Characteristics and Performance of Higher Education Institutions

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					        Department of Employment, Education,
             Training and Youth Affairs

             Higher Education Division




Characteristics and Performance of
  Higher Education Institutions
   (A Preliminary Investigation)
                        by

                  Les Andrews
                  Phil Aungles
                 Stephen Baker
                 Andrew Sarris
         Characteristics and Performance of Higher Education Institutions
                           (A Preliminary Investigation)

1.    Introduction

The indicators employed in this report are intended to serve a number of purposes. First, to add to
the information that prospective local and international students, their parents, school counsellors
and others can use in guiding their choice of institution for enrolment. Secondly, for institutions to
compare their characteristics and performance against each other to inform future developments in
the delivery of education services. Thirdly, to illustrate the diversity of higher education
institutions. Lastly, to contribute to public accountability of a large element of Government funds
and assist the future development of higher education policies.

The indicators provide a measure of the common features of higher education institutions as well as
their diversity. They also reveal a number of aspects of the student experience at higher education
institutions and assess the performance of institutions in a number of areas which are relevant to the
core purposes of higher education institutions. Other indicators, particularly those related to the
financial performance of institutions, attempt to gauge the flexibility of institutions in meeting
future challenges.

The development of performance indicators needs to acknowledge the differing missions and
circumstances of institutions. Nonetheless, higher education institutions share a core set of
purposes related to teaching and research and need to satisfactorily perform against these purposes.
In developing these indicators recognition has been given to ensure they fulfil a number of
requirements:

1) relevance - related to the purposes and objectives of the institution;
2) reliability - based on consistent data;
3) auditability - data are able to be scrutinised;
4) transparency - data are to have clear meaning; and
5) timeliness - data to support the indicators are currently available.

There are three major data sources for the performance indicators. The first major source from
which the majority of indicators are drawn is the DEETYA Higher Education Students, Staff and
Finance Collections. The second source is data relating to research activities and income are
provided through the DEETYA Research Data Collection. The third major source from which the
majority of outcomes indicators are derived is the Graduate Careers Council of Australia’s (GCCA)
annual Graduate Destination Survey (GDS) and Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ).

Before discussing the individual indicators in more detail it is necessary to outline the scope of the
indicators. The indicators employed in this report are preliminary and subject to refinement as the
methodologies used are further developed. Data concerning privately funded institutions such as
Bond and Notre Dame are not presently collected in the DEETYA Higher Education Statistical
Collections and hence these institutions are not included in the performance indicators. In addition,
the data shown in the performance indicators include the resources and activities of independent
operations such as controlled entities. As institutions increasingly seek alternative and diverse
sources of funding it is likely that controlled entities will grow rather than diminish in importance.
In this context it seems appropriate to include such organisations in the scope of the performance
indicators, notwithstanding the fact that institutions can sometimes differ in their reporting of the
activities of controlled entities.
                                                   2

The remainder of this introduction provides a broad overview of what can be considered as the core
purposes of higher education institutions while the second section provides a description of the
environment facing institutions and the differing institutional characteristics. The third section
provides a description of the similarities and diversity of institutions by developing a method of
clustering institutions according to their characteristics. The final section provides measures of
performance of institutions.

The missions and purposes of institutions, of course, will affect what is the performance that is to be
measured and how is it to be measured and interpreted. It is acknowledged that institutions do not
exist in isolation and their purposes are the product of a number of influences such as tradition,
institutional strengths, research interests of staff, needs of the region within which they are located
and the particular characteristics of their students. Institutions will have, therefore, diverse missions
and purposes by which they will serve the interests of the Australian community. Nonetheless there
are purposes that all higher education institutions can reasonably be said to share, such as learning
and research. The Higher Education Council in its 1992 report, "Higher Education: Achieving
Quality", stated that the principal purposes of Australian higher education institutions were:

“. the education of appropriately qualified Australians to enable them to take a leadership role in the
intellectual, cultural, economic and social development of the nation and its regions;

. the creation and advancement of knowledge; and

. the application of knowledge and discoveries to the betterment of communities in Australia and
overseas.”

That is, the broad purposes that universities share can be distilled into the creation, acquisition,
application and transmission of knowledge which is achieved through undertaking and applying
research and the education of students and the broader community, that is, the traditional liberal
purposes attributed to higher education.

Another important characteristic of the Australian higher education sector is its strong vocational
nature. This stems from the close links between institutions and the professional bodies which
accredit courses. Also a significant characteristic of the previous binary system was the vocational
character of the colleges of advanced education. While the binary system was replaced with the
Unified National System and colleges became universities or merged with existing universities
many institutions maintained their focus on building links with employers and developing courses
with a strong vocational focus. This was further strengthened with the development of more
vocational professional courses at the post-graduate level. This leaning towards a vocational
emphasis among institutions was reinforced by the policy approach of successive governments to
employ education as a means of improving economic and employment performance. As a
consequence the post-graduation outcomes of students remain an important focus of the
performance of the higher education sector.

2.    The Environment and Institutional Characteristics

The environment within which higher education institutions operate has changed considerably over
the last decade and is likely to sustain this rate of change in the future. Demographic trends,
changes to funding arrangements, globalisation and technological change are but a few of the factors
which will affect institutions. Over the past decade the higher education sector has undergone
dramatic changes to its size, structure, funding arrangements and focus. Given current
                                                             3
technological, economic and global trends as well as funding changes announced in the 1996
Budget, it will continue to change in the future.

One of the most significant changes driving the higher education sector over the last decade has
been the growth in the sector. As can be seen from Figure 1 below the sector has grown from
394,000 students in 1987 to 659,000 in 1997. The reasons behind this growth are several. Primary
among these were the structural changes occurring in the Australian economy from an exporter of
rural and mining products to one where sophisticated manufacturing and service industries play a
much larger role. A key element of the development of such industries is the requirement for a
much more skilled workforce with the occupational structure of the workforce becoming more
skilled over the last decade. There was a strong growth in employment of professional and para-
professionals across a wide range of industries.

 “Australia’s Workforce in the Year 2005: Jobs in the Future” explored the international,
technological, economic trends and developments over the next decade and concluded that the trend
towards a more skilled workforce is likely to continue in the future (DEET 1995). Associated with
these changes has been an acknowledgment by successive governments and individuals that
employment growth was likely to occur in those occupations which require higher education
qualifications or will increasingly require them for entry to employment. Thus as demand for higher
education studies increased so increased funding by the Commonwealth followed. Consequently
the higher education participation rate among 15-64 year olds increased from 3.7 per cent in 1987 to
4.8 per cent in 1995.


                          Figure 1: Number of Students by Level of Course

   700000
   650000
   600000
   550000
   500000
   450000
   400000
   350000
   300000
            1987


                   1988


                             1989


                                    1990


                                               1991


                                                      1992


                                                                 1993


                                                                            1994


                                                                                   1995


                                                                                          1996


                                                                                                 1997




                     Undergraduate         Post-Graduate Other          Post-Graduate Research



Source: DEETYA Higher Education Student Data Base.

“Australia’s Workforce in the Year 2005” also found, however, that associated with the large
increase in the number of people with higher education qualifications, many graduates will need to
consider employment in a wider range of occupations than in the past. This continues a trend over
the past decade and varies across fields of study. This trend raises issues associated with the extent
to which higher education institutions may need to provide a wider range of vocational or generic
skills to their students as well as the core discipline knowledge and skills.
                                                  4
Along with this change in the size of the student body has come dramatic changes to the structure of
the sector. In 1965 the Commonwealth Government established the "binary divide" which reflected
the view that the roles and functions of the universities and colleges of advanced education were
different. Universities were seen as centres of scholarship and research while the colleges had a
more vocational focus. The binary divide came under increasing pressure from two sources. Many
colleges were keen to expand their research activities. Also many courses were offered at other
universities and colleges at markedly different costs per student given colleges were funded at a
lower rate as they did not undertake research. Some State Governments also moved to convert
colleges to universities in response to the restrictions imposed by funding arrangements.

In 1987 the binary divide was abolished and the number of higher education institutions reduced
from 19 universities and 69 colleges to an Unified National System (UNS) of 36 universities by
1994. The reduction in the number of institutions was brought about by amalgamations and
mergers with the resultant creation of many multi-campus institutions. This reduction in number
was encouraged by the requirement that to be eligible for membership of the UNS an institution had
to have a minium student load of 2000 EFTSU. Size was seen as a necessary condition for cost
efficiency and educational effectiveness. Smaller institutions were seen as unlikely to support a
comprehensive teaching program able to undertake significant research.

Sources of funds

As the system has expanded the Commonwealth considered other sources of funds that institutions
could draw upon to support their activities. It was recognised back in 1987 that the subsequent
rapid growth in the level of enrolments would be unable to be solely funded by the Commonwealth
Government given constraints on public expenditure. It was also noted that the (then) current system
was not equitable in that the direct beneficiaries of higher education, that is graduates, contributed
very little directly to the costs of its provision. Thus the Higher Education Contribution Scheme
(HECS) arrangement, whereby students funding part of the costs of their education was introduced.
These funds involve either an up-front payment by students or a deferment of payment with
recovery of the HECS liability through the taxation system. The scheme is underwritten by the
Commonwealth Government in a manner which ensures that funds to the institution are not affected
if the student elects to defer payment of the HECS. This was effectively a user-pays system of
funding but designed with a strong equity element by giving students the option of deferring
payment and only repaying when their taxable income exceeded a particular income threshold. In
1995 HECS accounted for 12 per cent of institutions' funding. Consequently, the growth in student
numbers was associated with a decrease in reliance on Commonwealth funding of institutions from
just over 80 per cent in 1987 to approximately 57 per cent in 1995 (see Figure 2).

Additionally, in 1987 institutions were allowed to charge overseas students on a full cost recovery
basis. The Government also allowed institutions to impose fees on post-graduate students. Income
from fees has grown since then to currently represent 12 per cent of institutions’ income. This fee
income was derived from overseas students (six per cent), post-graduate students (one per cent),
continuing education fees income, (four per cent) and other fees and charges, (four per cent).

As can be seen from columns 81 to 91 the relative importance of funds varies considerably among
institutions. Across institutions reliance on the Commonwealth Government funding ranges from
10 per cent at Avondale College to 72 per cent at Batchelor College. Most institutions receive
between 50 and 65 per cent of their income from the Commonwealth Government. The proportion
of income received from State Governments for most institutions range from zero to two per cent.
A number of universities such as the University of Melbourne, Edith Cowan University, Batchelor
College and Northern Territory University receive a greater share of their income from State
                                                     5
Governments. Institutions also obtain income from the Higher Education Scheme (HECS). Most
institutions receive between 10 to 20 per cent of their income from HECS.

Most institutions receive between two to ten per cent of their income from fees from overseas
students. A number of institutions receive a considerably greater proportion from overseas students
fees - the University of Wollongong, RMIT, Swinburne University of Technology, University of
Southern Queensland, Curtin University of Technology and Murdoch University receive ten per
cent or more of their income. Income from post-graduate students generally constitute three per
cent or less of institutions’ incomes. The exception to this is Swinburne Institute of Technology
which receives five per cent of its income from this source.


                           Figure 2: Sources of Funds for Higher Education
                                             Institutions

    100%
     90%
     80%
     70%                                                                                  Fees
     60%                                                                                  Investments

     50%                                                                                  HECS

     40%                                                                                  State Govt
                                                                                          Other
     30%
                                                                                          C'w lth Govt
     20%
     10%
      0%
               1981            1987           1990           1992            1995




Source: DEETYA Higher Education Finance Data Base.

Distribution of expenses

Financial data presented in the following indicators are based on the official audited returns from
institutions. However, the classification and reporting procedures of institutions vary and therefore
caution needs to be exercised in making comparisons between institutions.

A breakdown of expenses shows that while academic activity expenses account for the majority of
operating expenditures in most institutions there exists considerable variation in the proportion of
total expenses spent on this item. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the data as
accounting conventions differ between States. This can affect allocation of costs against various
expense categories. Institutions with relatively high spending on academic activity expenses include
the University of Western Australia, the University of Tasmania and the University of Melbourne.
On the other hand, academic activity expenses tend to be considerably smaller, in proportionate
terms, at the specialist institutions such as the Australian Maritime College, Batchelor College and
Marcus Oldham Farm Management College (see columns 96 to 105).

The other major expenditure category for most institutions is administration and other general
institutional services which accounts for 15 per cent of operating expenses sector wide.
Administration expenses range from a high of 34 per cent at Curtin University of Technology down
to eight per cent at the Queensland University of Technology.
                                                  6

Salaries and salary related costs comprise almost two-thirds, 64 per cent, of all expenditure in the
sector. Institutions with relatively high salary expenditures include the University of South
Australia, the Australian Catholic University and the University of Ballarat. Salaries comprise less
than half of expenditures at some specialist institutions such as the Australian Maritime College and
Marcus Oldham Farm Management College (see column 106).

Comparative measures of expenditure, expenses per EFTSU, show library, other academic support
services and student services expenses per student (EFTSU). Library expenses per EFTSU range
from a high of $1,877 at the Australian National University to $477 at the University of Southern
Queensland (see columns 107 to 109).

Research Funding

The main sources of institutional research funding through the EETYA portfolio are through the
operating grant, including the Research Quantum (RQ), and the targeted higher education research
programme. Institutions can also obtain funding for research activities through other
Commonwealth sources (including a few other minor DEETYA programmes), and Industry and
other sources. Table 1 present a time series on a financial year basis for years 1990-91 to 1997-98,
for each of the above sources.

The RQ component of the operating grant has been separately identified. This approach allocates
approximately $220 million in 1997 on the basis of a composite research index that measures
institutions' research performance. The Institute of Advanced Studies at the Australian National
University and the Australian Defence Force Academy (associated with the University of New
South Wales) are funded separately for research.

Research funding accessed through the operating grant (other than the RQ) is only available through
estimates. The data in the Table for Operating Grant R&D (less RQ) has been obtained using these
estimates. Operating Grant R&D (less RQ) may be understood as operating grant funds estimated
to be sourced by institutions for use on research and research training, other than those funds
obtained through the RQ. These estimates indicate that funding sourced through the operating grant
has grown substantially between 1990-91 and 1997-98, although this has subsequently stabilised at
the level of $950 million. By comparison, the RQ funding has remained constant at about $220
million over the period examined. The most striking growth in research funding is for the targeted
higher education research programme which has more than doubled over the period 1990-91 to
1997-98. For 1995-96 (the latest data available), research funding from other Commonwealth
sources is estimated to be approximately $220 million, while research funding from Industry and
other sources is approximately $215 million.

Data collected for the Composite Index on funding sources can be used to provide an estimate of the
level of funding available from other Commonwealth, and Industry and other sources. However,
such data is only currently available for the years 1994, 1995 and 1996.
                                                    7
Table 1 - Sources of Research Funding: 1990 -1997

                            90-91   91-92   92-93   93-94   94-95    95-96    96-97     97-98
Operating Grant R&D         574.5   625.2   721.8   797.3   862.1    918.0    954.5     957.0
(less RQ)
Targeted Research           178.7   240.3   260.0   292.0   306.3    346.4    396.2     427.0
Programme
Research Quantum            185.3   203     212     208.3   211.2    215.7    220.3     218.9
Other Commonwealth                                          204.7    220.9
sources
Industry and other                                          196.8    214.9
sources
Note: figures in $million

Sources: Composite Index data collection, DEETYA; The Science and Technology Budget
Statement 1997-98; Research and Development - Higher Education Organisations 8111.0 series
The Australian Bureau of Statistics; and Selected DEETYA Higher Education Finance Statistics,
DEETYA.

The higher education sector contains a diversity of institutions with varying size and focus of their
research activities. For example, research income as a share of total income is greater than 20 per
cent at the University of Adelaide (25 per cent), the University of Melbourne (22 per cent) and the
University of Western Australia (22 per cent). On the other hand, institutions with a relatively
minor research focus include the Australian Catholic University, Charles Sturt University, Southern
Cross University, Deakin University, the University of Ballarat, the University of Southern
Queensland and Edith Cowan University (all two per cent or less). Medical and health related
research activities tend to be more significant at older established institutions with a greater overall
research focus. For example, institutions with a large share of medical and health research income
include the Institute of Advanced Studies at the Australian National University (58 per cent),
Flinders University (37 per cent), the University of Melbourne (33 per cent), the University of
Sydney (30 per cent) and the University of Western Australia (30 per cent) (see columns 92 to 95).

Equity groups

Government policies over the last decade have encouraged institutions to improve the participation
of those students from those groups who were poorly represented in higher education.
Commonwealth Government policies have required institutions to develop equity plans and report
on progress against these at the annual profile meetings with the Department. Attention is directed
to persons from a non-english speaking background, indigenous students, students with disabilities
and students from low socio-economic backgrounds. Table 2 shows trends in the higher education
participation of various equity groups during the last seven years.

Participation in the higher education sector are shown through a range of equity indicators. These
show the proportion of non-overseas students from a non-English speaking background (NESB),
indigenous students, students with disabilities, students from a low socio-economic background and
those from rural and isolated regions. The socio-economic status indicator is problematic because
it is based on the postcode of the student’s home residence. Postcodes are allocated a socio-
economic status on the basis of the average characteristics of persons in that postcode. This is
unlikely to be a reliable indicator of a student’s socio-economic status where there is significant
heterogeneity in socio-economic status within postcode districts. It is appreciated there are
methodological concerns with this indicator and that it is likely to be the subject of further
development.
                                                     8

Table 2: Participation by Equity Groups: Per cent of Enrolled Non-Overseas Students

Equity Group                                    1991     1992     1993     1994     1995     1996    1997
People with a Disability (1)                     na       na       na       na       na       1.0     1.3
Indigenous Students (2)                          1.0      1.0      1.0      1.2      1.2      1.2     1.2
People of Non-English Speaking                   4.3      4.7      5.0      5.2      5.5      5.4     5.1
Background (3)
People from Rural Background (4)                 18.5     18.7    18.5     18.0     17.7     17.7     17.4
People from Isolated Background (est.) (5)        1.9      2.0     1.9      2.0      2.0      1.8      1.8
People from low SES Background (6)               15.0     15.0    14.8     14.8     14.9     14.4     14.5

Source: DEETYA, Higher Education Student Data Base.

(1) No data available prior to 1996. Figure shows students who have answered “yes” to the two
questions, “Do you have a disability, impairment or long-term medical condition which may affect
your studies?” and “Would you like to receive advice on support services, equipment and facilities
which may assist you?”. Reference value is 4 per cent (estimate of persons with disabilities in
Australian population in 15-64 age group potentially able to enter higher education.
(2) Reference values are 1.4% of the Australian population (1991 Census) and 1.7% (1996 Census).
(3) Reference values are 4.9% of the Australian population (1991 Census) and 4.8% (1996 Census).
For the purposes of the higher education equity statistics, people from a non-English speaking
background are defined as those who were born overseas, arrived in Australia within the previous
ten years and speak a language other than English at home.
(4) Reference value is 24.3%, based on data obtained from 1991 Census.
(5) Reference value is 4.5%, based on data from 1991 Census.
(6) Reference value is set at 25% of the population.


It should be noted that one of the important considerations for Australian students in choosing the
institution to attend is closeness to home. Consequently, characteristics of institutions’ student body
are strongly influenced by the characteristics of the regional population from which the students are
drawn.

The national share of indigenous students of all non-overseas students has risen from 0.5 per cent in
1987 to 1.0 per cent in 1991 and 1.2 per cent in 1997. The distribution of indigenous students
differs substantially from institution to institution due, in part, to the varying regional distribution of
the indigenous population. For example, indigenous students represent 5 per cent of the student
population at Northern Territory University and James Cook University. Indigenous students
represent 100 per cent of students at Batchelor College in the Northern Territory because the
institution is focused upon providing educational services to indigenous students (see column 22).

The proportion of students from a NESB background has increased slightly over the past seven
years from 4.3 to 5.1 per cent. This proportion varies substantially between institutions ranging up
to 15 per cent at the Victorian University of Technology and 20 per cent at the University of New
South Wales (see column 23).

The proportion of students from a rural background has declined slightly over the past seven years
from 18.5 to 17.4 per cent. Regional universities such as the University of Ballarat (69 per cent),
Central Queensland University (66 per cent) and Southern Cross University (61 per cent) have the
highest proportions of students from a rural background. Marcus Oldham Farm Management
                                                  9
College also has a high proportion (61 per cent) of rural students primarily as a consequence of the
nature of the courses delivered (see column 24).

Students from isolated backgrounds have broadly maintained their share of the student population
(1.8 per cent). The distribution of such students across institutions again reflects the region from
which the students are drawn or the nature of the courses offered. For example, the institutions with
the highest shares of isolated students are Batchelor College (60 per cent), Marcus Oldham Farm
Management College (21 per cent) and the Northern Territory University (14 per cent) (see column
25).

Gender and age distribution

The rapid increase in the number of students has been associated with other changes in the
composition of the student body for example, the share of female students has risen from 46 per
cent in the early 1980s to 55 per cent currently. The proportion of students who are female ranges
widely between institutions with limited fields of study due to the gender specialisation in various
courses. For example, there are no females students at Marcus Oldham Farm Management College
but they represent 75 per cent of students at the Australian Catholic University. Females represent
between 45 to 65 per cent of students among institutions that provide a broad range of courses (see
columns 27 to 34). Female representation of the student population declines in higher level courses
with females representing 44 per cent of postgraduate research courses and 49 per cent of post-
graduate (Masters) coursework courses.

Many other broad characteristics of the student body have been maintained, however. For example,
as is apparent from Figure 3 below, there has been considerable stability in the age distribution of
students attending higher education institutions. In the early 1980s some 28 per cent of students
were aged less than 19 years. This proportion increased slightly until the late 1980s/early 1990s and
has since declined to 27 per cent in the mid-1990s. Similarly the share of students aged 30 years or
more has tended to fluctuate between 26 and 28 per cent. The median age of students is 23 years.
At the institutional level the median age ranges from 20 to 30 years largely dependent upon the
distribution of course level and the full-time, part-time and external mix of students. Full-time
students tend to be younger than other students (see columns 18 to 21).

Until recently when institutions were allowed to enrol fee-paying students, Commonwealth
Governments have essentially determined the number of students enrolled in higher education
through their funding decisions. It is wrong therefore to directly relate enrolments to demographic
pressures or changes in demand for higher education. Nonetheless it is possible to identify some of
the factors which operate on the funding decisions. Enrolments in higher education come from two
broad groups - school leavers (essentially enrolments of students aged 16-19 years) and mature age
persons aged 20 years or more. Enrolments from 16-19 year olds accounted for 50 per cent of
undergraduate students in 1996.
                                                        10

                                Figure 3: Distribution of Students by Age

              100

              90
                                                      30+ years
              80

              70                                     25-29 years
              60
   Per cent




              50                                     20-24 years
              40

              30

              20
                                                      <19 years
              10

               0
                        1985




                                            1988




                                                                   1991




                                                                                    1994




                                                                                                        1997
Source: DEETYA, Higher Education Student Data Base.

Table 3 provides an indication of the sources of growth in higher education enrolments over the past
10 years. Between 1987 and 1997 higher education enrolments of non-overseas students grew by
58 per cent. The main factor behind this growth was the increasing rate of participation in higher
education - this accounted for 51 per cent of the growth. Demographic factors accounted for little.
The overall growth in the population accounted for 15 per cent of the growth in enrolments while
the ageing of the population worked to reduce pressures on enrolments by 8 per cent. Older age
groups participate far less in higher education in comparison to younger age groups.

Table 3: Pressures for Change in Higher Education Enrolments Due to:
                     Change in the            Change in the               Change in the       Overall change
                     Participation          Age Distribution               Size of the            (%)
                         Rate               of the Population              Population
                         (%)                       (%)                        (%)
1987 to 1997              51                        -8                         15                    58
1997 to 2007               ?                        -7                         12                     ?
Source: Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs, "Selected Higher Education Statistics",
various issues. Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1997, "Projections of the Populations of Australia, 1995-2051",
Catalogue No. 3201. Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996, "Estimated Resident Population By Sex and Age",
Catalogue No. 3201.0.
It is possible to further isolate some of the factors behind the pressures for changes in enrolments in
higher education. Demand from young people for higher education depends on three factors- the
size of the 16-19 year old population, the Year 12 retention rate and the transfer rate of Year 12
students to higher education. Over the past decade the increased Year 12 retention rate has more
than offset the fall in the 16-17 year old population to produce a rise in the number of school leavers
commencing higher education. The retention rate rose from 49 per cent in 1986 to 77 per cent in
1992. The transfer rate to higher education has fluctuated between 36 to 41 percent over the last
decade with no apparent upward trend.
                                                  11
Changes in the size of the teenage population over the next decade will add to demand for higher
education. As can been seen from Figure 4 below the number of 16-19 year olds is expected to
grow from 510,000 in 1997 to 550,000 in 2007 or by 0.8 per cent per year. The Year 12 retention
rate, however, which has been the driver setting the size of the feeder group to higher education
over the last decades is unlikely to rise. Since 1992 the retention rate has fallen back to 72 per cent
in 1995. While forecasts of the retention rate over the next ten years are problematic a repeat of the
increases that occurred during the late 1980s is unlikely. As was noted above there does not appear
to be any upward trend in the transfer rate to higher education. The main force behind future growth
in Year 12 students is likely to be demographic and this will provide for a slower increase than that
sustained over the last ten years.


                                  Figure 4: Australian Population
                                              ('000s)
   1400
                                                                                                6400
   1300
                                                                                                6200
   1200
                                                                                                6000
   1100                                                                                         5800
   1000                                                                                         5600
     900                                                                                        5400
     800                                                                                        5200
     700                                                                                        5000
           1987


                   1989


                           1991


                                    1993


                                           1995


                                                  1997


                                                          1999


                                                                 2001


                                                                         2003


                                                                                 2005


                                                                                         2007
                    AGE 16-19(LHS)                AGE 20-40(RHS)


Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1997, "Projections of the Populations of Australia, 1995-
2051", Catalogue No. 3201. Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996, "Estimated Resident Population
By Sex and Age", Catalogue No. 3201.0.

Mature age undergraduate enrolments which represent about half of commencing undergraduate
students have also increased strongly over the past decade although this upward trend has moderated
in recent years. Both demographic changes and changes in participation in higher education have
contributed to this upward. Over the next decade, however, these factors are unlikely to act as
strongly. Almost all (90 per cent) of mature age undergraduate students are aged between 20 to 40
years. As can be seen from Figure 4 above the population of this age group has grown over the last
decade, by 0.8 per cent per year, but is forecast to remain essentially unchanged over the next ten
years.

As can be seen from Table 2 above, demographic factors are unlikely to provide for large increases
in the level of enrolments in higher education. If participation rates remain unchanged higher
education enrolments are likely to rise by only five per cent over the next decade. Growth if it
occurs must come from increasing the level of interest in undertaking higher education. There is,
however, likely to be a moderation of pressures to participate initially in higher education. This is
because of the large gains already made in the likelihood of entering higher education. Some of the
increase in demand by mature age persons to participate in higher education will have been as first
                                                              12
time students. In the future there may be fewer such older persons interested in undertaking an
undergraduate degree given the large increase in participation in recent years among young people.
This may be offset by older people undertaking second degrees if initial participation in higher
education stimulates further interest in study.

Figure 5 below provides an indication of the likelihood of a current teenager commencing higher
education or vocational education and training at some time during their lifetime. On the basis of
current patterns it would appear that about 45 per cent of the current population of teenagers will
enter higher education at some point in their lives. A further 45 per cent of the current population of
teenagers are likely to only commence vocational education and training, which when combined
with those commencing higher education, leads to almost 90 per cent commencing some form of
tertiary education or training.


