Schofields Flying Club Ltd – 60 Birch Street Bankstown Airport

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					Schofields Flying Club Ltd                                                                   July/August 2008 Newsletter

                             Schofields Flying Club Ltd – 60 Birch Street Bankstown Airport 2200
                                     (PO Box 200, Georges Hall, NSW 2198 AUSTRALIA)
                             Phone: +61 2 9709 8488 Email:



          elcome to the July/August 2008 edition of Schofields News. There are the most of the usual plus some new
          features - President's Notes by Mike Allsop, Ask the CFI by Patrick Watson, X-File X087 (Nakajima Ki.87) by
          Anthony Coleiro, Two New Sydney Scenic Flights by
Latrodectus, Bankstown Navigation Challenge by John Hook,
Huntington Winery Music Festival Flyaway by Alan Searle,
Meet Your New Instructors by Danial Martin, Unexplained
Discrepancy by Latrodectus, Interclub Competition Report by
Rae Cauchi, Propeller Stone Damage compiled by Latrodectus,
and The Last Word from Latrodectus. As well, there's some of
the usual administrivia that you've come to expect. So, read on
and enjoy!

NEW MEMBERS: Welcome to June new members James
Pickett, Mia Angus, Mark Wardrop, Sasha Zigic, Eric Simon,
Axel Diefenbacher, Anthony Monger, Shane Doyle, Katharine
Smith, Archie Chronopoulos, David Arblaster, Martin Bryson,             Latrodectus demonstrates a short-field landing
Vatche Pailagian, Camilla Dickerson, John Terry, Sheldon               in Cessna 172 VH-RNL on runway 08 at Maitland
Haig, William Liu, Hadia Hasan, Daniel Harrison, Daniel Hart,
Matthew Hart, David Roberts and Colin Bruce. Prospective New Members of the Club can download a Membership
Application Form (174kB pdf) here. Note that it is still necessary for new members to attend the Club in person with
photo identification before applications can be processed.

DUTY PILOT DRAW: The Volunteer Duty Pilot Monthly Draw for June ($50 free flying) goes to Jason Rego and
Scott Button. The Club appreciates the efforts our tireless band of volunteers generously give in helping their Club and
this is one small way of saying thank you!

DIARY DATES: The Club has a number of social and flying activities planned for 2008 and you will be able to check
out the full details on our Coming Events page in the next few weeks.

   Sunday             05       July        Interclub Competition                                   Mudgee
   Monday             21       July        Committee Meeting                                       Clubhouse
   Sunday             27       July        Last Light Drinks                                       Clubhouse

   Sunday             17       August      Navigation Competition                                  Training Area
   Monday             18       August      Committee Meeting                                       Clubhouse
   Sunday             31       August      Last Light Drinks                                       Clubhouse

   Monday             15       September   Committee Meeting                                       Clubhouse
   Sunday             28       September   Club Competition                                        Warnervale
   Sunday             28       September   Last Light Drinks                                       Clubhouse

BAK THEORY: Our next BAK course commences on 6 August and will run for 6 weeks on Wednesday nights and all
day Saturday in our new classrooms in Birch Street. Includes examination at the end of the course. Phone the Club to
book your place.

                                                          Page 1 of 11
Schofields Flying Club Ltd                                                                     July/August 2008 Newsletter

                                               FIRST SOLOS: Mark Wardrop flew his first solo on 14th July at 4pm in
                                               JNB. Mark operates a tour company in outback Australia and has been
                                               around planes for a while. He just decided to get his licence for something
                                               to do. Mark's instructor was Lori Timewell. Matthew Maunsell flew first
                                               solo on 1st May, also in JNB. This is a picture of Matthew just as he was
                                               given take-off clearance on his solo circuit. Mark's instructor was Lori
                                               Timewell. Congratulations to you both!

