R with Rcmdr BASIC INSTRUCTIONS

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					                                 R with Rcmdr:
                              BASIC INSTRUCTIONS
Contents
1 RUNNING & INSTALLATION R UNDER WINDOWS                                                                                                                                                                               2
  1.1 Running R and Rcmdr from CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                      2
  1.2 Installing from CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                 3
  1.3 Downloading from R web page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                      3

2 Rcmdr                                                                                                                                                                                                                4

3 Data files                                                                                                                                                                                                             4
  3.1 Generating a new dataset using the R spreadsheet                                             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    4
  3.2 Opening an existing data file . . . . . . . . . . . .                                         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    5
  3.3 Importing from the clipboard . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    6
  3.4 Saving a data file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    7
  3.5 Examining and editing data files . . . . . . . . . .                                          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    7
  3.6 Data Transforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    7
  3.7 Selecting subsets or subgroups of data . . . . . .                                           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    8
  3.8 Reordering factor levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    8
  3.9 Converting numeric variable to a factor . . . . . . .                                        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    9
  3.10 Switching between different loaded data sets . . .                                          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   10

4 Summary Statistics                                                                                                                                                                                                   10
  4.1 Univariate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                               10
  4.2 Bivariate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                              11

5 Two sample tests                                                                                                                                                                                                     11
  5.1 Independent t-tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                11
  5.2 Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                     12
  5.3 Paired t-test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                              12

6 Correlations and Regression                                                                                                                                                                                          12
  6.1 Correlation . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   13
  6.2 Simple linear Regression             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   13
  6.3 Polynomial Regression . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   14
  6.4 Nonlinear Regression . .             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   15

7 ANOVA                                                                                                                                                                                                                15
  7.1 Single factor ANOVA .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   16
  7.2 Post-Hoc Tukey’s test        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   16
  7.3 Planned Comparisons          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   16
  7.4 Factorial ANOVA . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   19
  7.5 Simple main effects .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   19

8 Analysis of frequencies                                                                                                                                                                                              21
  8.1 Goodness of fit test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                21
  8.2 Contingency tables - un-compiled counts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                      21
  8.3 Contingency tables - pre-compiled counts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                     22

9 Multivariate analysis                                                                                                                                                                                                22
  9.1 PCA - Principal components analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                    23
  9.2 Distance measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                  23
  9.3 MDS - Multidimensional Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                     23
                                                                                                1 RUNNING & INSTALLATION R UNDER WINDOWS




Figure 1: RGui - R 2.4.1 for windows. When running Rcmdr, the R Console window is rarely examined. All graphs produced
by Rcmdr will appear in a R Graphics window within RGui. The Data Editor window is a spreadsheet called from Rcmdr that
can be used to create and modify data sets. Note, that both the R Graphics and Data Editor windows are not initially present -
they only appear as required.


10 Graphs                                                                                                                                                                                                       24
   10.1 Scatterplots . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   24
   10.2 Boxplots . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   25
   10.3 Interaction plots . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   26
   10.4 Bargraphs . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   26
   10.5 Symbols on bargraphs . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   27
   10.6 Plot of mean versus variance        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   27

11 Saving results                                                                                                                                                                                               28
   11.1 Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                        28
   11.2 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                       28

12 Common problems encountered                                                                                                                                                                                  29




                                                            By Murray Logan

1 RUNNING & INSTALLATION R UNDER WINDOWS
1.1 Running R and Rcmdr from CD
1.1.1 To load up R
  1. Goto the directory rw2000/bin/


                                                                                    2
1.2 Installing from CD                                          1 RUNNING & INSTALLATION R UNDER WINDOWS


  2. Run the executable file Rgui.exe
     This will start R. Note that R itself is a command driven program, the menus are provided by an add-in package
     called Rcmdr (see section 2).

1.1.2 To load up Rcmdr




  1. Select the Packages menu (from the Rgui window)
  2. Select the Load packages.. submenu
     The Select one window will appear from which you need to select Rcmdr and click the
     OK button
     This will load up the Rcmdr package and a new window will appear (see figure 2)




1.2 Installing from CD
To install R and all the packages used on the CD (including Rcmdr) onto your own computer:
  1. Run the file called install.bat that is in the top(root) directory of the CD
  2. Follow the prompts and allow it to install in the default position
  3. Once it has installed, a menu and desktop icon will be included
  4. The install.bat will then automatically install all the packages into their correct locations
  5. R and Rcmdr can then be run locally (without the CD) by the same instructions as in sections 1.1.1 and 1.1.2
     respectively.


1.3 Downloading from R web page
R/Rcmdr can also be downloaded from Murray’s web page


   • http://users.monash.edu.au/downloads.
This location also contains the Eworksheets as well as other resources. Occasionally, if a bug is identified in R/Rcmdr
or the Eworksheeets, corrected versions may be posted on this site.

   R and Rcmdr as well as other packages used in this course can also be downloaded directly from the Compre-
hensive R Archive Network (CRAN). Windows versions can be downloaded from:
   • http://cran.r-project.org/bin/windows.
Whilst R, Rcmdr and all of the other packages required can be downloaded from the above site, some menus and
dialog boxes of the official Rcmdr package have been added and/or modified by Murray Logan to better suit BIO3011
students. As a result, some of the procedures documented in this manual are not available with the standard Rcmdr
download.




                                                            3
                                                                                                        3 DATA FILES




                                                  Figure 2: Rcmdr GUI


2 Rcmdr
Although R itself is a command driven statistical package, in recognition of the difficulty most students experience
while learning to use command driven software, a package (Rcmdr) has recently been included that enables most
basic statistical procedures to be performed using a graphical user interface (menus, buttons, boxes, etc).

