                           Failure to
                                                                                                           ecdysis to
                                                                                                                              Old
                                                                                                                              nymphal
                                                                                                                                       of
                                                                                                                                                    % Adult
                                                                                                                                                                     %
                                                                                                                                                                     Malformed
                                                                                                                                                                                    % Adult
                                                                                                                                                                                    emergence
                                                                                                                                                                                                inhibition
                                                                                                                                                                                                of   adult
                                                                                                                                                                                                emergence
        Hexaflumuron (Consult), [N 3,
                                                                                                           adults             instar/day                             adult
                                                                                          Mean                                                      mortality                       Mean ±SE    Mean ±SE
                                                                                                           Mean               Mean ±SE                               Mean ±SE
                                                                                          ±SE
                                                                                                           ±SE
5-dichloro-4- (1,1,2,2-tetrafluro-ethoxy)                                Control          0.0±0.0          0.0±0.0            8.0±0.5               0.0±0.0          0.0±0.0        100±0       0±0.0

(phenyl-amino) carbony l-2,6- difluro-                                   50               0.0±0.0          0.0±0.0            8.76±0.1              0.0±0.0          100±0.0        0.0±0.0     100±0.0

                                                                         75               8.33±0.33        0.0±0.0            9.36±0.1              8.33±0.33        83.34±0.30     0.0±0.0     100±0.0
ben- zamide].                                                            100              11.01±1.0        8.33±0.33          10.16±0.15            8.33±0.3         72.33±0.33     0.0±0.0     100±0.0

3.Treatment of experimental insects:                                     F 0.05           380.84***        191.54***          37.82***              227.83***        117.01***      -           -


        Both sexes of nymphs of one-                                     LSD              0.99             0.31               0.49                  0.31             0.41           -           -

                                                                         F: Measurement of distance between individual distributions
day old and 6-day old of the 5th nym-                                    LSD: Least Significant Deference
phal instars of S. gregaria during syn-
thesis and deposition of the newly                               12                        % Nymphal mortality

                                                                                           % Failure to ecdysis to adults


adult cuticle (Taha & El-Gammal 1990                             10


and Bakr et al. 2008) were treated by                                 8

feeding technique with Consult as the
                                              % Nymphal instar




following:                                                            6



        Leaves of M. sativa were dip-                                 4


ped in 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Consult
for two minutes. Then leaves were air
                                                                      2




dried before being offered to the                                     0
                                                                                      Control                  50                         75                        100


nymphs for feeding on it. Three repli-                                                                                  Conc. (ppm)




cates of 20 nymphs were subjected to                                     Fig. (1): Effect of Consult on some biological as-
                                                                                   pects of the desert locust nymphs treated
each of the treated leaves.                                                        as 1-day old of the 5th nymphal instar.
        After feeding for 24 hours on
the treated leaves, the alive nymphs                                            100                                                                             % Adult mortality
                                                                                                                                                                % Malformed adult

were transferred onto untreated leaves                                           90                                                                             % Adult emergence



and left to feed for 24 hours after that
                                                                                 80

                                                                                 70

mortality counts or malformed indi-                                              60
                                                                 %Adult stage




viduals were recorded.                                                           50



5. Calculations and data analysis:                                               40

                                                                                 30

        Statistical analysis of results                                          20

was statistically analyzed by analysis                                           10


of variance (ANOVA) and the means                                                0
                                                                                           Control                   50                        75                     100


were compared by L.S.D. test at 0.05                                     Fig. (2): Effect of Consult on some biological as-
                                                                                                                            Conc. (ppm)



level, using SAS program (SAS,                                                     pects of the desert locust adults treated as
1988).                                                                             1-day old of the 5th nymphal instar.
               RESULTS
1.Biological effects:                                                            Data cleared that the percen-
1. 1.Effects of Consult on some bio-                                     tages of nymphal mortality of the 5th
logical aspects of S. gregaria:                                          nymphal instars of S. gregaria were
                                                                         0.0, 8.33 and 11.01% after one day old
              Biological effects of Chitin-synthesis inhibitor on the desert locust                                                                                                            51


