Workshop on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD

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					 Workshop on Education for Sustainable
Development (ESD) through Community
           Learning Centers
           (CLCs) for Food,
         Nutrition and Health
              Lusaka, Zambia
             5-6 February 2009




            Okayama University ,
          UNESCO Chair program
          Chawama Youth Program
         Alliance of Chawama CBOs
                              Table of Content
General information of the workshop----------------------------------1

1. National and regional policy of ESD in Zambia and Southern Africa
region---------------------------------------------------------------------------5
Prof. Overson Shumba, School of Mathematics and Natural
Sciences, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia

2. Sustainable development and Food safety and security in
Zambia-------------------------------------------------------------------------17
Dr. Bernard M. Hang’ombe, University of Zambia

3. Kominkan/CLCs as the focal points of the community to promote
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) ----------------------23
Dr. Hideki Yamamoto, Okayama University

4. ESD and Community development activities in Chawama
 1) Chawama Youth Project-----------------------------------------------35
Mr. Justin Somi, Chawama Youth Program
 2) Chawama Community based organizations alliance----------37
 Mr. C. Mwakoi, Alliance of Community based organizations (CBOs)

5. Nutrition and Health Problems in the community -----------------39
Ms. Evelyn N. Tembo, Chawama Health Center

6. Action plan of the Community based organizations for Education
for Sustainable Development (ESD) at Community learning Centers
(CLCs) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------43

Annex
1) List of the Participants
2) Certificate of the workshop
  Workshop on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) through Community
               Learning Centers (CLCs) for Food, Nutrition and Health


                   UNESCO Chair program Okayama University
                         Lusaka, February 5-6, 2009

                                  General Information
Background

The UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD, 2005-2014) was
proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly through Resolution A/RES/57/254
in 2002 and was launched in 2005. Since the inception of the Decade, for whose
promotion UNESCO was designated the lead agency, the international community has
discussed the needs, fundamental concepts and objectives of Education for Sustainable
Development (ESD), recognizing its key importance for future generations.


As concrete initiatives on ESD in the region, Okayama University, Japan, a UNESCO
Chair holder, has organized the Kominkan/CLC summit in 2007 and 2008. It was
recommended in 2007 as “Okayama declaration” that Kominkan/CLCs are appropriate
place to promote ESD in the community. In 2008, Okayama University, COINN
(Conference of Okayama International NGO Networks) and ACCU (Asia/Pacific
Cultural Centre for UNESCO) hosted the international symposium for International
ESD Symposium-Community, Food and Education for Sustainable Development.


A CLC is a local place of learning outside of the formal education system, actively
participated and managed by the community people. CLCs have been recognized in
many countries in the region as effective not only for learning to read and write but also
for acquiring vocational, health and other various skills. In Zambia, CLCs and other
community based learning programmes have shown great potentials to promote literacy
and improve quality of life for sustainable development. CLCs are also used by other
agencies for delivering various kinds of services.


The workshop this time is proposed to follow up the above ESD Symposium under the
support of Okayama University and MEXT (Ministry of education, culture, science and
sports of Japan) to develop the program of learning/teaching method of ESD at CLCs,
focusing on food, nutrition and health.




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The workshop intends to build on the existing resources and experiences of the country,
in view of various initiatives already undertaken by different NGOs, CBOs,
development agencies and universities.


Objectives

Main objectives of the workshop are to:


1. Share the global, regional and sub-regional views and dialogues on ESD and CLCs
   as well as concrete initiatives in Zambia


2. Contribute in the formulation of national action plans on ESD in Zambia.


3. Develop a framework for promotion of ESD through CLCs.


4. Promotion of ESD by academic institutions and university at CLCs


Outputs

The following outputs are expected from the workshop:


1. Contributions to the formulation of national action plans on ESD.


2. A framework for promotion of ESD through CLCs.


3. An outline of the handbook on ESD for CLCs managers, in view of effective use of
   ICT.


Participants

Experts working in various areas of ESD and community based learning programmes
from government, development agency, universities and NGOs.




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Time and Venue
5-6 February 2009
Conference Hall of Chikwa Lodge,
Makeni,Lusaka.Farm No.397A/11D, Makeni East, Lusaka,
TEL 0977-768662


Program

Thursday, 5 February 2009: ESD in the Nation and community
9:00 – 9:45      Inaugural session


9:45 – 10:00     Overview on ESD and workshop orientation
                   by Hideki Yamamoto, Okayama University
10:00 – 10:30    tea break
10:30 – 11:30    <Key note speech>
                 Lessons for Mainstreaming ESD into Education Strategies in
                 Zambia: Reflections from country experiences in the SADC
                 Prof. Overson Shumba, Copperbelt University
11:30 – 12:30    Sustainable development and food safety and security in Zambia
                Dr. Bernard M. Hangombe, University of Zambia


12:30-13:30      lunch break


13:30 – 14:00    ESD though Kominkan/CLCs
                 - Experience of Okayama, Japan
                Hideki Yamamoto, Okayama University, UNESCO chair program
14:30 - 15:00    Participation of ESD symposium in Okayama
                Justin Somi, Chawama Youth Project (CYP)
15:00 – 15:30    tea break
15:30 – 16:00    Community development activities in Chawama
                 Mr. C. Mwakoi (NHC and Alliance of CBOs of Chawama)
16:00 – 16:30    Discussion for the promotion of the ESD through CLCs
                Facilitator: Prof. Overson Shumba,




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Friday, 6 February 2009: Sustainable development -Nutrition and Health
9:00 – 9:30      Introduction of the session
9:30 – 10:00     Nutrition and Health problems in the community
                 Ms. Evelyn Tembo, Chawama Health center
                 Ms. Mavis Kalumba, Lusaka District Health Management Team
10:00 – 10:30      Discussion on Health program and ESD
                          Facilitator: TBA
10:30-11:00      tea break
11:00-12:30      Group work on an outline of the handbook on ESD and food for CLCs
                 Facilitator: Mr. Justin Somi, CYP
12:30 – 13:30 lunch break
13:30 – 15:30 Final discussion
                 Facilitator: Hideki Yamamoto and TBA
16:30 -          Closing


Contact


Okayama University                          Chawama Youth Projects (CYP)
UNESCO chair program on                     Executive Director
Associate Professor                         Mr. Justin Somi
Hideki Yamamoto                             BOX 04 Chawama, Lusaka, Zambia
3-1-1,      Tsushima-naka,  Okayama,        Phone: 260-211 272674 or 260-955
700-8530, Japan                                    814245
Telephone:+81-90-7890-4245,                 Email: Youth2004project@yahoo.co.uk
       097-655-1429 (local)                 justinsomi200@yahoo.co.uk
E-mail : hidekiy@md.okayama-u.ac.jp




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Lessons for Mainstreaming ESD into Education Strategies in Zambia: Reflections from
                        country experiences in the SADC 1 .


                                   Prof. Overson Shumba
       School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia

                              Mobile: + 260 976 573 414 or + 260 968 412 016
                          e-mail: oshumba@yahoo.co.uk; shumba.overson@cbu.ac.zm

   1. Introduction
The year 2009 will mark the mid-Decade of the international Decade on Education for
Sustainable Development. This Decade runs from 2005 and ends in 2014. However, its
central concept and message of mainstreaming Education for Sustainable Development into
every aspect of our lives shall guide humanity forever. This is because the focus of ESD is to
transform society towards sustainability. In a sustainable society, all people are guaranteed a
certain minimum standard and quality of life. This implies an adequate level of economic
wellbeing, freedom from poverty, good level of health and freedom from hunger and disease,
adequate food security and availability of food to provide variety and balance in dietary
nutrition, and adequate observance of human rights for individuals and groups. These things
are rough pointers to a sustainable quality of life towards which education for sustainable
development may contribute. This paper aims to show the importance of initiatives to
mainstream ESD perspectives at every level within and across countries. It provides an
overview of the following issues:

   1.    Articulate the nature of the developmental challenges and context of countries in southern Africa and
         the potential of ESD as a new vision and strategic framework for education;

   2.    Clarify some perceptions of ESD and highlight its pervasiveness for all sectors development and for all
         levels of education;

   3.    Raise awareness of what is happening in the region and internationally and stress the importance of
         participation and involvement; and

   4.    Emphasise the importance of the university-community partnerships for learning and social
         transformation.


   2. Importance of actions towards sustainable development and sustainability
The importance of this overview can be understood with reference to international
commitment to main stream ESD as a new vision or as strategic framework for education and
development at all levels of society. Reference can be made to the Millennium Development

1Key note paper at a workshop on the theme “ESD through community learning centers for Food,
Nutrition and Health”, 5-6 February 2009, Lusaka, Zambia



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Compact for example. The MDC provides a framework by which the world community can
work together to assist poor countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. It
recommends among other measures: i) investing in human development. Such investment
must include health, education, water and sanitation; and ii) promoting environmental
sustainability and improving urban management. In southern Africa a priority is to find
“sustainable ways to reduce poverty and build a better life” (Lotz-Sistika, et al., 2006). In the
SADC REEP consultation process in 2006, sustainable development issues and challenges in
southern Africa were as follows (this is a partial list, for full list see Lotz-Sistika, et al., 2006;
pp. 19-20):

    i)   Environmental issues and risks: global warming and climate change, increased environmental
         degradation, land degradation, drought, deforestation, air and water pollution, loss of natural and
         cultural heritage, and others.

    ii) Social issues, risks and challenges: HIV-AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, malnutrition and health of
        children, gender inequality, sexual abuse of children and women, population growth and settlement
        patterns, and others.


    iii) Economic challenges: poverty and decrease in standards of living, poor food security, high levels of
         unemployment, consumerist lifestyle and culture of urbanite rich and youth, skewed distribution of
         land and wealth, and others.

    iv) Political challenges: corruption, poor governance, lack of security, low respect for the rule of law, and
        others.