    To enable easy use of R (and Rcmdr), some additional procedures have been developed for Rcmdr by Murray
Logan. These procedures extend the capacity and coverage of Rcmdr to include all topics and procedures relevant
to BIO3011.

   Hereafter, all procedures will relate to Rcmdr (the Rgui window) unless otherwise specified.



3 Data files
It is possible to have multiple data sets open at any time. As a result, each data set must be given a unique name by
which it can be referred to and identified with.


3.1 Generating a new dataset using the R spreadsheet
Note that the spreadsheet offered by R is at this stage very rudimentary and offers only very limited editing facilities.
R users usually use command-line procedures for data entry and dataset creation. Consequently, it is generally
recommended that for serious data entry, a package such as excel should be used. The data can then be imported
into R (see section 3.2.3).
  1. Select the Data menu
  2. Select the New data set... submenu
     The New Data Set dialog box will appear.


                                                           4
3.2 Opening an existing data file                                                                    3 DATA FILES


  3. Enter a name for the data set
  4. Click the OK button
     The R Data Editor Window (R’s graphical spreadsheet) window will appear within RGui. Switch control to
     Rgui using either Alt-tab or the Windows navigation buttons.



  5. Clicking on a column heading and selecting Change
     Name from the resulting pop-up menu enables vari-
     able names to be customized.
  6. Data are added by entering values in the cells
  7. Close the R Data Editor Window window and the
     dataset will be created. You will notice that the Data
     set panel now displays the name of the newly gen-
     erated dataset.


3.2 Opening an existing data file
3.2.1 Comma delimited text files - CSV




  1. Select the Data menu
  2. Select the Import data.. submenu

  3. Select the from text file or clipboard.. submenu
     The Read Data from text file or clipboard dialog
     box will appear.




  4. Provide a name for the imported data set (can be any
     name does not have to match the name of the file
     being imported). This is the name used to access
     the data once imported.
  5. Select Commas as the Field Separator. This speci-
     fies how the columns are delimited (separated).
  6. Click the OK button.
     The Read Data from Text File dialog box will ap-
     pear.
  7. Locate and select the file you wish to import (for
     BIO3011 these will always have the *.csv file exten-
     sion). The data should now be ready to use.
  8. To view the data set, click on the View data set but-
     ton from the main R commander window.

The data are arranged in rows and columns - each row contains the data for one replicate unit. The top line of the
file consists of variable names (i.e. names of each column). Each column represents a variable, and column names
can consist of any number of characters (e.g. WEIGHT or LENGTH or NUMBER), however they must each begin
with a letter rather than a number and cannot contain the following characters ( , $ % ˆ & # *). Missing data are
represented by a full stop (.). R will ignore these in the analysis. Make sure you distinguish missing values, where
you have no data, from zeros, where you have data but the value was zero.


                                                          5
3.3 Importing from the clipboard                                                                 3 DATA FILES


3.2.2 SYSTAT or SPSS files
  1. Select the Data menu
  2. Select the Import data.. submenu
  3. Select the from SYSTAT data set.. or from SPSS data set.. submenu
     The Import SYSTAT data set or Import SPSS data set dialog box will appear.
  4. Enter a unique name to be assigned to the imported data set. Remember that while this can be any name (and
     doesn’t necessarily need to be the same as the name of the imported file), a name that describes the data set
     is recommended.
  5. Keep any other default options and click the OK button
  6. Locate the file you wish to import and click the OK button.
     The data should now be ready to use.
  7. To view the data set, click on the View data set button from the main Rgui window.

3.2.3 Excel files
At this stage, R does not support the native excel format. However, an excel sheet can be saved (in excel) as a
comma delimited text file (*.csv). This can then be imported directly into R (see section 3.2.1)


3.3 Importing from the clipboard




  1. Select the Data menu
  2. Select the Import data.. submenu
  3. Select the from text file or clipboard.. submenu
     The Read Data from text file or clipboard dialog
     box will appear.




  4. Provide a name for the imported data set (can be any
     name). This is the name used to access the data
     once imported.
  5. Check the Read data from clipboard checkbox.
  6. Select Tabs as the Field Separator. This specifies
     how the columns are delimited (separated). Most
     programs place text onto the clipboard in tab de-
     limeted format.
  7. Click the OK button. The data should now be ready
     to use.
  8. To view the data set, click on the View data set but-
     ton from the main R commander window.




                                                         6
3.4 Saving a data file                                                                                 3 DATA FILES


3.4 Saving a data file
  1. Select the Data menu
  2. Select the Active data set.. submenu
  3. Select the Export active data set.. submenu
     The Export Active Data Set dialog box will appear.
  4. UN-check the Quotes around character values.
  5. Select Commas as the Field Separator. This speci-
     fies how the columns are delimited (separated).
  6. Click the OK button.
     The Export Data from text file dialog box will ap-
     pear.
  7. Supply a filename and path for the output file (for
     BIO3011 always use a *.csv file extension). The data
     should now be saved.

3.5 Examining and editing data files
Viewing                                                     Editing
  1. Click the View data set to view a data set               1. Click the Edit data set
     A window containing the data set will appear. Note          The R Data Editor Window dialog box will appear.
     that the data in this window cannot be edited, only
     viewed.                                                  2. Make any alterations to the spreadsheet (note that it
                                                                 is a fairly primitive spreadsheet)
                                                              3. Click the Quit button. The changes are now made.
                                                                 Note that this only alters the data in memory, not in
                                                                 the original file. To apply the changes to the file, save
                                                                 the data set using the instructions in section 3.4.