treatment with 50, 75 and 100 ppm of                            Also, the results showed that the
Consult, respectively comparing with                    percentages of nymphs failed to ecdysis to
control (0.0%), whereas, the percen-                    adults when treated with different concen-
tages of adult mortality were 0.0, 8.33                 trations as follow: 23.33, 66.37 and
                                                        93.33% at 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Consult,
and 8.33%, respectively comparing
                                                        respectively, while with the above men-
with control (0.0%). While, the percen-                 tioned concentrations the percentages of
tage of adult emergency was 0.0% for                    malformed adults reached 8.34, 33.63 and
all concentrations. On the other hand,                  0.0%, respectively.
the percentage of total inhibition adult                       Statistical analysis in (Table 2)
emergence was 100% for all Consult                      shows highly significant differences
concentrations comparing with control.                  between Consult concentrations com-
        Also, the percentages of mal-                   paring with control.
formed adults reached 100, 83.34 and                    Table (2): Effect of Consult on some biological
72.33% after one day treatment of the                            aspects of the desert locust, Schistocerca
                                                                 gregaria treated as 6-day old of the 5th
5th nymphal instar of S. gregaria when                           nymphal instar.
treated with 50, 75 and 100 ppm of                                                                        Nymphal instar                                         Adult stage
                                                                                                                                                                                                %Total
Consult concentrations, respectively                                                         %
                                                                                            Nym-
                                                                                                                  %
                                                                                                               Failure
                                                                                                                               Old of
                                                                                                                              nymphal
                                                                                                                                                                    %
                                                                                                                                                                   Mal-
                                                                                                                                                                                  % Adult
                                                                                                                                                                                                inhibi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                tion of
                                                                                                                                                 % Adult
comparing with control. The percen-                Conc.
                                                   (ppm)
                                                                                            phal
                                                                                           mortali-
                                                                                             ty
                                                                                                                  to
                                                                                                               ecdysis
                                                                                                              to adults
                                                                                                                                 in-
                                                                                                                              star/day           mortali-
                                                                                                                                                                  formed
                                                                                                                                                                   adult
                                                                                                                                                                                   emer-
                                                                                                                                                                                   gence
                                                                                                                                                                                   Mean
                                                                                                                                                                                                 adult
                                                                                                                                                                                                 emer-
                                                                                                                                                                                                 gence
tages of nymphal instars failed to ec-
                                                                                                                               Mean                 ty             Mean
                                                                                            Mean                Mean                                                                             Mean
                                                                                                                                                                                     ±SE
                                                                                                                                ±SE                                 ±SE                           ±SE
                                                                                                ±SE             ±SE

dysis to adult were 0.0, 0.0 and 8.33%             Con-
                                                   trol
                                                                                           0.0±0.0            0.0±0.0         8.0±0.80            0.0±0.0         0.0±0.0          100±0.0       0±0.0


when treated with Consult concentra-               50                                      0.0±0.0            23.33±0.
                                                                                                                 33
                                                                                                                              8.32±0.3
                                                                                                                                  2
                                                                                                                                                  0.0±0.0         8.34±0.3
                                                                                                                                                                      3
                                                                                                                                                                                   68.33±0.
                                                                                                                                                                                       33
                                                                                                                                                                                                31.67±1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   00
tions 50, 75 and 100 ppm, respectively             75                                      0.0±0.0            66.37±0.
                                                                                                                 30
                                                                                                                              9.30±0.3
                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                                  0.0±0.0         33.63±0.
                                                                                                                                                                     33
                                                                                                                                                                                    0.0±0.0     100±0.0


(Table 1 & Figs 1&2).                              100                                     0.0±0.0            93.33±2.
                                                                                                                 00
                                                                                                               156.45
                                                                                                                              10.97±0.
                                                                                                                                  10
                                                                                                                                25.39
                                                                                                                                                 6.67±0.2
                                                                                                                                                     0
                                                                                                                                                  336.75
                                                                                                                                                                  0.0±0.0

                                                                                                                                                                   137.78
                                                                                                                                                                                   0.0±0.0

                                                                                                                                                                                    273.10
                                                                                                                                                                                                100±0.0

                                                                                                                                                                                                340.96
                                                   F 0.05
        Statistical analysis in (Table 1)          LSD
                                                                                                    -

