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COMMUTING AND MIGRATION PATTERNS

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COMMUTING AND MIGRATION PATTERNS Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                     Edinburgh migration and commuting patterns


EDINBURGH
In 2001 the population of Edinburgh was 448,624, 66% of which were of working age.

MIGRATION

Table 1 below shows UK migration to and from Edinburgh in the year to the Census in 2001.

Table 1: Migration by total- and working-age population (UK only1), 2001.
                           Total out-       Total in-
                           migration        migration     Net migration
Total migration                  20,599          21,919            +1,320
Working-age migration            17,062          19.616            +2,554
Source: Census Origin-Destination tables, 2001.


In the year to 2001 Edinburgh experienced an overall net in-migration of total and working-age
population. Importantly working-age population has experienced a larger net in-migration than
total population. However, it should be noted that the data do not take account of emigration
to locations outside of the UK.

Figure 1 presents total in-migration to Edinburgh from the UK and overseas.

Figure 1: Total2 in-migration to Edinburgh, 2001.

            Scotland                                         35%




    England & Wales                              26%




    Rest of the world                      22%




     Origin unknown                14%




           N. Ireland    2%



                        0%    5%         10%           15%         20%    25%     30%     35%      40%




Of the total number of people migrating to Edinburgh (34,607) between 2000 and 2001 only 35%
came from elsewhere in Scotland; 26% (8,987) came from England & Wales; 22% (7,077) came
from a country outside the UK; and 14% from an unknown place of origin.




1
  The Census data provides information on immigration to Edinburgh from outside the UK however there is no data
relating to emigration to locations outside the UK. The numbers presented in Table 1 are for movements within the UK
only.
2
  Including people from outside the UK and people with no address the year before the census.
                                                                         Edinburgh migration and commuting patterns
Figure 2 below shows in-migration to Edinburgh from other Scottish local authorities only.

Figure 2: Total in-migration to Edinburgh from Scottish local authorities, 2001

             Fife                                      12%


    West Lothian                                  9%


     East Lothian                                 8%


       Midlothian                             8%


        Glasgow                              8%


       Aberdeen                              7%


 Scottish Borders                       6%


        Highland                        6%


  Perth & Kinross                  4%


   Aberdeenshire              3%


                    0%         2%             4%        6%         8%     10%    12%    14%    16%   18%

Of the 12,280 people migrating to Edinburgh in 2001 from elsewhere in Scotland, the highest
proportion was from Fife (12%). The next most popular origins for migrants were the
surrounding Lothians – contributing between 8-9% of migrants each.

Figure 3 below shows out-migrants from Edinburgh to other Scottish local authorities only.

Figure 3: Out-migration from Edinburgh to Scottish local authorities, 2001.

    West Lothian                                                   16%


             Fife                                            13%


     East Lothian                                        13%


       Midlothian                                      12%


        Glasgow                               8%


 Scottish Borders                            7%


  Perth & Kinross              4%


       Aberdeen               3%


        Highland          3%


          Falkirk        2%


                    0%         2%             4%        6%         8%     10%    12%    14%    16%   18%



Of the 12,170 people moving out of Edinburgh to other Scottish areas, the highest proportion
moved to adjoining West Lothian (16%). Fife (13%) and East Lothian (13%) were the next most
popular destinations for out-migrants.
                                                              Edinburgh migration and commuting patterns
Figures 4 and 5 below show in and out-migration by age group.

     Figure 4: In-migration3 by age, 2001.                      Figure 5: Out-migration4 by age, 2001.
                               2%
                                               Aged 0-15                                 4%               Aged 0-15
                          6%        9%                                             9%         14%

                     9%                        Aged 16-24                                                 Aged 16-24

                                                                             13%
                                               Aged 25-34                                                 Aged 25-34

                                                                                                    29%
                                         43%   Aged 35-44                                                 Aged 35-44

                    30%
                                                                                                          Aged 45-64
                                               Aged 45-64                          32%

                                                                                                          Aged 65+
                                               Aged 65+




The largest groups migrating to Edinburgh are those aged 16-24 (43%) followed by 25-34 year
olds (30%). For out-migration, the largest groups are 25-34 (32%) and 16-24 year olds (29%).

TRAVEL TO WORK PATTERNS
Table 2 below provides an overview of Edinburgh’s residents and workforce.