3.6 Data Transforms
  1. Select the Data menu
  2. Select the Manage variables in active data set..
     submenu
  3. Select the Compute new variable.. submenu
     The Compute New Variable dialog box will appear.
  4. Enter the name of a new variable (should be a unique
     name) in the New variable name box
  5. Enter an transformation expression (see Table 1) in
     the Expression to compute box
  6. Click the OK button
     A new variable (containing the transformed data)
     should now have been added to the data set. Con-
     firm this by viewing the data set (see section 3.5).

Table 1 Common data transformations
 Nature of data                             Transformation                   R Expression
 Measurements (lengths, weights, etc)       loge                             log(VAR)
 Measurements (lengths, weights, etc)       log10                            log(VAR,10)
                                            √
 Counts (number of individuals, etc)                                         sqrt(VAR)
 Percentages (data must be proportions)     arcsin                           asin(sqrt(VAR))
                                            scale (mean=0,unit variance)     scale(VAR)


                                                          7
3.7 Selecting subsets or subgroups of data                                                            3 DATA FILES


where VAR is the name of the vector (variable) whose values are to be transformed.



3.7 Selecting subsets or subgroups of data


  1. Select the Data menu
  2. Select the Active data set.. submenu
  3. Select the Subset active data set.. submenu
     The Subset Data Set dialog box will appear.
  4. If all the variables are to be retained, ensure that the
     Include all variables check-box is checked. Other-
     wise, select the variables to retain from the Variables
     box.
  5. Enter a subset expression (see Table 2) in the Sub-
     set Expression box
  6. Enter a name for the subset data set into the Name
     for new data set box (for example, subsetDataSet).
     This should be a unique name that enables the data Table 2 Listing or referencing subsets of the data
     set and its contents to be easily recognized for future
     use.                                                    Selection                       Command
                                                             Values of Var less than 50      Var<50
  7. Click the OK button
                                                             The first 10 values in Var       Var[1:10]
     A new data set (containing only the defined subset
     of the data) should now have been created. Confirm The 20th to the 50th value of Var Var[20:50]
     this by viewing the data set (see section 3.5).         Only those entries whose values Var==’High’
                                                                of Var are High


3.8 Reordering factor levels
Consider the following data set. There are three levels of the categorical variable (Factor) and they appear in al-
phabetical order. In fact even if they were entered in an alternative order, when R (or any other statistical software)
compiles the list of the levels of the categorical variable in memory, by default the levels are placed in alphabetical
order. While the order of factor levels is not important for statistical analyses, sometimes when generating graphs it
is more preferable to have the levels ordered differently. For example, it is more preferable for a graph that summa-
rizes the data in table 3 to order the levels of Factor as Low, Medium, High rather than alphabetically (High, Low,
Medium). Table 3 Listing or referencing subsets of the data
 DV             Factor
 16             High
 12             High
 1              Low
 3              Low
 5              Medium
 7              Medium




                                                            8
3.9 Converting numeric variable to a factor                                                          3 DATA FILES




  1. Select the Data menu
  2. Select the Manage variables in active data set..
     submenu
  3. Select the Reorder factor levels.. submenu
     The Reorder Factor Levels dialog box will appear.
  4. Select the categorical (factor) variable whose levels
     you wish to reorder from the Factor box.
  5. Click the OK button
     You will be warned that the variable already exists,
     this is OK, press the Yes button
     The Reorder Levels dialog box will appear.
  6. The current order of the levels in the factor will be
     presented. Using the entry boxes, provide a new or-
     der. A 1 indicates the first in the order.
  7. Click the OK button
     The factor will be reordered. Note that this only af-
     fects how R internally considers the ordering of factor
     levels. It will not visibly alter the data set or file in any
     way.



3.9 Converting numeric variable to a factor
Generally, factors (categories) are entered as words. When this is the case R automatically recognizes the variable
as a factor and therefore a categorical (rather than continuous) variable. However, occasionally the levels of a
categorical variable may be numbers. For example, you might have a categorical variable to depict the water depth
at which samples were collected. Samples may have been collected at 0, 5, 10 and 15 meters below sea level. In
this case, your factor levels are 0, 5, 10, and 15. However, as these are numbers (rather than words), R will not
automatically consider the variable as a category. It is possible, however, to convert such a numeric variable into a
factor variable.
Table 4 Listing or referencing subsets of the data
 DV              Depth
 16              0
 12              0
 1               5
 3               5
 5               10
 7               10




                                                                9
3.10 Switching between different loaded data sets                  4 SUMMARY STATISTICS


  1. Select the Data menu
  2. Select the Manage variables in active data set..
     submenu
  3. Select the Convert numeric variable to factor..
     submenu
     The Convert Numeric Variable to Factor dialog box
     will appear.
  4. Select the variable to be converted into a factor from
     the Variable box.
  5. Select the Use numbers option
  6. Click the OK button
     You will be warned that the variable already exists,
     this is OK, press the Yes button
     The variable will be converted into a factor. Note that
     this only affects how R internally perceives the vari-
     able type. It will not visibly alter the data set or file in
     any way.

3.10 Switching between different loaded data sets




  1. Click on the Data set display panel in the RGui win-
     dow
     The Select Data Set dialog box will be displayed
  2. Select the required data set
  3. Click OK




4 Summary Statistics
4.1 Univariate

  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Summaries.. submenu

  3. Select the Basic statistics.. submenu
     The Basic Statistics dialog box will appear.
  4. Enter a name for to call the resulting table of sum-
     mary statistics - the default name is usually fine.
  5. Select the variable(s) to summarize from the Variable
     box

  6. Select the required statistics
  7. Click the OK button
     A table containing the statistics will appear in the out-
     put window.