Overall, people in southern Africa live in a context of risk and vulnerability and that this
context leads to unsustainable livelihoods. Human vulnerability is “exacerbated by poor
health caused by heightened exposure to malnourishment, under-nourishment, disease,
dysfunctional health policies and inadequate public health systems” (Lotz-Sistika, et al.,
2006; p. 42). Many of these risks and challenges require response through educational
initiatives. Therefore as seen in the SADC REEP report (Lotz-Sistika, et al., 2006; p. 41):

         ESD has a contribution to make to ensuring quality education at a local level and to addressing health
         and nutrition needs in schools and classrooms, and to assisting with ensuring that educational
         programmes are relevant and meaningful at community level, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where
         most people are directly dependent on the environment for their livelihoods and food security.


In all our countries in southern Africa, our current ways of production and consumption are
unsustainable and lead to an unsustainable future. Why are we placing so much hope on the
Decade of Education for Sustainable Development? Essentially for two reasons: i) to achieve
sustainability requires adopting sustainable development, and ii) to achieve sustainable
development, requires knowledge, awareness, skills and a change in belief, attitudes, and




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values to deploy this knowledge, awareness, and skills towards sustainability. It requires that
each one of us takes actions towards sustainability. Third, education provides the means
towards sustainability action. Through education, people acquire knowledge and construct
awareness, attitudes, values, and images of a sustainable future. Through education people
build skills necessary for behavior change and change in lifestyles towards sustainability. In
July 2008, the Environmental Education Association of Southern Africa’s annual conference
at Manzini, Swaziland was conducted under the theme: “Actions towards sustainability”.


    3. The concept of ESD and its pervasiveness in all sectors
It must be stressed that when the term “Education” is mentioned, people ordinarily think of
institutions such as schools, colleges, and universities. This view wrongfully relegates ESD to
the Ministries of Education. This is not an adequate view. Indeed, this is where most
accredited formal educational activities take place. However, in ESD, it is important to see
“Education” as referring to learning in activities that represent all aspects of our individual
and collective lives. Learning in all aspects of our lives occurs in all spheres individually, in
the family, and in the community. This can occur informally, formally, or non-formally. What
is being stressed here is that ESD occurs in all activities be they economic, social, cultural, or
institution-based. ESD is education that leads to sustainable development in mining, in
agriculture, in tourism, in transport and communication, in manufacturing, in construction of
infrastructure, and all sectors in a particular setting. It requires that we learn and apply our
learning as we engage in all educational, cultural, social, and production activities of this
sector. Education for sustainable development is therefore about human development.


The international conference held in Thessaloniki, Greece, December 9-12, 1997, Educating
for a Sustainable Future: A Trans-disciplinary Vision for Concerted Action made this quite
clear:
         Education is also the means for disseminating knowledge and developing skills, for bringing about
         desired changes in behaviors, values and lifestyles, and for promoting public support for the continuing
         and fundamental changes that will be required if humanity is to alter its course, leaving the familiar path
         that is leading towards growing difficulties, and starting the uphill climb towards sustainability.
         Education, in short, is humanity’s best hope and most effective means to the quest to achieve sustainable
         development (UNESCO, 1997; emphasis added).


It is important to recognize too that ESD contributes towards the Millennium Development
Goals and in turn the MDGs provide direction and a context for ESD policies and
programmes (see http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0017/001791/179120e.pdf). ESD builds




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knowledge          of         MDG             issues.         At         the         UNESCO               portal
(http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/files/51172/12312353075DESDquarterlyDEC08.pdf/D
ESDquarterlyDEC08.pdf), it is stressed: “Education is fundamental for just, peaceful,
adaptable societies without poverty, and that none of the international development goals can
be achieved without education”. MDG 1 (eradicate extreme poverty and hunger) requires
enhanced food security enhancement programmes. MDG 4 (reduce child mortality), MDG 5
(improve maternal health), and MDG 6 (combat HIV-AIDS, malaria and other diseases)
require a focus on promoting health and wellbeing. Education programmes starting at the
basic level must be offered to address primary health and maternal health education needs.
Providing this education in ways which allow equitable access by girls and women
contributes to MDG 3 (promote gender equity and empower women) and MDG2
(universalising primary education). This means that ESD stresses action targeted at MDG
issues. UNESCO (2009) the relationship between “Education for Sustainable Development
and the Millennium Development Goals Policy”:

       ESD emphasises action that is targeted towards the solutions of problems (i.e. the MDG issues). ESD
       develops action competence to address MDG issues, by developing knowledge of the issues, and
       decision making capacity for actions that are targeted towards solutions. Such actions can be direct, and
       provide direct solutions (e.g. a change in practice such as increased use of mosquito nets) or they can
       be indirect (e.g. influencing policy makers to provide funds for a mosquito net project). They can also
       be individual or collective (see http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0017/001791/179120e.pdf).


The Director General of UNESCO, Koichiro Matsuura at the World Summit on Sustainable
Development (2002), stressed: “Education- in all its forms and at all level- is not only an end
in itself but also the one of the most powerful instruments we have for bringing about the
changes required to achieve sustainable development”. As explained by UNESCO, this is
possible because ESD develops action competence and values to address MDG issues. People
develop, for example, action competencies which develops decision making capacity for
sustainable development. Developing action competencies entails acquiring and developing
the following (see UNESCO, 2009):

   •   Broad and coherent knowledge of the nature and scope of the problems (e.g. health and sanitation
       issues), how they arose, who and what is affected by the problems and knowledge of what can be done;

   •   Commitment and values that motivate them to participate in contributing to changes in society;

   •   An interest in the future, and capacity to predict what change might be possible in a given context;

   •   Social, critical and creative thinking skills, why things are as they are and what needs to be done;




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   •     Experience of real-life situations gained through participating individually or collectively in facilitating
         changes.

However, it is important stress that sustainable development and sustainability are not
achieved by individuals working alone, by individual groups or organizations working alone,
by individual communities working alone, by individual societies working alone, and by
individual countries working alone, or by regional blocs of countries working alone. This
means that individual sustainability is not possible without other people, family or household
sustainability not possible without community, community sustainability not possible without
other communities and society, and individual country sustainability not possible without
other countries. Indeed, local individual efforts are important but impact on the overall aim of
sustainable development and sustainability requires collaboration, involvement, and
partnering others locally, nationally, regionally, internationally, and globally.


It is important to note too that sustainable development and sustainability does not start from
the top to the bottom. The top can provide a policy framework but cannot provide
sustainability. Global efforts, regional efforts, and country level efforts are not effective until
locally individuals, households, community groups, and communities engage in local actions
for sustainable development and sustainability. At the July 2008 Environmental Education
Association of Southern Africa’s annual conference conducted under the theme: “Actions
towards sustainability”, we learned about rich and diverse actions towards ESD and
sustainability. Government and NGO health promotion programmes, agriculture and food
security programmes, eco-tourism and conservation programmes, national parks and museum
programmes, and water and energy sector initiatives.


   4. The Decade on ESD in Africa and in the SADC region
The intention of the presentation is to stress the importance of national policy frameworks
and strategies on mainstreaming ESD into education and development strategies in all sectors
of each country, Zambia included. In the first instance, it is important to acknowledge the
launch of the DESD Strategy of ESD for sub-Sahara Africa in the Africa region in Libreville,
Gabon,           27-31           March            2006           (see          http://www.education.nairobi-
unesco.org/index.php?option=com_view&id=32). The strategy spells out the link between
the objectives of the DESD with those of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development
(NEPAD). The Africa Union’s 2nd Decade of Education in Africa and the DESD has been
described as mutually reinforcing (UNESCO, 2007). In the SADC, the REEP programme was



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mandated to conduct a consultative process to mobilize support for DESD. The consultation
process in 14 SADC countries led to four reports published in 2006 (see http://www.sadc-
reep.org.za). Other major initiatives in Africa include the following:


   •   Launch and expansion of the partnership for Mainstreaming Environment and Sustainability into
       Higher Education in Africa (MESA).

   •   Launch of the Eastern Africa ESD Network to collaborate with National ESD Steering Committees of
       Burundi, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, and Uganda).

   •   UNESCO Harare and Windhoek Cluster Southern Africa ESD sub-Regional Meeting, Windhoek, 2006.