                 Figure 5: Cumulative Probability of Commencing Tertiary
                                        Education

               100
                90
                80
                70
                60
    Per Cent




                50
                40
                30
                20
                10
                 0
                     15   19   24      29     34       39     44   49   54   59   64
                                                Year of Age


                                    Higher Education    VET



Source: DEETYA Higher Education Student Data Base
        National Centre for Vocational Education Research, unpublished data

As noted above, growth in the number of students commencing their first degree may not continue
as quickly as over the last decade. The growth in the number of local students that does occur is
likely to be graduate students returning to undertake either another Bachelor degree or post-graduate
studies. Under previous arrangements funding of higher education institutions for education or
teaching purposes by the Commonwealth is primarily based upon the student load (or EFTSU). The
changed funding arrangements announced in 1996 removed the cap to institutions' operating grants
received from the Commonwealth. From 1998 institutions will be able to enrol more students than
agreed and initially funded by the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth will then fund the
additional places at the relevant HECS rate. This approach represents an open-ended system of
funding providing institutions with an incentive to enrol additional students to augment cash flow in
                                                   13
the short run. There is also a longer run incentive if the marginal costs of delivering courses to
those students are less than the HECS equivalent revenue received from the Commonwealth. In
addition, the institutions are also allowed to accept full-fee paying local students up to 25 per cent of
the student body for any course.

These funding arrangements which will commence in 1998 will create a more competitive
environment for students as many institutions take advantage of these additional new sources of
funds. There may be some expansion of the higher education market in the short term if existing
unmet demand for Commonwealth funded places can be translated into demand for fee-paying
places. However, it should be noted that this unmet demand relates to Commonwealth funded
places not fee-paying places. Over the longer term the overall number of non-overseas students may
not grow quickly as it has over the last decade. In this environment of slower growth, funds for
many institutions may in part be obtained by increasing their share of the national student
population.

Essentially the Australian higher education system is now characterised by mass participation with
participation in higher education at some time during a persons life now a common expectation.
This participation need not necessarily involve direct enrolment after school, although for many
students this will be the case, but a return to study later in life after a period of employment, child-
raising, etc. A reflection of this change is to look at the basis of admission of students to higher
education institutions.

Basis of admission to higher education courses

There is a diversity of population seeking enrolment in higher education institutions as evidenced by
the indicator showing the basis of admission to current course. Just over half of Australian students
commencing a Bachelor’s Pass degree course in 1995, 54 per cent, gained entry through satisfactory
completion of a secondary education. A further 22 per cent of commencing students gained entry as
a result of previously completing or participating in higher education. Twelve per cent of students
were admitted for ‘other’ reasons such as employment experience, professional qualifications and so
on. A further seven per cent gained entry on the basis of prior TAFE experience and six per cent
were admitted on the basis of mature age special entry provisions (see columns 12 to 17). It can be
appreciated that the pattern of admissions differ greatly between institutions. Many of the
specialised institutions such the Australian Film, Television and Radio School and the National
Institute of Dramatic Art have developed their assessment processes for potential students. The
basis of admission for other institutions varies according to the important sources of students.


Overseas students

The other main avenue for increased funds are overseas students who have been paying fees since
1987. Indeed the growth of the number of overseas students has been the most manifest expression
of the internationalisation of the Australian higher education sector. The number of overseas
students has increased from 15,000 in 1984 to 63,000 in 1995. As can be appreciated from Figure 6
there were large increases in the number of overseas students during the early 1990s but growth has
slowed since then. Nevertheless, the growth of overseas students has been greater than that for non-
overseas students with the result that overseas students’ share of the student population has
increased from 4.3 per cent in 1994 to 9.6 per cent in 1997. As can be seen the share of overseas
students varies considerably among institutions with overseas students representing 15 per cent or
more of students in a number of institutions such as RMIT, Curtin University of Technology and the
University of Southern Queensland (see column 10).
                                                                14

The sources of overseas students are likely to change in the medium term as source countries'
economic circumstances change and their educational infrastructure is developed. Most overseas
students will continue to be from countries where English is not the first language and where the
cultural background is not predominantly European. In 1997, 21 per cent of overseas students came
from Malaysia, 18 per cent from Singapore, 14 per cent from Hong Kong and 9 per cent from
Indonesia.

Recent concerns with the economies of many South East Asian countries and consequent falls in the
value of their currencies against the Australian dollar have raised fears of shifts in the number of
overseas students. As with other sectors with reliance on export markets for a significant share of
revenue, institutions can reasonably expect strong shifts in those markets from year to year. Figure
6 below indicates this has been the experience over the past decade. Consequently, while overseas
students generate a substantial share of many higher education institutions' revenue this source of
revenue should be seen as subject to more fluctuation than other sources.


                                          Figure 6: Overseas Students

               10
                9
                8
                7
    Per cent




                6
                5
                4
                3
                2
                1
                0
                    1985

                           1986

                                  1987

                                           1988

                                                  1989

                                                         1990

                                                                1991

                                                                       1992

                                                                              1993

                                                                                     1994

                                                                                            1995

                                                                                                   1996

                                                                                                          1997




                                         Share of all students                 Change per year


Source: DEETYA, Higher Education Student Data Base.

Globalisation of education also brings increased competition as well as increased markets for
institutions' educational services. This increased competition may not only involve Australian
institutions competing with institutions from other countries, such as the USA, UK and Canada, for
overseas students but also for local students. Institutional performance for many institutions will
increasingly not be related to their local peers but to overseas institutions.

Technological developments are independent from the process of globalisation but will help to
strengthen these trends. The convergence of the telecommunications and computing technologies
(information technology) have presented higher education institutions with a number of options.
They may attempt a value added strategy which uses the information technology to enrich their
                                                   15
existing students' educational experience through improving student staff interaction and
communication. Institutions may also employ the technology to develop low cost external delivery
to a mass education market or they may attempt to develop more customised courses to students by
delivering courses in a way that better fits with students' lifestyles or work commitment, for
example, through external education centres linked to the main campus.

Mode of Study

In 1995 some 59 per cent of students attended full-time, 29 per cent attended part-time and 12 per
cent attended on an external basis. Part-time students account for 25 to 50 per cent of students in
most institutions. Many institutions have no external students while for a number of institutions
such as Charles Sturt University, the University of New England and the University of Southern
Queensland external students account for more than 60 per cent of students (see columns 3 to 5).
Over the last decade there have been shift in the pattern of enrolment. The share of full-time
enrolments grew over the period 1983 to 1990 and since then has declined slightly. The share of
part-time students has fallen over the period while the share of external students initially fell until
the early 1990s and has subsequently grown.

Two-thirds of part-time students and over 80 per cent of external students were aged 25 years or
more. By contrast only one-fifth of full-time students were aged 25 years or more. Consequently
the median age of students in an institution is in part related to the shares of students enrolled part-
time and externally. Overall the median age of students is 23 years. The median age of students
ranges from 20 to 22 years in institutions with large shares of full-time students such as the
Australian Defence Force Academy, Avondale College, the University of Ballarat, the University of
Queensland and the University of Adelaide, to 32 and 28 years for the University of New England
and Charles Sturt University, respectively, that both have relatively large shares of students enrolled
part-time and externally (see columns 18 to 21).

With limited opportunity to increase the number of young people attending higher education many
institutions may seek to increase their attractiveness to older students. Australia has a long tradition
of part-time and external studies which has appealed to older persons. The number of older students
has increased substantially over the last decade but, as was discussed above, the rate of increase is
likely to moderate over the next decade or so. The introduction of new technologies may be seen as
a means of increasing the attractiveness of undertaking higher education, particularly among older
students.
                                                  16


                     Figure 7: Distribution of Students by Type of
                                       Enrolment
               100
                                                  External
                80
                                                  Part-time
    Per cent




                60

                40
                                                  Full-time
                20

                0
                         1985




                                          1988




                                                           1991




                                                                            1994




                                                                                             1997
Source: DEETYA, Higher Education Student Data Base.

Course breadth

The final set of student indicators are designed to reflect the breadth of course offerings at each
institution. By showing the number of undergraduate and postgraduate courses on offer (at the
broad field of study level), these indicators indicate whether institutions are attempting to be
comprehensive in their course offerings or are alternatively developing or seeking niche markets.

A small number of institutions offer courses across all broad undergraduate fields of study including
the University of Sydney, the University of Melbourne and the University of Queensland. At the
postgraduate level, these same institutions and James Cook University of North Queensland and the
University of Adelaide have comprehensive course offerings. By way of contrast, smaller specialist
institutions such as the Australian Film and TV Radio School, Avondale College, National Institute
of Dramatic Art, Marcus Oldham College and Batchelor College offer only one undergraduate or
postgraduate course at the broad field of study level. Among institutions, the most frequent number
of undergraduate courses offered, or the modal group, is 8 broad fields of study. The modal group
in terms of postgraduate courses offered is 7 out of 10 broad fields of study (see columns 35 to 36).

Staffing

A number of staffing indicators are developed to show how institutions are deploying their human
resources to achieve their educational objectives. The composition of staff within institutions is
described in terms of academic status, tenure, classification, function, age, gender and
qualifications.

The first set of staffing indicators presents the number of full-time and fractional full-time staff
members as an indication of the scale of staff resources in each institution. Data on casual staff are
not shown since these are only available in terms of full-time equivalent staff (see columns 37 to
39).
                                                   17
The academic status of staff members shows the percentage of academic and non-academic staff
expressed in terms of full-time equivalent staff (FTE). It should be noted that caution is required in
interpreting academic to non-academic staff ratios because institutions can on occasion adopt
different practices for classifying support staff. In addition, the mix of academic and non-academic
staff at the broad institutional level will undoubtedly be influenced by the institution’s profile and
its student mix. For example, institutions with relatively low proportions of academic staff such as
Charles Sturt University and the University of New England also have large numbers of external
students. This reflects the additional non-academic staff resources required to deliver education to
external students. On the other hand, institutions with high percentages of academic staff include
smaller specialist institutions such as Batchelor College, Avondale College and the Australian
Catholic University (see columns 40 to 44).

Institutions show considerable variation in the percentage of academic staff with tenure (FTE). A
variety of institutions have a low percentage of staff with tenure including older established
institutions with a strong research focus such as the University of Melbourne, the University of
Queensland and Australian National University but also smaller specialist institutions such as
Avondale College, the Australian Maritime College and Batchelor College. Conversely, institutions
with a relatively high proportion of academic staff with tenure tend to be of more recent vintage and
include the Australian Catholic University, the University of Technology Sydney, the University of
South Australia and Queensland University of Technology (see columns 45 to 48).

Analysis of the deployment of academic staff by function (FTE) is made difficult because different
institutions adopt different practices for classifying their ‘research-only’ staff. Bearing this caveat in
mind, the results are however, not surprising with smaller specialist institutions such as Avondale
College, Batchelor College, the Australian Catholic University and the Australian Maritime College
having high proportions of ‘teaching-only’ staff. Similarly, the older established universities with a
stronger research focus such as the Australian National University, the University of Western
Australia, the University of Queensland, the University of Adelaide, the University of Sydney and
the University of Melbourne are more likely to have a larger proportion of ‘research-only’ staff (see
columns 49 to 52).

There is considerable variation across institutions in the classification level of academic staff
(FTE). For example, those with a high percentage of academic staff classified as senior lecturer and
above include the Australian Defence Force Academy, the University of New England and
Swinburne University of Technology. On the other hand, institutions with low percentages of
academics classified as senior lecturer and above include Edith Cowan University, the University of
Western Sydney and the Australian Maritime College (see columns 53 to 56).

Female academics are under-represented among senior academic staff (FTE) since they constitute
only 13 per cent of academic staff above senior lecturer level. Female representation at above
senior lecturer level varies from a high of 43 per cent at Batchelor College while there are no female
staff at above senior lecturer level at Avondale College or the Australian Defence Force Academy
(see columns 57 to 61).

Institutions with higher proportions of younger academic staff (number of full-time and fractional
full-time staff) aged less than 30 include the University of Melbourne, the University of Queensland
and the Australian Maritime College. Conversely, institutions with the largest proportions of older
academic staff aged 50 and over include Macquarie University, Avondale College, the University of
New England and the Australian Catholic University (see columns 62 to 64).
                                                     18
Data on the qualifications of academic staff were obtained from the Commonwealth Universities
Yearbook electronic database (Anderson and Arthur, 1997). A majority of academics, 50 per cent,
possess a doctorate. A large proportion of academic staff, 94 per cent, at the Institute of Advanced
Studies possess a doctorate. At the other end of the scale, 22 per cent of academic staff possess a
doctorate at the University of Ballarat and the University of South Australia (see columns 65 to 68).

3.    Similarity and Diversity of Institutions

It is not the intention in this report to discuss the particular strategies of institutions or the success of
their implementation. It can be difficult to judge whether performance at a particular point in time
is consistent with eventual achievement of an institution’s strategic position. Moreover, the
strategic position of an institution may not be the same across all departments or faculties as each
attempts to capitalise on its perceived advantages.

Nonetheless, in every institution and department or faculty there are essentially two pre-requisites
for success given the core purposes of institutions as discussed above: one is efficiency and the
other effectiveness. Efficiency relates to how well an activity is performed in terms of the resources
used to achieve the desired results while effectiveness relates to how well the desired results are
achieved. This paper presents a number of performance indicators of the effectiveness and
efficiency of institutions against which the broad institutional purposes can be assessed.

The purpose of the generation of performance indicators is not to advocate a uniform standard on
institutions. Before performance can be usefully discussed, acknowledgment must be made of the
diversity of institutions within the sector.

Views about the attributes of higher education institutions can be formed on the basis of a limited
number of institutional characteristics. This section attempts to go some way to overcoming these
short comings by reporting the results of a cluster analysis which groups institutions on the basis of
a wide range of characteristics.

In this section an attempt is made to acknowledge this diversity by developing a number of
institutional archetypes. The archetypes are driven by the data and not judgements regarding the
strategic directions of institutions. The aim is to inform and simplify the discussion of institutions'
performances, not to compare the performance of institutions against their professed strategic
directions. This approach not only brings out some of the key dimensions of diversity within the
sector but at the same time points to important similarities between institutions.

Groupings of higher education institutions

Cluster analysis provides a means of grouping higher education institutions into a small number of
clusters on the basis of a wide range of performance indicators. While the indicators could be used
directly to cluster institutions the task becomes much more manageable if the information contained
in the indicators is summarised in some way.

As a first step the indicators listed in Table 4 have been summarised (using principal components
analysis) into four summary measures which exploratory work has indicated are important
dimensions of comparison. The four summary ‘factors’ are size and diversity of course offerings,
the extent to which institutions have a research orientation, the overall importance of overseas
students, and the extent to which institutions have a distance learning orientation.

                             Table 4: Key dimensions of institutional comparison
                                                     19

    Dimension of difference /                                            Indicators
          similarity

size and diversity                   EFTSU
                                     number of campuses
                                     number of broad fields of study offered at postgraduate level
                                     number of broad fields of study offered at undergraduate level

research orientation                 research income as a share of total income
                                     research income
                                     post graduate research students as a share of all students

overseas orientation                 overseas students as a share of all students
                                     income from overseas students as a share of total income

distance education orientation       part time students as a share of all students
                                     external students as a share of all students



The summary factors are used singularly to group institutions as presented in Table 5.

Size and diversity of course offerings

The largest and most diverse institutions tend to be in Cluster I (size and diversity of offering),
while those institutions which have the smallest EFTSU and which concentrate on fewest fields of
study are in Cluster IV.


Research orientation

The eight universities in Cluster I (research orientation) together account for around 70 per cent of
total research income. They generally have the highest shares of research in total income and the
highest share of post graduate research students.

The second cluster contains ten universities which account for almost a further 20 per cent of total
research funding. While they can be characterised as having a research orientation they tend to have
below average research income. The institutions in the other two clusters are best characterised as
having a relatively greater teaching than research orientation.

External and part-time student orientation

The first cluster contains institutions with very high shares of externally enrolled students.
Conversely Cluster IV contains those institutions which have predominantly full-time students.

Overseas students

The two universities in Cluster I (overseas students) have higher shares of overseas students and
rely on income from overseas students to a much greater extent than do other institutions. Cluster II
institutions have slightly lower shares of overseas students and are generally less reliant on overseas
student for income. At the other end of the scale, Cluster IV institutions have small, or in some
cases negligible, share of overseas students in their student populations.
                                                      20
                                           Table 5 : Summary Factors

   INSTITUTIONAL SIZE AND BREADTH OF                                      RESEARCH ORIENTATION
           COURSE OFFERINGS
                                                            Cluster 1
Cluster I
                                                            University of Melbourne
University of New South Wales                               University of Queensland
Monash University                                           University of New South Wales
University of Western Sydney                                Australian National University
La Trobe University                                         University of Sydney
Curtin University of Technology                             University of Western Australia
University of Queensland                                    University of Adelaide
Deakin University                                           Monash University
Queensland University of Technology
University of Sydney                                        Cluster II
University of Melbourne                                     Macquarie University
University of South Australia                               University of Newcastle
University of Adelaide                                      James Cook University of Northern Queensland
                                                            University of Tasmania
Cluster II                                                  University of New England
                                                            La Trobe University
James Cook University of Northern Queensland
                                                            University of Wollongong
Central Queensland University
                                                            Murdoch University
Charles Sturt University
                                                            ADFA
University of New England
                                                            Flinders University
RMIT
University of Western Australia
                                                            Cluster III
University of Newcastle
Northern Territory University                               University of South Australia
Griffith University                                         Northern Territory University
University of Tasmania                                      Griffith University
University of Technology Sydney                             Curtin University of Technology
Edith Cowan University                                      Queensland University of Technology
Victoria University of Technology                           RMIT

Cluster III                                                 Cluster IV
Australian Catholic University                              Australian Film, Television and Radio School
Southern Cross University                                   Avondale College
University of Southern Queensland                           NIDA
Swinburne University of Technology                          Marcus Oldham College
University of Wollongong                                    Charles Sturt University
Murdoch University                                          University of Southern Queensland
Flinders University                                         Batchelor College
Macquarie University                                        Australian Maritime College
Australian National University                              Australian Catholic University
University of Canberra                                      University of Technology Sydney
University of Ballarat                                      University of Canberra
                                                            Swinburne University of Technology
Cluster IV                                                  Victoria University of Technology
                                                            University of Ballarat
Australian Film, Television and Radio School
                                                            Deakin University
Marcus Oldham College
                                                            Central Queensland University
Avondale College
                                                            University of Western Sydney
Australian Maritime College
                                                            Edith Cowan University
NIDA
                                                            Southern Cross University
ADFA
Batchelor College
                                                    21
                                               Table 5 Continued
DISTANCE LEARNING AND PART TIME                             OVERSEAS STUDENTS
STUDENT FOCUS
                                                         Cluster 1
Cluster 1
                                                         Curtin University of Technology
University of New England                                RMIT
University of Southern Queensland
Charles Sturt University                                 Cluster II
Central Queensland University
                                                         University of New South Wales
                                                         Swinburne University of Technology
Cluster II
                                                         Monash University
Monash University                                        Murdoch University
Murdoch University                                       University of Wollongong
Macquarie University                                     University of Southern Queensland
Batchelor College
Edith Cowan University                                   Cluster III
Australian Maritime College
                                                         Macquarie University
University of South Australia
                                                         Central Queensland University
Northern Territory University
                                                         University of Melbourne
Southern Cross University
                                                         Griffith University
Deakin University
                                                         Charles Sturt University
                                                         University of Queensland
Cluster III
                                                         Flinders University
Avondale College                                         University of Adelaide
Australian National University                           University of Canberra
Victoria University of Technology                        University of Technology Sydney
University of Canberra                                   James Cook University of Northern Queensland
University of Western Sydney                             University of Western Sydney
James Cook University of Northern Queensland             Edith Cowan University
University of Technology Sydney                          Queensland University of Technology
Queensland University of Technology                      Australian Maritime College
Flinders University                                      University of Sydney
University of Wollongong                                 University of Tasmania
RMIT                                                     University of Western Australia
University of New South Wales                            Australian National University
University of Queensland                                 University of South Australia
University of Newcastle                                  Victoria University of Technology
Swinburne University of Technology
University of Melbourne                                  Cluster IV
University of Tasmania
                                                         University of Newcastle
La Trobe University
                                                         Deakin University
Griffith University
                                                         University of New England
University of Sydney
                                                         La Trobe University
University of Adelaide
                                                         Australian Film, Television and Radio School
University of Ballarat
                                                         Marcus Oldham College
Curtin University of Technology
                                                         Batchelor College
Australian Catholic University
                                                         University of Ballarat
ADFA
                                                         Northern Territory University
University of Western Australia
                                                         NIDA
                                                         Southern Cross University
Cluster IV
                                                         Avondale College
NIDA                                                     ADFA
Marcus Oldham College                                    Australian Catholic University
Australian Film, Television and Radio School
                                                        22
Clustering using four summary factors

To this point institutions have been grouped using single dimensions of comparison. This approach
can be extended so that grouping takes place on the basis of the four summary factors taken
together.

The four summary factors, which correspond to the dimensions already considered, were obtained
using factor analysis from the indicators listed in Table 5. These summary factors form the basis of
a clustering of institutions, and the number of clusters (six) was chosen to bring out the diversity of
institutions while not dwelling on less important differences. The clusters are listed in Table 6.

                                          Table 6: Institutional Clusters

Cluster 1
                                                              Cluster IV
Australian Film, Television and Radio School
Marcus Oldham College                                         University of Sydney
NIDA                                                          University of Melbourne
Avondale College                                              University of New South Wales
ADFA                                                          Monash University
Batchelor College                                             University of Queensland

Cluster II                                                    Cluster V
Charles Sturt University                                      University of Western Australia
Central Queensland University                                 University of Adelaide
Southern Cross University                                     University of Newcastle
Northern Territory University                                 James Cook University of Northern Queensland
University of New England                                     Macquarie University
                                                              University of Tasmania
Cluster III                                                   Australian National University
                                                              Flinders University
RMIT
Curtin University of Technology
                                                              Cluster VI
Victoria University of Technology
Edith Cowan University                                        University of Technology Sydney
University of Wollongong                                      University of South Australia
Murdoch University                                            University of Western Sydney
University of Canberra                                        Queensland University of Technology
Swinburne University of Technology                            La Trobe University
Australian Maritime College                                   Griffith University
University of Southern Queensland                             University of Ballarat
                                                              Australian Catholic University
                                                              Deakin University




The first cluster mainly groups together smaller specialist institutions that deliver a limited number
of courses. These institutions tend to concentrate on teaching rather than research, and have
relatively low shares of overseas students.

The second cluster contains those institutions which primarily stand out because of the importance
to them of delivery of courses to external students or part-time students and with low shares of
overseas students.

The third cluster is primarily a grouping of institutions which have a relatively strong overseas
orientation with generally a focus on teaching.
                                                   23
The fourth cluster contains five of the largest and generally more research orientated universities
with relatively few external or part-time students.

The fifth cluster contains universities which tend to be smaller than those in the fourth cluster but
with a similar leaning towards research.

The sixth cluster represents those institutions which can be said to be broadly covering all four
characteristics. That is, they generally exhibit a comprehensive and diverse student population and
mode of delivery of courses. As well they are generally more focused on teaching than those
institutions in the fifth cluster.


4.    Performance of Institutions

In the second section of the paper the core purposes of institutions, namely the education of students
and achievement of sound post-graduate outcomes, was discussed. A number of indicators have
been developed to shed some light on the efficiency and effectiveness of institutions against these
broad purposes. Interpretation of the indicators is best achieved by viewing the indicators jointly
rather than focusing on them in isolation.

An indicator has been developed which provides a measure of the efficiency of institutions in
delivering their educational services. The student-staff ratio is one measure of efficiency and aims
to show the quantum of teaching resources devoted to the provision of student services. The
indicator presents the student-staff ratio by academic organisation unit within each institution and is
defined as the ratio of total student load (EFTSU) to full-time equivalent (FTE) academic staff in
‘teaching-only’ and ‘teaching and research’ functions. The interpretation of the student-staff ratio
can vary. For example, students may place a high value on a low student-staff ratio in the belief this
is measuring high teaching standards. From another perspective, a high student-staff ratio may be
indicative of cost-efficient teaching practices. A number of factors such as student mix, institutional
profile, course design and so on will impact on the student-staff ratio. However, it is beyond the
scope of the present paper to identify the impact of these factors on the student-staff ratio. It should
be noted that the indicator currently does not include casual staff. It is proposed to further develop
this indicator to include such staff (see columns 69 to 80).

Indicators of effectiveness of institutions' delivery of educational services employed in this paper are
graduates’ satisfaction with their higher education experiences, the student retention rate and student
progress rate. Indicators of post-graduation outcomes are graduate employment outcomes, graduate
salaries and the number of graduates proceeding to further study.

A comment frequently made within the sector is that student or graduate outcomes are influenced by
student mix, institutional histories and objectives and many other factors. For example, full-time
students as a group may have higher retention rates than do external students. Thus institutions with
relatively large numbers of full-time students will generally appear to exhibit higher retention rates.
The institution’s retention rate will reflect students’ intrinsic retention as well as the mix of students
within that institution.

In producing the outcomes indicators we have attempted to allow for the impact of student mix and
other factors. To allow for the impact of student mix on institutional performance we compare
crude and expected institutional scores. The crude score is simply the raw score, for example, the
retention rate of students in a particular institution.
                                                   24
The expected score for an institution is based on the assumption that students with particular
characteristics within an institution are retained at the same rate as students at the national level with
the same characteristics. For example males, aged 15-19, who are commencing full-time students in
an institution are assumed to be retained at the same rate as all male students nationwide who are
aged 15-19 and are commencing full-time students. Likewise for the following characteristics of
students: gender, age, indigenous, NESB and socio-economic status, broad field of study, course
type, basis of admission to current course and type of enrolment.

There are two pieces of information needed to calculate the expected score for each institution:
first, the proportion of students in each institution in each cross-classification of gender, age,
indigenous status, broad field of study and so on; and second, the national score at each level of the
cross-classification. Multiplying these national scores by the respective proportion of students in
each institution and summing these products will give the expected score assuming that institution
achieves the national average score for each particular cross-classification. In essence, the expected
score assumes an institution’s students exhibit average national results. As a result, the variation in
expected scores between institutions is a reflection of the different student characteristics or student
mix within each institution.

Finally, to derive the ‘performance’ score for each institution, the crude score is compared with the
expected score. For example, if the crude retention rate is higher than the expected retention rate,
then the institution is said to have had a higher retention rate than might be expected given the mix
of students, fields of study and so on at that institution. The performance score is in essence a
relative score which uses national benchmarks to assess institutional performance.

The Educational Experience of Students

The retention rate is a measure of an institution’s ability to retain those students who are not
completing their courses (the retention rate excludes those students who complete their studies). A
number of considerations will influence students’ decisions to continue their studies. Students’
expectations, course content, course satisfaction, support from teachers and the institution and
students own personal circumstances are among many factors likely to have some bearing on an
institution’s ability to retain its students.

The retention rate shown in the indicator is calculated at the broad institution level. That is,
students moving between courses within an institution are treated as being retained by that
institution. This acknowledges that some institutions encourage mobility between courses on the
basis that students may not make ideal choices in undertaking their initial course selection. In
addition, course changes by students may be more apparent than real as a result of administrative re-
classifications and recoding of courses.

The national retention rate suggests that about three out of every four students (74 per cent) are
retained at an institution each year. Crude retention rates vary from a high of 97 per cent at Marcus
Oldham Farm Management College to a low of 49 per cent at Batchelor College (see columns 114
to 116).

The value of looking at the expected retention rate can be shown by taking the University of New
England as an example. The crude retention rate at the University of New England is three
percentage points lower than the national average of 74 per cent. However, the expected retention
rate is 70 per cent which indicates the retention rate is lower than the national retention rate because
of the nature of the student population at this institution. That is external students, which account
for 69 per cent of the University of New England students, tend to have lower retention rates than
                                                   25
other students. If instead we examine the performance score by comparing the crude and the
expected retention rate we conclude the retention rate at the University of New England is two per
cent higher than might be expected given its student mix. The crude and performance scores tell a
very different story about the retention rate as demonstrated by the University of New England.