                                                              10
4.2 Bivariate                                                                                5 TWO SAMPLE TESTS


4.2 Bivariate
Follow the steps outlined in section 4.1 above. In addition, click the Summarize by groups.. button and select a
grouping variable. A table containing the statistics will appear in the output window. Note, it is not possible at this
stage to summarize the statistics by groups for multiple variables at a time!


5 Two sample tests
Table 5 Example of the general format of data for two sample tests
  DV                          IV
  1                           Exp
  2                           Exp
  3                           Exp
  3                           Control
  5                           Control
  8                           Control


5.1 Independent t-tests
  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Means.. submenu
  3. Select the Independent samples t-test.. submenu
     The Independent Samples t-Test dialog box will ap-
     pear.
  4. Select the grouping (categorical) variable from the
     box. Note, this variable must contain two groups.
     Once selected, a label will appear to inform you of
     which groups are being compared (and the direction
     of the comparison).
  5. Select the response (dependent) variable from the
     Response box.
  6. For pooled variance t-test select the Yes option for
     Assume equal variances?, otherwise select No
  7. Click the OK button
     The results will appear in the output window.




                                                          11
5.2 Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test                                                 6 CORRELATIONS AND REGRESSION


5.2 Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test

  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Non-parametric tests.. submenu
  3. Select the Two sample Wilcoxon test.. submenu
     The Two-Samples Wilcoxon Test dialog box will ap-
     pear.
  4. Select the grouping (categorical) variable from the
     Groups box. Note, this variable must contain two
     groups. Once selected, a label will appear to inform
     you of which groups are being compared (and the
     direction of the comparison).
  5. Select the response (dependent) variable from the
     Response Variable box.
  6. Click the OK button
     The results will appear in the output window.


5.3 Paired t-test
Table 6 Example of the general format of data for paired t-test
  Variable1                   Variable2
  1                           2
  2                           4
  3                           3
  3                           4
  5                           7
  8                           10
  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Means.. submenu
  3. Select the Paired t-test.. submenu
     The Paired t-Test dialog box will appear.
  4. Select one of the paired variables from the First vari-
     able box.
  5. Select the other of the paired variables from the Sec-
     ond variable box.
  6. Click the OK button
     The results will appear in the output window.


6 Correlations and Regression
Table 7 Example of the general format of data for correlation and regression. Note that the distinction is that in regres-
sion, one variable is identified as potentially dependent on the other, whilst in correlation, the direction or existance
of causality is not implied.
 a) Correlation                                              b) Regression
   Variable1      Variable2                                   DV            IV
   1              2                                           1             2
   2              4                                           2             4
   3              3                                           3             3
   3              4                                           3             4
   5              7                                           5             7
   8              10                                          8             10



                                                           12
6.1 Correlation                                                              6 CORRELATIONS AND REGRESSION


6.1 Correlation
  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Summaries.. submenu
  3. Select the Correlation.. submenu
     The Correlation dialog box will appear.
  4. Select the variables to be correlated from the Vari-
     ables box. To select multiple variables, hold the CN-
     TRL key while making selection.
  5. Select the appropriate correlation type (Pearson is
     default).
  6. Click the OK button
     The results will appear in the output window. If two
     variables were selected, the full correlation output
     (including t-test and confidence intervals) is gener-
     ated. If more than two variables are selected, a ma-
     trix of correlation coefficients and a matrix of associ-
     ated probabilities (uncorrected) are generated.

6.2 Simple linear Regression
Note that it is also possible to follow the steps for ANOVA in section 7.1
  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Fit models.. submenu
  3. Select the Linear model.. submenu
     The Linear Model dialog box will appear.
  4. Enter a name for the model output in the Name for
     model box. This can be any name but should be in-
     formative enough to remind you of what statistic was
     performed
  5. Double click on the dependent variable in the Vari-
     ables box. This will add the dependent variable to
     the text box on the left hand side of the ˜ under Model
     formula
  6. Double click on the indepedent variable (the predic-
     tor variable) in the Variables box. This will add the
     predictor variable to the text box on the right hand
     side of the under Model formula

  7. Click the OK button
     The summary of the results will appear in the output
     window.




                                                           13
6.3 Polynomial Regression                                                     6 CORRELATIONS AND REGRESSION



6.2.1 Regression ANOVA table                               6.2.2 Regression diagnostics
  1. Select the Models menu                                    1. Select the Models menu
  2. Select the Hypothesis tests.. submenu                     2. Select the Graphs.. submenu
  3. Select the ANOVA table.. submenu                          3. Select the Basic diagnostic plots.. submenu
     The Anova table dialog box              will   appear.       A set of four diagnostic plots will appear in a graphi-
                                                                  cal window.




  4. Select the model for which the ANOVA table is to be
     generated - this is the name you provided when you
     performed the Regression analysis
  5. Click the OK button
     The regression ANOVA table will appear in the R
     Commander output window.



6.3 Polynomial Regression
  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Fit models.. submenu
  3. Select the Linear model.. submenu
     The Linear Model dialog box will appear.
  4. Enter a name for the model output in the Name for
     model box. This can be any name but should be in-
     formative enough to remind you of what statistic was
     performed
  5. Double click on the dependent variable in the Vari-
     ables box. This will add the dependent variable to
     the text box on the left hand side of the ˜ under Model
     formula
  6. Double click on the indepedent variable (the predic-
     tor variable) in the Variables box. This will add the
     predictor variable to the text box on the right hand
     side of the under Model formula. So far this is a first
     order polynomial.