Table 2: Edinburgh residents and workforce, 2001.
                                                                 No.                          %
    Total population                                              448,624                         100%
    Working-age population                                         295,643                          66%
    Total Edinburgh residents in employment                       202,913                         100%
    …who work in Edinburgh                                         182,106                          90%
    ...who are out-commuters                                        20,807                          10%
    Total Edinburgh workforce                                     264,723                         100%
    …who are Edinburgh residents                                   182,106                          69%
    ….who are in-commuters                                          82,617                          31%
Source: ONS: Mid-year population estimates and Origin-Destination statistics (Census 2001).

Table 2 shows that of the 295,643 working-age population 202,913 are in employment – 90% in
Edinburgh and 10% outwith the area. Of the city’s 264,723 workforce, 69% are residents and
31% are in-commuters.
Table 3 shows where Edinburgh’s workforce lives.

Table 3: Place or residence of Edinburgh workforce, 2001.
                                             Edinburgh workforce
                                 No. of       % of total
 Place of residence            workforce      workforce    % of total in-commuters
 Edinburgh City                     182,106           69%
 West Lothian                        18,458            7%                    22.3%
 Midlothian                          17,700            7%                    21.4%
 East Lothian                        16,162            6%                    19.6%
 Fife                                11,333            4%                    13.7%
 Falkirk                              4,737            2%                     5.7%
 Scottish Borders                     3,467            1%                     4.2%
 Glasgow City                         1,744            1%                     2.1%
 North Lanarkshire                    1,692            1%                     2.0%
 South Lanarkshire                    1,662            1%                     2.0%
 Other Scottish LAs                   5,662          2.1%                     6.9%
 Total workforce                   264,723        100.0%                    100.0%

3
    Based on total number of people migrating to Edinburgh.
4
    Based on Scotland and UK only.
                                                 Edinburgh migration and commuting patterns


Table 3 shows that after Edinburgh, West Lothian and Midlothian are the next largest suppliers
of labour to the city – each accounting for 7% of the workforce.
Table 4 below shows where Edinburgh residents work.

Table 4: Place of work of Edinburgh residents, 2001.
                                               Edinburgh residents
                                No. of         % of total        % of total out-
 Place of work                 residents        residents          commuters
 Edinburgh City                     182,106           89.7%
 West Lothian                         5,862            2.9%                     28.2%
 Midlothian                           4,100            2.0%                     19.7%
 Fife                                 2,694            1.3%                     12.9%
 East Lothian                         2,307            1.1%                     11.1%
 Glasgow City                         1,864            0.9%                      9.0%
 Falkirk                              1,019            0.5%                      4.9%
 North Lanarkshire                      548            0.3%                      2.6%
 Stirling                               409            0.2%                      2.0%
 Aberdeen City                          402            0.2%                      1.9%
 Other Scottish LAs                   1,602            0.8%                      7.7%
 Total residents                   202,913          100.0%                    100.0%

Table 4 shows that of all Edinburgh residents 89.7% work in Edinburgh itself - among the
highest levels of local employment in the East of Scotland. 2.9% of Edinburgh residents travel
to work in West Lothian. Only a very small proportion of city residents travel outwith the
Lothians to work.

Table 5 below compares employment status of the total Edinburgh workforce to in-commuters.

Table 5: Employment status of Edinburgh workforce, 2001.
                        Total                                                      % of in-
 Employment status      workforce        % of total      In-commuters              commuters
 Full-time                      215,706              81%          71,370                    86%
 Part-time                       49,017              19%          11,247                    14%
 Total                         264,723              100%         82,617                  100%
 Employed                       240,233              91%          79,381                    96%
 Self-employed                   24,490               9%           3,236                     4%
 Total                         264,723              100%         82,617                  100%

Of those working in Edinburgh, 81% are employed full-time, however for in-commuters this
rises to 86%. 91% of the workforce are employees, again this is higher for those in-commuting
(96%). Therefore in-commuters to Edinburgh are slightly more likely to be full-time employees
than residents working there.
Table 6 shows the employment status of all Edinburgh residents compared to out-commuters.