The student progress rate provides a measure of educational achievement and effectiveness of
educational delivery. Like the retention rate, the student progress rate will be influenced by a
number of factors including teaching quality, the quality of the student intake, educational standards
and so on. Further research, which is beyond the scope of the present paper, could elucidate the role
and magnitude these factors play in determining student progress.

The student progress rate is defined in terms of successful student subject load. Since the notion of
success in subjects is problematic for research students and students in higher level courses, it is
considered more appropriate to show student progress simply within Bachelor’s Pass level subjects.

The national student progress rate shows that 86 per cent of student load is completed successfully.
Crude scores range from a high of 98 per cent to 76 per cent. However, once we allow for the
impact of student and course characteristics and so on it can be seen that the expected student
progress rate in each institution is not expected to diverge by more than a few percentage points
from the national level. Importantly, this implies student and institutional characteristics have little
bearing on student progress rates and that other factors must account for the variation in student
progress rates across institutions. Examining a better performing institution (say the 90th percentile
among institutions, rather than the top ranked institution which might be an outlier), then we find
the student progress rate at the University of Western Australia is 7 per cent higher than might be
expected given the mix of its students and other characteristics (see columns 117 to 119).

Students satisfaction with their courses

The growth in higher education participation over the past decade and a half has created pressures
on the operation of institutions and the nature of the process of higher education. Growth in higher
education participation has qualitative as well as quantitative implications. In an era of mass
participation in higher education compared to an earlier elite system there will be greater differences
in the backgrounds, abilities and motivations of students. Views of the usefulness of higher
education, will differ along with changes in the modes of entry to higher education, the nature of the
curriculum and how it is taught, the interaction of students with academics and interaction between
academics and their colleagues. Importantly there will be differences in how the higher education
sector's role in society is viewed and in the nature of the post-graduate destinations of students.
Institutions need to ensure that educational services are responsive to the needs of individual
students and broader social concerns.

The Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) has been conducted annually by the GCCA since 1993
and measures graduates’ satisfaction with a number of aspects of their courses. The indicators focus
on three aspects of satisfaction; overall satisfaction, generic skills and good teaching. These
indicators measure student satisfaction given students’ expectations and experience of their courses.

A comment frequently made in interpreting CEQ results is that student’s background has a large
bearing on reported satisfaction levels. An earlier study found the influence of student background
characteristics such as gender, age and mode of attendance on reported satisfaction levels was small
relative to the influence of institutional factors (Long and Johnson, 1996). In addition, the study
concluded it was difficult to detect a consistent relationship between students’ ability and
                                                  26
satisfaction scores since the relationship between the two varied in terms of both magnitude and
direction over the various CEQ scales.

The expected overall satisfaction score refers to the mean overall satisfaction level controlling for
student mix in terms of gender, age, indigenous and NESB status, course type, type of enrolment
and broad field of study in each institution. There is relatively minor variation in the expected
overall satisfaction scores revealing that different student populations do not vary greatly in their
satisfaction ratings. This result is broadly consistent with the findings of the earlier Long and
Johnson study that student characteristics have a relatively minor impact on satisfaction scores.

Examining the performance score of a better performing institution by way of example, shows
overall satisfaction recorded by students at the University of New England to be seven percentage
points higher than might be expected given its student mix (see columns 132 to 135)

An alternative way of assessing the performance scores is to consider what might be an
‘educationally significant’ difference between institutions. For the purposes of this paper, we
consider an ‘educationally significant’ difference to be where ten per cent of students change their
reported satisfaction by one category in the CEQ, say for example, from category four to the
"strongly agree" category five. If ten per cent of students change their response by one category this
would translate to a difference in mean CEQ scores of 5 percentage points (given that the mean
score is calculated in the CEQ indicators assuming responses range from a value of minus 100 to
plus 100). Mean performance scores range by greater than 5 percentage points suggesting there are
‘educationally significant’ differences in overall satisfaction among institutions as can be seen from
column 135.

The good teaching scale refers to graduates’ satisfaction with their course in terms of feedback,
assistance, interest and so on shown by teaching staff. The expected scores show much greater
variation in the good teaching scale than for the overall satisfaction or generic skills scales. Thus
different student groups are likely to show more variation in their satisfaction with teaching than
with other aspects of their courses. This finding is consistent with the recent policy emphasis on
promoting good teaching standards in the sector. The performance scores for a better performing
institution such as the University of New England by way of example, suggest that satisfaction with
good teaching at this institution is seven percentage points higher than might be expected given
national benchmarks. Once again, the performance scores vary by greater than five percentage
points indicating there are ‘educationally significant’ differences in good teaching performance
between institutions (see columns 136 to 139).

The final satisfaction indicator refers to the generic skills scale which assesses graduates’
satisfaction with their course in terms of imparting analytical, communication, problem solving,
team work skills and the like. The expected scores for generic skills show relatively minor variation
like the expected overall satisfaction scores. The performance scores for generic skills for a better
performing institution such as Curtin University of Technology show satisfaction with the imparting
of generic skills to be six percentage points higher than might be expected given its student mix. In
addition, it can be seen that performance scores vary by greater than five percentage points
suggesting there are educationally significant differences in performance between institutions as can
be seen from columns 140 to 143.

Post-graduation outcomes

As noted earlier in the paper, the post-graduation outcomes of students are an important aspect of
the performance of the higher education sector. The Graduate Careers Council of Australia
                                                   27
(GCCA) has conducted national surveys examining the post-graduation outcomes of students since
the mid 1970s providing a rich and to date relatively underutilised database.

The GCCA surveys both Australian and overseas students about their post-graduation experience.
While it seems relevant to examine student retention, student progress and student satisfaction of all
students in an institution as a measure of educational performance, from a domestic perspective it
seems more appropriate to focus on the employment, educational and salary outcomes of Australian
students alone.

A key indicator in the GCCA’s Graduate Destination Survey (GDS) is the proportion of graduates
in full-time employment of those who are available for full-time employment. Students who are
already working are likely to have a distinct advantage in securing employment post-graduation.
For example, part-time and external students are more likely to combine working with further study
and would be expected to continue in their jobs or secure an improved position on completion of
their studies. For this reason, it seems more appropriate for the purposes of making a fair
comparison of the employment outcomes of graduates to only examine the destinations of full-time
students. We also focus on the employment outcomes of Bachelor Degree students only.

One further point concerns the GCCA’s measure of graduate employment which is based on a
survey of graduates. The response rate of Australian students in GDS ’96 was relatively high at
70.8 per cent but this begs the question, what of the employment outcomes of the 30 per cent of
graduates who did not respond to the survey? A follow-up survey of non-respondents indicates that
the employment outcomes of respondents are broadly representative of the employment outcomes of
the entire population of graduates (Guthrie and Johnson, 1997). The study found the employment
outcomes of respondents and non-respondents when compared by gender and age, for example,
were broadly similar.

The expected full-time employment rate is derived in a similar manner to the expected retention and
student progress rates. It measures the full-time employment rate in each institution having
controlled for the impact of student mix on full-time employment of gender, age, indigenous and
NESB status, course type and broad field of study. The performance score of a better performing
institution such as the University of Melbourne shows the full-time employment rate of graduates
from that institution to be 12 per cent higher than might be expected given its student mix and other
characteristics (see columns 120 to 123).

An important factor which is not able to be controlled for in the employment indicator is the labour
market conditions facing new graduates. Controlling for the effect of labour market conditions is
difficult as not only will the labour markets differ for different institutions but it will also differ in
different ways as the skill mix of institutions' graduates varies. Moreover, the appropriate definition
of the labour market will vary among graduates. For many graduates it will be their local region
while for others their home State or Australia as a whole will be more relevant. For a relatively
small proportion, the international labour market might be more appropriate.

The GCCA collects information on the starting salaries of graduates four months after graduation.
The salaries indicator follows the same methodology as the full-time employment indicator. That
is, we focus only on graduates previously in full-time study (and who are in their first full-time job)
to remove the effect of the salary advantage likely to be enjoyed by graduates in continuing
employment. The performance score shows that graduates from a better performing institution such
as Macquarie University by way of example, earn nine per cent more than expected given its student
mix (see columns 128 to 131). Again the labour market conditions facing graduates will affect
their starting salaries but this effect has not been controlled for in the analysis.
                                                  28

An additional significant educational outcome for graduates is to proceed to further full-time study.
The methodology used for deriving this indicator is very similar to that used for the full-time
employment indicator. In this instance we focus on Australian Bachelor Pass degree graduates
proceeding to further full-time study. To derive the expected proportion of graduates in full-time
study we correct for the influence of gender, age, indigenous and NESB status, type of enrolment
and broad field of study.

The crude score of the proportion of graduates in full-time study varies considerably from a high of
52 per cent to a low of five per cent. There is also considerable variation in the expected scores for
this indicator. This implies the different student mix in each institution does have considerable
impact on the likelihood of proceeding to full-time study. The performance scores show that the
proportion of graduates in full-time study at a better performing institution such as Curtin
University of Technology is 36 per cent higher than expected given its student mix (see columns
124 to 127).

Summing-up

The indicators developed and presented in this report provide a measure of the characteristics and
performance of institutions. They are intrinsically partial or limited in that they cannot capture the
full diversity of institutions nor reveal all of the factors affecting institutional performance. The
methodology developed and employed in this report, however, does go some way to acknowledging
the unique character and nature of each institution through the attempt to control for many factors in
developing the performance measures.

Indicators are always in a state of refinement and change as new and better data sources become
available and the importance of issues vary. In this regard the future development of indicators,
particularly those related to financial matters, would be better informed by the introduction of
consistent accounting conventions for higher education institutions.
                                                 29
Bibliography

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996, "Projections of Population of Australia, 1995-2051",
Catalogue No. 3222.0.

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1997, "Estimated Resident Population By Sex and Age", Catalogue
No. 3201.0.

Anderson D, Arthur R. And Stokes T., 1997, "Qualifications of Australian Academics : Sources and
Levels 1978 - 1996", Evaluations and Investigations Program 97/11, Department of Employment,
Education, Training and Youth Affairs, unpublished tables for the year 1996.

Department of Employment Education and Training (DEET), 1995, "Australia's Workforce 2005:
Jobs in the Future", AGPS

Guthrie and Johnson, 1997,"Study of Non-Response to the 1996 Graduate Destination Survey",
Evaluations and Investigations Program 97/10, DEETYA.

Higher Education Council, 1992, "Higher Education Council: Achieving Quality", AGPS
                                                          1

                                      1               2              3             4             5
                                           Students                        Type of enrolment
                                                                      (share of total students %)
                                    Number       EFTSU           Full-time     Part-time      External
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                   97              96               99           1             0
Avondale College                        703             578               73          27             0
Charles Sturt University              18483           11456               30           6            64
Macquarie University                  17370           13014               54          38             8
NIDA                                    150             150              100           0             0
Southern Cross University              7046            5011               52          13            35
University of New England             13815            8175               25           6            69
University of Newcastle               17047           13240               62          36             2
University of New South Wales         26534           22010               68          28             4
University of Sydney                  29600           25382               73          24             3
University of Technology Sydney       20706           15521               53          47             0
University of Western Sydney          22804           18133               63          35             2
University of Wollongong              11641            9109               60          37             3

Victoria
Deakin University                     24856           17091               44          21            35
La Trobe University                   20429           16376               64          36             0
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College           98              80              100           0             0
Monash University                     38998           29938               58          25            17
RMIT                                  25669           19738               59          39             2
Swinburne Uni of Technology            8919            7177               60          40             0
University of Ballarat                 4160            3547               74          26             0
University of Melbourne               29903           24900               69          29             2
Victoria University of Technology     14494           10933               57          43             0

Queensland
Central Queensland University          8357            5447               36          11            53
Griffith University                   18135           14747               67          29             4
James Cook University of Nth Qld       7859            6725               69          22             9
Queensland University of Tech         27097           20713               59          34             7
University of Queensland              24891           20931               69          26             5
University of Southern Queensland     13692            8575               27           5            68

Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology       20104           15576               61          33             6
Edith Cowan University                17546           12006               51          32            17
Murdoch University                     8128            6322               58          25            17
University of Western Australia       12516           11189               80          20             0

South Australia
Flinders University                   10919            8696               60          32             8
University of Adelaide                13127           11535               73          23             4
University of South Australia         22185           16725               54          30            15

Tasmania
Australian Maritime College             502                391            58          18            24
University of Tasmania                11892               9992            70          25             4

Northern Territory
Batchelor College                          692             497            47          53             0
Northern Territory University             4132            2895            50          39            11

ACT
ADFA                                   1385               1194            76          24                 0
ANU                                   10150               8716            73          27                 0
University of Canberra                 8477               6534            57          43                 0

Multi-State
Australian Catholic University            8868            6690            58          38                 4

Grand Total                          604176           467748              59          29            12
                                                          2

                                        6             7               8            9
                                    Postgraduate students as a share of total students %

                                      Post          Post          Other post   Total post
                                    graduate      graduate        graduate     graduate
                                    research       course          students     students
                                    students        work
                                                  students
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                       0             0               0            0
Avondale College                             0             0               7            7
Charles Sturt University                     1             7              10           19
Macquarie University                         5            15               5           26
NIDA                                         0             6               7            7
Southern Cross University                    2             0               8           16
University of New England                    6             9              16           31
University of Newcastle                      4             2               4           10
University of New South Wales                8            16               5           29
University of Sydney                        11             9               5           25
University of Technology Sydney              3            11              12           26
University of Western Sydney                 3             9               5           16
University of Wollongong                     7            12               8           27
Victoria
Deakin University                            2                5           14           22
La Trobe University                          6                3           10           19
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College               0                0            0            0
Monash University                            7                6            9           22
RMIT                                         5                9            8           22
Swinburne Uni of Technology                  3                4           13           21
University of Ballarat                       1                3           10           14
University of Melbourne                      9                6           12           27
Victoria University of Technology            3                4           11           19
Queensland
Central Queensland University                2                8            8           18
Griffith University                          4                6            4           13
James Cook University of Nth Qld             8                4            4           16
Queensland University of Tech                3                6           10           19
University of Queensland                    11                6            4           21
University of Southern Queensland            1                4            7           12
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology              4                4           12           20
Edith Cowan University                       3                2            9           14
Murdoch University                           7                4            7           18
University of Western Australia             10                5            3           19
South Australia
Flinders University                          5                7            4           16
University of Adelaide                      10                5            6           21
University of South Australia                3                5           10           18
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College                  1                3           25           28
University of Tasmania                       6                4            5           14
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                            0                0            1            1
Northern Territory University                4                6            8           17
ACT
ADFA                                        11            13               4           27
ANU                                         11             4               7           22
University of Canberra                       3             6              11           20
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University               1                8           15           24
Grand Total                                  5                7            8           21
                                           3

                                               10                                  11
                                    Oversseas and non-overseas fee-paying postgraduate students as
                                                     a share of total students %
                                       Overseas students                Fee-paying non-overseas
                                                                         post graduate students
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                         0                                    0
Avondale College                               5                                    0
Charles Sturt University                       5                                    3
Macquarie University                           7                                   10
NIDA                                           2                                    0
Southern Cross University                      1                                    8
University of New England                      3                                    8
University of Newcastle                        4                                    0
University of New South Wales                  13                                   7
University of Sydney                           6                                    4
University of Technology Sydney                4                                   11
University of Western Sydney                   7                                    1
University of Wollongong                       13                                   3
Victoria
Deakin University                              4                                    6
La Trobe University                            3                                    1
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                 0                                    0
Monash University                              13                                   6
RMIT                                           17                                   5
Swinburne Uni of Technology                    10                                  10
University of Ballarat                         3                                    4
University of Melbourne                        6                                   6
Victoria University of Technology              12                                  0
Queensland
Central Queensland University                  7                                   2
Griffith University                            6                                   2
James Cook University of Nth Qld               5                                   0
Queensland University of Tech                  5                                   2
University of Queensland                       5                                   3
University of Southern Queensland              15                                  4
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                16                                  0
Edith Cowan University                         6                                   1
Murdoch University                             11                                  0
University of Western Australia                10                                  2
South Australia
Flinders University                            5                                   1
University of Adelaide                         8                                   3
University of South Australia                  5                                   2
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College                    6                                   2
University of Tasmania                         8                                   1
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                              0                                   0
Northern Territory University                  3                                   4
ACT
ADFA                                           4                                   0
ANU                                            9                                   4
University of Canberra                         8                                   2
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                 2                                   3
Grand Total                                    8                                   4
                                                         4

                                       12           13            14           15            16           17
                                     Basis of admission of non-overseas Bachelor Pass level commencing students
                                                                         (%)
                                    Completed   Incomplete      TAFE       Secondary      Mature        Other
                                     higher       higher      education    education       age
                                    education    education
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                  0            0             0            0             0          100
Avondale College                       13            8             0           68             7           5
Charles Sturt University               13           10            16           27            10          24
Macquarie University                   14           17             5           56             8           1
NIDA                                    0            0             0            0             0          100
Southern Cross University               8            3             4           42            29          14
University of New England               8           13             5           20            20          34
University of Newcastle                 6           19             9           48            11           7
University of New South Wales           7           13             2           63             0          15
University of Sydney                    6           15             1           67             1          10
University of Technology Sydney         9           12            11           58             0          10
University of Western Sydney            2            2             7           43            12          34
University of Wollongong                5           15             8           55             8           8
Victoria
Deakin University                       7            5             4           73             6            6
La Trobe University                    10           15             3           64             2            6
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College         na           na            na           na            na           na
Monash University                       6           13             8           65             4            4
RMIT                                    6            9            10           63             5            7
Swinburne Uni of Technology             6           13            27           48             0            5
University of Ballarat                  1            9             3           64            12           10
University of Melbourne                 5            7             1           74             0           13
Victoria University of Technology       6            8            12           62             7            6
Queensland
Central Queensland University          20            7             6           47            1            19
Griffith University                     5           18             9           44            3            21
James Cook University of Nth Qld        6           25             3           58            0             7
Queensland University of Tech          12           16            11           46            0            15
University of Queensland                7           24             3           65            0             0
University of Southern Queensland      11           11             5           42            5            27
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology         6           17            11           55             8            3
Edith Cowan University                 15           19            17           40             6            2
Murdoch University                     12           36             6           33            10            3
University of Western Australia         5           18             1           74             1            2
South Australia
Flinders University                     4           11            2            58            14           11
University of Adelaide                  2            4            0            62             4           28
University of South Australia           5           26            6            50             8            4
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College             4           11            9            68            3             6
University of Tasmania                  5           18            6            45            9            17
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                      na           na            na           na            na           na
Northern Territory University          19           16            10           32            4            18
ACT
ADFA                                    0            8             0           92            0             0
ANU                                     5            9             2           70            2            12
University of Canberra                  6           26            12           43            5             7
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University         22            4            1            55            8            10
Grand Total                             8           14            7            54            6            12
                                                 5

                                       18                19                   20               21
                                                Median age of students by type of enrolment

                                    Full-time         Part-time            External           Total
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                 27                41                   na               27
Avondale College                       20                26                   na               21
Charles Sturt University               20                25                   33               28
Macquarie University                   20                31                   32               24
NIDA                                   22                na                   na               23
Southern Cross University              20                30                   35               26
University of New England              21                25                   36               32
University of Newcastle                21                28                   36               22
University of New South Wales          20                29                   33               22
University of Sydney                   21                30                   35               22
University of Technology Sydney        21                30                   na               24
University of Western Sydney           20                27                   28               22
University of Wollongong               21                27                   40               22
Victoria
Deakin University                      20                27                   35               24
La Trobe University                    20                29                   na               22
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College         22                na                   na               22
Monash University                      20                29                   32               23
RMIT                                   20                29                   33               23
Swinburne Uni of Technology            21                29                   na               22
University of Ballarat                 20                31                   na               21
University of Melbourne                20                31                   28               22
Victoria University of Technology      20                28                   na               22
Queensland
Central Queensland University          20                26                   32               26
Griffith University                    20                29                   34               22
James Cook University of Nth Qld       20                31                   36               22
Queensland University of Tech          20                28                   31               22
University of Queensland               20                28                   27               21
University of Southern Queensland      20                24                   30               26
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology        21                29                   34               23
Edith Cowan University                 21                31                   34               26
Murdoch University                     21                30                   33               24
University of Western Australia        20                29                   na               21
South Australia
Flinders University                    21                31                   36               23
University of Adelaide                 20                29                   32               21
University of South Australia          20                30                   36               23
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College            21                23                   34               22
University of Tasmania                 21                32                   32               22
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                      28                31                   23               30
Northern Territory University          22                33                   37               27
ACT
ADFA                                   19                34                   na               20
ANU                                    21                28                   na               22
University of Canberra                 21                29                   na               23
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University         20                32                   36               23
                                       20                29                   33               23
Grand Total
                                                      6

                                       22                 23             24               25              26
                                                 Equity groups as a share of non-overseas students %
                                    Indigenous     Non-English         Rural           Isolated        Low socio-
                                                    speaking                                           economic
                                                   backgound                                             status
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                 3.1                 5              2               0                0
Avondale College                       1.4                 3             18               3               15
Charles Sturt University               2.0                 2             48               2               15
Macquarie University                   1.2                11              4               0                5
NIDA                                   2.7                 1             10               1               10
Southern Cross University              1.9                 1             61               1               18
University of New England              1.1                 2             43               3               18
University of Newcastle                1.3                 2             18               0               26
University of New South Wales          0.4                20              7               0                6
University of Sydney                   0.6                12              8               1                7
University of Technology Sydney        1.1                14              4               0                6
University of Western Sydney           1.4                11              5               0               10
University of Wollongong               0.8                 5             15               0               11
Victoria
Deakin University                      0.8                 3             21                1              11
La Trobe University                    0.1                 5             29                0              12
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College         0.0                 0             61               21              42
Monash University                      0.6                10             14                1               7
RMIT                                   0.1                 8             10                0              12
Swinburne Uni of Technology            0.2                 8              7                0               8
University of Ballarat                 0.3                 1             69                1              14
University of Melbourne                0.3                 6             14                0               8
Victoria University of Technology      0.7                15              6                0              25
Queensland
Central Queensland University          2.4                2              66               7               34
Griffith University                    1.1                4              14               1               22
James Cook University of Nth Qld       4.9                2              41               9               23
Queensland University of Tech          0.9                4              15               2               19
University of Queensland               0.7                6              20               2               19
University of Southern Queensland      1.3                2              54               6               32
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology        2.3                6              6                7               21
Edith Cowan University                 2.0                4              10               6               18
Murdoch University                     0.8                4              8                7               23
University of Western Australia        1.1                8              5                4               12
South Australia
Flinders University                    0.4                3              10               2               14
University of Adelaide                 1.2                6              10               2               17
University of South Australia          2.2                5              15               4               23
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College            0.2                5              36               3               22
University of Tasmania                 1.5                2              42               1               28
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                     100.0               0              1                60              45
Northern Territory University          5.1                5              2                14               3
ACT
ADFA                                   0.2                4              30               2               14
ANU                                    1.0                4              15               0                5
University of Canberra                 1.1                6              14               0                4
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University         1.6                2              17               1               11
                                       1.2                7
Grand Total                                                              18               2               14
                                                        7


                                         27                 28            29               30               31
                                    Female students as a share of non-overseas students by broad level of course (%)
                                    Post graduate   Post graduate     Other Post        Bachelor       Other under
                                      research         course          graduate                         graduate
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                    0                  0             0               42                0
Avondale College                          0                  0            82               55               54
Charles Sturt University                 42                 52            53               58               27
Macquarie University                     52                 46            47               59               56
NIDA                                      0                  0            64               47               67
Southern Cross University                43                 33            39               57               67
University of New England                46                 46            59               60               73
University of Newcastle                  46                 58            62               54               40
University of New South Wales            38                 46            42               50               52
University of Sydney                     48                 54            60               58               40
University of Technology Sydney          36                 44            59               45               71
University of Western Sydney             44                 52            52               57               50
University of Wollongong                 38                 53            40               50               26
Victoria
Deakin University                        50                 53            64               62               23
La Trobe University                      50                 76            72               64               75
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College            0                  0             0                0                5
Monash University                        47                 53            53               53               49
RMIT                                     36                 41            59               52               63
Swinburne Uni of Technology              25                 30            41               42                0
University of Ballarat                   26                 48            49               54               71
University of Melbourne                  47                 47            66               56               45
Victoria University of Technology        37                 33            55               56               40
Queensland
Central Queensland University            35                 39            33               56               30
Griffith University                      47                 50            65               57               37
James Cook University of Nth Qld         46                 57            63               62               74
Queensland University of Tech            43                 50            67               54               34
University of Queensland                 41                 48            57               53               43
University of Southern Queensland        46                 51            51               53                7
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology          38                 45            57               52               57
Edith Cowan University                   57                 55            66               64               75
Murdoch University                       53                 47            57               58                0
University of Western Australia          46                 50            54               49                0
South Australia
Flinders University                      47                 75            64               63               48
University of Adelaide                   37                 42            52               48               40
University of South Australia            37                 60            65               57               52
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College              25                  7             5               11               11
University of Tasmania                   40                 54            56               55               39
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                         0                  0            70                0               73
Northern Territory University            45                 58            67               62               68
ACT
ADFA                                     20                 13            16               23                0
ANU                                      40                 50            55               54               50
University of Canberra                   55                 43            55               56               62
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University           56                 53            73               75               75
Grand Total                              44                 49            58               56               46
                                                         8

                                              32                          33                           34
                                    Female students as a share of non-overseas student s by broad level of course (%)
                                      Enabling courses           Non-award courses                    Total

New South Wales
AFTVRS                                        49                          27                           43
Avondale College                              0                           75                           57
Charles Sturt University                      52                          55                           55
Macquarie University                         100                          52                           56
NIDA                                          0                           0                            50
Southern Cross University                     43                          73                           55
University of New England                     0                           59                           58
University of Newcastle                       67                          69                           55
University of New South Wales                 0                           41                           48
University of Sydney                          50                          37                           56
University of Technology Sydney               48                          48                           47
University of Western Sydney                  58                          53                           56
University of Wollongong                      0                           48                           49
Victoria
Deakin University                             0                           42                           61
La Trobe University                           71                          60                           64
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                0                           0                            5
Monash University                             48                          54                           53
RMIT                                          0                           0                            51
Swinburne Uni of Technology                   68                          0                            41
University of Ballarat                        0                           56                           54
University of Melbourne                       0                           0                            55
Victoria University of Technology             0                           68                           54
Queensland
Central Queensland University                 59                          44                           50
Griffith University                           0                           52                           56
James Cook University of Nth Qld              44                          56                           61
Queensland University of Tech                100                          47                           55
University of Queensland                      0                           49                           51
University of Southern Queensland             62                          36                           50

Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology               47                          0                            52
Edith Cowan University                        70                          80                           64
Murdoch University                            0                           38                           57
University of Western Australia               62                          0                            49
South Australia
Flinders University                           0                           53                           63
University of Adelaide                        36                          62                           47
University of South Australia                 47                          46                           57
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College                   0                           20                           10
University of Tasmania                        67                          62                           54
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                             73                          0                            73
Northern Territory University                 53                          50                           62
ACT
ADFA                                          0                           20                           21
ANU                                           42                          48                           52
University of Canberra                        33                          48                           55
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                0                           92                           73
                                              63                          50                           55
Grand Total
                                                  9