                                                                                                    -
                                                                                                                ***
                                                                                                                3.41
                                                                                                                                 ***
                                                                                                                                0.86
                                                                                                                                                    ***
                                                                                                                                                   0.018
                                                                                                                                                                    ***
                                                                                                                                                                    0.43
                                                                                                                                                                                     ***
                                                                                                                                                                                     0.31
                                                                                                                                                                                                 ***
                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.94

shows highly significant differences                                                       F: Measurement of distance between individual distributions

between Consult concentrations com-                                                        LSD: Least Significant Deference

paring with control in%nymphal mor-                                                       100
                                                                                                        % Nymphal mortality

tality, %failure to ecdysis to adults,%                                                    90
                                                                                                        % F ailure to ec dys is to


adults mortality and %malformed
                                                                                           80

                                                                                           70

adults after one day old of the 5th                                                        60
                                                        % A dult s tag e




nymphs of S. gregaria treatments.                                                          50


        The obtained results in (Table 2                                                   40



and Figs 3&4) showed that the effects
                                                                                           30

                                                                                           20

of different concentrations of Consult                                                     10


on six day old of the 5th nymphal in-                                                       0
                                                                                                         C ontrol                    50                     75                    100

stars of S. gregaria. The percentage of                                                                                                   C onc . (ppm)


nymphal mortality was 0.0% for all                      Fig. (3): Effect of Consult on some biological aspects of
different Consult concentrations; while                            the desert locust nymphs treated as 6-day old of
                                                                   the 5th nymphal instar.
the percentages of adult mortality were                                                                                                                                    % Adult mortality

0.0, 0.0 and 6.67%, respectively, also
                                                                                           100
                                                                                                                                                                           % Malformed adult
                                                                                            90                                                                             % Adult emergence


the adult emergence were 68.33, 0.0                                                         80


and 0.0% at 50, 75 and 100 ppm of                                                           70



Consult concentrations, respectively.
                                                                                            60
                                                                           %Adult stage




                                                                                            50

        comparing with control (0.0%).                                                      40


On the other hand, the percentages of                                                       30



total inhibition of adult emergence in-
                                                                                            20

                                                                                            10

creased by 31.67, 100 and 100% with                                                             0
                                                                                                          Control                    50                     75                   100

the increase of concentrations when                                                                                                                        Conc. (ppm)

                                                        Fig. (4): Effect of Consult on some biological aspects of
comparing with control (0.0%).                                     the desert locust adult treated as 6-day old of
                                                                   the 5th nymphal instar.
                                                                                Reda F.A. Bakr et al.                                              52


                  2.prolongation effect of Consult on                                         1.3. Developmental events:
                  Schistocerca gregaria:                                                              The treatment of nymphs of S.
                          Usually, the duration of the 5th                                    gregaria with tested compounds; Con-
                  nymphal instars of S.gregaria is about                                      sult induced malformation in both
                  8-day, but the application of Consult                                       nymphal instars and emerged adults as
                  affects on this duration.                                                   sown in Fig. (6). When the 5th nymphal
                           The duration of treated and un-                                    instars of S. gregaria were treated
                  treated nymphs calculated according to                                      some nymphs were unable to moult
                  Dembester equation.                                                         into adult stage and died without com-
                           Data in Tables (1&2) and Fig. (5)                                  pleting the moulting process. Different
                  showed the effect of Consult concentra-
                                                                                              deformities were observed, some were
                  tions on the duration of the 5th nymphal
                  instars of S. gregaria. The experiments
                                                                                              able to split the old cuticle but unable
                  were carried out on one and six-day old of                                  to wriggle out of the old exuvia, some
                  the 5th nymphal instar with different con-                                  were able to complete the moulting
                  centrations of Consult (50,75and 100 ppm).                                  process but the old cuticle connected
                  It was observed that, the duration of                                       with the resulting adults in different
                  the treated nymphs was increased as                                         positions as legs or wings and some
                  result of treatment with Consult. The                                       were able to complete the moulting
                  duration of treated nymphs during one                                       process without any deformity in the
                  day old reaching 8.76, 9.36 and 10.16                                       resulting adults.
                  days after treatment with 50, 75 and                                                Treatment of the 5th nymphal
                  100 ppm, respectively, also the dura-                                       instars of S. gregaria with different
                  tion of treated nymphs during six day                                       concentrations of Consult resulted in
                  old were 8.32, 9.30 and 10.97 days                                          moulting disturbances which increased
                  with the same concentrations, respec-                                       with the increase of Consult concentra-
                  tively. It was concluded that the dura-                                     tions. The observation of resulted
                  tion of treated nymphs had positive                                         adults, indicated that, the most of adult
                  relationships with increasing Consult                                       emergence were unable to fly and
                  concentrations.                                                             sluggish in walking, jumping and
                                                                                              climbing, also they have curled wings,
                                                                                              grayish and buff solitary colour and
                          One day old treatment
                 12
                          Six day old treatment