   •   SADC REEP Seed Funded ESD and Quality and Relevance of Education Research Network (initiated
       2007, grown to 10 higher education institutions).

   •   UNESCO Harare Cluster 2005 ‘Guidelines for integration of ESD perspectives into national
       educational policies’ (5 cluster countries, Botswana, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe).

   •   Development of National ESD Implementation Strategies and Action Plans (e.g., Kenya, South Africa,
       Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland).

   •   Development and establishment of Regional Centers of Expertise (e.g., Nairobi, Makana, Malawi,
       Mozambique, and Swaziland).

These regional initiatives are being highlighted to illustrate the initiatives being undertaken at
the regional and at the country level. These require country representation and participation,
but this is not consistently the case. In 2008, a UNESCO-led Global Monitoring and
Evaluation survey on progress in the first half of the DESD was conducted. The entry point
for the survey was the National Commission for UNESCO. The draft Progress Report is due
for launching at the World Conference on ESD, 31 March-2 April, 2009, Bonn, Germany.
This survey did not capture inputs from many countries, among them Zambia. In many such
cases, the non-participation and hence exclusion from the progress reporting was due to the
absence of National ESD Implementation Strategies and Action Plans for the DESD or the
absence of National ESD Focal Points or Steering Committees. In some countries, clear-cut
policies on mainstreaming ESD were not in place. Where does this place us in Zambia?


We are cognizant that Zambia’s policies in education are consistent with global declarations.
She tries to take up and integrate international concepts such as Education for All (EFA. For
example, it has customized and domesticated the EFA declarations by adopting two major
policy documents: Focus on Learning (2002) and Educating Our Future (1996)
(see http://www.moe.gov.zm/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogsection&id=22&Ite
mid=147 ). These two documents of the Ministry of Education, make schools centers of




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learning and thus focus on formal education. ESD goes beyond formal education and requires
learning in all spheres of learning. By focusing on the “totality of a human being” Educating
our Future attempts to be more encompassing. By adopting international concepts and
perspectives on EFA and the MDGs, Zambia pursues goals of sustainable development and
endeavors to reform its education policies accordingly. However, a need exists for the country
to come up with more articulate policies on mainstreaming ESD practices and values into
education and development initiatives. Such policies must re-define educational quality and
relevance in contributing towards sustainability and sustainable development.


    5. University-community partnerships and Community Learning Centers
It is important to acknowledge the participation of the major Universities in Zambia in the
MESA programme and in the SADC Higher Education Research Network. Important too is
the participation of the two Universities in this workshop which represents local and
international collaboration and partnership for ESD initiatives. Connecting universities to
communities that they serve is very important given what was alluded to concerning the
nature of ESD. It provides an opportunity for them to shake off their ivory tower imagery and
to simultaneously engage the communities in their education and development. This requires
a stronger partnership between higher education and communities. Knowledge is developed
in the context of its use in community development activities. Students need to apply what
they are learning to community problems.


In this case a Community Learning Centre is “a local place of learning outside of the formal
education system, actively participated and managed by the community people” (to quote the
concept paper for the workshop). In the case of sustainability and quality of life, CLCs can be
effective places for youths and adult members of the community to acquire knowledge,
values and various skills needed for changing their lifestyles towards sustainability. At CLCs,
people take advantage of the active learning approaches which can transform the lives of
participants. With more participation, participants learn life changing knowledge, values and
skills. CLCs provide an opportunity for transformative learning a concept owing for its
development to work of Mezirow and associates (1990). In this kind of learning, the very
structure of our thinking, feeling, and actions must change so that we embrace a vision of an
alternative approaches to living in which we take responsibility and action towards enhancing
our food security, our health status, and our dietary needs and nutrition.




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       6. Conclusion
To conclude, let me give a perspective on transformation such as sought in ESD. J.
Krishnamurti, a philosopher speaks of transformation of the world in the following terms:
           To transform the world we must begin with ourselves: and what is important in the beginning with
           ourselves is the intention … this is our responsibility, yours and mine; because however small may be
           the world we live in, if we can bring about a radically different point of view in our daily existence then
           perhaps we shall affect the world at large - J. Krishnamurti, Philosopher 2 .



    Cooperation and partnership of stakeholders through CLCs provide quite a useful model
    for confronting some of our sustainability challenges. UNESCO Bangkok views CLCs as
    empowering “all people within a community, aims to improve their quality of life, and the
    resulting      community         development          promotes        social      transformation”          (see
    http://www.unescobkk.org/?id=244). What we need are clear national policy frameworks
    and enabling socio-political environment and structures. As for higher education
    institutions, the opportunity is now to transform our education, training, and research
    towards ESD and service learning.



       7. References
Lotz-Sistika, H., et al. (2006). History and context of ESD in southern Africa: supporting
       participation in the UN Decade Education for Sustainable Development. Howick:
       SADC REEP.

Mezirow, J. & Associates (1990) Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood San Francisco:
      Jossey-Bass).

UNESCO (2007). The UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development 2005-20014:
     The first two years. Paris: UNESCO.




2
    Obtained at the UNESCO Bangkok website http://www.unescobkk.org/index.php?id=4303.




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Lessons for Mainstreaming ESD into Education Strategies in
Zambia: Reflections from country experiences in the SADC




                      Prof. Overson Shumba
          School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
             Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia

         Key note paper at a workshop on the theme “ESD through
       community learning centers for Food, Nutrition and Health”, 5-6
                      February 2009, Lusaka, Zambia




Purpose of the presentation at Mid-DESD 2005-2014
  Articulate the nature of the developmental challenges and context
  of countries in southern Africa and the potential of ESD as a new
  vision and strategic framework for education;

  Clarify some perceptions of ESD and highlight its pervasiveness
  for all sectors development and for all levels of education;

  Raise awareness of what is happening in the region and
  internationally and stress the importance of participation and
  involvement in the DESD; and

  Emphasise the importance of the university-community partnership
  for learning and social transformation.




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Importance of action towards sustainability in southern Africa

        Sustainable development issues in southern Africa (SADC Consultation
        Process 2005-2006):

    •        Environmental issues and risks: global warming and climate change, increased
             environmental degradation, land degradation, drought, deforestation, air and water
             pollution, loss of natural and cultural heritage, and others.

    •        Social issues, risks and challenges: HIV-AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, malnutrition
             and health of children, gender inequality, sexual abuse of children and women,
             population growth and settlement patterns, and others.

    •        Economic challenges: poverty and decrease in standards of living, poor food
             security, high levels of unemployment, consumerist lifestyle and culture of
             urbanite rich and youth, skewed distribution of land and wealth, and others.

    •        Political challenges: corruption, poor governance, lack of security, low respect for
             the rule of law, and others.




Importance of Education and Learning for Sustainability

   Many of these risks and challenges require response through educational
   initiatives.
   initiatives

   SADC REEP report (Lotz-Sistika, et al., 2006; p. 41):

    •   ESD has a contribution to make to ensuring quality education at a local level and to
        addressing health and nutrition needs in schools and classrooms, and to assisting with
        ensuring that educational programmes are relevant and meaningful at community level,
        particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where most people are directly dependent on the
        environment for their livelihoods and food security.

             Matsuura                                              (2002),
   Koichiro Matsuur at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002)
   stressed:
    •   “Education- in all its forms and at all level- is not only an end in itself but also the one of
        the most powerful instruments we have for bringing about the changes required to
        achieve sustainable development”.




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ESD and its pervasiveness in all sectors

    Linking “Education” ordinarily to institutions such as schools, colleges, and
    universities but important to have a broader view of Education to encompass:

     •    learning in activities that represent all aspects of our individual and collective lives; this
          occurs all aspects and spheres of our lives individually, in the family, and in the
          community. This can occur informally, formally, or non-formally.

    ESD is education that leads to sustainable development in mining, in
    agriculture, in tourism, in transport and communication, in manufacturing, in
    construction of infrastructure, and all sectors in a particular setting.

    ESD requires that we learn and apply our learning as we engage in all
    educational, cultural, social, and production activities of this sector. It
    provides for new meaning and relevance of education.




ESD and action towards sustainability

ESD contributes towards the Millennium Development Goals and in turn the MDGs provide
                                policie        ogr    s.                         M
direction and a context for ESD policies and programmes. ESD builds knowledge of MDG
issues and UNESCO notes “that none of the international development goals can be
achieved without education”.

ESD develops action competencies (see UNESCO, 2009):
      •   Broad and coherent knowledge of the nature and scope of the problems (e.g. health and
          sanitation issues), how they arose, who and what is affected by the problems and
          knowledge of what can be done;

      •   Commitment and values that motivate them to participate in contributing to changes in
          society;

      •   An interest in the future, and capacity to predict what change might be possible in a
          given context;

      •   Social, critical and creative thinking skills, why things are as they are and what needs to
          be done;

      •   Experience of real-life situations gained through participating individually or
          collectively in facilitating changes.




                                                  15
                                                  15
Decade on ESD in Africa and in the SADC region
  At Africa regional level

   •   DESD Strategy of ESD for sub-Sahara Africa in the Africa region in Libreville, Gabon, 27-31 March 2006 and
       linkages to NEPAD and the AU 2nd Decade on Education.