                                             35                          36                     37
                                    Courses offered by number of broad fields of study   Number of campuses
                                       Undergraduate                Postgraduate
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                        1                           0                      1
Avondale College                              5                           1                      1
Charles Sturt University                      8                           7                      3
Macquarie University                          5                           7                      1
NIDA                                          1                           1                      1
Southern Cross University                     6                           6                      2
University of New England                     9                           9                      1
University of Newcastle                       8                           8                      2
University of New South Wales                 9                           9                      3
University of Sydney                         10                          10                      9
University of Technology Sydney               9                           8                      3
University of Western Sydney                  9                           8                      7
University of Wollongong                      7                           7                      2
Victoria
Deakin University                             8                           8                      5
La Trobe University                           8                           8                      7
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                1                           0                      1
Monash University                             7                           7                      6
RMIT                                          8                           7                      3
Swinburne Uni of Technology                   4                           5                      4
University of Ballarat                        6                           6                      1
University of Melbourne                      10                          10                     10
Victoria University of Technology             6                           7                      6
Queensland
Central Queensland University                 7                           7                      6
Griffith University                           8                           7                      5
James Cook University of Nth Qld              8                          10                      3
Queensland University of Tech                 8                           8                      3
University of Queensland                     10                          10                      2
University of Southern Queensland             6                           7                      2
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology               8                           9
Edith Cowan University                        7                           6                      6
Murdoch University                            7                           7                      5
University of Western Australia               9                           9                      1
South Australia
Flinders University                           7                           7                      1
University of Adelaide                        9                          10                      4
University of South Australia                 9                           8                      6
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College                   3                           3                      1
University of Tasmania                        9                           9                      2
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                             4                           1                      1
Northern Territory University                 7                           9                      4
ACT
ADFA                                          3                           4                      1
ANU                                           6                           7                      1
University of Canberra                        8                           8                      1
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                5                           5                      8
Grand Total                                  10                          10                     137
                                                                            10
                                                          38                     39                     40
                                                                         Number of staff
                                                      Full-time             Fractional                Total
                                                                             full-time
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                     na                    na                     na
Avondale College                                          123                    22                    145
Charles Sturt University                                 1254                   185                   1439
Macquarie University                                     1457                   303                   1760
NIDA                                                       na                    na                     na
Southern Cross University                                 478                    48                    526
University of New England                                1339                   219                   1558
University of Newcastle                                  1762                   353                   2115
University of New South Wales                            3764                   806                   4570
University of Sydney                                     4367                   848                   5215
University of Technology Sydney                          1645                   274                   1919
University of Western Sydney                             1826                   310                   2136
University of Wollongong                                 1170                   262                   1432
Victoria
Deakin University                                        1789                  458                    2247
La Trobe University                                      2016                  581                    2597
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                             na                   na                      na
Monash University                                        4154                  1226                   5380
RMIT                                                     2071                  288                    2359
Swinburne Uni of Technology                               870                  247                    1117
University of Ballarat                                    404                   90                     494
University of Melbourne                                  4228                  919                    5147
Victoria University of Technology                        1065                  194                    1259
Queensland
Central Queensland University                             770                   57                     827
Griffith University                                      1909                  188                    2097
James Cook University of Nth Qld                         1154                  190                    1344
Queensland University of Tech                            2473                  259                    2732
University of Queensland                                 4015                  1090                   5105
University of Southern Queensland                         918                   8                      926
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                          1848                   339                   2187
Edith Cowan University                                   1364                   333                   1697
Murdoch University                                        925                   211                   1136
University of Western Australia                          2103                   456                   2559
South Australia
Flinders University                                      1230                   322                   1552
University of Adelaide                                   1886                   387                   2273
University of South Australia                            1874                   348                   2222
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegea                              160                    5                     165
University of Tasmania                                   1389                   273                   1662
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                        124                     4                     128
Northern Territory University                            500                     27                    527
ACT
ADFA                                                      431                    63                    494
ANU                                                      3294                   519                   3813
University of Canberra                                    729                    86                    815
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                           738                    118                    856
Grand Total                                             65616                 12916                   78532
(a) Staff data for the Australian Maritime College include staff relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                                              11

                                                       41                42                43                44               45
                                                  Academic and non-academic staff as a share of all staff (FTE) (%)
                                                   Academic         Academic          Academic             All              Non-
                                                   full-time        fractional         casual           academic          academic
                                                                     full-time
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                 na                na                na                na               na
Avondale College                                       57                1                  1                59               41
Charles Sturt University                               32                1                  5                38               62
Macquarie University                                   38                2                  3                44               56
NIDA                                                   na                na                na                na               na
Southern Cross University                              35                1                 10                47               53
University of New England                              32                2                  1                34               66
University of Newcastle                                36                1                  7                44               56
University of New South Wales                          33                2                  4                39               61
University of Sydney                                   36                3                  7                46               54
University of Technology Sydney                        31                1                 18                50               50
University of Western Sydney                           33                2                 10                46               54
University of Wollongong                               34                2                  9                44               56
Victoria
Deakin University                                      32                3                 10                45               55
La Trobe University                                    39                6                  5                50               50
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                         na                na                na                na               na
Monash University                                      36                4                  6                47               53
RMIT                                                   37                2                 10                49               51
Swinburne Uni of Technology                            36                2                  6                44               56
University of Ballarat                                 40                3                  9                52               48
University of Melbourne                                36                5                  6                47               53
Victoria University of Technology                      38                2                 16                56               44
Queensland
Central Queensland University                          32                 2                 5                39               61
Griffith University                                    33                 1                 8                42               58
James Cook University of Nth Qld                       38                 3                 5                46               54
Queensland University of Tech                          30                 1                 9                40               60
University of Queensland                               31                 4                 6                41               59
University of Southern Queensland                      32                 0                 9                41               59
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                        35                 3                 9                48               52
Edith Cowan University                                 33                 2                14                48               52
Murdoch University                                     30                 4                 5                40               60
University of Western Australia                        31                 3                 4                38               62
South Australia
Flinders University                                    37                 5                 4                46               54
University of Adelaide                                 33                 2                 6                41               59
University of South Australia                          40                 4                 7                51               49
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegea                           43                 2                 1                46               54
University of Tasmania                                 39                 3                 6                49               51
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                      76                 1                 0                77               23
Northern Territory University                          32                 1                 8                42               58
ACT
ADFA                                                   40                 1                 2                42               58
ANU                                                    32                 1                 2                36               64
University of Canberra                                 35                 1                 7                43               57
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                         44                 2                12                58               42
Grand Total                                            35                 3                 7                44               56
(a) Staff data for the Australian Maritime College include staff relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                                              12

                                                       46                47                48                49
                                                  Academic staff by current duties terms as a share of
                                                             all academic staff (FTE) (%)
                                                    Tenure            Limited           Other             Casual
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                 na                na                na                na
Avondale College                                        0                38                59                 2
Charles Sturt University                               61                26                 0                12
Macquarie University                                   62                30                 0                 8
NIDA                                                   na                na                na                na
Southern Cross University                              52                26                 0                22
University of New England                              70                27                 0                 2
University of Newcastle                                60                25                 0                15
University of New South Wales                          61                29                 0                10
University of Sydney                                   51                33                 0                16
University of Technology Sydney                        45                20                 0                35
University of Western Sydney                           53                26                 0                22
University of Wollongong                               54                25                 0                20
Victoria
Deakin University                                      49                30                0                 22
La Trobe University                                    58                31                0                 11
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                         na                na                na                na
Monash University                                      43                43                0                 13
RMIT                                                   54                23                4                 20
Swinburne Uni of Technology                            59                27                0                 14
University of Ballarat                                 51                32                0                 17
University of Melbourne                                35                51                0                 14
Victoria University of Technology                      51                21                0                 28
Queensland
Central Queensland University                          51                36                 0                14
Griffith University                                    54                28                 0                19
James Cook University of Nth Qld                       55                34                 0                11
Queensland University of Tech                          53                25                 0                23
University of Queensland                               42                22                22                15
University of Southern Queensland                      54                21                 2                22
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                        49                31                 0                19
Edith Cowan University                                 36                35                 0                28
Murdoch University                                     57                29                 0                14
University of Western Australia                        46                43                 0                11
South Australia
Flinders University                                    62                29                 0                 9
University of Adelaide                                 54                31                 0                14
University of South Australia                          58                26                 2                13
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegea                           44                53                 0                 2
University of Tasmania                                 49                38                 0                13
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                      37                63                 0                 0
Northern Territory University                          58                22                 0                20
ACT
ADFA                                                   74                22                 0                 4
ANU                                                    39                55                 0                 6
University of Canberra                                 55                29                 0                16
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                         70                10                 0                20
Grand Total                                            51                32                 2                16
(a) Staff data for the Australian Maritime College include staff relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                                              13

                                                       50                51                 52                53
                                                    Staff by function as a share of all staff (FTE) (%)
                                                   Teaching          Research          Teaching             Other
                                                     only              only          and research
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                 na                na                 na                na
Avondale College                                       58                 0                 0                 42
Charles Sturt University                               13                 0                 24                63
Macquarie University                                    3                10                 35                53
NIDA                                                   na                na                 na                na
Southern Cross University                              10                 1                 35                54
University of New England                               0                 2                 32                66
University of Newcastle                                 7                 9                 34                50
University of New South Wales                           4                 8                 27                61
University of Sydney                                    7                16                 34                43
University of Technology Sydney                        18                 2                 32                48
University of Western Sydney                           11                 2                 32                55
University of Wollongong                                9                 5                 32                55
Victoria
Deakin University                                      10                 2                 35                53
La Trobe University                                     8                 6                 35                50
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                         na                na                 na                na
Monash University                                      10                11                 25                54
RMIT                                                   10                 0                 39                52
Swinburne Uni of Technology                             7                 0                 35                57
University of Ballarat                                 20                 0                 29                51
University of Melbourne                                10                16                 25                49
Victoria University of Technology                      16                 1                 38                44
Queensland
Central Queensland University                           8                 4                 28                60
Griffith University                                     8                 5                 33                54
James Cook University of Nth Qld                        5                13                 33                49
Queensland University of Tech                           9                 7                 30                55
University of Queensland                                6                17                 26                52
University of Southern Queensland                       7                 0                 31                62
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                        10                 4                 35                51
Edith Cowan University                                 12                 0                 30                58
Murdoch University                                      9                11                 27                53
University of Western Australia                         4                18                 26                52
South Australia
Flinders University                                     4                13                 35                48
University of Adelaide                                  6                14                 29                51
University of South Australia                           7                 4                 39                50
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegea                           39                 4                 0                 57
University of Tasmania                                  2                 7                 37                54
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                      65                 2                 0                 33
Northern Territory University                          15                 1                 23                61
ACT
ADFA                                                    1                 3                 38                58
ANU                                                     2                47                 14                38
University of Canberra                                 11                 0                 31                58
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                         53                 1                 2                 44
                                                        9                10                 30                52
Grand Total
(a) Staff data for the Australian Maritime College include staff relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                                              14

                                                       54                55                 56                  57
                                                        Academic staff by classification as a share of all
                                                                  academic staff (FTE) (%)
                                                     Below           Lecturer            Senior           Above senior
                                                    lecturer                            lecturer            lecturer
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                 na                na                 na                  na
Avondale College                                        9                50                 38                   2
Charles Sturt University                               23                48                 20                   9
Macquarie University                                   22                32                 26                  20
NIDA                                                   na                na                 na                  na
Southern Cross University                              30                40                 16                  14
University of New England                              18                32                 30                  21
University of Newcastle                                31                33                 21                  15
University of New South Wales                          25                28                 25                  23
University of Sydney                                   25                32                 22                  21
University of Technology Sydney                        21                47                 19                  12
University of Western Sydney                           26                49                 15                  10
University of Wollongong                               18                41                 21                  20
Victoria
Deakin University                                      25                45                 20                  11
La Trobe University                                    27                34                 24                  15
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                         na                na                 na                  na
Monash University                                      34                28                 22                  17
RMIT                                                   18                42                 25                  15
Swinburne Uni of Technology                            14                38                 29                  19
University of Ballarat                                 18                52                 19                  10
University of Melbourne                                30                27                 20                  22
Victoria University of Technology                      19                45                 26                  10
Queensland
Central Queensland University                          32                36                 23                   8
Griffith University                                    31                39                 17                  12
James Cook University of Nth Qld                       32                35                 18                  15
Queensland University of Tech                          27                45                 17                  11
University of Queensland                               37                25                 18                  20
University of Southern Queensland                      35                34                 18                  13
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                        14                47                 25                  13
Edith Cowan University                                 30                51                 12                   7
Murdoch University                                     32                29                 19                  20
University of Western Australia                        30                25                 22                  23
South Australia
Flinders University                                    27                30                 23                  20
University of Adelaide                                 30                22                 30                  18
University of South Australia                          24                39                 25                  11
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegea                           40                34                 16                  10
University of Tasmania                                 27                35                 23                  15
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                      23                51                 20                   7
Northern Territory University                          15                46                 24                  15
ACT
ADFA                                                   20                22                 42                  16
ANU                                                    23                29                 22                  26
University of Canberra                                 26                34                 26                  14
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                         17                51                 22                  10
                                                       26                35                 22                  16
Grand Total
(a) Staff data for the Australian Maritime College include staff relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                                              15

                                                       58                59                60                 61                62
                                                    Female academic staff as a share of all academic staff (FTE) by
                                                                       classification level (%)
                                                     Below           Lecturer           Senior         Above senior           Total
                                                    lecturer                           lecturer          lecturer
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                 na                na                na                 na                na
Avondale College                                       32                38                11                 0                 26
Charles Sturt University                               56                30                20                 9                 32
Macquarie University                                   59                48                24                 19                38
NIDA                                                   na                na                na                 na                na
Southern Cross University                              55                30                30                 19                36
University of New England                              50                31                18                 5                 25
University of Newcastle                                45                38                24                 9                 33
University of New South Wales                          46                37                17                 10                28
University of Sydney                                   49                49                29                 16                38
University of Technology Sydney                        55                35                29                 17                36
University of Western Sydney                           53                44                32                 23                43
University of Wollongong                               45                45                25                 12                34
Victoria
Deakin University                                      62                43                29                 26                43
La Trobe University                                    60                46                35                 17                43
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                         na                na                na                 na                na
Monash University                                      52                42                19                 9                 35
RMIT                                                   44                39                24                 17                33
Swinburne Uni of Technology                            39                34                17                 11                26
University of Ballarat                                 60                32                17                 15                33
University of Melbourne                                51                39                22                 16                35
Victoria University of Technology                      47                40                33                 13                37
Queensland
Central Queensland University                          57                37                15                 11                36
Griffith University                                    57                37                24                 15                38
James Cook University of Nth Qld                       50                35                18                 12                33
Queensland University of Tech                          59                39                24                 13                39
University of Queensland                               47                36                17                 10                31
University of Southern Queensland                      58                33                18                 3                 35
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                        56                42                30                 11                37
Edith Cowan University                                 58                43                28                 16                44
Murdoch University                                     52                40                22                 10                34
University of Western Australia                        44                32                 8                 9                 25
South Australia
Flinders University                                    54                44                29                 9                 36
University of Adelaide                                 45                36                17                 8                 28
University of South Australia                          56                42                33                 19                41
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegea                            3                15                17                  0                 9
University of Tasmania                                 48                36                14                  5                30
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                      59                55                47                 43                54
Northern Territory University                          67                42                25                 8                 37
ACT
ADFA                                                   25                27                 8                 0                 15
ANU                                                    42                29                15                 7                 23
University of Canberra                                 60                55                28                 24                45
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                         76                61                48                 36                59
                                                       52                40                23                 13                35
Grand Total
(a) Staff data for the Australian Maritime College include staff relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                                            16

                                                         63                   64                  65
                                                   Academic staff by age as a share of FT and
                                                        FFT academic staff (FTE) (%)
                                                    <30 years           30-49 years          50+ years
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                   na                   na                  na
Avondale College                                         5                    60                  35
Charles Sturt University                                 4                    63                  34
Macquarie University                                     4                    58                  38
NIDA                                                     na                   na                  na
Southern Cross University                                2                    76                  22
University of New England                                4                    62                  35
University of Newcastle                                  5                    67                  28
University of New South Wales                            6                    63                  31
University of Sydney                                     5                    63                  33
University of Technology Sydney                          3                    62                  35
University of Western Sydney                             4                    73                  23
University of Wollongong                                 3                    69                  28
Victoria
Deakin University                                         4                   66                  31
La Trobe University                                       6                   62                  33
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                           na                   na                  na
Monash University                                        10                   61                  30
RMIT                                                      3                   64                  32
Swinburne Uni of Technology                               2                   62                  36
University of Ballarat                                    2                   63                  35
University of Melbourne                                  11                   62                  27
Victoria University of Technology                         2                   74                  24
Queensland
Central Queensland University                             7                   68                  25
Griffith University                                       5                   69                  26
James Cook University of Nth Qld                          8                   64                  27
Queensland University of Tech                             4                   62                  33
University of Queensland                                 11                   61                  28
University of Southern Queensland                         6                   63                  31
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                           4                   63                  32
Edith Cowan University                                    3                   60                  38
Murdoch University                                       na                   na                  na
University of Western Australia                          10                   59                  31
South Australia
Flinders University                                       7                   58                  35
University of Adelaide                                    6                   59                  35
University of South Australia                             4                   60                  37
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegea                             11                   60                  29
University of Tasmania                                    7                   61                  32
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                         3                   75                  22
Northern Territory University                             2                   62                  36
ACT
ADFA                                                      7                   62                  31
ANU                                                       7                   63                  30
University of Canberra                                    3                   61                  36
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                            1                   57                  43
                                                          6                   63                  31
Grand Total
(a) Staff data for the Australian Maritime College include staff relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                        17
                                        66            67            68            69
                                    Academic staff by highest qualification as a share of
                                                    academic staff (%)
                                    Doctorate      Masters       Bachelor       Other
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                  na            na            na            na
Avondale College                        na            na            na            na
Charles Sturt University                28            43            24            5
Macquarie University                    64            22            13            0
NIDA                                    na            na            na            na
Southern Cross University               29            35            29            7
University of New England               63            23            13            1
University of Newcastle                 48            24            22            6
University of New South Wales           61            16            20            2
University of Sydney                    58            24            14            4
University of Technology Sydney         39            40            19            2
University of Western Sydney            31            38            26            4
University of Wollongong                64            22            12            2
Victoria
Deakin University                       38            36            22            4
La Trobe University                     57            24            17            2
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College          na            na            na            na
Monash University                       53            22            22            3
RMIT                                    30            33            26            11
Swinburne Uni of Technology             30            30            31            9
University of Ballarat                  22            41            33            4
University of Melbourne                 61            20            17            2
Victoria University of Technology       25            35            35            5
Queensland
Central Queensland University           33            35            28             4
Griffith University                     50            29            16             5
James Cook University of Nth Qld        59            18            20             3
Queensland University of Tech           37            38            22             3
University of Queensland                73            12            13             1
University of Southern Queensland       30            38            28             5
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology         39            28            28             5
Edith Cowan University                  30            41            21             8
Murdoch University                      67            17            14             2
University of Western Australia         74            14            11             0
South Australia
Flinders University                     55            20            24             1
University of Adelaide                  66            15            17             2
University of South Australia           22            36            34             7
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College             na            na            na            na
University of Tasmania                  51            21            20            7
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                       na            na            na            na
Northern Territory University           23            21            31            25
ACT
ADFA                                    na            na            na            na
ANU                                     78            8             8             6
University of Canberra                  40            36            22            1
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University          28            51            19             2
                                        50            25            20             4
Grand Total
                                                           18


                                       70             71            72             73              74
                                             Student-staff ratio by academic organisational unit
                                    Humanities       Social     Education       Science      Maths/
                                                    science                                 Computing
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                 na             na            na              na              na
Avondale College                      6.1             na           7.8             3.7              na
Charles Sturt University              26.1           22.1          20.7            18.8            20.2
Macquarie University                  17.4           21.8          21.1            15.6            26.2
NIDA                                   na             na            na              na              na
Southern Cross University             21.9            na           23.8       na
University of New England             18.9           18.2          18.3            11.8            14.9
University of Newcastle               28.2           21.3          19.1            16.0            17.4
University of New South Wales         17.0           23.2          17.4            15.2            18.1
University of Sydney                  14.1           16.4          16.0            13.9            15.1
University of Technology Sydney       14.2           32.0          17.1            13.3            21.4
University of Western Sydney          22.4           25.8          23.0            18.8            28.4
University of Wollongong              15.1           21.7          17.6            18.8            19.5
Victoria
Deakin University                     21.7           21.3          22.9            22.3            20.5
La Trobe University                   16.8           19.3          18.5            15.7            11.9
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College         na             na            na              na              na
Monash University                     17.1           18.3          18.6            14.3            19.4
RMIT                                  27.5           16.6           na             13.5            18.2
Swinburne Uni of Technology           14.6           22.6           na             9.9             20.4
University of Ballarat                 na            18.2          19.9            14.9            19.9
University of Melbourne               17.0           19.7          14.7            18.6            17.2
Victoria University of Technology     13.9           17.1          11.7            18.0            21.3
Queensland
Central Queensland University          na            25.6          22.4            16.1            24.5
Griffith University                   14.6           16.9          18.9            18.8            24.8
James Cook University of Nth Qld      15.0           21.5          17.6            11.6            6.7
Queensland University of Tech         22.9           29.1          20.1            17.3            24.2
University of Queensland              20.2           21.4          15.8            15.6            18.2
University of Southern Queensland     23.5           33.3          22.9            5.9             31.9
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology       18.9           13.9          20.4            26.1            22.5
Edith Cowan University                22.3           23.2          21.8            22.9            21.0
Murdoch University                    19.3           20.1          18.3            17.3            19.3
University of Western Australia       15.6           20.6          13.1            16.4            17.6
South Australia
Flinders University                   18.9           17.2          17.8            15.5            15.0
University of Adelaide                20.8           17.9          17.6            15.3            14.7
University of South Australia         15.5           20.7          13.7            15.4            20.3
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegea           na             na            na              na              na
University of Tasmania                18.3           17.4          59.8            13.0            14.3
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                     7.1             na           6.0              na              na
Northern Territory University         18.7           13.0          16.3            12.8            15.0
ACT
ADFA                                  8.2            8.3            na             4.4             6.8
ANU                                   16.0           24.5           na             19.5            16.9
University of Canberra                24.5            na           16.5            18.0            17.3
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University        16.7           17.1          17.1            14.7            12.5
Grand Total                           18.3           19.8          18.6            15.8            19.3
                                                         19
                                        75              76            77             78                 79
                                              Student-staff ratio by academic organisational unit (%)
                                    Performing     Engineering    Health       Admin., bus,     Built,
                                    arts                          sciences     eco, law         enviornment
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                  na              na            na             na                  na
Avondale College                        na              na           9.4            6.7                  na
Charles Sturt University               14.6             na           21.7           32.1                 na
Macquarie University                    na             11.5          17.6           25.0                 na
NIDA                                    na              na            na             na                  na
Southern Cross University               na              na           23.3           24.8                 na
University of New England              10.9            9.0           22.0           24.0                 na
University of Newcastle                14.2            15.9          11.9           27.3                15.6
University of New South Wales          17.4            15.3          14.2           18.4                16.9
University of Sydney                   13.0            18.0          12.3           18.1                14.9
University of Technology Sydney         na             17.2          21.3           26.4                23.1
University of Western Sydney           17.8            26.1          17.6           27.7                 na
University of Wollongong               13.2            16.3          18.7           23.2                 na
Victoria
Deakin University                      18.5            13.0          20.1           27.0                20.9
La Trobe University                    15.3            10.9          18.7           22.6                 na
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College
Monash University                      16.2            15.6          15.3           25.5                 na
RMIT                                   18.5            18.3          15.7           33.3                18.3
Swinburne Uni of Technology            13.0            15.2          0.0            29.1                 na
University of Ballarat                 14.7            10.8          25.6           19.7                 na
University of Melbourne                17.0            17.4          10.3           24.7                19.4
Victoria University of Technology       0.0            13.3          21.9           22.6                 na
Queensland
Central Queensland University           na             19.0          12.3           33.9                 na
Griffith University                    11.2            12.2          18.9           34.2                 na
James Cook University of Nth Qld       24.9            10.5          16.7           19.1                3.7
Queensland University of Tech          15.9            19.1          19.5           30.2                22.9
University of Queensland               19.1            16.5          9.8            24.8                19.2
University of Southern Queensland      10.4            17.9          19.9           35.6                 na
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology        17.4            14.0          14.6           30.5                13.9
Edith Cowan University                 13.7             na           21.4           28.7                 na
Murdoch University                      na              na            na            21.0                 na
University of Western Australia        17.0            16.2          7.9            23.5                19.2
South Australia
Flinders University                     na             16.1          12.2           19.4                 na
University of Adelaide                 15.2            15.7          12.3           24.1                25.9
University of South Australia          16.0            17.0          14.7           27.4                24.7
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College             na             6.4            na            8.3                  na
University of Tasmania                 16.2            14.4          14.5           28.7                17.0
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                       na              na           6.1             na                 na
Northern Territory University          16.7             7.0          14.6           20.9                na
ACT
ADFA                                   na              5.4            na            6.6                  na
ANU                                    8.3             15.3           na            23.0                 na
University of Canberra                 na               na            na            26.7                17.7
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University         10.7             na           15.2           47.6                 na
                                       15.2            15.6          14.7           25.4                19.3
Grand Total
                                                                            20


                                                                          80                                                      81
                                                                    Student-staff ratio by academic organisational unit (%)
                                                       Agriculture, renewable resources                                         Total
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                                    na                                                      na
Avondale College                                                          na                                                      7.4
Charles Sturt University                                                  na                                                     22.8
Macquarie University                                                      na                                                     20.9
NIDA                                                                      na                                                      na
Southern Cross University                                                 na                                                     23.9
University of New England                                                11.3                                                    17.5
University of Newcastle                                                   na                                                     18.6
University of New South Wales                                             na                                                     17.2
University of Sydney                                                     10.3                                                    14.2
University of Technology Sydney                                           na                                                     20.5
University of Western Sydney                                             14.4                                                    21.9
University of Wollongong                                                  na                                                     18.6
Victoria
Deakin University                                                         na                                                     22.0
La Trobe University                                                      10.7                                                    16.9
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                                            na                                                      na
Monash University                                                         na                                                     18.6
RMIT                                                                      na                                                     19.5
Swinburne Uni of Technology                                               na                                                     19.2
University of Ballarat                                                    na                                                     17.7
University of Melbourne                                                  10.7                                                    16.4
Victoria University of Technology                                         na                                                     18.3
Queensland
Central Queensland University                                             na                                                     22.8
Griffith University                                                      12.1                                                    18.9
James Cook University of Nth Qld                                          na                                                     14.5
Queensland University of Tech                                             na                                                     22.7
University of Queensland                                                 11.9                                                    16.5
University of Southern Queensland                                         na                                                     24.4
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                                          13.6                                                    18.4
Edith Cowan University                                                    na                                                     22.3
Murdoch University                                                        8.9                                                    18.1
University of Western Australia                                          11.8                                                    16.6
South Australia
Flinders University                                                       na                                                     16.0
University of Adelaide                                                   12.3                                                    16.5
University of South Australia                                             na                                                     17.9
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegeb                                              9.8                                                     6.0
University of Tasmania                                                   11.9                                                    16.2
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                                         na                                                      6.1
Northern Territory University                                             na                                                     15.8
ACT
ADFAa                                                                     na                                                      6.5
ANU                                                                      13.0                                                    17.1
University of Canberra                                                    na                                                     20.4
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                                            na                                                     16.4
Grand Total                                                              11.6                                                    18.2
(a) Staff data for the Australian Maritime College include staff relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                      21