                 10                                                                           absence of wing patches.
                  8
Mean longevity




                  6




                  4




                  2                                                                                             1                     2

                  0
                       Control                    50                 75   100
                                                       Conc. (ppm)

                  Fig. (5): Effect of Consult on the longevity of the 5th
                          nymphal instar of Schistocerca gregaria
                          treated as one day and six day old.                                                    3                    4
                         Statistical analysis in (Tables                                      Fig. (6): shows that:
                  1&2) shows highly significant differ-                                       1: Normal adult.
                  ences between Consult concentrations                                        2: Treated adult which treated as one day old of the 5th
                                                                                              nymphal instar with Consult showed old exuvia connected
                  comparing with control in old of nym-                                       to wings.
                  phal instar/day after one and six day                                       3: Treated adult which treated as one day old of the 5th
                                                                                              nymphal instar with Consult showed twisted wings and
                  old of the 5th nymphs of S. gregaria                                        absence of wings batches.
                  treatments (F = 37.82 and 25.39 &                                           4: Treated adult, which treated as six day old of the 5th
                                                                                              nymphal instar with Consult showed curled wings and buff
                  LSD = 0.49 & 0.86).                                                         colour of body.
               Biological effects of Chitin-synthesis inhibitor on the desert locust     53


            DISCUSSION                               recorded during ecdysis of early the 4th
1.Biological effects of Consult on Schis-            nymphal instar to the 5th nymphal in-
tocerca gregaria by feeding technique:               star of S. gregaria when treated with
        The present investigation re-                chlorfluazuron (El-Ela et al., 1993b),
vealed that, the treatment with insect               also chlorfluazuron induced apprecia-
growth regulators has toxic effects on               ble failure in ecdysis to adult stage
the desert locust, Schistocerca grega-               when applicated on the last nymphal
ria.                                                 instar (El-Gammal et al., 1993), Cop-
        These effects depend on the                  pen and Jepson (1996a) when treated
concentration of the compounds and                   the 2nd nymphal instars of S. gregaria
the age of the treated insects. In the               with diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron and
present study, hexaflumuron (Consult)                teflubenzuron, they recorded mortality
act as chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI),             after all other treatments. Triflumuron
was used against the 5th nymphal instar              caused different mortalities after 5 to
of S. gregaria during one day and six                15 days of the barrier application in
day old by feeding technique.                        Mauritania (Wilps and Diop, 1997).
Chitin synthesis inhibitors act on in-                       Also, the results are in agree-
sects by disturbing the deposition of                ment with some authors who appli-
chitin of the insect cuticle so that the             cated hexaflumuron on another insects
moulting process is inhibited.                       such as (Haagsma and Rust, 2005), on
        The present study showed that,               western subterranean termite and
the treatment with different concentra-              (Marzban and Baniameri, 2005) on the
tions against one day and six day old                diamondback moth and (Vahabzadeh
of the 5th nymphal instar of S. gregaria             et al., 2007) on eastern subterranean
caused nymphal mortality and failure                 termite.
to ecdysis to adult increased with the               2.Prolongation effects of consult on
increase of Consult concentrations. Al-              Schistocerca gregaria:
so, the percentage of total inhibition of                    When applied the selected
adult emergence reached to 100%.                     compounds, insect growth regulators,
        More or less, the present results            on the 5th nymphs of S. gregaria by
are agreed with those finding by sever-              using of the feeding technique, the age
al chitin synthesis inhibitors against the           of the treated nymphs were affected
same acridide species, S. gregaria such              when treated one and six day old of
as:diflubezuron, which interfered with               the 5th nymphal instars with different
the chitin synthesis during the nymphal              concentrations of Consult (hexaflumu-
ecdysis to the last instar causing some              ron). The age of untreated nymphs was
mortalities (Taha and El-Gammal,                     about 8-day, while the age of treated
1985), also diflubenzuron when in-                   nymphs was prolonged by treatment
jected to the 5th nymphs of S. gregaria              with consult.
was observed that, some treated instars                      The prolongation, which hap-
were unable to moult and died without                pened in the age of the treated nymphs
completing the moulting process, some                may be due to the effect of consult on
were able to split the old cuticle but               the ecdysteriod and JH titers in haemo-
unable to wriggle out of the exuvia,                 lymph of the treated nymphs, this ex-
some were able to complete moulting                  planation was in agreement with (Key
process but the resulting adults were                and Edney, 1936) who suggested that,
deformed to varying degrees and some                 the moults and the instar number in
were able to moult without deformity                 locusts may be under hormonal control.
in the resulting adults (Roa and Mehro-              Whereas the moulting hormone (ecdy-
tra, 1986), the greatest mortality was               son), which were produced from pro-
                                   Reda F.A. Bakr et al.                               54