  At the SADC and country level

   •   SADC consultative process to mobilize support for DESD 2005-2006, 14 SADC countries.
   •   Launch and expansion of the partnership for Mainstreaming Environment and Sustainability into Higher
       Education in Africa (MESA).
   •   Launch of the Eastern Africa ESD Network to collaborate with National ESD Steering Committees of Burundi,
       Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, and Uganda).
   •   UNESCO Harare and Windhoek Cluster Southern Africa ESD sub-Regional Meeting, Windhoek, 2006.
   •   SADC REEP Seed Funded ESD and Quality and Relevance of Education Research Network (initiated 2007,
       grown to 10 higher education institutions).
   •   UNESCO Harare Cluster 2005 ‘Guidelines for integration of ESD perspectives into national educational
       policies’ (5 cluster countries, Botswana, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe).
   •   Development of National ESD Implementation Strategies and Action Plans (e.g., Kenya, South Africa,
       Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland).
   •   Development and establishment of Regional Centers of Expertise (e g., Nairobi, Makana, Malawi,
       Mozambique, and Swaziland).

  International level
  UNESCO-led Global Monitoring and Evaluation survey (200) and Mid-Decade Progress review at
  World Conference on ESD, 31 March-2 April, 2009, Bonn, Germany.




University-community partnerships and CLCs

  Cooperation and partnership of stakeholders through CLCs
  provide quite a useful model for confronting some of our
  sustainability challenges

   •   Relevance and quality
   •   Meaningful and contextualized Learning
   •   Transfer of learning
   •   Social learning
   •   Personal and social empowerment




                                                    16
                                                    16
Conclusion

  We need commitment to our partnerships and to community-based
  learning.
  learning

  J. Krishnamurti, a philosopher speaks of transformation of the world
  in the following terms
  (http://www.unescobkk.org/index.php?id=4303):

   •   To transform the world we must begin with ourselves: and what is important
       in the beginning with ourselves is the intention … this is our responsibility,
       yours and mine; because however small may be the world we live in, if we
                 about radically                       ie     o r dail e istence
       can bring abo t a radicall different point of view in our daily existence then
       perhaps we shall affect the world at large - J. Krishnamurti, Philosopher.

  We need clear national policy frameworks and enabling socio-
  political environment and structures.




                                        17
                                        17
                                                                              OBJECTIVES
                                                                • By the end of this session you would have:
  SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND
   FOOD SAFETY AND SECURITY IN                                     – Understood the Importance of food safety and
             ZAMBIA                                                  security to sustainable development.

                                                                   – Received background information on the status
                                                                     of food safety in Zambia especially from
             HANG’OMBE BERNARD MUDENDA (PhD)                         production/farm to the table.
             UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA
             DEPARTMENT OF PARACLINICALS
             SCHOOL OF VET MEDICINE
                                                                   – Learnt about initiatives aimed at improving food
                                                                     safety




           INTRODUCTION
                                                                       INTRODUCTION - cont
• Sustainable Development – maintaining a delicate
  balance between the human need to improve
  lifestyles and feeling of well-being on one hand, and
                                                                • Food Safety - an integral part of food security
  preserving natural resources and ecosystems, on
                                                                  defined as rotecting the food supply from microbial,
                                                                                                   pp y
                                     depend.
  which we and future generations depend
                                                                  chemical and physical hazards. Maintaining the
                                                                  foods nourishing and attractive nature.
• This is a personalized development of the
  individual’s well being. The process of acquiring and
  learning life skills.




                                                                WHY TALK ABOUT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
        INTRODUCTION - cont                                     IN FOOD SAFETY AND SECURITY??
• Food security is defined as physical and economic
  access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet        This form of development is a stable relationship
  dietary needs.                                                between human activities and the natural world, which
                                                                does not diminish the prospects for future generations
                                                                to enjoy a quality of life at least as good as our own.
                             insecure,
• Although Africa is food insecure it is essential to
  ensure safety of the little available food from               Food is central to prosperity, health and social well-
  bacteria, parasites, viruses, chemicals and microbial         being of individuals and societies.
  toxins for maximum benefit.
                                                                Food is a source of nutrients and vehicle for diseases
• Zambia is not an exception                                    transmission especially animal proteins.




                                                           18
                                                           18
   FOOD AS A SOURCE OF DISEASE VEHICLE                           ZOONOTIC TUBERCULOSIS TRANSMISSION IN
                                                                 THE KAFUE BASIN IN ZAMBIA


                                                                                                               TB
                                                                                                             CONTACT




                Environment
                Direct contact




        HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY                                        MAINTENANCE OF FOOD SAFETY
Access by all members of the family at all times to            •Initial safety of raw animal products before entry into
  enough food for an active, healthy life.                     the food industry, shops, hotels, restaurants,
                                                               canteens and home kitchens.
Food security includes at a minimum:
                                                               •Hygiene and care of those handling food during
    the   d     il bilit f                            d
(1) th ready availability of nutritionally adequate and                     d     i
                                                               production and service.
  safe foods.
                                                               •Storage conditions.
(2) an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in
  socially acceptable ways (that is, without resorting         •General design and cleanliness of kitchens and
  to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing,            equipment.
  or other coping strategies).




                                                                        OUR TYPICAL ZAMBIAN DISH

          FOOD INSECURITY IN ZAMBIA

In Zambia there is a vast amount of traditional foods,
                                        poverty.
which people think is associated with poverty This
has resulted into food insecurity.




                                                          19
                                                          19
                                                                                  FOOD INSECURITY
                                                                  Food insecurity ranges from:

                                                                  •Food secure situations, Plenty of food which is not
                                                                  secured as a result of waste, lack of proper storage,
                  Inswa (termites)                                diseased food and high prices.

                                                                  “Food is not a commodity like others. We should go back to a policy of
                                                                  maximum food self-sufficiency. It is crazy for us to think we can develop
                                                                  countries around the world without increasing their ability to feed themselves.
                                                                  Former US President Bill Clinton, Speech at United Nations World Food Day, October
                                                                  16, 2008”

                                                                  •To full-scale famine and hunger, where there is nothing
                                                                  to eat as a result of war, drought, land degradation and
                                                                  lack of inputs.
                     Caterpillars




            HOW TO FIGHT FOOD INSECURITY

 •Boosting Agriculture science and technology.
 Current agricultural yields are insufficient to feed the
 growing      populations.     Eventually,   the    rising                                                              EDUCATION??
                                                                                  EDUCATION??        SUSTAINABLE
 agricultural productivity drives economic growth.                    FOOD                           DEVELOPMENT
                                                                                                                                        FOOD
                                                                                                                                        SECURITY
                                                                      SAFETY

 •Enhancing human capital through education and                                                                                DAILY ACCESS TO
                                                                  (PROTECT THE FOOD)
 improved health.                                                                                                              THE FOOD




         Current Situation analysis                                                               Challenges
• Data on incidence / prevalence of foodborne diseases
  in Zambia is scanty – Known health and economic                 •     Inadequate commitment and capacity for food
  consequences.                                                         safety.
                                                                  •     Unsafe water and poor environmental hygiene.
• Increased prevalence of Zoonoses. (Bacteria, fungal             •     Weak foodborne disease surveillance.
              Parasitic).
  poisons and Parasitic)                                          •     Inability of small to medium scale producers to
                                                                                y                          p
                                                                        produce safe food.
• Contamination of ground water and Recontamination               •     Outdated food regulation and weak law
  of clean water through transport and storage.                         enforcement.
                                                                  •     Inadequate cooperation among stakeholders.
• Economic consequences: Food destruction, export                 •     The wild game meat industry is too vast to
  bans, health care, loss of income due to absenteeism.                 regulate.




                                                             20
                                                             20
     Aims of Food Safety Strategy in Zambia
                                                                       Guiding principles of Food safety strategy
•   To contribute to the reduction in the morbidity
    and mortality due to contaminated food.                        • Two main guiding principles:

•   Provide a platform for advocacy to food safety.
                                                                     – Holistic and comprehensive application of the
                                                                                    paradigm.
                                                                       farm-to-fork paradigm
•   Strengthen food control systems including
    foodborne disease surveillance and food
    monitoring for prevention, detection and control                 – Individual responsibility, participation of women in
    of food safety emergencies.                                        communities, consumers and civil society.

•   Facilitate the development of intersectoral
    collaboration and partnerships for food safety.