                                         82            83            84                 85                  86

                                               Operating revenues items as a share of total income (%)
                                    Commonwealth     HECS          State          Other research         Investment
                                     Government                 Government      grants and contracts       income
                                       grants                     income
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                   na            na            na                 na                  na
Avondale College                         9.7           4.5           0.0                0.0                 7.2
Charles Sturt University                57.4          17.2           0.1                1.4                 1.4
Macquarie University                    53.6          11.4           0.7                1.1                 3.0
NIDA                                     na            na            na                 na                  na
Southern Cross University               69.2          17.8           0.2                0.2                 1.5
University of New England               57.4          12.7           0.6                0.4                 0.6
University of Newcastle                 59.3          12.8           0.5                5.4                 2.4
University of New South Walesa          55.5           7.5           0.7                2.4                 5.0
University of Sydney                    54.0           9.0           1.0                1.8                 8.4
University of Technology Sydney         61.5          16.8           0.0                2.0                 1.3
University of Western Sydney            58.9          15.8           0.0                1.3                 2.3
University of Wollongong                55.0          12.8           0.3                3.1                 2.7
Victoria
Deakin University                       57.3          16.3           2.0                0.8                 1.8
La Trobe University                     60.2          16.0           2.3                3.2                 1.6
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College          21.9           0.0           0.0                0.0                 0.0
Monash University                       49.1          11.0           1.8                7.1                 1.9
RMIT                                    55.6          13.5           1.6                2.5                 1.7
Swinburne Uni of Technology             58.4          13.4           1.7                2.5                 1.8
University of Ballarat                  61.5          17.2           1.8                1.6                 1.1
University of Melbourne                 53.2          10.0           4.3                7.5                 5.1
Victoria University of Technology       62.2          16.6           1.7                1.3                 1.7
Queensland
Central Queensland University           58.0          15.1           2.4                 1.7                1.3
Griffith University                     58.9          15.5           0.2                 3.9                2.2
James Cook University of Nth Qld        64.7          12.4           0.9                 5.7                0.9
Queensland University of Tech           62.3          16.0           2.4                 1.3                2.0
University of Queensland                56.2           9.6           0.6                12.3                1.6
University of Southern Queensland       57.6          16.4           0.5                 0.2                3.2
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology         65.4          14.5           1.2                0.0                  4.2
Edith Cowan University                  58.8          17.3           4.5                0.0                  1.9
Murdoch University                      59.2          12.0           1.7                8.4                  1.5
University of Western Australia         45.9           8.2           2.0                8.3                 17.0
South Australia
Flinders University                     60.8          12.6           0.1                11.0                1.4
University of Adelaide                  61.3           8.7           1.9                 3.5                1.2
University of South Australia           62.9          16.5           0.9                 1.7                0.9
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegeb            59.3           5.3           0.0                0.0                 4.3
University of Tasmania                  69.1          12.7           1.3                2.5                 1.2
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                       71.6           3.1          10.7                0.0                 0.0
Northern Territory University           64.5          10.5          4.1                 3.2                 1.4
ACT
ADFAa                                    na            na            na                 na                   na
ANU - Faculties                          na            na            na                 na                   na
ANU - IAS                                na            na            na                 na                   na
ANU                                     62.5           4.4           0.5                4.3                 16.2
University of Canberra                  53.0          18.0           0.3                2.6                  2.1
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University          65.9          19.6           0.7                0.0                 1.4
Grand Total                             57.4          12.0           1.4                3.9                 4.1
                                                                          22
                                                  87         88           89          90          91       92                                  93
                                                    Operating revenue items as a share of total income (%)                                    Total
                                                                Fee paying                                                                 income $m
                                             Continuing    O’seas     Postgrad       Other       Other    Total
                                             education    students     students    fees and income       income
                                                fees       income       income      charges
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                            na              na              na             na            na           na                  na
Avondale College                                  3.9            1.5              0.2           41.2          31.8         100                  12
Charles Sturt University                          2.1            3.8              1.2            5.5          9.9          100                 129
Macquarie University                              0.4            3.8              4.9            8.6          12.3         100                 185
NIDA                                              na              na              na             na            na           na                  na
Southern Cross University                         0.4            0.7              3.1            2.2          4.7          100                  57
University of New England                         0.9            3.0              2.9           10.3          11.2         100                 133
University of Newcastle                           0.6            3.4              0.1            1.6          13.8         100                 199
University of New South Walesa                    2.8            7.4              1.6            5.6          11.6         100                 522
University of Sydney                              0.8            3.4              0.4            4.7          16.6         100                 579
University of Technology Sydney                   2.1            4.2              3.0            0.7          8.5          100                 181
University of Western Sydney                      0.5            6.7              0.7            1.9          12.0         100                 231
University of Wollongong                          0.4            10.1             0.1            8.7          6.8          100                 144
Victoria
Deakin University                                0.3             3.2              1.4            5.8          11.2         100                 217
La Trobe University                              1.6             3.3              0.2            2.3          9.2          100                 229
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                   59.8            0.0              0.0            0.0          18.3         100                  2
Monash University                                0.0             8.8              1.5            1.0          17.8         100                 488
RMIT                                             1.1             14.1             1.9            1.5          6.4          100                 255
Swinburne Uni of Technology                      2.5             9.7              4.6            2.8          2.7          100                  92
University of Ballarat                           1.2             2.3              1.3           10.1          1.8          100                  43
University of Melbourne                          0.7             4.7              0.7            7.0          6.8          100                 507
Victoria University of Technology                0.9             4.7              0.0            1.0          9.9          100                 131
Queensland
Central Queensland University                     1.0            4.1              0.5            4.5          11.5         100                  75
Griffith University                               1.6            5.4              0.8            5.1          6.4          100                 193
James Cook University of Nth Qld                  1.3            3.3              0.0            7.4          3.3          100                 112
Queensland University of Tech                     1.2            7.2              0.5            3.4          3.6          100                 260
University of Queensland                          1.2            4.1              0.6            6.5          7.5          100                 415
University of Southern Queensland                 1.2            10.5             1.3            2.4          6.7          100                  87
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                   1.9            18.3             0.1            1.7          -7.3         100                 224
Edith Cowan University                            0.5            7.8              0.0            0.6          8.5          100                 138
Murdoch University                                0.0            10.1             0.1            1.9          4.9          100                  94
University of Western Australia                   1.3            5.3              0.3            0.9          10.9         100                 259
South Australia
Flinders University                               0.0             4.5             0.2            1.4          8.3          100                 130
University of Adelaide                            0.4             6.5             0.3            0.9          15.5         100                 235
University of South Australia                     0.0             4.8             0.5            4.1          7.6          100                 208
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegeb                      0.4             5.7             0.1           12.4          12.6         100                  17
University of Tasmania                            0.0             5.8             0.7            0.7          5.9          100                 145
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                 0.0             0.0             0.0            0.0          14.6         100                  13
Northern Territory University                     1.4             1.6             0.5            5.0          7.7          100                  54
ACT
ADFAa                                             na              na              na             na           na            na                  na
ANU - Faculties                                   na              na              na             na           na            na                  na
ANU - IAS                                         na              na              na             na           na            na                  na
ANU                                               0.7             2.4             0.4            0.1          8.4          100                 392
University of Canberra                            2.4             6.8             2.4           12.2          0.0          100                  79
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                    0.0             2.3             1.0            5.3          3.8          100                  68
Grand Total                                       1.0             5.9             1.0            3.9          9.5          100                 7501
(a)Data for the University of New South Wales includes data for the University College, Australian Defence Force Academy.
(b)Data for the Australian Maritime College include income and expenditure relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                                          23

                                                            94                                   95                                       96
                                                  Research quantum as                     Research income/
                                                 share of Commonwealth                     Commonwealth                       Research income as a
                                                  Government grant %                     Government Grant                     share of total income
                                                                                         (excludes research                             %
                                                                                            quantum) %
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                        na                                    na                                    na
Avondale College                                              na                                    0                                     0
Charles Sturt University                                      0.7                                   3                                     2
Macquarie University                                          5.6                                   24                                    12
NIDA                                                          na                                    na                                    na
Southern Cross University                                     0.7                                   3                                     2
University of New England                                     6.3                                   18                                    10
University of Newcastle                                       4.6                                   22                                    13
University of New South Walesa                                8.0                                   32                                    16
University of Sydney                                          8.0                                   29                                    15
University of Technology Sydney                               2.0                                   7                                     4
University of Western Sydney                                  1.0                                   4                                     2
University of Wollongong                                      4.2                                   18                                    9
Victoria
Deakin University                                             1.2                                   3                                     2
La Trobe University                                           4.0                                   14                                    8
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                                na                                    na                                    na
Monash University                                             7.2                                   30                                    14
RMIT                                                          2.5                                   11                                    6
Swinburne Uni of Technology                                   1.3                                   6                                     3
University of Ballarat                                        0.6                                   3                                     2
University of Melbourne                                       9.9                                   45                                    22
Victoria University of Technology                             0.8                                   5                                     3
Queensland
Central Queensland University                                 0.9                                   5                                     3
Griffith University                                           2.7                                   13                                    7
James Cook University of Nth Qld                              4.6                                   18                                    11
Queensland University of Tech                                 1.6                                   7                                     5
University of Queensland                                      8.8                                   43                                    22
University of Southern Queensland                             0.6                                   4                                     2
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                               3.0                                   12                                    6
Edith Cowan University                                        0.4                                   3                                     2
Murdoch University                                            6.1                                   21                                    12
University of Western Australia                              11.0                                   55                                    22
South Australia
Flinders University                                           8.7                                   34                                    19
University of Adelaide                                        9.8                                   46                                    25
University of South Australia                                 1.7                                   10                                    6
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegeb                                  na                                    0                                     0
University of Tasmania                                        5.4                                   20                                    13
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                             na                                    0                                     0
Northern Territory University                                 2.3                                   11                                    7
ACT
ADFAa                                                         na                                    na                                    na
ANU - Faculties                                               na                                    na                                    na
ANU - IAS                                                     na                                    na                                    na
ANU                                                           1.9                                   24                                    15
University of Canberra                                        1.2                                   9                                     5
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                                0.3                                   1                                     0
                                                              4.9                                   22                                    12
Grand Total
(a)Data for the University of New South Wales includes data for the University College, Australian Defence Force Academy.
(b)Data for the Australian Maritime College include income and expenditure relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                                          24

                                                                              97                                                   98
                                                                      Medical and health                                 Non-medical and health
                                                                       research income                                      research income
                                                                           $ million                                            $ million
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                                           na                                                   na
Avondale College                                                                 na                                                   na
Charles Sturt University                                                         0.2                                                  2.3
Macquarie University                                                             0.0                                                 22.9
NIDA                                                                             na                                                   na
Southern Cross University                                                        0.0                                                  1.0
University of New England                                                        0.2                                                 13.0
University of Newcastle                                                          7.2                                                 17.8
University of New South Walesa                                                  17.5                                                 66.8
University of Sydney                                                            25.3                                                 58.9
University of Technology Sydney                                                  0.6                                                  7.3
University of Western Sydney                                                     0.2                                                  5.1
University of Wollongong                                                         1.3                                                 12.3
Victoria
Deakin University                                                                0.8                                                  3.5
La Trobe University                                                              3.6                                                 14.7
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                                                   na                                                   na
Monash University                                                               18.5                                                 49.0
RMIT                                                                             1.7                                                 13.3
Swinburne Uni of Technology                                                      0.2                                                  2.9
University of Ballarat                                                           0.2                                                  0.6
University of Melbourne                                                         35.8                                                 73.9
Victoria University of Technology                                                0.3                                                  4.0
Queensland
Central Queensland University                                                    0.0                                                  2.2
Griffith University                                                              1.2                                                 13.1
James Cook University of Nth Qld                                                 0.8                                                 11.8
Queensland University of Tech                                                    1.4                                                 10.5
University of Queensland                                                        18.1                                                 72.5
University of Southern Queensland                                                0.1                                                  1.9
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                                                  3.6                                                 10.5
Edith Cowan University                                                           0.0                                                  2.2
Murdoch University                                                               0.6                                                 10.5
University of Western Australia                                                 17.3                                                 40.4
South Australia
Flinders University                                                              8.9                                                 15.3
University of Adelaide                                                          11.2                                                 48.5
University of South Australia                                                    0.9                                                 12.3
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegeb                                                    na                                                    na
University of Tasmania                                                          2.8                                                  16.1
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                                               na                                                    na
Northern Territory University                                                   0.0                                                   3.6
ACT
ADFAa                                                                            na                                                   na
ANU - Faculties                                                                  4.4                                                 19.8
ANU - IAS                                                                       19.4                                                 14.3
ANU                                                                             23.8                                                 34.1
University of Canberra                                                           0.2                                                  3.6
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                                                  0.0                                                  0.3
                                                                               184.9                                                698.1
Grand Total
(a)Data for the University of New South Wales includes data for the University College, Australian Defence Force Academy.
(b)Data for the Australian Maritime College include income and expenditure relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                      25

                                       99          100           101          102           103
                                        Operating expense items as a share of total expenses %
                                    Academic     Library        Other       Student        Public
                                     activity    expenses     academic      services      services
                                    expenses                   support
                                                               services
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                 na          na            na            na           na
Avondale College                      37.6         5.2          10.4          16.6          0.0
Charles Sturt University              49.0         5.8          15.1          8.4           1.9
Macquarie University                  58.3         6.0          3.2           2.9           0.4
NIDA                                   na          na            na            na           na
Southern Cross University             54.4         7.5          9.7           4.5           0.5
University of New England             53.1         3.0          5.1           12.1          2.2
University of Newcastle               44.0         5.1          3.5           1.3           0.9
University of New South Walesa        65.1         3.8          2.8           2.2           3.1
University of Sydney                  62.5         3.1          7.8           1.6           0.6
University of Technology Sydney       64.6         5.6          10.2          1.2           0.0
University of Western Sydney          50.0         7.9          2.1           3.7           2.3
University of Wollongong              56.3         8.5          3.4           5.4           0.5
Victoria
Deakin University                     56.4         6.6           7.1          3.1           0.0
La Trobe University                   57.9         6.2           3.1          9.8           0.3
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College        34.4         3.2           5.6          18.1          0.0
Monash University                     62.9         4.2           4.4          5.2           0.9
RMIT                                  62.6         7.2           2.8          1.1           0.0
Swinburne Uni of Technology           63.0         6.2           5.5          1.7           0.8
University of Ballarat                57.3         5.7           3.4          8.1           1.8
University of Melbourne               67.5         4.3           3.8          4.6           0.8
Victoria University of Technology     63.0         5.5           3.2          6.7           0.0
Queensland
Central Queensland University         37.0         4.4          9.9            8.7          1.2
Griffith University                   53.9         5.4          5.0            2.7          4.9
James Cook University of Nth Qld      64.3         5.2          3.1            5.9          0.0
Queensland University of Tech         54.3         6.2          6.8            3.4          5.4
University of Queensland              63.4         5.1          4.4            6.6          3.6
University of Southern Queensland     45.8         5.2          12.0           3.9          2.0
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology       54.6         4.2           3.3           0.6          0.4
Edith Cowan University                52.7         5.7           6.3           2.8          4.8
Murdoch University                    60.8         6.1           5.5           6.5          1.1
University of Western Australia       72.7         4.8           0.9           0.9          3.0
South Australia
Flinders University                   68.0         5.3           2.5           3.3          0.0
University of Adelaide                59.5         4.9           3.2           0.9          1.0
University of South Australia         58.1         5.0           7.8           1.7          1.7
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegeb          31.4         2.3          24.6          13.2          0.0
University of Tasmania                67.9         4.1          6.3           1.3           1.2
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                     36.8         2.4          12.8          12.6          0.0
Northern Territory University         49.0         4.7          2.3           9.2           3.6
ACT
ADFAa                                  na          na            na            na           na
ANU - Faculties                        na          na            na            na           na
ANU - IAS                              na          na            na            na           na
ANU                                   58.3         4.1           2.2           6.3          0.9
University of Canberra                49.7         7.0           8.0           7.1          6.9
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University        56.3         7.5           0.9           2.2          0.0
                                      59.5         5.1           4.8           4.0          1.6
Grand Total
                                                                          26
                                                     104          105           106             107         108                                109
                                                       Operating expense items as a share of total expenses %                                 Total
                                                 Building and      Admin and          Deferred           Other            Total             expenses
                                                   grounds            other          employment         expenses        expenses              $m
                                                                    general          benefits for
                                                                  institutional        super -
                                                                    services          annuation
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                na               na                na                 na              na                  na
Avondale College                                      7.2             22.1               0.0                0.9            100                  11
Charles Sturt University                              6.1             13.7               0.0                0.0            100                 116
Macquarie University                                  4.2             16.5               8.6                0.0            100                 174
NIDA                                                  na               na                na                 na              na                  na
Southern Cross University                             7.5             15.9               0.0                0.0            100                  53
University of New England                             4.1             13.8               5.5                1.0            100                 135
University of Newcastle                               3.8             12.5               6.7               22.3            100                 192
University of New South Walesa                        3.2             11.0               6.4                2.3            100                 479
University of Sydney                                  4.0             11.7               8.7                0.0            100                 526
University of Technology Sydney                       5.2             13.2               0.0                0.0            100                 183
University of Western Sydney                          6.4             17.7               3.7                6.1            100                 213
University of Wollongong                              6.6             12.9               5.7                0.7            100                 138
Victoria
Deakin University                                     3.6             23.2               0.0               0.0             100                 190
La Trobe University                                   6.3             16.2               0.0               0.3             100                 215
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                        8.2             26.4               0.0               4.1             100                  2
Monash University                                     4.2             18.2               0.0               0.0             100                 455
RMIT                                                  9.7             16.5               0.0               0.0             100                 241
Swinburne Uni of Technology                           5.1             17.8               0.0               0.0             100                  83
University of Ballarat                                5.7             16.2               0.0               1.7             100                  40
University of Melbourne                               6.0             12.2               0.0               0.9             100                 478
Victoria University of Technology                     9.9             11.6               0.0               0.0             100                 126
Queensland
Central Queensland University                         3.9             25.4               0.0               9.6             100                  75
Griffith University                                   7.2             16.3               0.0               4.6             100                 185
James Cook University of Nth Qld                      6.2             14.0               0.0               1.3             100                 118
Queensland University of Tech                         9.2             7.8                0.0               6.9             100                 233
University of Queensland                              4.1             12.9               0.0               0.0             100                 391
University of Southern Queensland                     4.1             26.9               0.0               0.0             100                  78
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                       2.7             33.9               0.0               0.3             100                 220
Edith Cowan University                                4.5             23.2               0.0               0.0             100                 130
Murdoch University                                    3.0             17.0               0.0               0.0             100                  89
University of Western Australia                       6.0             10.6               0.0               1.0             100                 216
South Australia
Flinders University                                   6.8             11.1               3.1                0.0            100                 131
University of Adelaide                                9.4             9.6                0.9               10.6            100                 221
University of South Australia                         5.0             12.8               7.4                0.3            100                 207
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegeb                         10.3             18.3               0.0               0.0             100                  19
University of Tasmania                               4.3              13.4               0.0               1.6             100                 135
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                    7.8              22.5               5.0               0.0             100                  13
Northern Territory University                        11.5             19.7               0.0               0.0             100                  46
ACT
ADFAa                                                 na               na                na                 na              na                  na
ANU - Faculties                                       na               na                na                 na              na                  na
ANU - IAS                                             na               na                na                 na              na                  na
ANU                                                   4.4             8.7                0.0               15.2            100                 403
University of Canberra                                6.1             15.2               0.0                0.0            100                  77
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                        2.8             29.9               0.0               0.3             100                 66
                                                      5.4             14.8               2.1               2.8             100                7105
Grand Total
(a)Data for the University of New South Wales includes data for the University College, Australian Defence Force Academy.
(b)Data for the Australian Maritime College include income and expenditure relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                                          27

                                                                                               110
                                                                         Salaries and salary related costs as a
                                                                              share of total expenses %
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                                                              na
Avondale College                                                                                    60
Charles Sturt University                                                                            66
Macquarie University                                                                                67
NIDA                                                                                                na
Southern Cross University                                                                           61
University of New England                                                                           68
University of Newcastle                                                                             67
University of New South Walesa                                                                      64
University of Sydney                                                                                69
University of Technology Sydney                                                                     65
University of Western Sydney                                                                        62
University of Wollongong                                                                            66
Victoria
Deakin University                                                                                   66
La Trobe University                                                                                 69
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                                                                      49
Monash University                                                                                   63
RMIT                                                                                                64
Swinburne Uni of Technology                                                                         67
University of Ballarat                                                                              71
University of Melbourne                                                                             60
Victoria University of Technology                                                                   62
Queensland
Central Queensland University                                                                       60
Griffith University                                                                                 61
James Cook University of Nth Qld                                                                    61
Queensland University of Tech                                                                       64
University of Queensland                                                                            62
University of Southern Queensland                                                                   66
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                                                                     54
Edith Cowan University                                                                              67
Murdoch University                                                                                  68
University of Western Australia                                                                     61
South Australia
Flinders University                                                                                 69
University of Adelaide                                                                              63
University of South Australia                                                                       72
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegeb                                                                        43
University of Tasmania                                                                              68
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                                                                   68
Northern Territory University                                                                       63
ACT
ADFAa                                                                                               na
ANU - Faculties                                                                                     na
ANU - IAS                                                                                           na
ANU                                                                                                 52
University of Canberra                                                                              68
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                                                                      71
                                                                                                    64
Grand Total
(a)Data for the University of New South Wales includes data for the University College, Australian Defence Force Academy.
(b)Data for the Australian Maritime College include income and expenditure relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                                          28
                                                            111                                   112                                    113
                                                               Expenses per Equivalent Full-time Student Unit (EFTSU) ($)
                                                                                          Other academic
                                                 Library expenses per                   support services per                    Student services
                                                       EFTSU                                 EFTSU                            expenses per EFTSU
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                       na                                     na                                    na
Avondale College                                            958                                   1936                                  3083
Charles Sturt University                                    586                                   1528                                   854
Macquarie University                                        806                                    424                                   393
NIDA                                                         na                                     na                                    na
Southern Cross University                                   799                                   1027                                   474
University of New England                                   492                                    846                                  1995
University of Newcastle                                     732                                    509                                   185
University of New South Walesa                              789                                    582                                   452
University of Sydney                                        633                                   1622                                   330
University of Technology Sydney                             659                                   1206                                   141
University of Western Sydney                                930                                    248                                   434
University of Wollongong                                   1289                                    515                                   820
Victoria
Deakin University                                           737                                    791                                   342
La Trobe University                                         810                                    406                                  1283
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                              725                                   1250                                  4038
Monash University                                           634                                    671                                   789
RMIT                                                        884                                    346                                   134
Swinburne Uni of Technology                                 717                                    639                                   197
University of Ballarat                                      638                                    387                                   914
University of Melbourne                                     826                                    731                                   882
Victoria University of Technology                           638                                    375                                   776
Queensland
Central Queensland University                               601                                   1363                                  1191
Griffith University                                         681                                    623                                   339
James Cook University of Nth Qld                            924                                    540                                  1041
Queensland University of Tech                               697                                    769                                   383
University of Queensland                                    946                                    825                                  1225
University of Southern Queensland                           477                                   1094                                   360
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                             589                                   464                                    82
Edith Cowan University                                      614                                   676                                    303
Murdoch University                                          856                                   775                                    910
University of Western Australia                             935                                   176                                    181
South Australia
Flinders University                                         794                                   382                                    495
University of Adelaide                                      945                                   613                                    179
University of South Australia                               618                                   969                                    208
Tasmania
Australian Maritime Collegeb                               1130                                  12238                                  6563
University of Tasmania                                      549                                   848                                    173
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                           662                                   3487                                  3414
Northern Territory University                               757                                    367                                  1472
ACT
ADFAa                                                        na                                     na                                    na
ANU - Faculties                                              na                                     na                                    na
ANU - IAS                                                    na                                     na                                    na
ANU                                                        1877                                   1007                                  2904
University of Canberra                                      832                                    944                                   845
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                              744                                    90                                    219
Grand Total                                                 769                                   736                                    605
(a)Data for the University of New South Wales includes data for the University College, Australian Defence Force Academy.
(b)Data for the Australian Maritime College include income and expenditure relating to both higher education and vocational/technical education delivery.
                                                     29
                                       114             115           116           117             118
                                                                    Assets
                                     Property
                                    equipment
                                    and library     Total non      Total net                  Total expenses
                                       books      current assets     assets    Total assets    / Total assets
                                      $ million      $ million     $ million    $ million           %
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                   na             na             na           na              na
Avondale College                         na             na             na           na              na
Charles Sturt University                197            256            205          282              41
Macquarie University                    469            593            498          682              25
NIDA                                     na             na             na           na              na
Southern Cross University               77             86             70            97              55
University of New England               185            358            211          373              36
University of Newcastle                 263            413            287          461              42
University of New South Wales           574            993            696         1,187             40
University of Sydney                   1704           2392           2065         2,612             20
University of Technology Sydney         268            382            267          420              44
University of Western Sydney            453            526            488          598              36
University of Wollongong                181            243            174          288              48
Victoria
Deakin University                       323            333            327          391              49
La Trobe University                     334            336            330          396              54
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College           na             na             na           na              na
Monash University                       564            632            559          701              65
RMIT                                    499            504            506          567              43
Swinburne Uni of Technology             135            136            137          173              48
University of Ballarat                  79             79             64            86              46
University of Melbourne                1259           1473           1491         1,630             29
Victoria University of Technology       242            242            223          275              46
Queensland
Central Queensland University          125             125           123           145              52
Griffith University                    281             282           311           345              54
James Cook University of Nth Qld       246             255           228           264              45
Queensland University of Tech          346             346           365           413              56
University of Queensland               802             847           871           936              42
University of Southern Queensland      85              85            114           130              60
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology        315             318           308           441              50
Edith Cowan University                 255             255           223           300              43
Murdoch University                     215             216           208           236              38
University of Western Australia        575             969           942          1,006             22
South Australia
Flinders University                    179             205           170           219              60
University of Adelaide                 356             433           401           493              45
University of South Australia          456             667           422           703              29
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College            45              45            58            60               32
University of Tasmania                 317             344           315           371              36
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                       na              na            na            na              na
Northern Territory University          118             118           125           140              33
ACT
ADFA                                    na              na            na            na              na
ANU - Faculties                         na              na            na            na              na
ANU - IAS                               na              na            na            na              na
ANU                                    745            1098           756          1,236             33
University of Canberra                 123             127           311           150              52
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University          88             88            78           104               64
                                      13,472         16,801         14927        18,915             38
Grand Total
                                           30

                                      119            120              121
                                                Retention rate

                                    Crude %      Expected %      Performance %


New South Wales
AFTVRS                                41             55               74
Avondale College                      80             77               105
Charles Sturt University              70             70               101
Macquarie University                  70             72               97
NIDA                                  87             68               128
Southern Cross University             68             72               95
University of New England             71             70               102
University of Newcastle               74             73               101
University of New South Wales         80             75               107
University of Sydney                  78             76               104
University of Technology Sydney       80             73               110
University of Western Sydney          74             74               99
University of Wollongong              77             73               106
Victoria
Deakin University                     74             72               103
La Trobe University                   na             na                na
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College        97             63               153
Monash University                     77             74               104
RMIT                                  78             75               104
Swinburne Uni of Technology           67             74               90
University of Ballarat                71             75               94
University of Melbourne               74             73               103
Victoria University of Technology     66             73               90
Queensland
Central Queensland University         67             71               95
Griffith University                   75             74               101
James Cook University of Nth Qld      70             73               95
Queensland University of Tech         78             75               104
University of Queensland              77             76               102
University of Southern Queensland     69             71               96
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology       77             74               104
Edith Cowan University                70             72               96
Murdoch University                    76             74               102
University of Western Australia       82             78               106
South Australia
Flinders University                   76             73               104
University of Adelaide                79             75               105
University of South Australia         76             73               105
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College           60             69               87
University of Tasmania                78             74               105