thoracic gland, controls the moulting            2nd and 3rd instar of S. gregaria were
process and the duration of each nym-            significantly prolonged when they ex-
phal instars of Locusta. That was rec-           posed to three benzoylphenyl urea’s,
orded by implantation of an extra                diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron and tef-
gland in the 4th instar shortened the            lubezuron that was observed by (Cop-
mean duration of the instar from 8.11            pen and Jepson 1996a).
to 6.25 days and implantation of an              3.Developmental events:
extra gland in the 5th instar reduced the                 Application of IGR generally
duration. While extirpation of the               disturbs hormone balance inside the
gland from the 4th instar either pro-            insect body.
longed it, or caused the hopper to re-           The present investigation revealed that
main longer than the normal without              the morphologenetic aberrations in-
moulting; such individuals were called           duced by the used of CSI (Consult )
permanent larvae although they died              fed to the one day and six day old 5th
within eighteen to twenty-two days,              nymphal instars of S. gregaria for 24
that was recorded by (Sir, 1966).                hours dietary period were concentra-
Therefore, decreased levels of the ec-           tions dependent.
dyson hormone resulted in prolonga-                       The application of Consult re-
tion of the nymphal duration.                    sulted in moulting disturbance and dif-
         Similar observations were also          ferent morphological defects in treated
reported by Eid et al. (1982a), they no-         adult locusts appeared as twisted wings,
ticed that, treatment with precocoene II         colour changes and the failure of get
and juvenile hormone III extended the            rid the last nymphal exuvia.
duration of the 4th and 5th nymphal in-                   Several hypothesis have been
stars, whereas treatment with cyclo-             introduced to explain the mode of ac-
heximide extended the duration of the            tion of Consult (CSI in general) on the
4th nymphal instar only. Also, the for-          morphologensis since Mulder and
mation of a long-lasting additional in-          Gijswijt (1973) supported that, the in-
star, when exposed second-instar                 gestion of these compounds by insect
nymphs of S. gregaria to precocene II            larvae disturbed the endocuticular de-
at 15 µg/cm2 that was recorded by Sa-            position during moulting process be-
lem et al. (1982b), but when the 4th             cause they block the chitin synthesis.
nymphal instars was exposed to preco-            The blockage of chitin synthesis occurs
cene II gave rise to precocious adults.          due to disruption of function of con-
         Other nymphs, which were                necting N-acetylg lucose amine moie-
treated by different concentration of            ties; to the chitin chain in spite of that
Consult, died without moulting to the            the coupling of uridine disphosphate-
adult stage, this may be due to the re-          N-acetyle-glucose amine (UDPAG),
duction effect of consult on protein le-         the ultimate chitin precursor, to chitin
vels of haemolymph of the treated                synthetase still proceeds (Post et al.,
nymphs. This may be attributed to that;          1974).
orthopterous insects have an unusually                    Several lines of experiments
high requirement for protein, of which           argue explain direct interaction of
approximately 50% is deposited in the            these inhibitors with the chitin synthe-
cuticle.                                         tase, instead, they may alter either ve-
         Also, the prolongation effect of        sicle transport or fusion, inhibit the
diflubenzuron reached to 14 days when            translocation of chitin fibrils across the
Azam and Seegh (1993) treated the 2nd            plasma membrane (Cohen, 2001), or
nymphal instars of S. gregaria with              interfere with the hormonal regulation
diflubenzuron. Also the duration of the          of chitin synthesis by influencing ec-
               Biological effects of Chitin-synthesis inhibitor on the desert locust          55