                                                                             Looking at the whole chain
                              SAFE                                 • Prevention efforts have to integrate the full food
                          FOOD FOR ALL
                                                                     production chain: from Farm to Fork, or from Boat to
                      SHARED RESPONSIBILITY
               Food
            Legislation
                             Educated
                              Informed
                                              Good Practic
                                                Producers
                                                                     Throat.
           Enforcement          Public         Distributors
              Advice           Selective       Processed
           To Industry      Discriminating    Food Quality
               Trade           consumer
                            Safe Food
                                               Assurance
                                              Appropriate
                                                                   • The critical point for efficient prevention might be at
            Consumer
             Education      Practices
                            At Home
                                              Processes
                                              Technology
                                                                     the farm for some problems or at the retail level for
           Information
           Gathering         Community
                                                 Trained
                                              Managers and
                                                                     others.
           Research          Participation    Food Handlers
           Provision of       Active
              Health         Consumer         Labelling,
                                              Education
             Services         Groups
                                                                   • Most present food safety systems are not built
           Government       Consumer         Industry/Trade
                                                                     according to this important principle. Such
            NATIONAL COMMITMENT TO FOOD SAFETY
       WHO/FAO LEADERSHIP FOR INTERNATIONAL
                                                                     incoherence of the systems has led to inconsistency
       CONSENSUS ON FOOD SAFETY, POLICIES, ACTIONS                   and inefficiency of food safety systems




                          Conclusion                                Will you buy your food from Here?
•   Humanity must take no more from nature than
    nature can replenish. This in turn means
    adopting lifestyles and development paths that
    respect and work within nature's limits.

•   All efforts must be made to address the food
    safety challenges and mitigate the harmful
    effects of unsafe food

•   This is a shared responsibility for all stakeholders




                                                              21
                                                              21
  From Here?        From Here?




OR FROM HERE?




                2
                2
Kominkan/CLCs as the focal points of the community to promote Education
                 for Sustainable Development (ESD)

                            Hideki Yamamoto MD, MPH, PhD.
 Associate Professor, Department of International Health, UNESCO chair program for
      Research and Education for Sustainable Development, Graduate School of
                      Environmental Science, Okayama University
                    3-1-1, Tsushima-naka, Okayama, Japan, 700-8530
                                TEL/FAX +81-86-251-8925
                          e-mail: hidekiy@md.okayama-u.ac.jp


Abstract
Based in the experiences of the promotion of ESD in the Okayama city, one of the RCE
(regional Centers of Expertise) on ESDs, Kominkan and Community Learning Centers
(CLCs) was recommended as the suitable platforms to promote ESD at the community.
This concept was approved at the Kominkan/CLCs summit in 2007 that was hosted by
UNESCO chair program at Okayama University and approved by the delegates as
Okayama Declaration. To achieve the promotion of ESD, Kominkan/CLCs will be fully
utilized for the local ESD program.




1. Declaration of Education for Sustainable Development
           The Education of Sustainable Development was declared at the WSSD (World
Summit for Sustainable Development), Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002. Japanese
government, proposed the decade of ESD at UN assembly in 2005 to strengthen the
promotion of ESD. It was adopted unanimously. United Nations launched the decade
of ESD (DESD) in 2005 to reinforce the ESD promotion.
           The Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Program works on research
and capacity development to integrate Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
components into curricula at all levels of education and in all sectors of the society by
the end of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), which runs
from 2005 to 2014. The goal of the Program is to create of the global learning space for
ESD by the end of the Decade.
           UNESCO has been as a leading agency of UN and other international
organizations on the ESD.




                                            23
                                            23
2. Regional Centers of Expertise (RCEs)
   To promote ESD, to organize the program on sustainable development in the
community is crucial as well as national levels. United Nations University (UNU)
initiated the program of RCEs and nominated the areas as the model of regional centers
to promote ESD in 2005. Okayama city was acknowledged as initial 7 RCEs (Regional
Centers of Expertise) on ESD.
   An RCE is a network of existing formal, non-formal and informal education
organizations, mobilized to deliver education for sustainable development (ESD) to local
and regional communities. A network of RCEs, currently 47 RCEs in the world, will
constitute the Global Learning Space for Sustainable Development. RCEs need to
achieve the goals of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD,
2005-2014), by translating its global objectives into the context of the local communities
in which they operate.


3. RCE Okayama and roles of Kominkan
           Okayama municipal government initiated the pilot ESD programs in the
selected areas of Okayama. RCE Okayama needed to spread the project area and cover
all the area of Okayama city. Okayama municipal government organized the strategic
plan to start ESD program at every Kominkan (non-formal education).       The population
of Okayama city is about 700,000 and the area is divided into 37 areas based on the
catchment area of junior high schools. One Kominkan is located in this catchment area
and its size is suitable for the community based organizations so that various kinds of
people can participate in the ESD program.


4. Role of institutions of higher education and UNESCO chair program of Okayama
   University
        Okayama University has been collaborating with Okayama RCEs to promote
ESD.   In April 2007, Okayama University was accredited with UNESCO chair
program on ESD, and hosted the Kominkan/CLCs summit in collaboration with COINN
(Conference of Okayama International NGO Network), UNESCO Bangkok office and
ACCU (Asia/Pacific Cultural Center of UNESCO) in October 2007.        The participants
from 9 countries discussed the role of Kominkan/CLCs on ESD.       All the delegates
agreed to make use of Kominkan/CLCs as the focal points of community development
and ESD.    “Okayama Declaration” on the role of Kominkan/CLCs was adopted on
November 1, 2007.




                                            24
                                            24
5. Collaboration of Civil society
          Under the declaration, the Kominkan/CLCs should be encouraged to utilize the
place where community people participate and develop social networking to advance
ESD at the local community level. All the stakeholders, including government and other
sectors are recommended to support the Kominkan/CLCs to promote ESD.


6.    ESD and Food as a prioritized topic
     In Okayama declaration, Kominakn/CLC was proposed where we promote ESD. We
need to answer the remaining questions what we learn on ESD. The international
symposium of food, community and Education for Sustainable Development was
organized in September 2008 at Tokyo and Okayama, Japan to upgrade the capacity of
Kominkan/CLCs on the specific topic of ESD.
     Since the food is the most essential item to us, we can start learning on food as the
sustainability of our society. The intensive discussion and was done at United Nations
University after the keynote address of Dr. Sheldon Shaeffer, former director of
UNESCO Regional bureau for education in Asia-Pasific). (See the attached article).
Participants were exposed to the ESD activities on food and its related activities at 4
Kominkans (Fujita, Takashima, Makibi and Hayashima) at Okayama. A participant
from Zambia, Mr.Somi, attended as the representative of African countries.
     All the participants of the symposium that are from 15 counties agreed to choose the
food as the initial and prioritized topic for ESD.


7. Challenge and Future task at Kominkan/CLCs
     We need to think about the goals of the Okayama declaration will be embodied. And
the role of Kominkan/CLCs for ESD will be spread to the other region outside
Asia-Pacific region.
     In January of 2009, Bangladesh was chosen as the first country to organize the
regional workshops to promote ESD at CLCs. The experience of Bangladesh model on
CLCs for ESD will be shared and applied to other countries.
     Beyond the experiences of Asia, Africa is the target region to promote ESD through
CLCs. Chawama, as a model community of Zambia, is selected as pilot project area of
ESD promotion. Food, nutrition and health are the topic of ESD that were chosen as the
community’s agenda. Through this workshop, the initiatives of the community will be
developed as the leading model of African ESD.




                                             25
                                             25
References
1) Agenda 21, United Nations Economic and Social Council, 1992
2) RCEs Bulletins, United Nations University, 2007-2008
3) United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, United Nations
   2005
4) EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION BRIEF
UNESCO, 2004
5) Okayama Declaration, Okayama University, COINN, ACCU and UNESCO
   Bangkok, November 1, 2007




                                        26
                                        26
     Workshop on ESD through CLCs
               Lusaka Feb 5-6, 2009




27
                                                         Outline of the presentation
 Kominkan/CLCs as the model to
promote Education for Sustainable                         Kominkan/CLC
      Development (ESD)                                   ESD
        Workshop on ESD through CLCs                      RCE
           Dhaka, Jan 11-12, 2009
                                                          Higher Education
                 Hideki Yamamoto MD, MPH, PhD.            Kominkan summit 2007
                Associate Professor, Department of
                        International Health,             International ESD symposium for food in
              UNESCO chair program for Research and       2008
               Education for Sustainable Development,
             Graduate School of Environmental Science,    Challenges
                        Okayama University
                               JAPAN




                                                             Kominkan and Educational System
Kominkan (CLC in Japan)                                           in Japanese Community
                                                          Municipal government
  Kou(Public)-Min(Citizen)-Kan(Hall)
                                                           – City, town and village
  Started in 1949, Act of social education                Formal education
   – After the World War II                                – Primary school (6-12Yr)
                                                           – Junior high school(13-15yr)
   – To promote adult education
                                                          Non formal education /Life long learning
   – To prevent war, and create peaceful                   – Kominkan(municipal)
     society                                               – Life long learning center
   – Mission of Kominkan is similar to UNESCO                (prefectural)
                                                           – Library
  18,000 Kominkan in Japan                                 – Museum




Education for Sustainable Development                    Core of ESD
                                                          Beyond “Environmental education”
  The Education of Sustainable Development                Educational process (3 pillars)
  was declared at the WSSD (World Summit                   – Economic growth
  for Sustainable Development),                            – Social development
  Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002.                      – Environmental protection
                                                                            p
  Promotion and Improvement of Basic                      Everyone has the opportunity and benefit;
  Education                                                – Quality education
  Re-orienting Existing Education at all Levels            – Learn, the value, behavior and lifestyle for
  to Address Sustainable Development                         Sustainable future Development
                                                          Need to change attitude for sustainable development
Curriculum development and DESD                        Regional Centers of Expertise (RCEs)

 Research and capacity development                      To promote ESD, to organize the program on
 to integrate Education for Sustainable                 sustainable development in the community is
 Development (ESD) components into                      crucial
 curricula                                              United Nations University (UNU) initiated the
  – at all levels of education and                      program of RCEs
  – in all sectors of the society by the end of the      – the model of regional centers to promote ESD in
    Decade of Education for Sustainable                    2005. Okayama city was acknowledged as initial
    Development (DESD),2005 -2014.                         7 RCEs (Regional Centers of Expertise) on ESD
                                                         –




Function of RCEs                                       RCE Okayama
  An RCE is a network of existing formal, non-
  formal and informal education organizations,          Okayama city
  mobilized to deliver education for sustainable        – Population: 700,000
  development (ESD) to local and regional               – Area is divided into
  communities. A network of RCEs, currently 47
                                                          37juniorhigh school area
  RCEs in the world, will constitute the Global
  Learning Space for Sustainable Development.           – One Kominkan is in one
  RCEs need to achieve the goals of the UN Decade         Junior high school area
  of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD,       – community people can
  2005-2014)                                              participate in the ESD
  Translating its global objectives into the context      program.
  of the local communities in which they operate.