                                            LAST LIGHT DRINKS is a social activity introduced by the Clubhouse
                                            & In-house Events sub committee for members and their guests to join
                                            together with some of our committee members on the last Sunday of each
 Mark Wardrop           Matt Maunsell       month. It is an opportunity to discuss flying at an operational and social
                                            level and see the changes that are taking place at the club. Drinks are
available from our licensed bar, with complimentary savories served. It's a couple of hours of social interaction with an
aviation theme that we can all enjoy. From 17:00 to wind up around 19:00. Come and join us on August 31.

                                     PRESIDENT’S NOTES – BY MIKE ALLSOP

                              ell our new Club facilities have really had a workout this
                              month. Firstly, we were pleased to make the BBQ area
                              available for member Craig Hobart to celebrate his 40th
                              birthday with friends and family early in June. Craig
                    donated several TIFs and scenic flights to his guests which kept a
                    few aircraft and instructors busy all morning. In turn his guests donated to Angel Flight, a
                    cause which Craig is very involved in. Meanwhile his family had provided all food for their
                    masses while a couple of us drove the BBQ for them. The coffee cart idea could become a
                    regular feature at the club given the interest shown in it by other members on the day. The
   Mike Allsop      second event we had entailed renting our premises to the Women Pilots Association for their
                    "Dinner with the Aviators" function. This was also very successful, with our Vice President
John Young driving the bar and a number of our own members in the assembled multitude.

On the subject of events, we will be ramping up our own social activities over the remainder of the year now that we
have the premises under control so to speak. Expect to see announcements for an Aviation Night, Presentation
Night and Christmas Party in the very near future. Also, we would like to
conduct at least one daytime event (maybe on a Sunday, over lunchtime)             In a dark and hazy room, peering
with a workshop theme for your interest. This model works very well for our        into a crystal ball, the mystic
GPS courses and we are looking at other things to attract you to join in with      delivered grave news: "There's no
fellow members.                                                                    easy way to say this, so I'll just be
                                                                                   blunt - prepare yourself to be a
During July we expect to have the Club Arrow JRY back on line after its
                                                                                   widow. Your husband will die a
refurb. At least that is what it used to be called. When it comes back it will
be VH-SFJ to reflect its "new" status and to continue with our acquisition of      violent and horrible death this
SFx nomenclature for as many of our aircraft as possible. This is always           year." Visibly shaken, the lady being
dependent of course on the marks being available, which is infrequent. She         given the reading stared at the
will be sporting a new interior, new glazing, new paint job and new engine.        mystic's lined face, then at the single
You'll love it.                                                                    flickering candle, then down at her
                                                                                   hands. She took a few deep breaths
Finally, a note about care of aircraft in your possession. We had an issue         to compose herself. She simply had
with 3rd party hire of LSG (ie not one of our members) where operation             to know. She met the fortune teller's
with insufficient oil over a long XC led to internal damage to the engine. It      gaze, steadied her voice, and asked:
required a bulk strip, new camshaft and new pistons as a result of negligent       "Will I be acquitted?"
operation. Please operate our aircraft with care and respect at all times as
part of basic good airmanship, and treat them as though they were your own
both in the air and on the ground. If you are at all unsure about any aspect of operation of "your" aircraft, you
should always ask an instructor for assistance or advice. Our Terms and Conditions of Hire are quite explicit about
the consequences of negligent operation.

Look after 'em folks, and they'll look after you! Enjoy your flying.

Mike Allsop
President SFC
                             Schofields Flying Club Ltd – 60 Birch Street Bankstown Airport 2200
                                     (PO Box 200, Georges Hall, NSW 2198 AUSTRALIA)
                             Phone: +61 2 9709 8488 Email:
                              Schofields Flying Club Website:

                                                         Page 2 of 11
Schofields Flying Club Ltd                                                                        July/August 2008 Newsletter

                                         ASK THE CFI – BY PATRICK WATSON

                             A primer on priming
                             Having trouble starting engines on these cold winter
                             mornings? I've often sat in the warmth of the clubhouse
                             watching pilots trying to start aeroplane engines on cold days -
                             especially the first flight of the day.

