Family Dynamics and Environmental Behavior by nuu18388

VIEWS: 12 PAGES: 23

									 Family Dynamics and
Environmental Behavior
   Connie Roser-Renouf, June Flora,
   Edward Maibach, Xiaoquan Zhao
           & Melissa Taylor
                 Purpose
Use social marketing concepts, audience
segmentation, and behavioral analyses.
Examine environmental behavior within the
family context, by looking at:
 – the relationship of children’s attitudes to their
   parents’ behaviors;
 – characteristics of families with shared &
   discrepant attitudes toward environmental
   behavior.
Build a foundation for intervention design.

                        2
              Methods
Subset of national mail survey by Porter
Novelli in summer 2007
Nationally representative survey (N=11,758)
920 parent-child pairs
Children aged 9-18 & in the household
Environment questions subset of total



                    3
      Endorsement of Pro-Environmental Behaviors by Parents




     Lower Endorsement                 Higher Endorsement
     Demographics                      Demographics
     Attitudes                         Attitudes




Lower Child    Higher Child        Lower Child     Higher Child
Endorsement    Endorsement         Endorsement     Endorsement
Demographics   Demographics        Demographics    Demographics
Attitudes      Attitudes           Attitudes       Attitudes
Relationship   Relationship        Relationship    Relationship
Behavior       Behavior            Behavior        Behavior




                               4
         Pro-Environmental Behaviors
Energy Conservation
  Use less energy at home (lights, AC, heat)
  Buy energy-efficient appliances/insulation
  Use less gas (by driving less or getting a more fuel-efficient car)

Environmentally Friendly Consumption
  Buy environmentally friendly products
  Buy products that use less packaging
  Buy products made from recycled paper/plastic
  Buy organic food

Environmental Activism
  Vote for candidates with the best environmental records
  Punish companies with bad environmental records by not buying
  their products
  Donate to organizations that support environmental causes
  Remind others to be environmentally conscious


                                   5
         Climate Change Attitudes
Risk Perceptions

  Global warming is a very serious problem.
  Global warming is a threat to my future well-being and safety.
  Global warming is a threat to future generations’ well-being and safety.
  Global warming is a threat to all life on the planet.
  When I think about global warming, I feel afraid of what might happen.

Global Warming Solvability & Fatalism

  I can take actions that will help reduce global warming.
  There is nothing we can do to stop global warming. (reversed)
  The actions we take can prevent global warming from becoming more
  severe.
  The actions of a single person like me won’t make any difference in
  reducing global warming. (reversed)




                                     6
    Parent-Child Relationship


My parents respect my ideas and opinions.

My parents don’t really understand me.
(reversed)

My parents don’t really trust me.
(reversed)


                    7
    Energy Conservation Behaviors &
       Parent-Child Endorsement
    100                                      Percent of actions
     90
                                             performed
     80
     70
%                                            Home energy, buy
     60
                                             appliances, insulate, use
     50
                                             less gas
     40
     30
     20
                                             Parent p<.001
     10
      0
                                             Child p<.01
          LoLo     LoHi   HiLo    HiHi

                 Family Segment

                                         8
Environmentally Friendly Consumption
     & Parent-Child Endorsement
    100                                      Percent of actions
     90                                      performed
     80
     70                                      Buy organic foods,
%    60
                                             environment friendly
     50
     40
                                             products, less
     30                                      packaged products,
     20                                      recycled products
     10
      0                                      Parent p<.001
          LoLo    LoHi   HiLo     HiHi
                                             Child p<.001
                 Family Segment

                                         9
         Environmental Activism &
         Parent-Child Endorsement
  100                                       Percent of actions
   90
                                            performed
   80
   70
                                            Donate, vote, punish
% 60
   50
                                            companies, remind
   40
                                            others
   30
   20
                                            Parents p<.001
   10                                       Child P<.001
    0                                       Parent child
        LoLo    LoHi   HiLo     HiHi
                                            interaction p<.01
               Family Segment

                                       10
    Energy Conservation, Consumption
     & Activism, by Endorsement Pairs
    100
    90
    80
    70
%   60
    50
    40
    30
    20
    10
     0
          LoParent/LoChild   LoParent/HiChild        HiParent/LoChild   HiParent/HiChild

                                  Family Segment

                                                11
Current Behavior and Willingness to Try New
     Behaviors, by Family Endorsement
    90

    80

    70

    60

    50
%
    40

    30

    20

    10

     0
         LoLo   LoHi   HiLo   HiHi   LoLo   LoHi    HiLo   HiHi   LoLo   LoHi   HiLo   HiHi
            Energy                   Environmentally              Environmental
          Conservation                   Friendly                   Activism
                                      Consumption