Table 6: Employment status of Edinburgh residents, 2001.
                                                                                   % of out-
 Employment status         Total residents   % of total          Out-commuters     commuters
 Full-time                         162,982                 80%            18,646           90%
 Part-time                          39,931                 20%             2,161           10%
 Total                            202,913                 100%           20,807          100%
 Employed                          180,179                 89%            19,327           93%
 Self-employed                      22,734                 11%             1,480            7%
 Total                            202,913                 100%           20,807          100%
                                                                                     Edinburgh migration and commuting patterns


Table 6 shows that 80% of employed Edinburgh residents work full-time, for out-commuters
this rises to 90%. Out-commuters are also more likely to be employees (93%) compared with all
employed Edinburgh residents (89%).

Figure 6 compares industry of employment for in-commuters and Edinburgh residents.

Figure 6: Edinburgh workforce by industry and place of residence, 2001.

                    Real estate & business act                                      11%                                     5%

                       Financial intermediation                            9%                                   5%

                          Health & social work                             9%                             3%

                       Wholesale & retail trade                       7%                             3%

                                     Education                       6%                    2%

                       Public admin. & defence                   5%                        3%

 Mining etc.; manufacturing; elec., gas & water                 5%                        3%

                     Transport, storage & com.               4%                 2%

                                          Other              4%                1%

                           Hotels & restaurants             4%             1%

                                  Construction             3%             1%

                 Agriculture, forestry & fishing

                                                   0%       2%            4%         6%         8%        10%     12%       14%       16%         18%
                                                                           Edinburgh residents working in Edinburgh     Non-Edinburgh residents


Of Edinburgh’s 264,723 workforce 14% are employed in ‘real estate and business activities’
with almost a third of sector employees in-commuting. ‘Financial intermediation’ is the next
largest sector with 14% of Edinburgh’s jobs, over a third of which are held by in-commuters.

Figure 7 compares industry of employment for Edinburgh residents who work in the city and
those who out-commute to work.

Figure 7: Edinburgh residents by industry and destination, 2001.
                    Real estate & business act                                             15%                                        2%

                      Financial intermediation                                  11%

                          Health & social work                                  11%                               1%

                       Wholesale & retail trade                            9%                             1%

                                     Education                            8%                         1%

                      Public admin. & defence                         7%                   1%

 Mining etc.; manufacturing; elec., gas & water                      7%                        2%

                    Transport, storage & com.                    6%

                                          Other                  5%

                          Hotels & restaurants                  5%

                                  Construction               4%            1%

                 Agriculture, forestry & fishing

                                                   0%       2%            4%         6%         8%        10%     12%       14%        16%        18%

                                                   Edinburgh residents working in Edinburgh           Edinbiurgh residents working outwith Edinburgh




Figure 7 shows that 17% of Edinburgh’s 202,913 employed residents work in ‘real estate and
business activities’, of which only a small proportion travel to work outside Edinburgh. No other
industries have a significant number of people traveling to work outside Edinburgh.
                                                                                      Edinburgh migration and commuting patterns
Figure 8 below compares the occupations of Edinburgh residents and in-commuters working in
Edinburgh.

Figure 8: Edinburgh workforce by occupation and place of residence, 2001.

     Large employers & higher
                                      3%        2%
         managerial occ.

      Higher professional occ.                  9%                     4%

          Lower managerial &
                                                                      21%                                        10%
           professional occ.

             Intermediate occ.                       12%                         6%

       Small employers & own
                                       5%              1%
         account workers

 Lower supervisory & technical
                                       5%            3%
             occ.

             Semi-routine occ.                  9%                    3%


                  Routine occ.             6%          2%


                                 0%              5%               10%            15%           20%            25%             30%           35%
                                                             Edinburgh residents working in Edinburgh     Non-Edinburgh residents


Figure 8 shows that in-commuters account for a significant proportion of all occupational
groups working in Edinburgh with their representation highest in large employers and higher
managerial occupations; lower managerial and professional occupations; and intermediate
occupations.

Figure 9 below compares the occupations of Edinburgh residents working in Edinburgh and
those out-commuting.

Figure 9: Edinburgh residents by occupation and place of employment, 2001.
     Large employers & higher
                                      4%             1%
         managerial occ.

      Higher professional occ.                       12%                    2%


          Lower managerial &
                                                                            27%                                            4%
           professional occ.


             Intermediate occ.                             15%                         1%


       Small employers & own
                                           6%
         account workers

 Lower supervisory & technical
                                           6%               1%
             occ.