  7. To add the second order component, add a plus (+) sign to the right hand side then include the independent
     variable followed by a hat (ˆ) sign and a 2 (see figure). Finally, enclose the independent variable, hat and 2 with
     a set of brackets preceded by an I. The I represents a function that preserves the polynomial component.


                                                          14
6.4 Nonlinear Regression                                                                                    7 ANOVA


  8. similarly to add higher order (3, 4,...) polynomial terms, follow the step above, using the powers 3, 4, etc.
  9. Click the OK button
     The summary of the results will appear in the output window.


6.4 Nonlinear Regression
  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Fit models.. submenu
  3. Select the Nonlinear model.. submenu
     The Non-linear Model dialog box will appear.
  4. Enter a name for the model output in the Name for
     model box. This can be any name but should be in-
     formative enough to remind you of what statistic was
     performed
  5. Double click on the dependent variable in the Vari-
     ables box. This will add the dependent variable to
     the text box on the left hand side of the ˜ under Model
     formula
  6. Construct the appropriate model on the right hand
     side of the under Model formula. For unknown
     parameters (constants), provide single letters (these
     must not be the names of any existing variables
     within the data set)


  7. You must also define a starting configuration. This is a comma separated list of initial estimates for the unknown
     parameters. The non linear modeling process will progressively modify these estimates until the model best fits
     the data
  8. Click the OK button
     The summary of the results will appear in the output window.


7 ANOVA
See table 5 for an example of the data format for single factor ANOVA.




                                                          15
7.1 Single factor ANOVA                                                                           7 ANOVA


7.1 Single factor ANOVA
  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Fit models.. submenu
  3. Select the Linear model.. submenu
     The Linear Model dialog box will appear.
  4. Enter a name for the model output in the Name for
     model box. This should be a unique name that en-
     ables the resulting model and its contents to be eas-
     ily recognized for future use.
  5. Double click on the dependent variable in the Vari-
     ables box. This will add the dependent variable to
     the text box on the left hand side of the ˜ under Model
     formula
  6. Double click on the categorical variable (the factor
     variable) in the Variables box. This will add the cate-
     gorical variable to the text box on the right hand side
     of the under Model formula
  7. Click OK
     A summary of the ANOVA results will appear in the
     output window.

7.1.1 ANOVA table
Follow the steps outlined in section 6.2.1.

7.1.2 ANOVA diagnostics
Follow the steps outlined in section 6.2.2


7.2 Post-Hoc Tukey’s test

  1. Select the Models menu
  2. Select the Hypothesis tests.. submenu
  3. Select the Tukeys test.. submenu
     The Tukey’s test dialog box will appear.
  4. Select the categorical (factorial) variable from the
     Factor list.
  5. Click the OK button
     The Tukey’s tests will appear in the output window.
     The tests are labeled a little strangely. Each test (row
     name) gives the factor name and level minus a dif-
     ferent level of that factor name. For example, if the
     factorial variable was called TREAT and there were
     three levels of this factor (High, Low, & Medium)
     then one of the tests (rows) might be labeled as
     TREATHigh-TREATLow.

7.3 Planned Comparisons
As implied by the name (Planned comparisons), these are specific comparisons that planned at the design stage.
Consequently planned comparisons (contrasts) are defined prior to fitting the linear model (running the ANOVA).




                                                           16
7.3 Planned Comparisons                                                                                    7 ANOVA




  1. Select the Data menu
  2. Select the Manage variables in active data set..
     submenu
  3. Select the Define contrasts for a factor.. submenu
     The Set Contrasts For Factor dialog box will ap-
     pear.
  4. Select the categorical (factorial) variable from the
     Factor list.
  5. Select the Other (specify) option.
     The Specify Contrasts dialog box will appear.


A matrix will be initiated with the levels of the categorical variable used as the row names. There will be n-1 columns
(where n is the number of levels in the categorical variable), reflecting the maximum number of planned comparisons
allowable. It is possible to define (n-1) planned comparisons, although, it is not necessary to define this maximum
number of comparisons. For example, you can decide to define only a single comparison.

  6. Enter a name for each comparison you intend to de-
     fine in the Contrast Name: box(es)
  7. Enter the contrast coefficients in each column.
  8. Click the OK button
     If the defined contrasts are orthogonal (independent)
     the full matrix of contrasts will be displayed in the R
     Commander Output Window, otherwise you will be
     returned to the Set Contrasts For Factor dialog box
     for another attempt.




                                                          17
7.3 Planned Comparisons                                          7 ANOVA




  9. Fit the linear model according to the steps outlined in
     section 7.1
 10. To examine the ANOVA table that includes the
     planned comparisons (contrasts)
      (a) Select the Models menu
      (b) Select the Hypothesis tests.. submenu
      (c) Select the ANOVA table.. submenu
          The Anova table dialog box will appear.
      (d) Click the Split ANOVA table check button. A
          table listing the factor(s) in the model and the
          contrast names that were defined when the con-
          trasts for the factor(s) were defined will be listed.
          Note that there will be n-1 (where n is the num-
          ber of groups) defined comparisons.
      (e) Delete the text in the table for the comparisons
          that you are not interested in. The text for re-
          quired comparisons can be modified if neces-
          sary
      (f) Click OK
          A summary of the ANOVA results will appear in
          the Output Window.