dysteroid production (Fournet et al.,                       levels of juvenile hormone, ecdys-
1995 and Bakr et al. 2008). However,                        teroids and protein during the last
the exact mode of action of this CSI on                     two larval instars of Locusta mi-
the adult transformation and exclusion                      gratoria. J. Insect Physiol., 25:
                                                            415-421.
is still puzzling (Merzendorfer and Zi-
                                                     Bakr,R.F.A.; M.S.Hamed and N.A.Abdel-
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                                             ARABIC SUMMARY


  ‫التأثيرات البيولوجية لمثبت النمو الحشري ھكسافلوميرون على الجراد الصحراوي شيستوسيركا جريجاريا‬
          2
              ‫رضا فضيل علي بكر1- مني إبراھيم محمد1- عبد العظيم محمد الجمال2- نورة محمد مھدي‬
                              ‫1- قسم علم الحشرات - كلية العلوم - جامعة عين شمس‬
                              ‫2- معھد بحوث وقاية النبات – مركز البحوث الزراعية‬

‫تعتبر آفة الجراد الصحراوي شيستوسيركا جريجاريا إحدي أھم اآلفات الحشرية من الناحية اإلقتصادية حيث أنھا تدمر‬
                                                                 .‫المحاصيل الزراعية التي تمثل الغذاء األساسي لألنسان والحيوان‬
‫لذلك أصبح ضروريا أن نمنع تكاثر وھجرة ھذه األسراب كي نتجنب ھذا الضرر، ومن ثم فإن معظم الدراسات تتجه لتقييم‬
‫التأثيرات المختلفة لبعض العناصر الفعالة من منظمات النمو الحشرية ضد حوريات الجراد الصحراوي عمر أول وسادس للحصول‬
‫علي طريقة مكافحة جديدة وفعالة وتجنب المشكالت الناجمة عن استخدام المبيدات الكيميائية المضرة باإلنسان والبيئة لذلك وضعت ھذه‬
       .‫الدراسة الحالية لتقييم تأثير مركب من منظمات النمو الحشري )الكونصلت( على حوريات العمر الخامس من الجراد الصحراوي‬
‫وتھدف ھذه الدراسة الي المقارنة بين التأثيرات البيولوجية والبيوكيميائية وشوھدت النتائج في العمر الخامس للحورية‬
                                                                                                        .‫والطور اليافع للحشرة‬
                                                                            :‫ويمكن تلخيص أھم النتائج المتحصل عليھا فيما يلي‬
                                                                               :‫أوال: التأثيرات البيولوجية والتغيرات في السلوك‬
‫أسفرت النتائج عن أن تغذية حوريات العمر الخامس أول يوم وسادس يوم للجراد الصحراوي علي أوراق البرسيم الحجازي‬
‫المغمورة فى تركيزات مختلفة من الكونصلت )05، 57، 001 جزء من المليون(، كان له تأثيرات سلبية على الحوريات الحية حيث‬
‫يؤدى الى موت بعض الحوريات قبل االنسالخ الى الطور اليافع ولوحظ اطالة لعمر الحوريات التى عوملت بھذه المادة مع فشل نسبة‬
‫من الحوريات فى االنسالخ للطور اليافع تزداد حتي تصل الى 001% بزيادة التركيزات كما أن الحشرات اليافعة من الحوريات‬
             .‫المعاملة حدث لھا تشوھات فى االجنحة وفشل بعضھم فى التخلص التام من جليد الحوريات وكذلك تميزھم باللون الرمادى‬

								
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