Linkage of FE and NFE for ESD                          ESD promotion at Kominkan

                                                        Initiated the pilot ESD programs in the
                                                        selected areas of Okayama.
                                                        Needed to cover all the area of
                                                                   ci y
                                                        Okayama city
                                Kominkan/
                                CLCs                    Organized the strategic plan to start
                                                        ESD program at every Kominkan (non-
                                                        formal education).
Roles of Okayama University for ESD           Kominkan summit 2007
                                              Kominkan Summit in Okayama
 Higher Educational institution               Community Development and Promotion of Education for
                                              Sustainable Development
 – Curriculum revision for ESD
                                              27 October – 3 November 2007
 – Expertise for the local community          Co-organized by UNESCO Chair at Okayama University,
                                                        Bangkok
                                              UNESCO Bangko and the Conference of Okayama
                                              International NGO Network (COINN) , UNESCO Bangkok
                                              office, ACCU
 UNESCO chair program since 2007
 – Research and Education for
   Sustainable Development




Agenda of the Kominkan Summit
                                                 Okayama Declaration on the Roles of
 Reevaluation of the role of                        Kominkan/CLC in Community
 Kominkan in Japan                                 Development and Promotion of
 ESD promotion initiatives in
 Okayama as a model for other
                                                Education for Sustainable Development
 regions and abroad                                             (ESD)
 Exchange experiences and
 ideas on the community
 development at                                                                  November 1, 2007
 Kominkans/CLCs
 Possibility of Kominkans to
                                                                                  Participants of
 utilize as regional centers for                                                 Kominkan summit
 ESD and international
 contribution
                                                                                   in Okayama




Sharing the experience of ESD at CLCs          Role of CLCs in the community
  Based on shared experiences with each         Kominkan/CLC can play the role of community
  other and observed ESD activities             based institution, with active participation and
                                                ownership by the community, creating lifelong
  centered around Kominkan, we agreed           learning opportunities for all people meeting their
  that the roles and functions of               present and future diverse needs. Kominkan/CLC
  Kominkan in Japan and CLC in many             can function as information and learning centre and
                                                facilitate group activities for community
  Asia/Pacific countries are similar            development, for better behavioural changes
  though the activities in some cases           towards a sustainable future. Kominkan/CLC also
  may look different reflecting the variety     has a role to establish linkages among community
  of social, economic, historical and           people, among Kominkan/CLC and with other
                                                stakeholders.
  geographical circumstances.
Role of stakeholders on ESD                           Linkage and Network of CLCs
Stakeholders concerned with sustainable               Linkages and networking among the
development can make ESD living philosophy to
support and promote the emerging roles of
                                                      stakeholders should be promoted at all
Kominkan/CLC. Government can develop policies         levels. CLC associations and sister CLC
and mobilize resources while NGOs/civil society       movement can be established at
can work as catalysts at the community.               international, national, provincial and
Academic institutions like schools and universities
can provide technical assistance through research
                                                      district levels. Such networking can
and/or participation in Kominkan/CLC activities.      promote world peace and sustainable
Private sectors also have important role in this      community development through
regard. Promoting ownership and capacity building     collaboration and sharing common themes.
of Kominkan/CLC and also all the stakeholders are
crucial.




Commitment for the future development                 Scope of the declaration

 We confirm our commitment in the                      We hope that this document would be
 furtherance of ESD in our respective                  used by all concerned in advocacy,
 positions. Also we commit ourselves                   policy dialogue and further discussions
                                hared
 to spread the learning and shared                             pla e
                                                       to take place in national and
 vision formulated here in Okayama,                    international settings.
 first in Asia but in the long run to
 other parts of the world.
          1st in Bangladesh




                                                      Symposium at Tokyo and Okayama


 ESD for Food and community
           in 2008
Kominkan session at Okayama            International participants




   Safe water for agriculture (rice)   Irrigation canal (350years)




Shrine to keep water                   Learning on Local food (rice) and culture
Produce rice cake from rice                          Produce Soya beans powder (protein rich)




Sake(Japanese wine) from local rice                  Ritual art from rice straw




        Collaboration of local school at Kominkan
       Presentation of the environmental education   Collaboration of NE and FE at Kominkan
                    in the community
Suggestion from participants for Takashima Kominkan   Challenges and Future plan

•   Develop plan to for the preservation of
                                                       Create model of ESD at Kominkan/CLCs
    environment
                                                       Model curriculum
•   New generation should be encouraged for
    participating in Kominkan activities by            Priority for food, nutrition, and health
    organizing
    organizi g targeted programs to them,
                        pr gram o t em                              aterial
                                                       Teaching material
•   Good food Cultural should be transformed in        Audio visual teaching unit
    new generations to preserve them as well
    as to prevent health hazards,
•   Kominkan should strengthen communication
    and coordination with other Kominkan.
    CHAWAMA YOUTH PROJECT                                                                              WHAT ARE CLCs?

            P. O. BOX 04, Chawama, Lusaka, Zambia.                              1. First we may want to know the difference between Schools and CLCs.
                Mobile: +260955814245, E-mail:                                  • While the School administration under the guidance of the local education 
                 youth2004project @yahoo.co.uk                                     office decides which activities take place at the School, community people 
                                                                                   are responsible to determine the activities of the CLCs.
                   Prepared by: Somi Justin                                           hil h               i           fi         f      h
                                                                                • While the School receives most of its funds from the government, the   h
                        Executive Director                                         CLCs receives only 10% of its total budget from this source. More than half 
                                                                                   of its funds are contributed by and mobilized from the community.
               E-mail: justinsomi200@yahoo.co.uk
                                                                                • While the School covers academic subjects designed in the national 
                                                                                   curriculum, the CLCs offers a variety of activities related to many aspects 
                                                                                   of life in the community.




                                                                                                       GROUP WORK
                    WHAT HAVE WE LEARNT?
                                                                                • Please share your experience:
                                                                                • Do you get community people involved in the CLCs planning 
    • The above shows the importance of involving community members in            implementation? How do you get them involved in the CLCs activities?
      the design and management of CLCs auditions.                              • Give examples of involvement by community people can I now 
                                                                                           p                     y           y
                                                                                  summarize by saying CLCs are places for providing elderly learning 
                                                                                  opportunities to everyone in the community in order to:




•    Empower them to become self reliant.                                                      WHAT ARE THE ROLES OF CLCs?
•    Improve their quality of life.                                             • The roles of CLCs may be as follows:
•    Develop their community.                                                   • The CLCs play an important role in identifying and addressing the needs, 
                                                                                  interest and resources of the community. It can cater to the needs of 
•    CLCs are usually set up in the community and                                 different interest groups through various kinds of activities for the 
                                                                                  empowerment of community people.
     managed by community people. They source                                   • To identify and address the needs of the community through various 
          y                      y       g
     everyone in the community including adults, ,                                activities.
     youth and Children regardless of race, sex or                              • To mobilize the reasons in the community.
     religion.                                                                  • To establish linkages, close cooperation and partners with other 
                                                                                  organizations and agencies. A CLC may be involved in a variety of 
•                                                                                 community development activities depending upon local needs. 
                                                                                • To monitor and review progress in order to help in future planning.
                                                                                • To document the strength and weakness of CLC activities.
                                                                                • One more important role of a CLC is to strengthen its capacity for action 
                                                                                  by means of personal training and resources development.




                                                                          35
                                                                           35
                      WERE ARE CLCS LOCATED                                                       FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITIES OF CLC
                                                                                            •   CLC can function as a venue for:
• List the location.
                                                                                            •   Education and training.
• Do you use already existing building? If so, which ones?
                                                                                            •   Community information and resource services.
• If not here you construct new ones? How did your fund money and 
  building materials? Who did the actual construction?                                      •   Community development activities.
• In short we can say, we can set up CLC at different places in the                         •   Coordinating and networking.
            i            i                  b ildi       il        ibl     ll
  community especially in already existing buildings easily accessible to all, 
  such as the health centre camp, mosque, primary School and other public 
  places.