                                                            18
7.4 Factorial ANOVA                                                                                       7 ANOVA


7.4 Factorial ANOVA
  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Fit models.. submenu
  3. Select the Linear model.. submenu
     The Linear Model dialog box will appear.
  4. Enter a name for the model output in the Name for
     model box. This should be a unique name that en-
     ables the resulting model and its contents to be eas- Table 8 Example of the general format of factorial data
     ily recognized for future use.                          DV                Factor1            Factor2
                                                             10                Big                High
  5. Double click on the dependent variable in the Vari-
     ables box. This will add the dependent variable to      5                 Medium             High
     the text box on the left hand side of the ˜ under       3                 Small              High
     Model formula                                           11                Big                High
                                                             7                 Medium             High
  6. Double click on a categorical variable (the factor 1                      Small              High
     variable) in the Variables box. This will add the cat- 7                  Big                Low
     egorical variable to the text box on the right hand 5                     Medium             Low
     side of the under Model formula                         4                 Small              Low
                                                             5                 Big                Low
  7. Click on the * button. This symbol means ‘crossed’
     and is an abbreviated way of meaning include the        8                 Medium             Low
     two terms either side of this symbol plus their inter-  6                 Small              Low
     action.
  8. Double click on the other categorical variable (fac-
     tor variable) in the Variables box. This will add the
     categorical variable to the Model formula
  9. Click OK
     A summary of the ANOVA results will appear in the
     output window.



7.5 Simple main effects
Following a factorial ANOVA with a significant interaction, it is usual to attempt to examine the simple main effects.
That is explore the effect of one of the factors for each level of the other factor(s). There are a number of steps
involved in this procedure.
  1. Perform global ANOVA - the fully factorial ANOVA (see section 7.4)
  2. Analyze the effect of one factor for each level of the other factor(s) - for example, for the data set in table 8
     we might decide to analyze the effects of Factor1 separately for each level of Factor 2




                                                             19
7.5 Simple main effects                                                                                   7 ANOVA


      (a) Select the Statistics menu
      (b) Select the Fit models.. submenu
      (c) Select the Linear model.. submenu
          The Linear Model dialog box will appear.
      (d) Enter a name for the model output in the Name
          for model box. This should be a unique name
          that enables the resulting model and its con-
          tents to be easily recognized for future use.
      (e) If you have just performed the fully factorial
          ANOVA prior to this step, then the previous
          model will already be setup. Retain this model
          the main factor you wish to explore (Factor1
          in the example in table 8) and remove the other
          factor(s) from the model (just delete the words
          including the * sign).

       (f) Use the Subset Expression box to indicate one level of the other factor (in this case Factor2) in a similar
           way to described in section 2. In our example, to analyze the effects of Factor1 on DV for just the High
           level of Factor2, the statement in the Subset Expression box would be: Factor2 == ’High’
      (g) Click OK
          A summary of the ANOVA results will appear in the output window.




     3. View the ANOVA with the correct residual term
          (a) Select the Models menu
          (b) Select the Hypothesis tests.. submenu
          (c) Select the ANOVA table.. submenu
              The Anova table dialog box will appear.
          (d) Select the model for which the ANOVA table is
              to be generated - this is the name you provided
              when you performed the above analysis
          (e) Select the model for which the fully factorial
              ANOVA (Global) - this is the name you pro-
              vided when you performed the fully factorial
              analysis and is used to provide the correct er-
              ror term for the simple main effects.
          (f) Click the OK button
              The simple main effects ANOVA table will ap-
              pear in the R Commander output window.




                                                            20
                                                                  8 ANALYSIS OF FREQUENCIES


8 Analysis of frequencies
8.1 Goodness of fit test
  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Summaries.. submenu
  3. Select the Goodness of fit test submenu The
     Goodness of fit test dialog box will appear.
  4. Specify the number of categories with the Number
     of columns slider and enter the counts manually in
     the Enter counts table. Note, that the column titles
     by default are 1, 2... These can be changed to more
     meaningful names by editing the entries (e.g Male
     & Female).
  5. Enter the expected frequencies or frequency ratio in
     the Enter expected ratio table
  6. Click OK
     A table of observed and expected values as well
     as a goodness-of-fit test (Chisq) will appear in the
     output window.

8.2 Contingency tables - un-compiled counts
Table 9 Example of the general format of un-compiled
frequency data
  Category1                Category2
  Male                     Dead
  Female                   Dead
  Male                     Dead
  Female                   Alive
  ..                       ..

  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Contingency Tables.. submenu
  3. Select the Two-way table submenu The Two-way
     table dialog box will appear.
  4. Select the row and column variables (it doesn’t mat-
     ter which variable is row and which is column) from
     the list boxes
  5. Select the Chisquare test of independence and
     Residuals options under Hypothesis Tests
  6. Click OK
     A table of observed values, the Pearson’s Chi-
     squared test output and a table of residuals will ap-
     pear in the output window.




                                                             21
8.3 Contingency tables - pre-compiled counts                                        9 MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS


8.3 Contingency tables - pre-compiled counts


  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Contingency Tables.. submenu
  3. Select the Enter and analyze two-way table sub-
     menu The Enter and analyze two-way table dialog
     box will appear.
  4. Specify the number of rows and columns with the
     corresponding sliders. Note, it does not matter
     which of the two categorical variables you use as
     the row and which as the column variable
  5. Enter the counts and the variable categories manu-
     ally in the Enter counts table.
  6. Select the Chisquare test of independence and
     Residuals options under Hypothesis Tests
  7. Click OK
     A table of observed values, the Pearson’s Chi-
     squared test output and a table of residuals will ap-
     pear in the output window.




9 Multivariate analysis
Table 10 Example of the general format of data for multivariate analysis in R
                        Variable1               Variable2               Variable3          Variable4
  Site1                 1                       0                       5                  34
  Site2                 0                       0                       8                  21
  Site3                 7                       9                       3                  17
  Site4                 9                       12                      5                  6
  Site5                 9                       12                      5                  6




                                                             22
9.1 PCA - Principal components analysis                                              9 MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS


9.1 PCA - Principal components analysis
Need to have variables (e.g. species) in columns and samples (e.g. sites) in rows
  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Dimensional analysis.. submenu
  3. Select the Principal-components analysis sub-
     menu The Principal-components analysis dialog
     box will appear.