                             There are a few things working against them. Firstly, a cold battery doesn't produce as much
                             power as normal, the engine oil is cold and thick and resists turning the engine, fuel does not
                             vaporise as well as it does when warmer, and the engine is cranky and sluggish, it doesn't
                             want to awaken from its slumber (so say I anyway) - all contribute to a difficult start.

                        Cranking the engine for long periods is bad! It is bad for
the battery, bad for the starter motor, and bad for the other components in the
starting circuitry. These are all designed to not operate continuously. They are
light weight, minimum size and designed to operate for a very short time, only
during engine start. The rest of the time they are useless ballast being carried
around adding to the weight of the aeroplane and contributing nothing.

Some of our aeroplanes have new starter motors fitted. They are Sky-Tec
Flyweight starter motors. Advantages are they are lightweight and crank at high
speed. The disadvantage - being light weight and having smaller copper windings, are prone to overheating and
severe damage if not operated correctly. DO NOT crank the engine for more than 10 seconds. If the engine does not
start within this time, then it is most likely you are doing something wrong.

Aeroplane engines are simple machines, all they need is a spark and fuel (in the right proportion) and they will start
and run sweetly. On cold winter mornings, the engine will need to be primed with fuel more than usual. With the
Warriors, turn the pump on - don't try to prime with the pump OFF.

Pull the Primer out and pause - let it fill up. It has a tiny inlet hole and a tiny outlet hole. After it has filled, push it
all the way in to inject the fuel. You should feel resistance as you are doing this - if not - you are pumping air, not
fuel. Pilots who sit there pumping the Primer are NOT priming the engine - they are pumping air into the cylinders
                                                       - not fuel. I reiterate, pull the primer all the way out, pause for 3
                                                       seconds, let it fill, push it all the way in, repeat at least 5 times on
                                                       a cold morning - perhaps 7 or eight times. Lock the primer then
                                                       promptly start the engine. Do not wait. If you do, then perhaps all
                                                       the fuel you have just injected will vaporise and you'll have to
                                                       start all over!

                                                Still won't start? Perhaps you are in VH-SFR and have forgotten
Still won't start? Perhaps you are in VH-SFR    to turn on the magnetos? Ditto with VH-PIE? The pilot did
                                                everything right, pump on, primed for 6 seconds, pushed the
 & have forgotten to turn on the magnetos?      start button but the engine would not start. Why not? Look at the
                                                magneto switches. Of course there is another obvious reason an
engine won't start (apart from breakdown). Can you guess what it is? (Answer at the end of the article.)

The Primer usually primes two cylinders only, and the primer fuel line is a very small copper tube, susceptible to
kinks and nicks all of which make priming very difficult. Here is the primer fuel line in VH-HQR. As you can see, it
is very thin, fragile, easily damaged. It feeds two cylinders only.

CASA has recently issued a couple of CAAPs that will affect our
operations. The first, CAAP 5.81-1(0), is to do with Aeroplane Flight
Reviews or the old BFR (Biennial Flight Review). If you are coming up
for a flight review in the near future, I suggest you download this
CAAP from the CASA web site. All of our Flight Reviews will comply
with the procedures recommended in this CAAP. Prepare yourself for
a minimum four hour theory session and a minimum of 1.5 hours
flight. You may need more depending on your recency, the type of
flying you do and the aeroplane you mostly fly.
                                                                                  Here is the primer fuel line in VH-HQR. As
Download at
Download at                      you can see, it is very thin, fragile, easily
                                                                                     damaged. It feeds two cylinders only.

                                                           Page 3 of 11
Schofields Flying Club Ltd                                                                     July/August 2008 Newsletter

The other CAAP is CAAP 5.23-2(0) Multi-engine Aeroplane Operations and Training. It outlines the theory and
practical training required for initial and subsequent multi-engine endorsements. It details seven hours (minimum)
theory and seven hours of flight instruction and sets the syllabuses for both.

