ECE 504(1)

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					                               DIGITAL II - MICROPROCESSORS (1-1)
                                              FALL 2002
                   Class Homepage:

Instructors:        Robi Polikar, Ph.D. (Lec.); John L. Schmalzel, Ph.D., P.E. (Lab.)
Office& Phone: Dr. Polikar: 136 Rowan, 256-5372 (voice-mail available)
                    Dr. Schmalzel: 201 Rowan, 256-5332 (voice-mail available)
Office Hours:       Open. Come on in whenever professors are in their office with their door open.
E-mail:    ;
Class Meeting: Thursday 09:30 – 10:20 at Rowan 239
                    Friday 08:00 – 10:45 at Rowan 204
Reference Text: Embedded System Design, A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, F. Vahid, T. Gi-
                    vergis, John Wiley, 2002, ISBN: 0-471-38678-2
Required Supplies:
    Laboratory notebook w/ numbered pages, duplicate page sets; e.g., Boorum #09-9088.
    BL-1800 Evaluation Kit (PN: 101-0363) Z-World, 2900 Spafford St., Davis, CA 95616. (888) 362-
    Data sheets and parts catalogs as required: Use WWW to access datasheets from vendors like Motoro-
       la, Intel, AMD, Texas Instruments (TI), National Semiconductor, Zilog, etc.
    Minor equipment & supplies: Augment your complement of hand tools to facilitate digital trouble-
       shooting—e.g., logic probe capability, fine-pitch probe(s), etc. You are expected to purchase those
       parts for any circuit elements you wish to keep.
    A note on prototyping: Efficient interfacing can be done using .025‖ square-post interconnect sys-
       tems. The ECE Dept will provide limited access to crimp tooling, wire, connectors and connector
       bodies. You are expected to fabricate your own set of interconnect jumpers. You are encouraged to
       augment this basic set with your own choice of additional accessories. Do not use the logic probe ac-
       cessories for anything other than logic analyzer interface!
    Tyco/Amp ―AMPMODU‖ connector system: E.g., 1-87756-7, MOD IV receptacle, 22-26 AWG,
       standard pressure, tin (Mouser: 571-877567) w/ mating connector shells (1-row, 2-row). Molex crimp
       tool: 11-01-0208, 22-24 AWG (―A‖) and 30-36 AWG (―B‖).

    This is the second course in the digital systems sequence. This course (un)covers principles of computer
systems design including hardware and software. The course also treats applications of computer design.
    The objectives for the course include:
        Describe key H/W and S/W attributes of embedded processors (EPs: Ps/Cs).
        Outline the major architectural features of EPs.
        Describe the attributes of EP users and developers.
        Relate basic digital system hardware and architecture elements to EPs.
        Characterize the physical I/O interface requirements of an EP environment.
        Understand the nature of processing physical signals digitally.
        Identify—and exercise—opportunities for hardware and software trade-offs.
        Design, simulate, and implement systems based on Ps/Cs including mixed-signal circuitry us-
             ing an EP development environment to perform typical EP applications.
        Demonstrate application of appropriate debugging strategies and tools.
        Identify major topics underpinning EP development and future directions.
    Attendance is required for your successful completion of this course. At this level, however, I believe that
the instructor need not police attendance. I assume that you are all mature individuals, and that I do not need
to take regular attendance. I do, however, consider class participation as part of professional etiquette, which
appears as 10% of your final grade. Your eagerness to learn new material should be your major source of mo-
tivation for coming to class. However, the following may also help improve your inspiration and motivation:
           Undergraduates: $2889.50 for 12 credits  $481.58 for a 2-credit course
           Course meets 15 weeks  $32.10 per week =16 loads of laundry, 3 large pizzas, etc.
           Multiply everything by two, if you are an out-of-state student.
     Note that this course is a hands-on, laboratory intensive, project-based course. Successful completion of
this course will demand significant amount of time commitment from you, a good portion of which may be
spent in the laboratory. Based on experience with previous offerings of this course, expect to spend 10-12
hours outside the classroom. Please budget your time accordingly, as this is just an average. You will most
likely need less time during the first couple of weeks of the class, but most certainly more time towards the
end of the semester.