HERE ARE SOME OF THE MAIN ACTIVITIES OF CLC IN DIFFERENT                                              THANK YOU FOR YOUR
                     COUNTRIES:
                                                                                                          ATTENTION
•   Literacy and post literacy.
•   Libraries or reading corners.                                                                           END OF MY PRESENTATION
•   Income generating activities.
•   Small scall and pre training.                                                                               ANY QUESTIONS
•   Computer skills.
•   Health and hygiene.
•   Self development programs
    Self development programs.
•   Social and cultural activities.
•   Sports and recreation.
•   Only Childhood come and development.
•   Special programs for women.
•   Savings and credit.
•   Raising awareness of HIV/AIDS.
•   Each CLC has different programs depending on the community needs and its social 
    economic religion and culture activities.  




                                                                                       36
                                                                                       36
                  PRESENTATION BY: SOCIAL WORKER CONWELL MWAKOI
                                         ON
                           COMMUNITY BASED ACTIVITIES

   1. CHAWAMA YOUTH PROJECT

Training Programmes:

         1.   Power Electrical and house wiring
         2.   Carpentry & Joinery
         3.   Auto Mechanics
         4.   Welding
         5.   Cutting Designing & Tailoring
         6.   Computer courses

Production/Services Offered:

         1.   Audio recording CYPRO RECORDS)
         2.   Secretarial services
         3.   Internet
         4.   Furniture production e.g. School furniture, Office furniture etc.
         5.   Motor Vehicle repairs
         6.   Business Proposal writing etc
         7.   Business Incubation Centre in Kanakantapa Chongwe as branch


    2.        COMMUNITY SCHOOLS

   1.    Community Schools Basic Education
   2.    Life skills COBET THANDIZANI, TOCS
   3.    Clothing OVC through Mikono (Japan)
   4.    Health Children
   5.    Promotion of a girl Child through education sports, to prevent unwanted
         pregnancies, STIs, HIV/AIDS absenteeism and behavior change sports, football,
         Netball
   6.    Traditional games
   7.    IGA:
   8.    Gardening chicken learning block making
   9.    Literacy classes for both young and adults.

   10.Home based care
   11.Doormat making
   12.Fabric painting
   13.Tie & Dye
   14.Making table clothes bed covers
   15.Cooking

   16.Drug abuse education
   17.Counseling among young and the youth
   18.Gender based violence against women girls
   19.Growth monitoring weighing of under five children and nutrition
   20.Teaching women in good nutrition
   21.Health talk
                                           37
                                           37
3.          CHAWAMA YOUTH DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION [CYDA]

     Psychosocial life skills training in small business entrepreneurship promotion amongst
     the youths

           1. Recreation activities e.g.
           2. Table tennis
           3. Volleyball
           4. Chase
           5. Karate.
           6. Cultural promotion
           7. Linking international and local cultural.
           8. Human right
           9. Advocates for youths and Children.
           10.Drug and substances abuse advocates revalidation efforts to Chawama Hills
              Hospital, DEC ( drug Enforcement Commission)
           11.HIV/AIDS prevention through youth counseling on HIV/AIDS STIs and efforts
              arrangements to the nearest clinic youth friendly services.



      4.        TIYANJANE THEATRE ORGANISATION

           1. Information dissemination through theatre for development e.g. HIV/AIDS, STI’s,
              TB, ARVS, cholera, promotions and prevention.
           2. Training in Zambian Traditional dances.
           3. Training in theatre techniques
           4. Training in stigma and discrimination.
           5. Psychosocial support.
           6. Cultural exchange.
           7. Making of traditional music i.e. Gule wamukulu
           8. Community mobilization.
           9. Training in life skills pot flowers making air vent making, family life education.
           10.Sports development,
           11.Creative arts linked to UNZA.
           12.Promotions.
           13.Entertainment.
           14.Tree planting or razing flowers.
           15.Distribution soap clothes Books to OVCs

      5.        CHAWAMA NEIGHBOURHOOD HEALTHY COMMITTEE

           1. Water and sanitation cloth liming
           2. Mining of G.M.P paints
           3. Information sharing
           4. Capacity building
           5. Community sensitization
           6. Nutrition clinic
           7. Community meetings
           8. Community income generating ventures e.g. KOSHU toilet Laundry contact
              training inspection, award to deserving members.
           9. Counseling.


                                             38
                                             38
NUTRITION AND HEALTH PROBLEMS IN THE COMMUNITY

       By Evelyn Nkhata Tembo (Sister in charge Chawama)

       and Mavis Kalumba (District Nutritionist)



Chawama Health Centre

One of the biggest Health Centre under the Lusaka District Health Office, it is located about 10km
South of Lusaka town and is 3km off the Kafue Road. It serves a community of mixed social
economic status but mostly of low income.

The Centre was opened in 1968 with only a few services being offered to out patients.

Extensions commenced in 1973 when Antenatal, Family Planning and children’s Clinic was
introduced.

  1980 – Proper Clinic building was constructed with aid from World Bank

  1980-   Labour ward services were introduced. This included Dental and Laboratory Unit.

  1985 – Maternal and Child Health services building constructed by Irish Aid.

  1995 – Youth friendly services and VCT (voluntary counselling and testing) introduced

  1998 – Admission wards for paediatrics male and female was built by British Aid with a bed
  capacity of 30. Other accessories included mortuary, kitchen and laundry.

  2005 – Physiotherapy unit opened.

  2006 – Anti Retroviral Therapy unit constructed and opened to public.

  2008 – T.B treatment centre currently under construction.




  Demographic situation in Chawama                    TOP DISEASES –2008

  (HMIS 2009)                                           1.    Malaria
                                                        2.    Non Pneumonia
  Total population -89,331                              3.    Pneumonia
                                                        4.    Diarrhoea
  Children under 5 years - 17,866                       5.    AIDS
                                                        6.    Tuberculosis
  Children 5-9 years 15,186                             7.    Skin infections
                                                        8.    Intestinal worms
  School going children-13,400Women                     9.    ENT Infections
  childbearing age-19,653                               10.   Anaemia




                                                 39
                                                 39
PROBLEM AREAS
  1. Water and Sanitation

   -     There are 21000 households in the area.30% of households have water taps while 70% do not.
   -     57% of households have pit latrines of which 30% have toilets which are in a bad state.
         Therefore 50- 60 households use 1 pit latrine.
   -     80% of households store refuse in bags or containers, while 20% throw garbage
         indiscriminately.
   -     Poor drainage system

   2. Reproductive Health
    -    Inadequate space in labour ward
    -    Increased number of deliveries
    -    Decreased bed capacity
    -    Inadequate delivery packs
    -    Inadequate ambulance service

  NUTRITION PROBLEMS IN THE COMMUNITY

         -Malnutrition is the most common nutrition problem among the under five children in the
         community.

  MALNUTRITION RATE (HMIS- 2008)

       Under five - 2 %

       Currently 52 children under treatment at the nutrition clinic

  CAUSES OF NUTRITION PROBLEMS

       -POVERTY : The coloration between malnutrition and inflation is well attributed. The
       nutrition problem in the community is complex and partly attributed to increased cost of living.

       -Prevalence of diseases such as diarrhoea, malaria and the HIV/AIDS scourge.

       -Inadequate use of safe water and sanitation.

       -Lack of knowledge in the preparation and preservation of locally available foods.

       -Death (increased number of orphans).



  EFFECTS OF NUTRITION DEFICIENCES

       -Emotional and physical stimulation (malnourished children have delayed mental and
       behavioural development which if not treated can become the most serious- long term result of
       malnutrition)

       -Lack of concentration at school if there is no food at home.

       -Increased child labour.




                                                    40
                                                    40
     CONCLUSION

     -Currently severe cases of malnutrition have been raised with UTH (University Teaching
     Hospital) having the wards congested. This has led the ministry of health to plan in opening
     stabilizing centre at chawama where most cases are coming from.

     -There is a community based therapeutic care and a feeding program for the underweight and
     vulnerable children.

     -Other donors have shown interest to help the h/holds in Chawama community with food.

     However, without maximising community participation in solving the highlighted problems,
     the efforts being made so far will not help in sustaining the desired outcomes for a better
     educated and healthier Chawama.