For those who are interested, and those who intend getting their multi-engine aeroplane endorsement, the Club will
conduct the theory course in accordance with the CAAP syllabus over two Sundays, 20th and 27th July. If you are
interested, please contact the office during the week to enrol. Just the thing you need on a cold winter's Sunday. Sit
in air-conditioned comfort and be thrilled and enthused by an excitable, knowledgeable, enthusiastic instructor.

You may have seen lots of new faces among the instructor staff lately. There has been quite a turnover with many of
our experienced instructors being "poached" by the airlines. Lori Timewell is leaving us shortly, Alison has an
interview, Salah is leaving, Janina has left and is flying for a freight company in a Convair, Kozue has left in order to
produce another little Jeffrey Swain.

On the other hand we have picked up a few new Instructors, Ben Wong, Robert Bell, Chris Bournelis, Martin
Sulzynski, Steve Reh, and Danial Martin are a few of the new ones. There was a desperate shortage of Sunday
Instructors - that is pretty well sorted now. So hope to see you on a weekend.

'Til next month - happy flying.

Patrick Watson
Chief Pilot - Chief Flying Instructor

                             X-FILE X087 – NAKAJIMA Ki.87 – BY ANTHONY COLEIRO

                              he appearance of B-29 bombers over Japan forced the
                              Japanese Army Air Force (J.A.A.F.) to act on a need for a high
                              altitude interceptor. Nakajima had already studied such a
                        concept back in the early months of 1942. Now, with the urgent
                        need, the go ahead was given to build such an aircraft.

                        Nakajima came up with a pressurised single seat, single engine
                        interceptor powered by a Mitsubishi Ha.215 eighteen-cylinder radial
                        engine with an exhaust driven turbo-supercharger cooled by a
Anthony Coleiro         sixteen-blade fan. The engine was able to achieve 2,400 hp for take-
                        off and 1,850 hp at 34,450 feet. Three prototypes were ordered.

The J.A.A.F. wanted the supercharger to be placed at the bottom of the fuselage to the rear
like the P-47 thunderbolt but in order to minimise fuel leakage in the event of battle
                                                             damage, Nakajima mounted it
                                                             on the starboard side of the
                                                             forward fuselage. Delays with
                                                             the supercharger meant that
                                                             the first prototype was not
                                                             rolled out until February 1945.

                                                            The aircraft was all metal in construction with an oval
                                                            section semi-monocoque fuselage and it featured a single
                                                            spar stressed skin wing built in one piece. The aircraft was
to be equipped with both 20 and 30 mm cannons and provision was made to carry one 550 lb bomb. The rearward
retractable undercarriage rotated through 90° to fold flat.

The first prototype Ki.87 flew in April 1945 and plans were drawn up to produce 500 of the machines but the
conclusion of the war put an end to that. Only one aircraft was ever built and it only ever flew five times, never
having retracted its undercarriage. It was estimated that the aircraft would have had a maximum speed of 705
km/h. There was to be a further development of this aircraft called the Ki.87-II powered by a 3,000 hp Ha. 217
turbo-supercharged engine with the supercharger located where the army would have originally liked; on the
underside of the rear fuselage.

     The Complete Book of Fighters - William Green Gordon Swanborough
     War Planes of the Second World War - Fighters Volume Three - William Green

Anthony Coleiro

                                                         Page 4 of 11
Schofields Flying Club Ltd                                                                    July/August 2008 Newsletter


       hose members who subscribe to the Airservices Australia
       update service for the Sydney VTC would have received with
       their 5 June 08 update a copy of the new Sydney General
Flying Guide (GFG). This Guide is intended to assist pilots
unintentionally entering controlled airspace and flags a number of
'hot spots' around the Sydney Basin where problems have occurred
in the past. Introduced with the GFG are two new Sydney scenic
flight flight routes. These are described on the GFG and will appear
in ERSA. The text below (and the diagram to the right) will appear
in the 28 August 08 ERSA.