     This class will meet twice a week, on Thursdays and Fridays. Thursday classes, administered by Dr. Poli-
kar, will be structured in the lecture format and they will be spent on discussing various software and hard-
ware issues related to microprocessors and their use in embedded systems. Friday classes, administered by Dr.
Schmalzel, will in general, be reserved for laboratory. Occasionally, we will use portions or the entire duration
of Friday classes for lecture as well, particularly during the first few weeks.
     At the beginning of the semester you will be grouped into teams and will work towards a project. There
will be one semester-long project for each team, rather than several laboratory exercises. Your grade will be
based heavily on your performance on this project.

    You are not only allowed, but in fact required to work in teams for all class related work, including all
homework assignments and the semester project, unless specifically asked to do otherwise for certain exercis-
es. Teams will be formed by the instructors at the beginning of the semester based on your specific back-
grounds, talents and interests. All team members need to contribute equally to all team exercises. The instruc-
tors will employ various mechanisms to determine the individual contributions to group project(s). Therefore,
not everyone in a given group will receive the same grade!
Learning about embedded processors requires that you actually perform development using a target embed-
ded processor (EP) along with example applications. The laboratory component will consist of some directed
experiences along with progressive design project complexity.

Directed Lab Experiences. (Weeks 2-5) Perform familiarization exercises that demonstrate how to confi-
gure, download, and execute sample programs. Investigate the basic timing relationships of the EP. Imple-
ment a simple interface for a commonly used peripheral device.

Small Project. (Weeks 6-7) Develop a re-usable module. Using a target EP, develop an application module
approved by your instructor that involves some form of useful I/O. For example, user input (e.g., read rotary
switches); perform other input (e.g., optical encoder, linear encoder), standard serial interface (―MicroWire‖
and similar); perform analog-to-digital conversion; digital-to-analog conversion, an algorithmic process that
includes computation (e.g., performs curve fit, gradient seek, CRC); perform output (multiplexed LED dis-
play, graphic LCD display, digital-to-analog converter, etc.). Provide requisite technical documentation includ-
ing application notes / user’s manual and documented source code. Demonstrate completed application.
Useful Project. (Weeks 8-14) Develop an embedded application. Wherever possible, use modules provided
by other teams to create an application that performs a useful function approved by your instructor. Exam-
ples include:
1. Haptic interface. Develop a force-feedback I/O device that can be interfaced via RS-232 (Ethernet, USB,
etc.) to another device such as a PC. Examples can be found through
2. Automotive/marine/aerospace instrument. Using a standard gauge form factor (e.g., 2-1/8‖), design a self-
contained instrument module. Examples could include speedometer (+odometer), oil pressure, temperature
(coolant, oil, cylinder), diagnostic read-out module, voltage monitor, etc.
3. Biomedical/physiological monitor. Develop an instrument that satisfies a stated requirement.
4. ―Large Module.‖ Develop interface modules to handle more complex protocols such as USB, Fire Wire,
IEEE-488, etc.

Project C. Alternative embedded processor architectures. Investigate alternate microproces-
sor/microcontroller architectures. After selecting a target approved by your instructor, summarize key fea-
tures of the architecture and orally present this to your colleagues. Include appropriate handouts.

   • Enthusiasm, genuine interest, and willingness to put forward extra effort
   • Time, patience, perseverance
   • Digital I material
   • Basic programming language skills for C/C++
    You will be tested on your Digital I knowledge during third week of classes as your first midterm exam.
While there will be a review of some Digital I material during the first couple weeks, this review will be very
brief, intended only for reminding you the basic concepts. You should not rely on this review as your sole
means for preparing for the first midterm, as additional Digital I material not covered in the review may ap-
pear on the exam. You are strongly encouraged to review your Digital I knowledge, as this information will be
essential for your success in this class.