Northern Territory
Batchelor College                     49             54               91
Northern Territory University         63             70               91
ACT
ADFA                                  82             75               109
ANU                                   73             74               98
University of Canberra                77             73               106
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University        77             72               107
                                      74             74               100
Grand Total
                                           31

                                      122               123                  124
                                                Student progress rate

                                    Crude %         Expected %          Performance %
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                98                 85                  115
Avondale College                      94                 89                  106
Charles Sturt University              83                 87                  96
Macquarie University                  83                 86                  97
NIDA                                  96                 84                  115
Southern Cross University             88                 85                  104
University of New England             81                 87                  94
University of Newcastle               85                 87                  98
University of New South Wales         89                 86                  103
University of Sydney                  90                 88                  102
University of Technology Sydney       91                 86                  106
University of Western Sydney          84                 86                  98
University of Wollongong              88                 85                  103
Victoria
Deakin University                     85                 87                  98
La Trobe University                   na                 na                   na
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College        na                 na                   na
Monash University                     86                 86                  100
RMIT                                  86                 86                  100
Swinburne Uni of Technology           84                 84                  100
University of Ballarat                83                 86                  96
University of Melbourne               92                 87                  107
Victoria University of Technology     80                 85                  94
Queensland
Central Queensland University         78                 84                  92
Griffith University                   88                 86                  103
James Cook University of Nth Qld      81                 86                  94
Queensland University of Tech         88                 87                  101
University of Queensland              92                 86                  106
University of Southern Queensland     76                 85                  90
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology       88                 86                  102
Edith Cowan University                85                 87                  98
Murdoch University                    87                 86                  101
University of Western Australia       92                 86                  107
South Australia
Flinders University                   83                 87                  95
University of Adelaide                85                 86                  99
University of South Australia         88                 87                  101
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College           85                 85                  100
University of Tasmania                84                 86                  97

Northern Territory
Batchelor College                     na                 na                  na
Northern Territory University         80                 86                  93
ACT
ADFA                                  95                 83                  114
ANU                                   83                 86                  97
University of Canberra                87                 86                  101
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University        91                 89                  103
Grand Total                           86                 86                  100
                                                                  32


                                                       125               126                  127           128
                                                                       Graduate full time employment

                                                   GDS response        Crude %            Expected %   Performance %
                                                     ratea %
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                  na               na                   na             na
Avondale College                                        na               na                   na             na
Charles Sturt University                               73.4              73                   73            100
Macquarie University                                   69.6              81                   69            117
NIDA                                                    na               na                   na             na
Southern Cross University                              51.1              58                   73             81
University of New England                              74.6              57                   70             81
University of Newcastle                                72.0              73                   75             97
University of New South Wales                          75.7              81                   73            111
University of Sydney                                   74.6              80                   79            100
University of Technology Sydney                        75.9              78                   79             99
University of Western Sydney                           71.9              71                   76             94
University of Wollongong                               53.3              77                   74            103
Victoria
Deakin University                                      65.8              65                   80             82
La Trobe University                                    77.3              77                   80             95
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                          na               na                   na             na
Monash University                                      59.3              81                   75            108
RMIT                                                   72.9              80                   77            104
Swinburne Uni of Technology                            65.6              73                   70            103
University of Ballarat                                 69.4              75                   77             97
University of Melbourne                                63.3              82                   73            112
Victoria University of Technology                      86.1              58                   77             76
Queensland
Central Queensland University                          68.1              81                   76            107
Griffith University                                    66.6              71                   75             95
James Cook University of Nth Qld                       67.0              79                   76            104
Queensland University of Tech                          89.1              83                   81            102
University of Queensland                               88.8              86                   73            118
University of Southern Queensland                      71.8              77                   80             97
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                        58.4              84                   81            103
Edith Cowan University                                 64.0              71                   77             92
Murdoch University                                     62.0              75                   70            108
University of Western Australia                        60.7              83                   71            116
South Australia
Flinders University                                    77.5              69                   79            86
University of Adelaide                                 75.5              70                   71            98
University of South Australia                          75.5              72                   81            89
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College                            38.1              na                   na            na
University of Tasmania                                 53.2              72                   76            95
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                       na               na                   na             na
Northern Territory University                          53.3              77                   76            102
ACT
ADFA                                                    na               na                   na             na
ANU                                                    75.2              76                   69            111
University of Canberra                                 71.8              72                   69            104
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                         68.0              81                   81            101
                                                       70.8              76                   76            100
Grand Total
(a) GDS response rate refers to Australian students.
                                                                  33

                                                       129               130                 131           132
                                                                         Graduate full time study

                                                   GDS response        Crude %           Expected %   Performance %
                                                     ratea %


New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                  na               na                   na            na
Avondale College                                       42.6              na                   na            na
Charles Sturt University                               73.4               8                   20           42
Macquarie University                                   69.6              23                   26           87
NIDA                                                    na               na                   na            na
Southern Cross University                              51.1               9                   24           38
University of New England                              74.6              15                   19           79
University of Newcastle                                72.0              16                   21           76
University of New South Wales                          75.7              29                   32           92
University of Sydney                                   74.6              24                   18           135
University of Technology Sydney                        75.9               5                   16           31
University of Western Sydney                           71.9               9                   21           44
University of Wollongong                               53.3              24                   22           107
Victoria
Deakin University                                      65.8              15                   18           84
La Trobe University                                    77.3              21                   18           117
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                          na               na                   na            na
Monash University                                      59.3              18                   22           81
RMIT                                                   72.9              12                   20           63
Swinburne Uni of Technology                            65.6              11                   22           51
University of Ballarat                                 69.4              12                   22           54
University of Melbourne                                63.3              37                   26           141
Victoria University of Technology                      86.1               9                   19           45
Queensland
Central Queensland University                          68.1              10                   18           53
Griffith University                                    66.6              16                   22           75
James Cook University of Nth Qld                       67.0              19                   22           84
Queensland University of Tech                          89.1              10                   17           60
University of Queensland                               88.8              33                   25           130
University of Southern Queensland                      71.8               7                   14           49
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                        58.4              20                   15           136
Edith Cowan University                                 64.0               8                   15           52
Murdoch University                                     62.0              17                   23           73
University of Western Australia                        60.7              32                   27           120
South Australia
Flinders University                                    77.5              23                   17           136
University of Adelaide                                 75.5              52                   29           181
University of South Australia                          75.5               9                   15           62
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College                            38.1              na                   na            na
University of Tasmania                                 53.2              30                   23           130
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                       na               na                   na           na
Northern Territory University                          53.3              12                   16           74
ACT
ADFA                                                    na               na                   na            na
ANU                                                    75.2              41                   30           137
University of Canberra                                 71.8               8                   23           35
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                         68.0              10                   16           62
                                                       70.8              19                   19           100
Grand Total
(a) GDS response rate refers to Australian students.
                                                                  34

                                                       133              134                   135         136
                                                                        Graduate starting salaries

                                                   GDS response        Crude               Expected   Performance
                                                     ratea %
                                                                         $                     $          %
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                                  na               na                   na           na
Avondale College                                        na               na                   na           na
Charles Sturt University                               73.4            26,844               26,148        103
Macquarie University                                   69.6            29,397               27,048        109
NIDA                                                    na               na                   na           na
Southern Cross University                              51.1            27,424               25,840        106
University of New England                              74.6            26,961               26,283        103
University of Newcastle                                72.0            28,463               27,929        102
University of New South Wales                          75.7            29,620               28,357        104
University of Sydney                                   74.6            29,230               28,957        101
University of Technology Sydney                        75.9            29,599               27,995        106
University of Western Sydney                           71.9            27,308               27,121        101
University of Wollongong                               53.3            29,095               27,072        107
Victoria
Deakin University                                      65.8            26,349               27,508         96
La Trobe University                                    77.3            27,579               28,047         98
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                          na               na                   na           na
Monash University                                      59.3            29,601               28,533        104
RMIT                                                   72.9            28,108               27,679        102
Swinburne Uni of Technology                            65.6            28,524               28,330        101
University of Ballarat                                 69.4            27,719               27,679        100
University of Melbourne                                63.3            29,288               28,180        104
Victoria University of Technology                      86.1            26,130               27,691         94
Queensland
Central Queensland University                          68.1            28,562               25,975        110
Griffith University                                    66.6            25,754               27,383         94
James Cook University of Nth Qld                       67.0            27,797               26,650        104
Queensland University of Tech                          89.1            27,803               28,110         99
University of Queensland                               88.8            29,596               28,672        103
University of Southern Queensland                      71.8            27,751               26,812        104
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                        58.4            27,652               28,133         98
Edith Cowan University                                 64.0            26,174               26,686         98
Murdoch University                                     62.0            28,222               27,009        104
University of Western Australia                        60.7            28,850               28,553        101
South Australia
Flinders University                                    77.5            28,540               27,088        105
University of Adelaide                                 75.5            27,666               26,854        103
University of South Australia                          75.5            26,739               27,618         97
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College                            38.1            32,198               20,553        157
University of Tasmania                                 53.2            27,438               27,846         99
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                       na               na                   na           na
Northern Territory University                          53.3            25,007               18,167        138
ACT
ADFA                                                    na               na                   na           na
ANU                                                    75.2            27,885               26,209        106
University of Canberra                                 71.8            26,801               26,356        102
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                         68.0            26,382               27,113         97
                                                       70.8            28,124               28,124        100
Grand Total
(a) GDS response rate refers to Australian students.
                                                               35

                                                    137                138                   139            140
                                                                       CEQ - Overall satisfaction
                                                GDS response         Crude               Expected       Performance
                                                  ratea %           mean score           mean score   percentage points
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                               na                na                    na              na
Avondale College                                     na                na                    na              na
Charles Sturt University                            69.9               39                    36              4
Macquarie University                                67.2               36                    33              4
NIDA                                                 na                na                    na              na
Southern Cross University                           50.0               36                    33              3
University of New England                           73.5               46                    39              7
University of Newcastle                             69.5               28                    31              -3
University of New South Wales                       71.7               32                    29              2
University of Sydney                                72.9               23                    30              -7
University of Technology Sydney                     76.4               30                    30              0
University of Western Sydney                        68.4               29                    31              -2
University of Wollongong                            50.9               33                    32              1
Victoria
Deakin University                                   65.9               39                    33              6
La Trobe University Uni                             76.0               38                    31              6
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                       na                na                    na              na
Monash University                                   58.9               33                    33              0
RMIT                                                68.4               29                    30              -1
Swinburne Uni of Technology                         61.5               35                    32              3
University of Ballarat                              69.0               38                    31              7
University of Melbourne                             63.7               35                    33              2
Victoria University of Technology                   86.6               35                    31              4
Queensland
Central Queensland University                       66.6               35                    33              2
Griffith University                                 64.9               26                    32              -6
James Cook University of Nth Qld                    66.1               28                    34              -7
Queensland University of Tech                       86.7               25                    30              -5
University of Queensland                            85.3               29                    34              -4
University of Southern Queensland                   64.6               39                    34              4
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                     49.1               33                    31              1
Edith Cowan University                              64.0               26                    31              -5
Murdoch University                                  58.0               44                    35              9
University of Western Australia                     54.4               34                    34              0
South Australia
Flinders University                                 75.3               34                    32              2
University of Adelaide                              73.5               31                    34              -2
University of South Australia                       73.4               27                    30              -3
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College                         39.8               na                    na              na
University of Tasmania                              52.6               33                    32              1
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                    na                na                    na              na
Northern Territory University                       52.6               44                    32              12
ACT
ADFA                                                 na                na                    na              na
ANU                                                 70.0               31                    33              -2
University of Canberra                              64.1               26                    32              -6
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                      68.2               33                    28              5
                                                    68.3               32                    32              0
Grand Total
(a) GDS response rate refers to all students.
                                                               36


                                                    141                142                   143             144
                                                                            CEQ - Good teaching

                                                GDS response         Crude                 Expected      Performance
                                                  ratea %                                              percentage points
                                                                    mean score            mean score
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                               na                na                     na              na
Avondale College                                     na                na                     na              na
Charles Sturt University                            69.9               10                     7               2
Macquarie University                                67.2               6                      5               1
NIDA                                                 na                na                     na              na
Southern Cross University                           50.0               9                      7               2
University of New England                           73.5               18                     11              7
University of Newcastle                             69.5               4                      4               0
University of New South Wales                       71.7               -2                     1               -2
University of Sydney                                72.9               -3                     3               -6
University of Technology Sydney                     76.4               -3                     1               -4
University of Western Sydney                        68.4               4                      4               -1
University of Wollongong                            50.9               5                      2               3
Victoria
Deakin University                                   65.9               12                     6               6
La Trobe University Uni                             76.0               8                      5               4
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                       na                na                     na              na
Monash University                                   58.9               -1                     3               -4
RMIT                                                68.4               0                      1               0
Swinburne Uni of Technology                         61.5               -5                     -1              -5
University of Ballarat                              69.0               10                     4               6
University of Melbourne                             63.7               3                      6               -2
Victoria University of Technology                   86.6               5                      2               4
Queensland
Central Queensland University                       66.6                9                     4               5
Griffith University                                 64.9                1                     5               -4
James Cook University of Nth Qld                    66.1                9                     7               2
Queensland University of Tech                       86.7                1                     1               0
University of Queensland                            85.3                2                     5               -3
University of Southern Queensland                   64.6                8                     2               6
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                     49.1               5                      2               3
Edith Cowan University                              64.0               3                      6               -4
Murdoch University                                  58.0               15                     6               8
University of Western Australia                     54.4               5                      4               1
South Australia
Flinders University                                 75.3               13                     8               6
University of Adelaide                              73.5               2                      5               -2
University of South Australia                       73.4               2                      3               -1
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College                         39.8               na                     na              na
University of Tasmania                              52.6               10                     6               4
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                    na                na                     na              na
Northern Territory University                       52.6               18                     6               12
ACT
ADFA                                                 na                na                     na              na
ANU                                                 70.0               -1                     2               -3
University of Canberra                              64.1               0                      5               -5
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                      68.2               12                     6               6
                                                    68.3               4                      4               0
Grand Total
(a) GDS response rate refers to all students.
                                                               37

                                                    145                146                  147            148
                                                                         CEQ - Generic skills

                                                GDS response         Crude               Expected      Performance
                                                  ratea %                                            percentage points
                                                                    mean score          mean score
New South Wales
AFTVRS                                               na                na                   na              na
Avondale College                                     na                na                   na              na
Charles Sturt University                            69.9               30                   29              1
Macquarie University                                67.2               27                   30              -3
NIDA                                                 na                na                   na              na
Southern Cross University                           50.0               32                   29              4
University of New England                           73.5               31                   31              0
University of Newcastle                             69.5               33                   31              2
University of New South Wales                       71.7               30                   31              0
University of Sydney                                72.9               25                   31              -6
University of Technology Sydney                     76.4               33                   30              2
University of Western Sydney                        68.4               34                   31              3
University of Wollongong                            50.9               32                   32              0
Victoria
Deakin University                                   65.9               34                   31              4
La Trobe University Uni                             76.0               32                   32              1
Marcus Oldham Farm Man College                       na                na                   na              na
Monash University                                   58.9               30                   31              -2
RMIT                                                68.4               31                   32              -1
Swinburne Uni of Technology                         61.5               35                   32              3
University of Ballarat                              69.0               37                   31              7
University of Melbourne                             63.7               29                   32              -3
Victoria University of Technology                   86.6               35                   31              4
Queensland
Central Queensland University                       66.6               36                   30              6
Griffith University                                 64.9               35                   31              4
James Cook University of Nth Qld                    66.1               30                   32              -2
Queensland University of Tech                       86.7               25                   30              -5
University of Queensland                            85.3               29                   33              -4
University of Southern Queensland                   64.6               32                   30              2
Western Australia
Curtin University of Technology                     49.1               37                   32              5
Edith Cowan University                              64.0               27                   29              -2
Murdoch University                                  58.0               35                   31              4
University of Western Australia                     54.4               37                   33              3
South Australia
Flinders University                                 75.3               33                   31              2
University of Adelaide                              73.5               31                   34              -3
University of South Australia                       73.4               34                   31              3
Tasmania
Australian Maritime College                         39.8               na                   na              na
University of Tasmania                              52.6               33                   33              0
Northern Territory
Batchelor College                                                      na                   na              na
Northern Territory University                       52.6               34                   29              5
ACT
ADFA                                                 na                na                   na              na
ANU                                                 70.0               26                   31              -5
University of Canberra                              64.1               35                   31              3
Multi-State
Australian Catholic University                      68.2               28                   29              -1
                                                    68.3               31                   31              0
Grand Total
(a) GDS response rate refers to all students.
      Department of Employment Education Training
                    and Youth Affairs




Higher Education Performance Indicators

              Sources and Methods
Contents

Broad context

Indicators   Title
1            Students
2            Equivalent full-time student units (EFTSU)
3-5          Type of enrolment
6-9          Postgraduate students
10           Overseas students
11           Non-overseas fee-paying postgraduate students
12-17        Basis for admission to current course
18-21        Median age
22-34        Equity groups
35           Undergraduate courses by broad field of study
36           Postgraduate courses by broad field of study
37           Number of campuses

Staff

Indicators   Title
38-40        Staff
41-45        Academic and non-academic staff, full-time equivalent (FTE)
46-49        Academic staff by current duties term (FTE)
50-53        All staff by function (FTE)
54-57        Academic staff by classification (FTE)
58-62        Academic staff by classification and gender (FTE)
63-65        Academic staff by age (FTE)
66-69        Academic staff by qualifications
70-81        Student-staff ratio by academic organisational unit

Finance

Indicators    Title
82-93         Operating revenues
94-96         Research income
97-98         Research income by field of study
99-109        Operating expenses
110           Salaries and salary related costs
111-113       Expenses per EFTSU
114-118       Assets
Outcomes

Indicator   Title
119-121     Retention rate
122-124     Student progress rate
125-128     Graduate full-time employment
129-132     Graduate full-time study
133-136     Graduate starting salaries
137-140     Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) overall satisfaction
141-144     Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) good teaching
145-148     Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) generic skills
Broad context

Students (1)

This is a context indicator showing the number of students in each institution.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file

Filter : Students are only included once for a major course. Thus students only included where
E331 Concurrent/Major course indicator takes the value 1 or 2 (IF NOT (E331 IN (1 2)) THEN
DELETE).

Students are only included where there is some semester 1 load, that is, E091 Semester (1) load
indicator takes the value of 1.

Cross institutional students are excluded, that is, where E310 Course type code takes the value of
40.

Students at the Open Learning Agency of Australia are excluded, that is, where E306 Institution
code takes the value of 3037.
Equivalent full-time student units (EFTSU) (2)

This is a context indicator showing equivalent full-time student units in each institution.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file

Element : E931 Total EFTSU value in aggregate
Type of enrolment (3 to 5)

The type of enrolment indicators show the composition of the student population in terms of modes
of attendance in each institution.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file

Filter : Students are only included once for a major course. Thus students only included where
E331 Concurrent/Major course indicator takes the value 1 or 2 (IF NOT (E331 IN (1 2)) THEN
DELETE).

Students are only included where there is some semester 1 load, that is, E091 Semester (1) load
indicator takes the value of 1.

Cross institutional students are excluded, that is, where E310 Course type code takes the value of
40.

Students at the Open Learning Agency of Australia are excluded, that is, where E306 Institution
code takes the value of 3037.

Element : E918 Type of enrolment code

This element is derived from Element E329 - Mode of attendance code and E330 - Type of
attendance.

External students are defined by Element E329 (code 2) where all units of study are undertaken
through special arrangements eg delivery of teaching materials to the student, and attendance at an
institution is of an irregular nature.

Full-time and part-time students comprise all non-external students ie internal and multi-modal
students (E329 codes 1 or 3). Full-time students are defined where the EFTSU load for the year is
0.75 or more (E330 code 1). Part-time students are defined where the EFTSU load for the year is
below 0.75 (E330 code 2).

Indicators 3 to 5 show the percentage of full-time, part-time and external students as a percentage of
all students.
Postgraduate students (6-9)

The postgraduate student indicators show the proportion of students in higher level courses in each
institution. As the student population and the demand for more higher level skills in the workforce
grows, these indicators show how the higher education sector is responding to these pressures.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file

Filter : Students are only included once for a major course. Thus students only included where
E331 Concurrent/Major course indicator takes the value 1 or 2 (IF NOT (E331 IN (1 2)) THEN
DELETE).

Students are only included where there is some semester 1 load, that is, E091 Semester (1) load
indicator takes the value of 1.

Cross institutional students are excluded, that is, where E310 Course type code takes the value of
40.

Students at the Open Learning Agency of Australia are excluded, that is, where E306 Institution
code takes the value of 3037.

Element : E310 Course type code

Postgraduate research students are defined as higher doctorate, doctorate research and master
research students (E310 codes 1,2 or 3).

Postgraduate coursework students are defined as doctorate coursework and masters coursework
plus (E310 codes 12 and 4 respectively).

Other postgraduate students are defined as all postgraduate diploma new area, postgraduate diploma
extension area, graduate certificate and postgraduate qualifying or preliminary students (E310 codes
6, 7, 11 and 5 respectively).

Indicators 6 to 9 show the percentage of postgraduate research, postgraduate coursework, other
postgraduate and total postgraduate students as a percentage of all students.
Overseas students (10)

The number of overseas students has grown rapidly over the last decade. This indicator shows the
the extent to which institutions are oriented towards servicing the needs of overseas students. In
addition, fee-paying overseas students represent one source of funds for institutions.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file

Filter : Students are only included once for a major course. Thus students only included where
E331 Concurrent/Major course indicator takes the value 1 or 2 (IF NOT (E331 IN (1 2)) THEN
DELETE).

Students are only included where there is some semester 1 load, that is, E091 Semester (1) load
indicator takes the value of 1.

Cross institutional students are excluded, that is, where E310 Course type code takes the value of
40.

Students at the Open Learning Agency of Australia are excluded, that is, where E306 Institution
code takes the value of 3037.

Element : E358 Citizen/resident indicator

Overseas students are persons with a temporary entry permit or students residing overseas during the
semester who are not Australian or New Zealand citizens (E358 codes 4 or 5).

Indicator 10 shows overseas students as a percentage of all students.
Non-overseas fee-paying postgradute students (11)

This indicator is designed to show the extent to which institutions service non-overseas fee-paying
students. This indicator will be subject to further development to include non-overseas students
enrolled in non-award courses. With the introduction of fee-paying undergraduate opportunities in
1998, the scope of this indicator is expected to grow over time.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file and 1995 Selected Higher Education Statistics

All students as defined in indicator 1 above.

Non-overseas fee-paying postgraduate students from Table 74, 1995 Selected Higher Education
Statistics.

Indicator 11 shows non-overseas fee-paying postgraduate students as a percentage of all students.
Basis for admission to current course (12-17)

These indicators show the diversity in student access to higher education. Since the focus of these
indicators is on access to education they refer only to non-overseas students. Students enrolling in
higher level courses have generally already gained access to the higher education system and hence
the indicators focus on entry at lower levels, that is, the basis of admission for students commencing
Bachelor Pass level courses. These indicators will be subject to further development to include all
undergraduate commencing students.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file

Filter : Students are only included once for a major course. Thus students only included where
E331 Concurrent/Major course indicator takes the value 1 or 2 (IF NOT (E331 IN (1 2)) THEN
DELETE).

Students are only included where there is some semester 1 load, that is, E091 Semester (1) load
indicator takes the value of 1.

Cross institutional students are excluded, that is, where E310 Course type code takes the value of
40.

Students at the Open Learning Agency of Australia are excluded, that is, where E306 Institution
code takes the value of 3037.

Only commencing students included (E922 Commencing student indicator code 1)

Only Bachelor’s Pass level students included (E310 Course type code 10)

Only non-overseas students included (E358 Citizen/resident indicator codes 1,2 or 3)

Element : E327 Basis for admission to current course

Completed higher education (E327 code 11)
Incomplete higher education (E327 code 12)
TAFE education (E327 code 13)
Secondary education defined as satisfactory completion of final year of secondary education
undertaken at school, TAFE or other institution, Australian or overseas equivalent (codes 14 and 15)
Mature age (E327 codes 16 mature age special entry provisions)
Other defined as special entry provisions other than mature age, examination or assessment by
institution, employment experience, professional qualification, open learning studies completed by
OLAA or other basis (E327 codes 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 29).
Median age (18-21)

These indicators show the composition of the student population in terms of the age of students.
Changes in the demographic structure of the population and participation rates of demographic
groups will potentially influence the composition of the student population over time.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file

Filter : Students are only included once for a major course. Thus students only included where
E331 Concurrent/Major course indicator takes the value 1 or 2 (IF NOT (E331 IN (1 2)) THEN
DELETE).

Students are only included where there is some semester 1 load, that is, E091 Semester (1) load
indicator takes the value of 1.

Cross institutional students are excluded, that is, where E310 Course type code takes the value of
40.

Students at the Open Learning Agency of Australia are excluded, that is, where E306 Institution
code takes the value of 3037.

Element : E997 Participation age code
          E918 Type of enrolment code

Age at 30 June in the reference year.

Median age refers to age of student at the 50th percentile among all students.

Median age by type of enrolment.
Equity groups (22-34)

These indicators show the access to higher education among groups that tend to have poorer
representation in the sector. Since the focus of these indicators is on access to higher education they
refer only to non-overseas students.

The definition of students from a non-English speaking background (NESB) differs slightly from the
definition of NESB used in the Martin Report in that year of arrival is measured in terms of the
course commencement date. This overcomes the problem where students’ NESB status may change
during their course. If the focus is on access to higher education it appears more appropriate to
measure NESB status at the time of course commencement

The rural, isolated and low Australian socio-economic status indicators are determined on the basis
of postcode information using the postcode file in the equity module in DEETYAPAC. It is
recognised there are methodological concerns with using postcodes as the basis for these indicators
and they are likely to be the subject of further development.

While female students represent 54 per cent of the student population, they nevertheless are
underrepresented in some areas. Hence indicators 27-34 show the representation of female students
by broad course level.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file
       ASES9570.DAT postcode file

Filter : Students are only included once for a major course. Thus students only included where
E331 Concurrent/Major course indicator takes the value 1 or 2 (IF NOT (E331 IN (1 2)) THEN
DELETE).

Students are only included where there is some semester 1 load, that is, E091 Semester (1) load
indicator takes the value of 1.

Cross institutional students are excluded, that is, where E310 Course type code takes the value of
40.

Students at the Open Learning Agency of Australia are excluded, that is, where E306 Institution
code takes the value of 3037.

Only non-overseas students included (E358 Citizen/resident indicator codes 1,2 or 3)

Element : E316 Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander code
          E348 Language spoken at home code
          E320 Location code of permanent home residence
          E315 Sex code
          E310 Course type code

The number of Indigenous students is defined by element E316 Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
code 1.

Students from a Non-English Speaking Background (NESB) are defined as:

i) Non-overseas students (E358 Citizen/resident indicator codes 1,2 or 3)
ii) Born overseas (E346 Country of Birth codes other than 1)
iii) Main language spoken at their permanent home residence is other than English (E348 Language
spoken at home indicator code 02 to 98 inclusive) and
iv) Arrived in Australia less than 10 years ago (at the time of course commencement). This is a
    combination of E347 Year of arrival in Australia and E328 Course commencement date (we
    assume all migrants arrive, on average, on 1 July each year. Therefore, students commencing
    after 1 July in any year and who arrived in Australia 10 or more years ago are excluded from the
    definition of NESB).

The representation of female students is shown where element E315 equals ‘F’ and by element E310
course type code which is classified as follows:

Postgraduate research students are defined as higher doctorate, doctorate research and master
research students (E310 codes 1,2 or 3).

Postgraduate coursework students are defined as doctorate coursework and masters coursework
plus (E310 codes 12 and 4 respectively).