    ZIKOMO

    ALIGATO GOZAIMASU




 
                                                 41
                                                 41
                   Community Based Organisations’ Actions for ESD at CLC

    Health

    − Conduct focus groups in all 10 zones on food security and nutrition and promotion of
      health activities

    − Sensitise our community on the importance of ESD so as to know how to use our local
      products (food)

    − Mobilisation of key target groups/sensitisation on importance of CLCs

    − Facilitate in the training of women in development groups in food security, e.g., food
      processing and preserving. Promotion of production of local foods and introduce non-
      formal education and skills training

    WDC 1

    − Sensitise people at grassroots level through meetings with ward zones so that food is
      prepared, stored or bought from healthy dealers, this will eliminate diseases. Eventually
      more monthly meetings on the same

    NHC Chawama

    − To educate on food and health through GMP point in the community

    − To share issues during the zonal meetings, stakeholders’ meetings

    − To encourage the community members create backyard gardens

    − To continue with integrated activities, e.g., include ESD at zonal level

    CYP

    − Will contribute or provide infrastructure for conducting training on ESD through CLC

    Tiyanjane Theatre

    − Create social drama on ESD through theatre from the people to people

    − By creating theatre through sports during soccer events

    − Create ESD through traditional dance and create movies on ESD

    − Tiyanjane Challenges: video camera, books on ESD, movement from one place to
      another

    − We have to contribute through teaching cheap nutrition foods such as pumpkin leaves

    − Mobilising of local foods in the community and conducting cooking demonstrations in
      all respective zones

    − The community to be taught how to find the food and how to prepare, e.g., by doing



 

                                                42
                                                42
      demonstrations

    − We will be contributing in skills trainings in OVCs and women and teaching them some
      cooking demonstrations using locally produced foods for nutrition and health

    − We must be committed as an organisation for us to promote ESD in our community.

    − We are going to educate the community on ESD by using drama, theatre for
      development

    − Following the programmes of Tiyanjane Theatre we will educate our community on
      ESD. We have no problem because that’s our programme.

    Chawama Clinic

    − Relaying information on health and nutrition in the community

    − Would contribute in helping to identify the critical path

    − Provision of learning materials

    − Implementation of food safety measures and inspection and offering technical support in
      cooking demonstrations

    − Offering school health services, i.e., dental, deworming, HIG on hygiene screening

    − I was pleased to listen to various good and precious lectures but I couldn’t understand
      why CLC is necessary exactly in Zambia

    − Zambia also has community meeting g places like Kalikiliki which Japanese government
      supported. In Japan I did not grasp what parts Kominkan has

    − I have to learn more about ESD at CLC

    − Universities must be able to work closely with CBOs

    − The CBOs must have a focal point to be able to connect the CBOs with the staff that
      can/are willing to assist the communities in whatever technical advice they need

    − The CBOs should have a contact person who should know the contact person at
      universities

    − The things that we need much as a community –to implement are equipments, food and a
      lot more to CLC in our community

    − My organisation would lobby from the local authority for the provision of infrastructure
      and sensitise the community to get interested in ESD

    − On food, nutrition and health- again my organisation would sensitise the community,
      e.g., market restaurants that need to keep their food in clean places and buy their food
      from safe sources

    − My contribution that my organisation can do to our community learning centres is to


 

                                                 43
                                                 43
      organise training sessions for trainers first and then trainees so that by the time the
      community a large is being assisted, the stakeholders, the leadership will have known
      already what is at stake for them

    Chawama Youth Sports Academy

    − Our organisation (academy) can contribute through information sharing whenever we
      hold football tournaments.

    − The academy has a “go-to-school” programme where we lobby from our partners. We
      feel we can use our partners to try and help to achieve ESD through CLCs

    Chawama Police

    − The Zambia Police Service will work closely with the concerned parties in ensuring that
      the community have safe food. The Police will work together with the Council
      Environmental Technologists. If food is being sold at market/street is found to be
      dangerous to human life, the Police will straight move in with the help of the health
      workers to ensure that food that is safe is sold at these policies.

    − The Police would like to urge all members of the community to report such cases so that
      the situation is brought under control

    ASD/WFP

    − Track families with children with severe and moderate malnutrition working with the
      Health Centre and the CLC

    − Will promote advocacy/educational activities on child care and sanitation

    − Will implement the food voucher programme to food insecure households

    − Will facilitate cooking demonstration to mothers and community at large

    − Will contribute to the incentives for the Health Neighbourhood Committee

    TOES Community School

    − Teach cheaper nutrition kind of foods like nshima, chibwabwa with pounded
      groundnuts, soya helps given to the children as it contains all food nutrients from WFP
      which we have been receiving

    − Do small gardening at the backyard for vegetables

    − Eat beans instead of meat, chicken as a substitute; eat fruits like mangoes as vitamin
      foods abundant at this time of the year; make maheu drink from mealie meal

    − Visit the Health Centre for good nutrition preparation especially for children

    − Lobby for bags of mealie-meal, beans and feed the children




 

                                                4
                                                4
   Annex
   Name of the pariticipants of workshop of ESD through CLC at Lusaka
   NAMES                      OGANIZATION                                     Title
 1 Sampa Bredgt               Parliament of Zambia                            Member of Parliament
                              Copperbelt University School of Health and
 2 D. Shumba                                                                  Dean and Advisor or UNESCO
                              Natural Sciences
                                                                         Lecturer and visiting lecturer of Okayama
 3 B.M. Hang'ombe             University of Zambia, School of Veterinary me
                                                                         University of UNESCO chair program
 4 Jusin Somi           Chawama Youth Program                            Executive Director
 5 Victor Chansa        Chawama Youth Development Association            CHAIRPERSON
 6 CONWEL MWAKOI        Neibourhodd Health Committee                     MEMBER
 7 RODGERS MULENGA      Chawama Youth Program                            SECRETARY GENERAL
 8 Kelvin Munengo       TOCS                                             Teacher
 9 D. MULILUTA          Ward Development Committee-03                    CHAIRPERSON
10 C. KAFULA            CHAWAMA POLICE                                   OFFICER IN CHARGE
11 BONFACE CHILESHE     W&CI                                             CHAIRPERSON
12 D.M MUSONDA          EDUCATION                                        HEAD TEACHER
13 E.D. KANFWA          Ward Development Committee.- 02                  CHAIRPERSON
14 MWADE ZULU           ABWENZI WOMEN                                    MEMBER
15 EVELYN NKHATA TEMBO LDHMT. CHAWAMA                                    Sisiter in Charge
16 ALPHONSINA HAMALALA CHAWAMA CLINIC                                    Environmental Health Technologist
17 CHRISTINE T. KASINSA CHAWAMA CLINIC                                   NURSE
18 TIMOTTHY NVULA       CHAWAMA CLINIC                                   CLINICAL OFFICER
19 AUGUSTINE PHIRI      TIYANJANE THEATRE                                CHARPERSON
20 JOHN L. BUKOOLE      Ward Development Committee 4                     CHARPERSON
21 Cpt D.K MULENGA      COUNCILLAR WARD 2                                COUNCILLAR
22 CYTHIA CHILUFYA      COMT DEV DEP                                     CDO
23 PHALLES CHONGWE      ABWENZI WOMEN                                    MEMBER
24 FRANCIS J. DAKA      COUNCILLAR WARD 1                                COUNCILLAR
25 MONICA T. NJOBVU     D.DO.-LCC                                        CDO
26 BRIGHTON CHONGO      CHAWAMA YOUTH SPORT ACADEMY                      MANAGER
27 PHIRI COSMAS         CHAWAMA YOUTH SPORT ACADEMY                      COACH
28 BRENDA HANAMPOTA     [ASD] ALLIANCE FOR SUSTANTABLE DEVELOPMENT OFFICER
29 TOMOMI NAKAMURA      ASP/WFP(World Food Program)                      JOCV/JICA
30 VAINESS BANDA        A.A MP’S OFFICE                                  SECRETARY
31 PHALLES .C. PHIRI    ABWENZI WOMEN                                    MEMBER
32 MASANOTI FUJII       FAMILY HEALTH TRUST                              JOCV/JICA
33 ANNE KAPAYA          FAMILY HEALTH TRUST                              OFFICER
34 RABECCA MWANZA       TIYANJANE THEATRE                                MEMBER
35 REDSON NYIRENDA      TIYANJANE THEATRE                                MEMBER
36 Hitomi Yamamoto      Tokushima International Cooperation Organization Representative of Zambia
37 Tsutomu Kobayashi    Okayama University                               PhD candidate
38 Hideki Yamamoto      Okayama University                               Associate Professor
Annex2:Closing ceremony  of the Workshop




                             Certificate
                           This is to certify that,

                  Mr./Ms. _________________________

                        ti i t d the     k h
                    participated th workshop on
  “Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) through Community
      Learning Centers (CLCs) for Food, Nutrition and Health”
                               Lusaka
                          5-6 February, 2009

                         Okayama University ,
                      Alliance of Chawama CBOs




   __________________                                 __________________
     Hideki Yamamoto                                      Mr. Justin Somi
    Associate Professor,                                 Executive Director
   Okayama University                                 Chawama Youth Program
  UNESCO Chair program




                                      46
Edited by Hideki Yamamoto MD, MPH,PhD.
Associate professor at
Department of International Health, Graduate School of
Environmental Sciences, Okayama University,
UNESCO chair program on Research and Education for
Sustainable development
3-1-1, Tsushima-naka, Okayama, 700-8530,Japan
hidekiy@md.okayama-u.ac.jp


International Cooperation Initiatives Program
“Promotion of ESD on food, nutrition and health through
CLCs”
Copyright: MEXT, Japan
3-2-2, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku,
 Tokyo, 100-8959, Japan