                                                   12
          Endorsement of Pro-Environmental Behaviors by Parents


         Lower Endorsement                                Higher Endorsement
             Younger parents                                   Older parents
          Republicans & no party                         Democrats & Independents
           Lower risk perception                           Higher risk perception
             Lower solvability                               Higher solvability
           Less political activism                         More political activism



   Lower Child               Higher Child              Lower Child          Higher Child
  Endorsement                Endorsement              Endorsement           Endorsement
 Low risk perception       High risk perception      Low risk perception   High risk perception
   Low solvability           High solvability          Low solvability       High solvability
Less positive relations   More positive relations      Older children       Younger children
    Older children          Younger children




                                                13
  Rank Order of Behaviors Families Are Willing to Try
                    Parent low   Parent low   Parent high   Parent high
                    Child Low    Child high   Child low     Child high
Buy w/less          1            1            1             4
packaging
Simpler lifestyle   2            3            2             5
Buy environ.        3            2
products
Use less gas        4                         5
Punish              5            4            3             1
companies
Buy organic         6            5            4             2
foods
Vote environ.                    6            6             3
candidates
Donate environ.                                             6
groups


                                      14
 Selected Media Use by Energy Conservation Groups

Media Use         Parent-low   Parent-low   Parent-high   Parent-high
                  Child-low    Child-high   Child-low     Child-high
P-newspaper          35%          41%          41%           51%
Food section**
P-newspaper          29%          30%          39%           47%
Health
section**
P-radio              4%           3%           7%            11%
classical**
P-radio Jazz*        4%           8%           7%            10%
P- web health &      20%          25%          33%           30%
nutrition**
C- web health &      7%           13%          6%            14%
nutrition**

                                    15
        Attitudinal Barriers to Energy Conservation

Energy               Parent low Parent low Parent high   Parent high
conservation
                     Child low  Child high Child low     Child high
Attitudes
P-not clear if          2.7        2.5         2.4           2.1
humans cause
warming ***
P-New Techs can         2.6        2.4         2.2           2.4
solve w/out humans
have change **

P- The media            3.1        3.0         2.9           2.6
exaggerates
concerns ***
C- New Techs _          2.6        2.5         2.5           2.3
Same as above ***




                                    16
Message Implications for High Parent
     and High Child Segment
Pro-environment
  family
 Reinforce current actions
 Extend behaviors
 Increase Knowledge
 Build/extend advocacy

 Newspapers and web

 Opinion leader families
 found here

                             17
  Message Implications for High Parent
        and Low Child Segment
Parent focused “Talk to
your child” messages                      Need more research on best
                                          channels; media &
Extend parent knowledge and               organizational memberships
behavior – by including “family
knowledge and behaviors
(computer use, phone use etc.)”

Tools for family engagement such
as:
    Reinforce school/media
    messages
    Family issue dinner discussion
    Shared family behaviors
    (transportation, energy use)
    Family goal setting and
    feedback
                                     18
   Message Implications for Low Parent
        and High Child Segment
Primary Focus on Child, with parent messages highlighting the
importance of supporting child engagement
                                     “Pint-Size Eco-Police, Making Parents
                                         Proud and Sometimes Crazy”
  Support child engagement
  Build on strong parent/
    child bond
  Help child inform parent
      Create tools for
  engaging
        parents, such as:

             Discussion
                               Jan Schmidt, mother of Elly, 12, left, and Daniel, 4, right, says
                               both her children are highly environmentally aware.
             Information       New York Times, Oct. 9, 2008


             Reinforce         19
             behavior
  Message Implications for Low Parent
       and Low Child Segment
Focus on Child
 Engage child via school,
 other credible
 organizations such as
 scouts, athletics etc.
 Find entry child behaviors
 Send parent messages
 via interpersonal channels




                              20
               Conclusions
Families are important segments of audience
Family member behavioral endorsement is a valid way of
segmenting families
Families engage in groups of behaviors in different ways
Important to understand how behaviors cluster; Financial
cost, psychological costs, ease of understanding,
engage/disengage etc.
More research needed on channels of communication,
organizational membership (e.g. schools, civic etc.) for
environmental information




                           21
           Membership in Four Family Types,
     By Endorsement of Pro-Environmental Attitudes

                   Parent      Parent        Parent      Parent      Number of
 Endorsement        Low          Low          High        High        Parent/
                  Child Low   Child High    Child Low   Child High   Child Pairs


       Energy
  Conservation
                  34.7%       19.8%         19.3%       26.3%           891


Environmentally
       Friendly   29.4%       14.9%         20.9%       20.9%           892
   Consumption



 Environmental
       Activism
                  35.1%       19.3%         16.7%       28.8%           883


                                       22
      Energy Conservation Family Type by
          Risk Perception and Efficacy
 5

4.5

 4

3.5
                                     P-risk
 3                                   C-risk
                                     P-efficacy
2.5
                                     C-efficacy
 2

1.5

 1
        LoLo   LoHi   HiLo    HiHi



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