  4. Select the variables from the Variables list
  5. Select Analyze correlation matrix to base calcula-
     tions on a correlation matrix, otherwise covariance
     matrix is used
  6. Select Screeplot
  7. Select Ordination
  8. Click OK
     The component loadings and component variances
     will appear in the output window. In the R Con-
     sole window of RGui will be prompt you to hit the
     <Return> key to cycle through two figures to be
     drawn on the newly created Graph window within
     (RGui. The first of these figures is a screeplot, and
     the second is the ordination plot.

9.2 Distance measures
Need to have variables (e.g. species) in columns and samples (e.g. sites) in rows (as row names)
  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Dimensional analysis.. submenu
  3. Select the Distance measures submenu The Dis-
     tance measures dialog box will appear.
  4. Enter a name for the resulting distance matrix. By
     default, Rcmdr will append the suffix .dis to the
     name of the currently active data set.
  5. Select the variables from the Variables list
  6. Select the type of distance measure from the blue-
     Type of Distance list of options
  7. Click OK
     The distance matrix (rectangular) will appear in the
     output window.


9.3 MDS - Multidimensional Scaling
Need to provide a rectangular dissimilarity matrix (in dist format - the format output from the Distance() procedure,
see section 9.2)




                                                           23
                                                               10 GRAPHS


  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Dimensional analysis.. submenu
  3. Select the Multidimensional scaling submenu
     The Multidimensional scaling dialog box will ap-
     pear.
  4. Select a distance matrix from the Distance matrix list-
     box//An additional listbox will be added to the bottom
     of the Multidimensional scaling dialog box. This lists
     the variables in the distance matrix. Select 3 or more
     to include in the MDS.

  5. Enter a name for the resulting output (scores, and
     stress value) in the Enter name for model: box
  6. Select the samples from the Samples list
  7. Select Shepard to include a Shepard diagram
  8. Select Configuration to include the final configura-
     tion plot
  9. Click OK
     The final coordinates and stress value (as a percent-
     age) will appear in the output window. In the R Con-
     sole window of RGui will be prompt you to hit the
     <Return> key to cycle through two figures to be
     drawn on the newly created Graph window within
     (RGui. The first of these figures is a Shepard dia-
     gram, and the second is the configuration plot.


10 Graphs
10.1 Scatterplots

  1. Select the Graphs menu
  2. Select the Scatterplot.. submenu
     The Scatterplot dialog box will appear.
  3. Select one of the variables (usually a independent or
     predictor variable) from the x-variables list box
  4. Select another variable (usually a dependent or re-
     sponse variable) from the y-variable list box
  5. Select the Marginal boxplots option to include box-
     plots in the margins
  6. Select the Least-squares line option to include a re-
     gression line of best fit through the data
  7. Select the Smooth line option to include a lowess
     smoother through the data
  8. Click OK
     A scatterplot will appear in a graphical window of
     RGui.




                                                          24
10.2 Boxplots                                                    10 GRAPHS


10.1.1 Trend lines

  1. Select the Graphs menu
  2. Select the Trend lines.. submenu
     The Add trendline dialog box will appear.

  3. Trend lines can either be constructed from a fitted
     model or from one of the generic line types
      (a) To construct a trend line from a fitted model, se-
          lect the model from the Models box
      (b) To construct a trend from a generic line type (ex-
          ponential, power, logarithmic and polynomial);
             i. Select the independent variable from the x-
                variables list box
            ii. Select the dependent variable from the y-
                variables list box
           iii. Select the type of regression model from
                the Type of regression model options
  4. Indicate what to include in the legend, what color and
     where the legend should be located within the plot
     area
  5. Click OK
     The trend line and legend will be added to the current
     scatterplot in a graphical window of RGui.


10.2 Boxplots
  1. Select the Graphs menu
  2. Select the Boxplot.. submenu
     The Boxplot dialog box will appear.
  3. Select the dependent variable from the Variable list
  4. To generate separate boxplots according to the levels
     of a categorical variable, click the Plot by groups..
     button , select a categorical variable (factor) from the
     list of Groups variable and click the OK button
  5. Click OK
     A boxplot will appear in a graphical window of RGui.




                                                            25
10.3 Interaction plots                                          10 GRAPHS


10.3 Interaction plots

  1. Select the Graphs menu

  2. Select the Plot of means..         submenuThe Plot
     Means dialog box will appear.
  3. Select the categorical (factorial) variable(s) from the
     Factors list
  4. Select the dependent variable from the Response list
  5. Select the type of error bars from the Error Bars op-
     tions
  6. Click OK
     A interaction plot will appear in a graphical window of
     RGui.


10.4 Bargraphs
  1. Select the Graphs menu
  2. Select the Bargraph.. submenu
     The Bar Graph dialog box will appear.
  3. Select one of the dependent variable from the De-
     pendent list box
  4. Select one of the categorical (independent) variable
     from the Independent list box
  5. For a two-factor bargraph, select another categorical
     (independent) variable from the Grouping list box.
     To avoid clutter and confusion, in a two-factor bar-
     graph it is best to have the categorical variable with
     the greater number of levels as the independent (x-
     axis) variable and the other variable as the grouping
     variable.
  6. Select the type of error bars from the Options
  7. It is also possible to set the x and y labels as well as
     the upper and lower limits of the y axis.
  8. Click OK
     A bargraph will appear in a graphical window.