The intention of the two Harbour Scenics is to minimise radio
transmissions by having standard clearances. Maybe this isn't
obvious from the description on the GFG and in ERSA, but a
typical flight might go like this:

Request clearance at PRT. ATC gives you a SSR code and a
frequency to call at LRF. At LRF, you are given a clearance "FTU,
cleared Harbour Scenic One, QNH 1013, report clear of the Zone
at LRF". You read back "Harbour Scenic One, QNH 1013". (Note -
no level is given in the clearance and you don't have to read back the standard level.)

You then track as per the description on the GFG and ERSA:
       At 1500 ft AMSL Track Long Reef direct to the Harbour Bridge.
       Remain east of the Harbour Bridge commence a left turn remaining North of the Opera House.
       Conduct 2 left hand orbits remaining East of the Harbour Bridge, North of the Opera House and West of
       Garden Island.
       On completion of the second orbit track to North Head.
       At North Head track to Manly Beach and east of the coast to Long Reef.

At LFR you report "FTU, clear of the Zone at LRF".

Note that the Route Clearance implies a level of 1500 feet unless otherwise required by ATC, and the controller
won't state the level in the clearance.

The following NOTAM has been issued and will remain in effect until the next
ERSA is issued:



FROM 06 041600 TO 08 271600

The following text will appear in the 28 August 08 ERSA:


19.1    GENERAL
        a. The airspace above Sydney Harbour is Class C and an airways clearance is required before you can enter it.
        b. Clearance will be limited to an altitude not lower than 1500 ft and you maybe confined to an area east of
           the Harbour Bridge and north of the Opera House.
        c. Alternatively you may be cleared for either a Harbour Scenic One or a Harbour Scenic Two.
        d. VMC should exist over the proposed route and clearance will depend on traffic and controller workload.
        e. The airspace over the Harbour below 1000 ft is restricted for use by helicopters and floatplanes only (R405B).

                                                       Page 5 of 11
Schofields Flying Club Ltd                                                                       July/August 2008 Newsletter

        a. To minimise delays submit flight details before your flight.
        b. Plan in class 'G' airspace to Long Reef, then in class 'C' airspace requesting a Harbour Scenic One or
           Two, then 'G' airspace through Victor 1.

        a. From Bankstown, track via the Lane of Entry to Hornsby to Long Reef remaining North of Narrabeen Lakes.
        b. At Parramatta, contact Sydney Terminal (135.1 MHz) to request a Harbour Scenic.
        c. If traffic and controller workload permit you may be issued with either a Harbour Scenic One or Two.
        d. The procedures for the Harbour Scenic One or Two are as follows:

        a. At 1500 ft AMSL Track Long Reef direct to the Harbour Bridge.
        b. Remain east of the Harbour Bridge and commence a left turn, remaining North of the Opera House.
        c. Conduct 2 left hand orbits remaining East of the Harbour Bridge, North of the Opera House and West
           of Garden Island.
        d. On completion of the second orbit track to North Head.
        e. At North Head track to Manly Beach and east of the coast to Long Reef. Refer 19.6.

        a. At 1500 ft AMSL Track Long Reef direct to Chatswood CBD.
        b. Conduct 2 left hand orbits remaining East of the Chatswood CBD and West of the Roseville Bridge.
        c. On completion of the second orbit track to Manly Beach.
        d. At Manly Beach turn left and track east of the coast to Long Reef. Refer 19.6.

        a. If pilots elect or have planned to enter Victor 1 after completing a Harbour Scenic flight, they must
           advise the Controller at Manly Beach of their intention.
        b. If the request is approved the pilot must comply with the following:
           (i) After passing Manly Beach and established East of the Coast broadcast intentions on 120.8 MHz.
           (ii) Descend to 500 ft AMSL with a requirement to reach 500 ft AMSL before passing South Head

        Expanded details and a diagrammatic representation of these procedures are provided on the Sydney
        General Flying Guide.