Other postgraduate students are defined as all postgraduate diploma new area, postgraduate diploma
extension area, graduate certificate and postgraduate qualifying or preliminary students (E310 codes
6, 7, 11 and 5 respectively).

Bachelors’ students are defined as Bachelor’s Graduate Entry, Bachelor’s Honours and Bachelor’
Pass (E310 codes 8,9 and 10 respectively).

Other undergraduate students are defined as advanced diploma, diploma and other award courses
(E310 codes 20, 21 and 22 respectively).

Enabling course students (E310 code 30).

Non-award students (E310 code 50).

Indicators 22-26 show the number of Indigenous, NESB, rural, isolated and low socio-economic
status students as a percentage of non-overseas students (E358 Citizen/resident indicator codes 1,2
or 3).

Indicators 27-34 show female students as a percentage of all non-overseas students by course type.
Undergraduate courses by broad field of study (35)

This indicator shows the diversity of undergraduate course offerings among institutions.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file

Filter : Students are only included once for a major course. Thus students only included where
E331 Concurrent/Major course indicator takes the value 1 or 2 (IF NOT (E331 IN (1 2)) THEN
DELETE).

Students are only included where there is some semester 1 load, that is, E091 Semester (1) load
indicator takes the value of 1.

Cross institutional students are excluded, that is, where E310 Course type code takes the value of
40.

Students at the Open Learning Agency of Australia are excluded, that is, where E306 Institution
code takes the value of 3037.

Element : E310 Course type code
         E311 Broad field of study

Only undergraduate students are included, that is, where E310 takes the value of 8, 9, 10 or is
greater than or equal to 13.

Indicator 35 shows the number of broad fields of study in which students are studying in
undergraduate and lower level courses within each institution.
Postgraduate courses by broad field of study

This indicator shows the diversity of higher level course offerings among institutions.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file

Filter : Students are only included once for a major course. Thus students only included where
E331 Concurrent/Major course indicator takes the value 1 or 2 (IF NOT (E331 IN (1 2)) THEN
DELETE).

Students are only included where there is some semester 1 load, that is, E091 Semester (1) load
indicator takes the value of 1.

Cross institutional students are excluded, that is, where E310 Course type code takes the value of
40.

Students at the Open Learning Agency of Australia are excluded, that is, where E306 Institution
code takes the value of 3037.

Element : E310 Course type code
         E311 Broad field of study

Only postgraduate students are included, that is, where E310 takes the value of 11 or 12 or is less
than or equal to 7.

Indicator 36 shows the number of broad fields of study in which students are studying in
postgraduate courses within each institution.
Number of campuses (37)

This indicator shows the physical scale and organisation of institutions.

Data : Internal DEETYA records

Indicator 37 shows the number of campuses within each institution.
Staff

Staff (38-40)

This is a context indicator showing the scale of staff resources in each institution measured in terms
of the number of full-time and fractional full-time staff.

Data : 1995 staff file

Filter : Only primary records for full-time and fractional full-time are included. Thus staff only
included where E801 Primary Record Code takes the value of 1.

Element : E406 Work Contract code

Only full-time and fractional full-time staff in their current duties are included, that is, where E406
Work Contract code takes the value of 1 or 2.
Academic and non-academic staff, full-time equivalent (FTE) (41-45)

These indicators show the deployment of staff resources (measured in full-time equivalent, FTE
units) between academic and non-academic activities. Caution should be interpreted in academic to
non-academic staff ratios since institutions can adopt different practices in classifying their support
staff. Also, the deployment of staff resources will be influenced by the institution’s profile and
student mix.

Data : 1995 staff file (actual casual staff in 1995 as reported in 1996)

Filter : Only full-time and fractional full-time staff in their current duties and actual casual staff are
included, that is, where E406 Work Contract code takes the value of 1, 2 or 4.

TAFE staff are excluded, that is, where E411 Work sector code takes the value of 2.

Element : E810 Full-time equivalence at the reference date

Academic staff are defined where E409 Current duties classification type and level group code takes
the value of 1, 2, 3 or 4.

Non-academic staff are the residual, that is, total full-time equivalent staff less academic full-time
equivalent staff.

Indicators 41-45 show academic and non-academic staff as a percentage of all staff (FTE).
Academic staff by current duties term (FTE) (46-49)

These indicators show the extent to which institutions utilise different types of academic staff and
their flexibility to deploy academic staff resources

Data : 1995 staff file (actual casual staff in 1995 as reported in 1996)

Filter : Only full-time and fractional full-time staff in their current duties and actual casual staff are
included, that is, where E406 Work Contract code takes the value of 1, 2 or 4.

TAFE staff are excluded, that is, where E411 Work sector code takes the value of 2.

Element : E810 Full-time equivalence at the reference date
          E409 Current duties classification type and level group code
          E407 Current duties term code

Academic staff are defined where E409 Current duties classification type and level group code takes
the value of 1, 2, 3 or 4.

Current duties term staff are classified as follows:

E407 is less than 81 are limited term staff
E407 is equal to 81 or 82 are tenurable staff
E407 is equal to 91 are other term staff and
E407 is equal to 99 are casual staff.

Indicators 46-49 show academic staff by current duties term as a percentage of all academic staff
(FTE).
All staff by function (FTE) (50-53)

These indicators show the orientation of institutions towards teaching and research functions as
measured by their deployment of staff resources. Different institutions adopt different practices for
classifying their ‘research only’ staff so caution must be exercised in interpreting more detailed
figures presented in these indicators.

Data : 1995 staff file (actual casual staff in 1995 as reported in 1996)

Filter : Only full-time and fractional full-time staff in their current duties and actual casual staff are
included, that is, where E406 Work Contract code takes the value of 1, 2 or 4.

TAFE staff are excluded, that is, where E411 Work sector code takes the value of 2.

Element : E810 Full-time equivalence at the reference date
          E412 Function code

Staff are classified by function as follows:

Teaching only function where E412 equals 1
Research only function where E412 equals 2
Teaching and research function where E412 equals 3 and
Other function where E412 equals 4.

Indicators 50-53 show staff by function as a percentage of all staff (FTE).
Academic staff by classification (FTE) (54-57)

These indicators show the extent to which institutions utilise staff from high or low level
classifications.

Data : 1995 staff file (actual casual staff in 1995 as reported in 1996)

Filter : Only full-time and fractional full-time staff in their current duties and actual casual staff are
included, that is, where E406 Work Contract code takes the value of 1, 2 or 4.

TAFE staff are excluded, that is, where E411 Work sector code takes the value of 2.

Element : E810 Full-time equivalence at the reference date
          E409 Current duties classification type and level group code

Academic staff are defined where E409 Current duties classification type and level group code takes
the value of 1, 2, 3 or 4.

Above senior lecturer (E409 equals 1)
Senior lecturer (E409 equals 2)
Lecturer (E409 equals 3)
Below lecturer (E409 equals 4)

Indicators 54-57 show the academic staff by classification as a percentage of all academic staff
(FTE).
Academic staff by classification and gender (FTE) (58-62)

These indicators show the representation of female staff among academic staff at different
classification levels.

Data : 1995 staff file (actual casual staff in 1995 as reported in 1996)

Filter : Only full-time and fractional full-time staff in their current duties and actual casual staff are
included, that is, where E406 Work Contract code takes the value of 1, 2 or 4.

TAFE staff are excluded, that is, where E411 Work sector code takes the value of 2.

Element : E810 Full-time equivalence at the reference date
          E409 Current duties classification type and level group code
          E402 Sex

Academic staff are defined where E409 Current duties classification type and level group code takes
the value of 1, 2, 3 or 4.

Above senior lecturer (E409 equals 1)
Senior lecturer (E409 equals 2)
Lecturer (E409 equals 3)
Below lecturer (E409 equals 4)

Male staff are defined where E402 Sex equals ‘M’ and female staff are defined where E402 Sex
equals ‘F’.

Indicators 57-62 refers to female academic staff (FTE) as a percentage of all academic staff (FTE) by
level.
Academic staff by age (FTE) (63-65)

These indicators show the age profile of academic staff in each institution.

Data : 1995 staff file

Filter : Only full-time and fractional full-time staff in their current duties are included, that is, where
E406 Work Contract code takes the value of 1 or 2 (information on the age of casual staff is not
available).

TAFE staff are excluded, that is, where E411 Work sector code takes the value of 2.

Element : E810 Full-time equivalence at the reference date
          E409 Current duties classification type and level group code
          E850 Staff age group code

Academic staff are defined where E409 Current duties classification type and level group code takes
the value of 1, 2, 3 or 4.

Age group refers to element E850 Staff age group code (age at 30 June in the reference year) which
takes the values of 1 through to 10. Five year age groups are amalgamated to form less than 30 years
of age, 30 - 49 years old and 50 years-old plus.

Indicators 63-65 refer to academic staff by age group as a percentage of all academic staff (FTE).
Academic staff by qualifications (66-69)

These indicators show the highest qualification level of academic staff in each institution for the year
1996. The indicators are derived from information provided in the Commonwealth Universities
Yearbook. The information does not represent a complete enumeration of staff but is nevertheless
based on a large sample of staff in each institution, up to order of 90 per cent of academic staff in
some institutions.

Data : ‘Qualifications of Australian Academics : Sources and Levels 1978 - 1996’, Don Anderson,
Robert Arthur and Terry Stokes, Evaluations and Investigations Program 97/11, Department of
Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs, unpublished tables for the year 1996.

Indicators 66-69 show academic staff by qualification level as a percentage of academic staff (as
reported in the Commonwealth Universities Yearbook).
Student-staff ratio by academic organisational unit (70-81)

These indicators show the efficiency of institutions in delivering educational services. It should be
noted student-staff ratios will be influenced by a number of factors including teaching standards,
mode of delivery and so on. These indicators will be subect to further development to include actual
casual staff and exclude offshore students not studying on an external basis.

Data :

Selected Higher Education Student Statistics, 1995

Table 38, Student Load (EFTSU) by Academic Organisational Unit Group (Excluding Work
Experience in Industry Load)

Selected Higher Education Staff Statistics, 1995

Table 8, FTE for Full-time and Fractional Full-time Staff, Excluding TAFE, For Activity in
Academic Organisational Units, by Academic Organisational Unit Groups

Staff figures exclude those where no information on academic organisational unit is available and
staff with a ‘research only’ function or an ‘other’ function in an academic organisational unit.

Indicators 70-81 show student load (EFTSU) as a ratio of staff (FTE) by academic organisational
unit and total.
Finance

Operating revenues (82-93)

These indicators show the diversity in funding sources and the scale of operating revenues in each
institution.

Data : Selected Higher Education Finance Statistics, 1995,

Table 1

Operating revenue before abnormal items

Commonwealth Government Grants
HECS
State Government income
Other research grants and contracts
Investment income
Continuing education fees income
Fee-paying overseas student income
Fee-paying postgraduate student income
Other fees and charges
Other (includes scholarships and prizes, donations and bequests, other income and deferred income -
Government contributions for superannuation).
Total income (total operating revenue before abnormal items)

Indicators 82-92 show operating revenue items as a percentage of total income (total operating
revenue before abnormal items). Indicator 93 shows total income in $ million.
Research income (94-96)

These indicators show the scale of research related activities in proportion to funding for teaching
activities and total operating revenues. Research funding by the Commonwealth is provided through
grants schemes and the research-related component of operating grants (the Research Quantum).
Research income is defined in these indicators as research funds provided through targeted higher
education research programmes plus the research quantum. Institutions also obtain funding through
other Commonwealth sources and private industry. Research funds provided though grants schemes
includes income from controlled entities but excludes income from Co-operative Research Centres
(CRCs).

Data : Higher Education Finance and Publications, Research Data Collection
       Selected Higher Education Finance Statistics, 1995,

Indicator 94 shows the research quantum as a percentage of Commonwealth Government Grants.
Indicator 95 shows research income as a percentage of Commonwealth Government Grants
(excluding the research quantum).
Indicator 96 shows research income as a percentage of total income (operating revenue before
abnormal items).
Research income by broad field of study (97-98)

These indicators show the extent to which institutions focus their research activities in the medical
and health field and in non-medical and health fields.

Data : Higher Education Finance and Publications, Research Data Collection

Medical and health sciences research income
Non-medical research income(includes research income from controlled entities as this is unavailable
by broad field of study).

Indicators 97 and 98 show research income by broad field of study measured in $ million.
Operating expenses (99-109)

These indicators show the expenditure patterns of institutions. The financial data presented in these
indicators are based on the official audited returns from institutions. It is important to note the
classification and reporting procedures of institutions may vary because of auditing requirements and
therefore caution needs to be exercised in making comparisons between institutions. The
presentation of financial data may well facilitate the development of uniform reporting standards.

Data : Selected Higher Education Finance Statistics, 1995,

Table 1

Operating expenses before abnormal items

Academic activities
Libraries
Other academic support services
Student services
Public services
Buildings and grounds
Admin. & other general institution services
Deferred employee benefits for superannuation
Other
Total expenses (total operating expenses before abnormal items)

Indicators 98-108 show expenses items as a percentage of total expenses (total operating expenses
before abnormal items). Indicator 109 shows total expenses in $million.
Salaries and salary related costs (110)

This indicator shows the extent to which institution’s expenditures are allocated to salary or salary
related expenditures.

Data : Selected Higher Education Finance Statistics, 1995,

Table 1

Total operating expenses before abnormal items

Table 2

University operating expenses by type of expenditure

Salaries and salary related costs for all staff

Indicator 110 shows salary and salary related costs as a percentage of total expenses (total operating
expenses before abnormal items).
Operating expenses per EFTSU (111-113)

These indicators show the resources allocated to particular educational services within institutions.
The financial data presented in these indicators are based on the official audited returns from
institutions. It is important to note the classification and reporting procedures of institutions may
vary because of auditing requirements and therefore caution needs to be exercised in making
comparisons between institutions.


Data : Selected Higher Education Finance Statistics, 1995,
       1995 students unit record enrolment file

Table 1

Operating expenses before abnormal items

Libraries
Other academic support services
Student services

In $ million.

EFTSU

Element : E931 Total EFTSU value in aggregate

Indicators 111-113 show library, other academic support services and student services expenses per
EFTSU in $.
Assets (114-117)

These indicators show the scale and nature of resources available to institutions to pursue their
educational objectives. Indicator 117, total expenses as a percentage of total assets is intended to
show the scale of each institution’s activities in relation to its resource base.

Data : Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, ‘Financial Analysis of 37 Higher Education Institutions’
        Financial Statements’
       Selected Higher Education Finance Statistics, 1995,

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu

Property, equipment and library books
Total non-current assets
Total net assets
Total assets

Selected Higher Education Finance Statistics, 1995,

Table 1

Operating expenses before abnormal items

Indicators 114-117 shows asset holdings in 1995 measured in $ million. Indicator 118 shows total
operating expenses before abnormal items as a percentage of total assets.
Outcomes

Retention rate (119-121)

These indicators shows the ability of institutions to retain their students which represents one
dimension of the effectiveness of the delivery of educational services. The retention rate excludes
those students who complete their courses but includes students who transfer to another course
within the institution. The performance score shown in indicator 121 assesses institutional
performance in retaining students using national benchmarks.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file
       1996 students unit record enrolment file
       1996 student completions unit record file

Indicator 119 shows the crude retention rate and is defined as follows:

Retained students in 1996 / Base students in 1995

where Base students = Total students in 1995 - Completing students in 1995

Note students completing in 1995 are obtained from the 1996 student completions unit record file.

The number of retained students in 1996 is obtained by matching base students in 1995 with students
in 1996 using student identification numbers.


Total students in 1995 :

Filter : Students are only included once for a major course. Thus students only included where
E331 Concurrent/Major course indicator takes the value 1 or 2 (IF NOT (E331 IN (1 2)) THEN
DELETE).

Students are only included where there is some semester 1 load, that is, E091 Semester (1 ) load
indicator takes the value of 1.

Cross institutional students are excluded, that is, where E310 Course type code takes the value of
40.

Students at the Open Learning Agency of Australia are excluded, that is, where E306 Institution
code takes the value of 3037.

Retained students in 1996

Filter : Students are only included once for a major course. Thus students only included where
E331 Concurrent/Major course indicator takes the value 1 or 2 (IF NOT (E331 IN (1 2)) THEN
DELETE).

Students are only included where there is some semester 1 load, that is, E091 Semester (1 ) load
indicator takes the value of 1.
Cross institutional students are excluded, that is, where E310 Course type code takes the value of
40.

Students at the Open Learning Agency of Australia are excluded, that is, where E306 Institution
code takes the value of 3037.

Completing students in 1995

Only students with a primary record are included, that is, where E089 Primary record indicator takes
the value of 1.

Indicator 120 shows the expected retention rate and is calculated as follows :

The national retention rate is calculated at each level of the following cross-classification :

Sex*Age*Indigenous*NESB*Level of course*Broad field of study*Basis of admission*Type of
enrolment*Socio-economic status

Then for each institution calculate the number of students at each level of the above cross-
classification and divide by the total number of students in 1995 (as defined above). These form a
set of institutional weights.

To derive the expected retention rate for an institution first multiply the national retention rate at
each level of the cross-classification by the respective institution weight. The expected retention rate
for an institution is the sum of the these products, that is, the national retention rate for each cross-
classification multiplied by the respective proportion of students for that institution.

Indicator 121 shows the performance score for each institution and is measured as the crude
retention rate divided by the expected retention rate and multiplied by 100.

Explanation of variables in cross-classification

Sex as defined by element E315

Age as defined by element E997 Participation age code, age at 30 June in the reference year, and
sorted into age groups
0-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30+

Indigenous status as defined by element E316 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander code

NESB status

Students from a Non-English Speaking Background (NESB) are defined as:

i) Australian students (E358 Citizen/resident indicator codes 1,2 or 3)
ii) Born overseas (E346 Country of Birth codes other than 1)
iii) Main language spoken at their permanent home residence is other than English (E348 Language
spoken at home indicator code 02 to 98 inclusive) and
iv) Arrived in Australia less than 10 years ago (at the time of course commencement). This is a
    combination of E347 Year of arrival in Australia and E328 Course commencement date).
NB This definition differs slightly from the definition of NESB used in the Martin Report in that year
of arrival is measured in terms of the course commencement date.

Course type as defined by Element E310 codes 1 through 50

     E310_01 = 'Higher Doctorate'
     E310_02 = 'Doctorate by Research'
     E310_03 = "Master's by Research"
     E310_04 = "Master's by Coursework"
     E310_05 = 'Postgrad. Qual/ Prelim.'
     E310_06 = 'Grad.(Post) Dip. - new area'
     E310_07 = 'Grad.(Post) Dip. - extn. area'
     E310_08 = "Bachelor's Graduate Entry"
     E310_09 = "Bachelor's Honours"
     E310_10 = "Bachelor's Pass"
     E310_11 = 'Graduate Certificate'
     E310_12 = 'Doctorate by Coursework'
     E310_20 = 'Diploma'
     E310_21 = 'Associate Diploma'
     E310_22 = 'Other award course'
     E310_30 = 'Enabling course'
     E310_40 = 'Cross Institutional'
     E310_50 = 'Non-award course'


Broad field of study as defined by element E311 field of study code

     E311_01 = 'Agriculture, Animal Husbandry'
     E311_02 = 'Architecture, Building'
     E311_03 = 'Arts, Humanities, Social Sc.'
     E311_04 = 'Business, Admin, Economics'
     E311_05 = 'Education'
     E311_06 = 'Engineering Surveying'
     E311_07 = 'Health'
     E311_07A = 'Health - Nursing' (E311 = 70402, 70403)
     E311_08 = 'Law, Legal Studies'
     E311_09 = 'Science'
     E311_10 = 'Veterinary Science'

Basis of admission as defined by E327 basis for admission to current course

E327_01 = 'Not a commencing student'
    E327_11 = 'Completed higher ed. course'
    E327_12 = 'Incomplete higher ed. course'
    E327_13 = 'TAFE award'
    E327_14 = 'Secondary ed. completed at school'
    E327_15 = 'Secondary ed. completed at TAFE or other'
    E327_16 = 'Mature age special entry provisions'
    E327_17 = 'Special entry other than mature age'
    E327_18 = 'Examination or assessment by instn'
    E327_19 = 'Employment experience'
     E327_20 = 'Professional qualification’
     E327_29 = 'Other basis'

Type of enrolment as defined by E918 type of enrolment code

     E918_1 = 'External'
     E918_2 = 'Full-time'
     E918_3 = 'Part-time'

Socio-economic status as defined by the Australian socio-economic status postcode indicator with 1
= low socio-economic status and 2 = other.
Student progress rate (122-124)

These indicators provide a measure of educational achievement and the effectiveness of educational
delivery. The student progress rate measures successful student subject load. Since the notion of
success in subjects is problematic for research students and students in higher level courses, these
indicators focus on Bachelor Pass level subjects only. These indicators may be subject to further
development to include additional undergraduate subjects.

Data : 1995 students unit record enrolment file
       1995 unit of study completion details (submission 3 load file)


Indicator 122 shows the crude student progress rate and is defined as :

Total successful EFTSU/ Base EFTSU

where Base EFTSU = Total EFTSU - Total EFTSU result not determined


Units of study in 1995

From 1995 unit of study completion details


Filter : Exclude industrial experience E337 industrial experience code equals 2.

EFTSU status is given by element E339 Total EFTSU value and E355 Unit of study completion
status where 1 = withdrew, 2= failed, 3= success, 4=no result.

Total students in 1995 :

From 1995 students unit record enrolment file

Filter : Only Bachelor Pass level students are included, that is, where element E310 course type
code takes the value of 10.

Indicator 123 shows the expected student progress rate and is calculated as follows :

The national student progress rate is calculated at each level of the following cross-classification :

Sex*Age*Indigenous*NESB *Broad field of study*Basis of admission*Type of enrolment*Socio-
economic status

This requires the matching of the student unit enrolment file with the unit of study completion status
(submission 3 load file) to match student characteristics with subject status.

Then for each institution calculate the number of students at each level of the above cross-
classification and divide by the total number of students in 1995 (as defined above). These form a
set of institutional weights.
To derive the expected student progress rate for an institution first multiply the national student
progress rate at each level of the cross-classification by the respective institution weight. The
expected student progress rate for an institution is the sum of the these products, that is, the national
student progress rate for each cross-classification multiplied by the respective proportion of students
for that institution.

Indicator 124 shows the performance score for each institution and is defined as the crude student
progress rate divided by the expected student progress rate and multiplied by 100.

Explanation of variables in cross-classification

Sex as defined by element E315

Age as defined by element E997 Participation age code and sorted into age groups
0-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30+

Indigenous status as defined by element E316 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander code

NESB status

Students from a Non-English Speaking Background (NESB) are defined as:

i) Australian students (E358 Citizen/resident indicator codes 1,2 or 3)
ii) Born overseas (E346 Country of Birth codes other than 1)
iii) Main language spoken at their permanent home residence is other than English (E348 Language
spoken at home indicator code 02 to 98 inclusive) and
iv) Arrived in Australia less than 10 years ago (at the time of course commencement). This is a
    combination of E347 Year of arrival in Australia and E328 Course commencement date).

NB This definition differs slightly from the definition of NESB used in the Martin Report in that year
of arrival is measured in terms of the course commencement date.

Broad field of study as defined by element E311 field of study code

      E311_01 = 'Agriculture, Animal Husbandry'
      E311_02 = 'Architecture, Building'
      E311_03 = 'Arts, Humanities, Social Sc.'
      E311_04 = 'Business, Admin, Economics'
      E311_05 = 'Education'
      E311_06 = 'Engineering Surveying'
      E311_07 = 'Health'
      E311_07A = 'Health - Nursing' (E311 = 70402, 70403)
      E311_08 = 'Law, Legal Studies'
      E311_09 = 'Science'
      E311_10 = 'Veterinary Science'

Basis of admission as defined by E327 basis for admission to current course

E327_01 = 'Not a commencing student'
    E327_11 = 'Completed higher ed. course'
    E327_12 = 'Incomplete higher ed. course'
     E327_13   = 'TAFE award'
     E327_14   = 'Secondary ed. completed at school'
     E327_15   = 'Secondary ed. completed at TAFE or other'
     E327_16   = 'Mature age special entry provisions'
     E327_17   = 'Special entry other than mature age'
     E327_18   = 'Examination or assessment by instn'
     E327_19   = 'Employment experience'
     E327_20   = 'Professional qualification'
     E327_29   = 'Other basis'

Type of enrolment as defined by E918 type of enrolment code

     E918_1 = 'External'
     E918_2 = 'Full-time'
     E918_3 = 'Part-time'

Socio-economic status as defined by the Australian socio-economic status postcode indicator with 1
= low socio-economic status and 2 = other.
Graduate full-time employment (125-128)

These indicators shows the proportion of graduates graduates in full-time employment as a
percentage of graduates available for full-time work. From a domestic perspective it seems more
appropriate to focus on the employment outcomes of Australian graduates only. These indicators
refer only to graduates who were previously full-time students to avoid any bias that might arise as a
result of part-time and external students being more likely to be in continuing employment while they
studied.

Data : 1996 student completions unit record enrolment file
       1996 Graduate destination survey file

Completing students in 1996 :

Note graduates completing in 1995 are obtained from the 1996 student completions unit record file.

Filter : Only graduates with a primary record are included, that is, where E089 Primary record
indicator takes the value of 1.

Only Bachelor Pass and Honours graduates are examined E310 Course type code takes the value of
9 and 10.

Only full-time students are included that is where E918 Type of enrolment code takes the value of 2.

Only include non-overseas graduates that is where E358 Citizen/Resident indicator takes the value of
1, 2 or 3.

Graduate students in 1996

Filter : Only Bachelor Pass and Honours graduates are examined that is where LEVEL takes the
value of 1 or 2.

Only graduates that attended full-time are included that is where ATTEND takes the value of 1.

Only include Australian graduates that is where PERMRES takes the value of 1.

Graduates who were provided time-off in lieu by their employer are excluded, that is, where
FYTOFF takes the value of 1.


Graduates in full-time employment is defined where EMPTOT takes the value of 1 (see attachment
for derivation of EMPTOT from the Graduate Destination Survey).

Graduates available for full-time employment is defined as graduates in full-time employment plus
graduates seeking full-time work. That is, where EMPTOT takes the value of 1 or where SEEKFT
takes the value of 1 or 2. Graduates seeking full-time employment include two categories. First,
graduates not engaged in full-time study and who are working part-time but seeking full-time work
(STUDY is not equal to 1 and ACTIVITY equals 3). The second category includes graduates not in
full-time study who are not working and are seeking full-time work only or any work (STUDY not
equal to 1 and ACTIVITY equals 5 or 7).
If response rates to the Graduate Destination Survey vary among graduates with different
characteristics and if those groups have varying full-time employment rates (full-time employment
divided by available for full-time employment) then simple full-time employment rates from the GDS
may not give a fair picture of full-time employment rates in institutions. To overcome this problem,
the number of graduates in full-time employment and available for full-time employment with
particular characteristics recorded in the GDS are scaled by the number of graduates divided by the
number of respondents with the same characteristics. It is assumed there is no response bias in
employment outcomes among respondents and non-respondents. This seems a reasonable
assumption given the findings of a survey examining response bias in the GDS (Guthrie and Johnson,
‘Study of Non-Response to the Graduate Destination Survey, Evaluations and Investigations
Program 97/10, DEETYA).

Graduates in full-time employment and available for full-time employment are scaled according to
the following characteristics; gender, course type and broad field of study. We then assume the
scaled number of graduates in full-time employment and available for employment at the broad level
of classification, that is by gender, course type and broad field of study is distributed in the same
proportion by age, Indigenous and NESB status as graduate respondents in full-time employment
and available for full-time employment classified by gender, course type and field of study. (We
adopt this procedure rather than scaling at the finer level of classification because this would lead to
the omission of too many records as a result of missing values for the age, ATSI and NESB
variables.) The ‘scaling’ variables are defined in the DEETYA student completions unit record file
and the GDS file in the following manner:


DEETYA student completions unit record file

Gender as defined by element E315 Sex

Age as defined by element E913 (age calculated at 31 December prior to the reference year) and
divided into four age groups, less than or equal to 19, 20 to 24, 25 to 29 and 30 and over.