             Semi-routine occ.                       12%                    1%


                  Routine occ.              7%                   1%


                                 0%              5%               10%            15%           20%            25%             30%           35%
                                                Edinburgh residents working in Edinburgh    Edinburgh residents working outwith Edinburgh


Figures 8 and 9 show that the overall occupational profiles of Edinburgh’s workforce and
residents are very similar - not unexpected given the high proportion of residents who work in
the city.

Of the 20,807 Edinburgh residents who out-commute, the largest proportion work in lower
managerial and professional occupations (4% of all residents).
                                                                               Edinburgh migration and commuting patterns
Figures 10 and 11 below show in and out-commuting by gender.

Figure 10: In-commuters by gender,                                   Figure 11: Out-commuters by gender, 2001.
2001.


                                                                                            Female, 36%




            Female, 46%
                                                                                                                            Male, 64%
                                          Male, 54%




Figure 10 and 11 show that a clear majority of commuters are male. However, females
represent a slightly higher percentage of in-commuters (46%) than out-commuters (36%).

Figures 12 and 13 show in and out-commuting by age.

Figure 12: In-commuters by age-group,                                        Figure 13: Out-commuters by age-
2001.                                                                        groups, 2001.
                                                                                                                Aged 16-24,
                                 Aged 16-24,                                                                       8%
                                    12%


                                                                                          Aged 45-74,                       Aged 25-29,
              Aged 45-74,                    Aged 25-29,                                     32%                               16%
                 30%                            13%




                            Aged 30-44,
                               45%
                                                                                                              Aged 30-44,
                                                                                                                 44%




Figures 12 and 13 shows that a clear majority of commuters are aged 30+. The
proportions of those in each age group in and out-commuting are very similar overall.

Figure 14 below shows commuting by mode of transport for residents working in Edinburgh,
residents out-commuting to their place of work and in-commuters to Edinburgh.

Figure 14: Commuters by mode of transport, 2001.
                    100%                                               2%                               1%
                                                                       6%                               8%
                     90%                                                                                                                  Foot/bicycle
                                                  23%
                                                                       16%
                     80%
                                                                                                        28%
                                                   6%
                     70%
                                                                                                                                          Car-
                     60%                                                                                                                  passenger/taxi
                                                  30%
                     50%

                     40%                                               77%                                                                Bus/train

                     30%                                                                                63%


                     20%                          41%


                     10%                                                                                                                  Car/motorcycle


                       0%
                                               Edinburgh   Out-commuters from Edinburgh        In-commuters




Figure 14 shows that 41% of Edinburgh residents travelling to work within Edinburgh do so by
car (as a driver) and 30% travel by bus or train – the highest in the East of Scotland. Of all out-
commuters, 77% drive to work and only 16% use a bus or train. Use of buses and trains is higher
for in-commuters than out-commuters (28 vs. 16%).
                                                              Edinburgh migration and commuting patterns

ECONOMIC OVERVIEW
Table 7: Change in total and working-age population in Edinburgh, 1998-2003.
 Edinburgh                            1998                2003       Change 1998-2003
 Total population                   446,200             448,400       2,200       0.5%
 Working-age population       294,700 (66%)       302,600 (67%)       7,900       2.7%
    Source: Mid-year estimates, General Register Office (GRO) Scotland

Table 8: Edinburgh residents by place of birth, 2001.
      Place of birth             %
 Scotland                            77.8%
 England                             12.1%
 Wales                                0.5%
 Northern Ireland                     1.3%
 Republic of Ireland                  0.7%
                     1, 2
 Other EU countries                   2.1%
 Elsewhere                            5.6%
    Source: Census 2001

Table 9: Job density5 in Edinburgh, 2002.
                                2002
 Edinburgh                            1.14
 East of Scotland                     0.86
 Scotland                             0.82
    Source: Office of National Statistics (ONS)

Table 10: Claimant count rate, November 2004.
                          Claimant count
 Edinburgh                           2.2%
 East of Scotland                   2.23%
 Scotland                           2.27%
    Source: Claimant Register, Nomis

Table 11: Resident- and workplace based gross weekly earnings, 2003.
                            Residents          Workplace
                              based             based
 Edinburgh                         £408.3            £402.3
 East of Scotland                  £374.0            £372.7
 Scotland                          £367.2            £365.8
    Source: Nomis: New Earnings Survey, 2004.




5
    Ratio of filled jobs to working-age residents

				
Jun Wang Jun Wang Dr
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