                                                           26
10.5 Symbols on bargraphs                                         10 GRAPHS


10.5 Symbols on bargraphs
From the Bar Graph dialog box
  1. Select the variables and settings according to sec-
     tion 10.4

  2. Enter a series of symbols that are to appear above
     the error bars of each bar. The following formatting
     rules are important:
      (a) Each symbol should be surrounded by a set of
          quotation marks (e.g. ’A’)
      (b) Symbols should be listed with commas separat-
          ing each symbol (e.g. ’A’,’B’,’A’)
      (c) There should be as many symbols as there are
          bars on the graph. If less symbols are required
          than there are bars, then blank symbols (’ ’) are
          used for those bars not requiring a symbol
      (d) The following are all valid symbol definitions for
          a factor with 4 groups:
                 ’A’,’A’,’B’,’B’
                 ’A’, ’ ’, ’ ’,’B’
                 ’ ’, ’ ’, ’*’, ’**’


  3. Define the series of symbols such that common
     symbols signify non-significant comparisons and dif-
     ferences between symbols signify significant differ-
     ences.

  4. Click the OK button
     A bargraph will appear in a graphical window.

10.6 Plot of mean versus variance
  1. Select the Statistics menu
  2. Select the Summaries.. submenu
  3. Select the Basic statistics.. submenu
     The Basic Statistics dialog box will appear.
  4. Select a dependent variable from the Dependent
     list box
  5. Select the at least the Mean and Variance options
  6. Click the Mean vs Var plot checkbox
  7. Click Summarize by groups
     The Groups dialog box will be displayed
  8. Select the categorical variable from the Groups vari-
     able list
  9. Click OK in the Groups dialog box
 10. Click OK
     Along with a table of statistics, a plot of Mean vs
     Variance will appear in an RGui Graphics Window.




                                                             27
                                                                                               11 SAVING RESULTS


11 Saving results
11.1 Graphs
11.1.1 Copying
  1. Right-click on the graph
  2. Select either copy as metafile (if intending to modify/edit the graph after it is pasted into another program) or
     copy as bitmap (if don’t intend to modify the graph after it is pasted into another program)
  3. Switch control to the other program using either Alt-tab or the Windows navigation buttons and paste the graph

11.1.2 Saving
  1. Click on the graph to be saved. This will alter the RGui menus and buttons
  2. From the RGui menus, select the File menu
  3. Select the Save as.. submenu
  4. Select either the JPEG 100% quality submenu (if not intending to modify the graph after it is pasted into another
     program) or the METAFILE submenu (if intending to modify/edit the graph after it is pasted into another program

  5. Use the Save As dialog box to provide a filename and path for the graph.
  6. Click the OK button. The graph will then be saved.


11.2 Results
11.2.1 Copying
To copy and paste results from the Rcmdr output window


  1. Highlight the results that you are interested in copying
  2. From the Rcmdr menus, select the Edit menu
  3. Select the Copy submenu
  4. Switch control to the other program using either Alt-tab or the Windows navigation buttons and paste the graph
Note that you can also copy highlighted text by pressing the Alt-c key combination.

11.2.2 Saving
To save all of the results in the Rcmdr output window to a file


  1. Select the File menu
  2. Select the Save output as... submenu

  3. Use the Save As dialog box to provide a filename and path for the graph.
  4. Click the OK button. The results will then be saved.
Note, that when you save the output results to file, all of the results in the output window are saved, not just the
highlighted text. if you are only interested in a small section of the output results you just need to cut the unwanted
sections (either before saving, or later in a word processing program - like Word).




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                                                                         12 COMMON PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED


12 Common problems encountered
12.0.3 Error message - ‘Package not found’
There are two common reasons for this:
  1. When installing R from the CDROM, you ran the file called rw2000. This purely installs R. Solution: to install
     everything (including all the packages), install by running the install.bat provided.
  2. When installing R, you asked for R to be installed in a location other than the default location. As a result, when
     the packages were installed, they were not installed in the same location as R - solution: uninstall R and install
     it again, this time allow it to be installed in the default location

12.0.4 I requested a graph, but I haven’t been given one
   • Usually this is because graphs appear as windows of RGui. You need to switch to RGui to see the graph.

12.0.5 I asked to create a new data set or clicked on Edit data set and nothing happened
   • Usually this is because the spreadsheet for creating/editing data sets appears as a window of RGui. You need
     to switch to RGui to see the spreadsheet.

12.0.6 The window or dialog box disappeared
   • Under some circumstances (such as moving a dialog box) under windows, a dialog box or window losses focus
     (that is it gets pushed behind another window). You just need to switch to this window or dialog box using either
     the Alt-c key combination or using the windows navigation bar.

12.0.7 Error message - ‘There is no active data set’
   • Import (see section 3.2) or manually create (see section ) a data set
   • Click on Data set panel (which probably says No active data set) in the main R Commander window

12.0.8 Working on the incorrect data set
   • R has the capacity to have multiple data sets open simultaneously - this is one of its great strengths. However,
     with multiple data sets open at a time, it is necessary to be organized to prevent confusion. Each data set has
     a unique name and this helps to manage the different data sets, however it is still easy to lose track of which
     data set contains which data. It is therefore highly recommended that the names you give to each data set are
     highly descriptive.
     In Rcmdr, only one data set is considered to be the active data set. It is from this data set that it retrieves
     variables. To ensure that Rcmdr is operating on the correct data set, check that the Data set panel is displaying
     the name of the correct data set.

          R is free software distributed by the R core development team under a GNU-style copyleft

                       Murray Logan, School of Biological Sciences, Monash University.
                                             January 20, 2008




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Description: R with Rcmdr BASIC INSTRUCTIONS