Indigenous status as defined by element E316 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander code

NESB

Note students from a Non-English Speaking Background (NESB) are defined in this indicator to
conform with the GDS definition which does not correspond with the earlier definition of NESB
used for the equity indicators.

NESB is defined by element E348 Language spoken at home indicator code which takes the value of
2 to 98 inclusive.

Course type as defined by Element E310 codes 9 and 10

      E310_09 = "Bachelor's Honours"
      E310_10 = "Bachelor's Pass"

Broad field of study as defined by element E311 field of study code

      E311_01 = 'Agriculture, Animal Husbandry'
      E311_02 = 'Architecture, Building'
      E311_03 = 'Arts, Humanities, Social Sc.'
      E311_04 = 'Business, Admin, Economics'
      E311_05 = 'Education'
      E311_06 = 'Engineering Surveying'
      E311_07 = 'Health'
      E311_07A = 'Health - Nursing' (E311 = 70402, 70403)
      E311_08 = 'Law, Legal Studies'
      E311_09 = 'Science'
      E311_10 = 'Veterinary Science'

GDS file

Sex, ATSI and NESB as shown in the GDS files.

Age from the AGE variable and sorted into age groups, less than 19, 20 to 24, 25 to 29 and 30 plus.

Broad field of study is derived from the MAJ1 variable and adopts the same categories as element
E311 field of study code from the DEETYA student data collection.

Course type from the LEVEL variable where the value is 1 or 2 for Bachelor Pass and Bachelor
Honours courses.

Indicator 125 shows the GDS response rate for Australian graduates.

Indicator 126 shows the crude score which is the scaled number of graduates in full-time
employment divided by the scaled number of graduates available for full-time employment.

Indicator 127 shows the expected score which is calculated as follows :

The national full-time employment rate is calculated at each level of the following cross-classification
(using the scaled number of graduates in full-time employment and the scaled number of graduates
available for full-time employment) :

Sex*Age*Indigenous*NESB*Level of course*Broad field of study

Then for each institution calculate the number of graduates at each level of the above cross-
classification and divide by the total number of graduates. These form a set of institutional weights.

To derive the expected full-time employment rate for an institution first multiply the national full-
time employment rate at each level of the cross-classification by the respective institution weight.
The expected full-time employment rate for an institution is the sum of these products, that is, the
national full-time employment rate for each cross-classification multiplied by the respective
proportion of graduates for that institution.

Indicator 128 shows the performance score for each institution and is defined as the crude full-time
employment rate divided by the expected full-time employment rate and multiplied by 100.
Graduate full-time study (129-132)

These indicators shows the proportion of graduates proceeding to full-time study. The
From a domestic perspective it seems more appropriate to focus on the employment outcomes of
Australian graduates only. These indicators refer only to Bachelor Pass level graduates since these
comprise the majority of graduating students. These indicators will be subject to further
development to include Bachelor Honours level graduates.

Data : 1996 student completions unit record enrolment file
       1996 Graduate destination survey file

Completing students in 1996 :

Note graduates completing in 1995 are obtained from the 1996 student completions unit record file.

Filter : Only graduates with a primary record are included, that is, where E089 Primary record
indicator takes the value of 1.

Only Bachelor Pass graduates are examined E310 Course type code takes the value of 10.

Only include non-overseas students that is where E358 Citizen/Resident indicator takes the value of
1, 2 or 3.

Graduate students in 1996

Filter : Only Bachelor Pass graduates are examined that is where LEVEL takes the value of 1.

Only include Australian graduates that is where PERMRES takes the value of 1.

Graduates proceeding to full-time study are defined where FTSTUDY takes the value of 1.

We follow the same procedure as for the full-time employment rate indicator and scale the number of
graduates in full-time study according to the following characteristics; gender, age, Indigenous and
NESB status, broad field of study and type of enrolment. These variables are defined in the
DEETYA student completions unit record file and the GDS file in the following manner:

DEETYA student completions unit record file

Gender as defined by element E315 Sex

Age as defined by element E913 (age calculated at 31 December prior to the reference year) and
divided into four age groups, less than or equal to 19, 20 to 24, 25 to 29 and 30 and over.

Indigenous status as defined by element E316 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander code

NESB status

Note students from a Non-English Speaking Background (NESB) are defined in this indicator to
conform with the GDS definition which does not correspond with the earlier definition of NESB
used for the equity indicators.
NESB is defined by element E348 Language spoken at home indicator code which takes the value of
2 to 98 inclusive.

Broad field of study as defined by element E311 field of study code

      E311_01 = 'Agriculture, Animal Husbandry'
      E311_02 = 'Architecture, Building'
      E311_03 = 'Arts, Humanities, Social Sc.'
      E311_04 = 'Business, Admin, Economics'
      E311_05 = 'Education'
      E311_06 = 'Engineering Surveying'
      E311_07 = 'Health'
      E311_07A = 'Health - Nursing' (E311 = 70402, 70403)
      E311_08 = 'Law, Legal Studies'
      E311_09 = 'Science'
      E311_10 = 'Veterinary Science'

Type of enrolment as defined by element E918 type of enrolment code

GDS file

Sex, ATSI and NESB as shown in the GDS files.

Age from the AGE variable and sorted into age groups, less than 19, 20 to 24, 25 to 29 and 30 plus.

Broad field of study is derived from the MAJ1 variable and adopts the same categories as element
E311 field of study code from the DEETYA student data collection.

Type of attendance in the GDS file does not directly correspond with element E918 type of
attendance from the DEETYA student collection. On the basis of comparing responses for the
ATTEND (GDS file) and E918 type of enrolment (DEETYA student collection) variables it was
decided to recode responses in the fourth category of the ATTEND variable, ‘A combination of the
above (full-time, part-time and external study) to part-time study.

Indicator 129 shows the GDS response rate for Australian graduates.

Indicator 130 shows the crude score which is the scaled number of graduates in full-time study
divided by the number of graduates for each institution.

Indicator 131 shows the expected score and is calculated as follows :

The national full-time study rate is calculated at each level of the following cross-classification (using
the scaled number of graduates in full-time study and the number of graduates) :

Sex*Age*Indigenous*NESB*Broad field of study*Type of enrolment

Then for each institution calculate the number of graduates at each level of the above cross-
classification and divide by the total number of graduates. These form a set of institutional weights.

To derive the expected full-time study rate for an institution first multiply the national full-time study
rate at each level of the cross-classification by the respective institution weight. The expected full-
time study rate for an institution is the sum of these products, that is, the national full-time study rate
for each cross-classification multiplied by the respective proportion of graduates for that institution.

Indicator 132 shows the performance score for each institution and is defined as the crude full-time
study rate divided by the expected full-time study rate and multiplied by 100.
Graduate starting salaries (133-136)

These indicators show graduates’ mean starting salaries and this represents one important dimension
of post-graduation outcomes. From a domestic perspective it seems more appropriate to focus on
the employment outcomes of Australian graduates only. These indicators refer only to graduates
who were previously full-time students and who are in their first full-time job to avoid any bias that
might arise as a result of part-time and external students being more likely to be in continuing
employment while undertaking their studies.

Data : 1996 student completions unit record enrolment file
       1996 Graduate destination survey file

Completing students in 1996 :

Note graduates completing in 1995 are obtained from the 1996 student completions unit record file.

Filter : Only graduates with a primary record are included, that is, where E089 Primary record
indicator takes the value of 1.

Only Bachelor Pass and Honours graduates are examined E310 Course type code takes the value of
9 and 10.

Only full-time students are included that is where E918 Type of enrolment code takes the value of 2.

Only include non-overseas graduates that is where E358 Citizen/Resident indicator takes the value of
1, 2 or 3.

Graduate students in 1996

Filter : Only Bachelor Pass and Honours graduates are examined that is where LEVEL takes the
value of 1 or 2.

Only graduates that attended full-time are included that is where ATTEND takes the value of 1.

Only graduates in their first full-time job that is where FIRSTFT takes the value of 1.

Only include Australian graduates that is where PERMRES takes the value of 1.

Graduates who were provided time-off in lieu by their employer are excluded, that is, where
FYTOFF takes the value of 1.

We follow the same procedure as for the full-time employment rate indicator and scale graduate
starting salaries according to the following characteristics; gender, age, ATSI and NESB status,
course type and broad field of study. These variables are defined in the DEETYA student
completions unit record file and the GDS file in the following manner:

DEETYA student completions unit record file

Gender as defined by element E315 Sex
Age as defined by element E913 (age calculated at 31 December prior to the reference year) and
divided into four age groups, less than or equal to 19, 20 to 24, 25 to 29 and 30 and over.

Indigenous status as defined by element E316 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander code

NESB status

Note students from a Non-English Speaking Background (NESB) are defined in this indicator to
conform with the GDS definition which does not correspond with the earlier definition of NESB
used for the equity indicators.

NESB is defined by element E348 Language spoken at home indicator code which takes the value of
2 to 98 inclusive.

Course type as defined by Element E310 codes 9 and 10

     E310_09 = "Bachelor's Honours"
     E310_10 = "Bachelor's Pass"

Broad field of study as defined by element E311 field of study code

     E311_01 = 'Agriculture, Animal Husbandry'
     E311_02 = 'Architecture, Building'
     E311_03 = 'Arts, Humanities, Social Sc.'
     E311_04 = 'Business, Admin, Economics'
     E311_05 = 'Education'
     E311_06 = 'Engineering Surveying'
     E311_07 = 'Health'
     E311_07A = 'Health - Nursing' (E311 = 70402, 70403)
     E311_08 = 'Law, Legal Studies'
     E311_09 = 'Science'
     E311_10 = 'Veterinary Science'

GDS file

Sex, ATSI and NESB as shown in the GDS files.

Age from the AGE variable and sorted into age groups, less than 19, 20 to 24, 25 to 29 and 30 plus.

Broad field of study is derived from the MAJ1 variable and adopts the same categories as element
E311 field of study code from the DEETYA student data collection.

Course type from the LEVEL variable where the value is 1 or 2 for Bachelor Pass and Bachelor
Honours courses.

Indicator 133 shows the GDS response rate for Australian graduates.

Indicator 134 shows the crude score which is the scaled graduate starting salary.

Indicator 135 shows the expected score and is calculated as follows :
The national (average) graduate starting salary is calculated at each level of the following cross-
classification (using the scaled graduate starting salaries within each institution) :

Sex*Age*Indigenous*NESB*Level of course*Broad field of study

Then for each institution calculate the number of graduates at each level of the above cross-
classification and divide by the total number of graduates. These form a set of institutional weights.

To derive the expected graduate starting salary for an institution first multiply the graduate starting
salary at each level of the cross-classification by the respective institution weight. The graduate
starting salary for an institution is the sum of these products.

Indicator 136 shows the performance score for each institution and is defined as the crude graduate
starting salary divided by the expected graduate starting salary and multiplied by 100.
Graduate satisfaction - overall satisfaction, good teaching and generic skills (137-148)

These indicators show graduates’ satisfaction with three aspects of their courses, overall satisfaction,
good teaching and generic skills as measured by the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ). Since
the indicators refer to satisfaction with the delivery of educational services it seems appropriate to
have a broad focus on all graduates and not just Australian graduates. The graduate satisfaction
indicators refer to mean Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) scores for Bachelor Pass and
Bachelor Honours graduates.

Data : 1996 student completions unit record enrolment file
       1996 Graduate destination survey file

Completing students in 1996 :

Note graduates completing in 1995 are obtained from the 1996 student completions unit record file.

Filter : Only graduates with a primary record are included, that is, where E089 Primary record
indicator takes the value of 1.

Only Bachelor Pass and Honours graduates are examined E310 Course type code takes the value of
9 and 10.

Graduate students in 1996

Filter : Only Bachelor Pass and Honours graduates are examined that is where LEVEL takes the
value of 1 or 2.

We follow the same procedure as the GDS in calculating mean scores for the overall satisfaction,
generic skills and good teaching scales. That is, records are excluded where there is no response to
the overall satisfaction item. Similarly, missing values to more than two of the six items for the
generic skills scale results in that record being excluded and likewise for the good teaching scale.

We follow the same procedure as for the full-time employment rate indicator and scale CEQ mean
scores according to the following characteristics; gender, age, Indigenous and NESB status, course
type, broad field of study and type of enrolment. These variables are defined in the DEETYA
student completions unit record file and the GDS file in the following manner:

DEETYA student completions unit record file

Gender as defined by element E315 Sex

Age as defined by element E913 (age calculated at 31 December prior to the reference year) and
divided into four age groups, less than or equal to 19, 20 to 24, 25 to 29 and 30 and over.

Indigenous status as defined by element E316 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander code

NESB status

Note students from a Non-English Speaking Background (NESB) are defined in this indicator to
conform with the GDS definition which does not correspond with the earlier definition of NESB
used for the equity indicators.
NESB is defined by element E348 Language spoken at home indicator code which takes the value of
2 to 98 inclusive.

Course type as defined by Element E310 codes 9 and 10

     E310_09 = "Bachelor's Honours"
     E310_10 = "Bachelor's Pass"

Broad field of study as defined by element E311 field of study code

     E311_01 = 'Agriculture, Animal Husbandry'
     E311_02 = 'Architecture, Building'
     E311_03 = 'Arts, Humanities, Social Sc.'
     E311_04 = 'Business, Admin, Economics'
     E311_05 = 'Education'
     E311_06 = 'Engineering Surveying'
     E311_07 = 'Health'
     E311_07A = 'Health - Nursing' (E311 = 70402, 70403)
     E311_08 = 'Law, Legal Studies'
     E311_09 = 'Science'
     E311_10 = 'Veterinary Science'

Type of enrolment as defined by element E918 type of enrolment code

GDS file

Sex, ATSI and NESB as shown in the GDS files.

Age from the AGE variable and sorted into age groups, less than 19, 20 to 24, 25 to 29 and 30 plus.

Course type from the LEVEL variable where the value is 1 or 2 for Bachelor Pass and Bachelor
Honours courses.

Broad field of study is derived from the MAJ1 variable and adopts the same categories as element
E311 field of study code from the DEETYA student data collection.

Type of attendance in the GDS file does not directly correspond with element E918 type of
attendance from the DEETYA student collection. On the basis of comparing responses for the
ATTEND (GDS file) and E918 type of enrolment (DEETYA student collection) variables it was
decided to recode responses in the fourth category of the ATTEND variable, ‘A combination of the
above (full-time, part-time and external study) to part-time study.

Indicators 137, 141, 145 show the GDS response rates for all graduates.

Indicators 138, 142 and 146 show the crude score which is the scaled CEQ mean score for overall
satisfaction, good teaching and generic skills.

Indicators 139, 143 and 147 show the expected score and are calculated as follows :
The national (average) CEQ mean score is calculated at each level of the following cross-
classification (using the scaled CEQ mean score within each institution) :

Sex*Age*Indigenous*NESB*Level of course*Broad field of study*Type of enrolment

Then for each institution calculate the number of graduates at each level of the above cross-
classification and divide by the total number of graduates. These form a set of institutional weights.

To derive the expected CEQ mean score for an institution first multiply the CEQ mean score at each
level of the cross-classification by the respective institution weight. The CEQ mean score for an
institution is the sum of these products.

Indicators 140, 144 and 148 show the performance scores for each institution and are defined as the
crude CEQ mean score less the expected CEQ mean score (measured in percentage points). A
performance score of plus 10 on the overall satisfaction item implies that the mean score for overall
satisfaction for that institution is 10 percentage points higher than might have been expected given
the institution’s student mix and other characteristics.
                                                                               ATTACHMENT

Derivation of EMPTOT variable from the Graduate Destination Survey


Graduates in full-time employment are those where the variable EMPTOT takes the value of one.

The EMPTOT variable is derived from the STUDY and ACTIVITY variables. However, there are
a number of consistency checks which synthesise the responses from the STUDY and ACTIVITY
variables. The variables EMPTYPE1, EMPLOYER, INDUSTRY, DEST and DEST1 perform this
task. DEST1 produces the following variables GOVT, PINC, HEALTH, EDUC and OTHER and
these variables combined generate estimates of full-time employment, that is, where EMPTOT takes
the value of 1.

The SPSS code used in the Graduate Destination Survey to generate the EMPTOT variable is shown
below.

* FTWORK - aggregate Q4c
 - 1 GOVT 2 PRIV 3 EDUC 4 OTHER

if (((activity eq 1) or (activity eq 2)) and (study ne 1)) ftwork = emptype

if (((activity eq 1) or (activity eq 2)) and (study ne 1)
 and (emptype eq 0)) ftwork = 9

if (((activity eq 1) or (activity eq 2)) and (study ne 1)
 and (missing(emptype))) ftwork = 9

recode ftwork (1 thru 3 = 1) (6, 7 = 2) (4, 5 = 3) (8, 9 = 4).

value labels ftwork 1 'GOVT' 2 'PRIV' 3 'EDUC' 4 'OTHER'.
variable labels ftwork 'WORK FT'.

* DEST VARIABLE - PRESENT DESTINATIONS AS A SINGLE VARIABLE

* First create a new variable - employer - for all respondents
* to mirror previous employer codes.

* make everyone equal 'other, NI'.
compute employer = 120.
if (emptype eq 1) employer = 1.
if (emptype eq 2) employer = 4.
if (emptype eq 3) employer = 6.
if ((emptype eq 4) or (emptype eq 5)) employer = 110.
if ((emptype eq 6) or (emptype eq 7)) employer =8.

* Now fix up anomalies.
* Fed govt/hi ed to Hi ed.
if ((emptype eq 1) and ((industry eq 126) or (industry eq 127)))
 employer = 100.
* Fed govt/schools to Pub ed.
if ((emptype eq 1) and ((industry ge 121) and (industry le 125)))
 employer = 90.
* Fed govt/other ed to Other ed.
if ((emptype eq 1) and (industry eq 120)) employer = 110.

* State govt/hi ed to Hi ed.
if ((emptype eq 2) and ((industry eq 126) or (industry eq 127)))
 employer = 100.
* State govt/schools to Pub ed.
if ((emptype eq 2) and ((industry ge 121) and (industry le 125)))
 employer = 90.
* State govt/other ed to Other ed.
if ((emptype eq 2) and (industry eq 120)) employer = 110.

* Priv Sect/hi ed to Hi ed.
if ((emptype eq 6) and ((industry eq 126) or (industry eq 127)))
 employer = 100.
* Priv Sect/schools to Pub ed.
if ((emptype eq 6) and ((industry ge 121) and (industry le 125)))
 employer = 90.
* Priv Sect/other ed to Other ed.
if ((emptype eq 6) and (industry eq 120)) employer = 110.

* Priv Sect/ed to Priv Ed.
if ((emptype eq 6) and ((industry ge 120) and (industry le 125)))
 emptype = 5.
if ((emptype eq 6) and ((industry eq 126) or (industry eq 127)))
 employer = 100.
* Self Emp/ed to Other Ed.
if ((emptype eq 7) and ((industry ge 120) and (industry le 127)))
 employer = 110.

if ((employer eq 90) and ((industry eq 126) or (industry eq 127)))
 employer = 100.
if ((employer eq 90) and (industry lt 120)) employer = 110.
if ((employer eq 90) and (industry gt 127)) employer = 110.
if ((employer eq 90) and (industry eq 120)) employer = 110.

if ((employer eq 120) and ((industry eq 126) or (industry eq 127)))
 employer = 100.
if ((emptype eq 120) and ((industry ge 120) and (industry le 125)))
 employer = 90.
if ((employer eq 120) and (industry lt 120)) employer = 110.
if ((employer eq 120) and (industry gt 127)) employer = 110.
if ((employer eq 120) and (industry eq 120)) employer = 110.

* Split education up on basis of industry code & duties code.
if ((employer eq 110) and ((industry eq 126) or (industry eq 127)))
 employer = 100.
if ((employer eq 110) and ((industry ge 121) and (industry le 125)))
 employer = 90.
if ((employer eq 110) and (duties eq 074)) employer = 100.
if ((employer eq 110) and ((duties ge 070) and (duties le 073)))
 employer = 90.
if (employer eq 110) industry = 120.

compute green = 2.
if ((industry ge 120) and (industry le 127)) green = 1.
if ((emptype eq 5) and (green eq 2)) industry = 120

* create Defence category.
if (industry eq 116) employer = 2.

* these 4 transformations pull prof priv pract out of ind/comm.
if ((emptype eq 6) and ((industry ge 101) and (industry le 104)))
 employer = 7.
if ((emptype eq 7) and ((industry ge 101) and (industry le 104)))
 employer = 7.
if ((emptype eq 6) and ((industry eq 132) or (industry eq 133)))
 employer = 7.
if ((emptype eq 7) and ((industry eq 132) or (industry eq 133)))
 employer = 7.

if ((missing(emptype)) and ((industry ge 10) and (industry le 100)))
 employer = 8.
if ((missing(emptype)) and ((industry ge 101) and (industry le 104)))
 employer = 7.
if ((missing(emptype)) and ((industry eq 132) or (industry eq 133)))
 employer = 7.
if ((missing(emptype)) and (industry eq 111)) employer = 1.
if ((missing(emptype)) and (industry eq 112)) employer = 4.
if ((missing(emptype)) and ((industry ge 121) and (industry le 125)))
 employer = 90.
if ((missing(emptype)) and ((industry eq 126) or (industry eq 127)))
 employer = 100.
if ((missing(emptype)) and (industry eq 120)) employer = 110.

if ((missing(industry)) and (emptype eq 1)) employer = 1.
if ((missing(industry)) and (emptype eq 2)) employer = 4.
if ((missing(industry)) and (emptype eq 3)) employer = 6.
if ((missing(industry)) and (emptype eq 4)) employer = 110.
if ((missing(industry)) and (emptype eq 5)) employer = 110.
if ((missing(industry)) and (emptype eq 1)) employer = 1.

if (((emptype eq 1) or (emptype eq 2) or (emptype eq 3)) and
 ((industry eq 130) or (industry eq 131))) employer = 80.
if ((emptype eq 6) and ((industry eq 130) or (industry eq 131)))
 employer = 81.
if (((emptype eq 7) or (emptype eq 8) or (emptype eq 9) or
 (missing(emptype))) and ((industry eq 130) or (industry eq 131)))
 employer = 81.
if ((employer eq 120) and ((industry eq 130) or (industry eq 131)))
 employer = 81.
if ((employer eq 90) and (emptype eq 5)) employer = 91.

value labels employer
 1 'Aust. Govt' 4 'State Govt' 2 'Defence' 6 'Local Govt'
 7 'Prof. Practice.' 8 'Ind.\Comm.'
 80 'Health, Public' 81 'Health, Priv\Oth'
 90 'Schools, Pub.' 91 'Schools, Priv' 100 'Higher Ed.' 110 'Educ Other, NEI'
 120 'Oth Emp or Not Ind'/

* compute dest = employer

if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 10)) dest = 10.
if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 20)) dest = 11.
if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 30)) dest = 12.
if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 40)) dest = 13.
if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 50)) dest = 14.


if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 60)) dest = 15.
if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 70)) dest = 19.
if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 140)) dest = 19.
if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 80)) dest = 16.
if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 90)) dest = 17.
if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 100)) dest = 18.
if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 150)) dest = 20.
if ((employer eq 8) and (industry eq 160)) dest = 20.
if (employer eq 8) dest = 20.

value labels dest
 1 'Aust. Govt' 4 'State Govt' 2 'Defence' 6 'Local Govt'
 7 'Prof. Practice.' 8 'Ind.\Comm.'
 10 'Ag\Forest\Fish' 11 'Mining' 12 'Manufacturing' 13 'Elec\Gas\Water'
 14 'Construction' 15 'W\sale, retail' 16 'Transp\Storage' 17 'Comm Servs'
 18 'Business, Finance' 19 'Ent\Recreation' 20 'Personal\Other Servs'
 80 'Health, Public' 81 'Health, Priv\Oth'
 90 'Schools, Pub.' 91 'Schools, Priv' 100 'Higher Ed.' 110 'Educ Other, NEI'
 120 'Oth Emp or Not Ind'/

value labels dest

1 'Aust. Govt' 2 'Defence' 4 'State Govt' 6 'Local Govt'
7 'Prof. Practice.' 8 'Ind.\Comm.'
10 'Ag\Forest\Fish' 11 'Mining' 12 'Manufacturing' 13 'Elec\Gas\Water'
14 'Construction' 15 'W\sale, retail' 16 'Transp\Storage' 17 'Comm Servs'
18 'Business, Finance' 19 'Ent\Recreation' 20 'Personal\Other Servs'
80 'Health, Public' 81 'Health, Priv\Oth'
90 'Schools, Pub.' 91 'Schools, Priv' 100 'Higher Ed.' 110 'Educ Other, NEI'
120 'Oth Emp or Not Ind'
121 'Wk pt not sk ft' 122 'Wk pt sk ft'
123 'Not wk seek ft' 124 'Not wk seek other'
125 'Hons' 126 'Higher Deg' 127 'Oth Deg\Dip'
128 'Teach Train' 129 'Other Study'
130 'Unavailable'/

* AGGREGATE DESTA INTO DEST VARIABLE.

compute dest1 = dest

recode dest1 (1, 2 = 50) (4 = 51) (6 = 52) (7 = 53) (10 thru 20 = 54)
 (80 = 55) (81 = 56) (90, 91 = 57) (100 = 58) (110 = 59) (120 = 60)
 (122 = 61) (123 = 62) (121 = 63) (124 = 64) (130 = 65)
 (125 = 1) (126 = 2) (127 = 3) (128 = 4) (129 = 5)

value labels dest1 50 'Aust. Govt' 51 'State Govt' 52 'Local Govt'
 53 'Prof. Practice.' 54 'Ind.\Comm.' 55 'Health Pub.' 56 'Health Priv.'
 57 'Schools' 58 'Higher Ed.' 59 'Educ Other, NEI' 60 'Oth Emp or Not Ind'
 61 'Work P\T, Seek F\T' 62 'Not Working, Seek F\T'
 63 'Work P\T, Not Seek F\T' 64 'Not Work, Seek P\T Only' 65 'Unavailable'
 1 'Honours' 2 'Higher Deg' 3 'Other Deg\Dip' 4 'Teacher Training'
 5 'Other F\Study'/

if (dest1 eq 50) govt = 1.
if (dest1 eq 51) govt = 2.
if (dest1 eq 52) govt = 3.
value labels govt 1 'Aust. Govt' 2 'State Govt' 3 'Local Govt'/.
variable labels govt ''.

if (dest1 eq 53) pinc = 1.
if (dest1 eq 54) pinc = 2.
value labels pinc 1 'Prof. Practice' 2 'Ind.\Comm.'/.
variable labels pinc ''.

if (dest1 eq 55) health = 1.
if (dest1 eq 56) health = 2.
value labels health 1 'Health Pub.' 2 'Health Priv'/.
variable labels health ''.

if (dest1 eq 57) educ = 1.
if (dest1 eq 58) educ = 2.
if (dest1 eq 59) educ = 3.
value labels educ 1 'Schools' 2 'Higher Education' 3 'Educ. Other'/.
variable labels educ ''.

if (dest1 eq 60) other = 1.
value labels other 1 'Other Emp.\NEI'/.
variable labels other ''.

.if (not missing (govt)) emptot = 1.
if (not missing (pinc)) emptot = 1.
if (not missing (health)) emptot = 1.
if (not missing (educ)) emptot = 1.
if (not missing (other)) emptot = 1.
variable labels emptot 'TOTAL FT EMPLOYMENT'/.
value labels emptot 1 ''.

				
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Description: Characteristics and Performance of Higher Education Institutions ...