   An absolute grading scheme will be used to assess your final grade, which will consist of the following
                                   100-95: A,          95-90: A-
   Exams/Quizzes: 20%              89-87: B+,          86-83: B,       82-80: B-
   Final Oral       20%            79-77: C+,          76-73: C,       72-70: C-
   Project:         50%            69-67: D+,          66-63: D,       62-60: D-
   Professionalism: 10%            59-0: F

    Note that doing everything you are asked to do in this class will get you a ―C‖. An ―A‖ is reserved only
for those who exhibit outstanding performance, delivering above and beyond the minimum asked to com-
plete the course. All work must be completed to pass the course. For credit, work is due at the beginning of
the class period assigned and must be presented in a professional manner. Late work will not be accepted for
unexcused absences. The course instructors reserve the right to modify the above grading scheme with ample
prior notice and explanation. There will be no make-up for midterm exams.
    The instructors of this course expect you adhere to highest standards of academic honesty, an essential
component of professional behavior. Therefore, academic dishonesty will not be tolerated. Note that a single
occurrence of academic dishonesty will result in an automatic F, as well as possible additional sanctions / pu-
nishments by the university administration.
    Attention to good safety practices is of critical importance whenever engineering work is performed. Safe-
ty will be stressed throughout this course. Failure to follow safe laboratory practices can lead to accidents that
can endanger you and other students. In particular, you will be working around mains-operated equipment at
potentials that pose a risk of electrocution. A current CPR certificate is highly encouraged. Your grade will be
reduced if you fail to follow proper safety procedures.

                                        TENTATIVE COURSE CONTENT

    1. Introduction and review: Embedded systems overview, design challenges, processor selection, IC tech-
       nologies and design trade-offs. Review of combinational logic, logic gates, sequential logic design, flip-
       flops, state machines.
    2. General-purpose processors: Software. Basic architecture, instruction execution, pipelining, registers, I/O,
       interrupts, debugging, Rabbit architecture
    3. Standard single purpose processors: Peripherals. Timers, counters, watch-dog timers, pulse width modula-
       tors, LCD controllers, keypad controllers, stepper motor controllers, real-time clocks.
    4. Interfacing. Terminology and basic protocol concepts, microprocessor interfacing, I/O addressing, port
       and bus I/O, interrupts, direct memory access, parallel, serial and wireless communication.
    5. Memory. ROM, EPROM, EEPROM, RAM, SRAM, DRAM, NVRAM, Rabbit memory resources.
    6. Control Systens. Open and closed loop systems, PID controllers.
    7. Design Technologies (Lab).

       Please note that this is a tentative schedule. This is the first time this class is being offered through
        structured lecture+lab components with a new instructor, and we may have to adjust things as we go
        along. Suggestions on the content and mechanics of this class are always welcome.


    Please take a moment to identify two (or more) of your class / team mates as your primary source of in-
formation in case you miss a class. Make sure that you have their phone numbers and e-mail addresses, so
that you will have at least a couple phone numbers /e-mail addresses ready, should you miss a class. You are
also welcome to contact me. Also remember that most of the notes will be on the web, but your classmates’
notes may include additional information not available in the lecture notes.

    Name:_____________________ Phone:________________ E-Mail:_______________
    Name:_____________________ Phone:________________ E-Mail:_______________
    Name:_____________________ Phone:________________ E-Mail:_______________


     Questions, constructive criticisms, comments, and suggestions are always welcome. Please feel free to
share your opinions about all aspects of the class: content, level, workload, instructor’s communication skills
(or lack thereof), etc. There will be a box outside of my office for anonymous comments. You may use Dr.
Polikar’s ―I’ve Got Something To Say!®‖ forms, available on class web page.

   I will also give you a mid-semester evaluation form, so that you can have a formal opportunity to voice
your concerns or appreciations (if any at all…).

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