Navigation Challenge - Sunday 17th August 08
Members are invited to a competition with a difference - teamwork and observation: a
Navigation Exercise. This is a great opportunity to get away for an early morning scenic
and come back to brekkie at the club.
A route sheet with questions will be available on the morning from 6:00 am to allow
you to flight plan, pre-flight and leave early (First light is 6:06 local). Before leaving you
nominate an ETE (expected time en-route). The winners will be the aircraft crew that
come closest to their nominated time whilst answering all the questions - these will be
mostly about places on the route but may include e.g. NOTAMS for the day. The OCTA
route will be timed for about 1 hour in a Warrior. In practice leaving around 6:30 - 6:45
will make the flight less demanding for the observers and allow the aircraft to be back
by 8 am for a second navex flight or other booking.
Teamwork is encouraged as two or more crew makes for a safer flight - the observers
answer the questions whilst the PIC keeps a good look-out. We also encourage people
to nominate as observers if they are not licensed. Just like a fly-away we'll try to match
you up with others to create a team. Some aircraft have been booked until 9:30 so there
will be two slots starting at 6:00 am (back by 8) and 8 am (back by 9:30).
How much? Any club aircraft can be hired at private hire rates or use your own. Breakfast
will be provided back at the Club at $10 a head. Bring the aircraft back by 8:00 and breakfast is half price i.e. $5 a head
(for SFC on-line aircraft only).
What do you have to do next? Please ring the club on 9709 8488 and add your name and phone number to the list
and indicate numbers for breakfast. Also indicate if you would like observers or to be an observer.

John Hook
Sports Flying Coordinator
                                                         Page 6 of 11
Schofields Flying Club Ltd                                                                         July/August 2008 Newsletter


Mudgee Weekend Flyaway - 22-23 November 08
For aficionados of fine classical music, food and wine, this very special festival concert features chamber and string
quartet music set in the magical backdrop of Huntington Winery Estate's beautiful Barrel Hall. The artists are
gathered from Australia and around the world and are first class. This
festival is a well kept secret and will be an unforgettable experience. The
first concert is on the Saturday evening, the other on the Sunday
morning. Each is followed by fine meals and wine.

The plan
Fly up to Mudgee on Saturday morning. Maxi taxi to the Ningana motel.
We can then relax, do a wine tour or take a run out to Gulgong to the
Henry Lawson museum and peruse this rustic old town. They still have
horse rails - we'll get a consensus on that one! Back to the motel and
prepare for the evening's entertainment.

On Sunday, arise, enjoy the morning concert and be wined and dined
once more. The afternoon can then be spent enjoying the gardens of the
estate as one soaks up the ambience of the setting with another wine or
two or check out the other wineries depending on preferences.

                    Monday morning sees us off to the Hunter Valley, landing
                    at Cessnock. Then it's off to our accommodation, drop the
                    bags and set off for a tour of the wineries.                        Huntington Estate Music Festival
                    Tuesday morning we fly back to Bankstown.

                    The tickets for the prelude concerts including food and wine for this quality event is $255 each
                    person. Based on a Warrior with two people, 4 hours flying approx (YSBK-YMDG-YCNK-YSBK)
                    $350 each. 3 nights accommodation $200 each. Therefore total approx $800 each plus Sunday
                    and Monday nights meals and a bit of taxi/commuter van.

                    The first commitment will be to lock in the festival tickets, as these are invitation only and in
                    limited supply. I have a number of these available, so quick response is necessary. Then we can
                    nail the aircraft. I have a couple of motels on standby in both Mudgee and the Hunter Valley
                    depending on numbers. I will organise transport accordingly. Anyone ready to be the designated

                 You must check the Huntington Estate Winery - Music Festival 2008 website to see what a
priceless experience this will be. If you're a 96.9 listener of course this may be a little over your head. But go ahead,
surprise me!

Enquiries to Alan Searle on 0419 433 216
Director of Recreational Flying

                             MEET YOUR NEW INSTRUCTORS - BY DANIAL MARTIN

Craig Chapman
Craig is a grade three instructor with 1000 hours and has held a pilots licence for the past 25 years.
Craig has Night, CSU, Retract, and pressurisation teaching approvals.

Craig has experience on a vast variety of aircraft including Cessna 152, Cessna 172, Piper Tomahawk,
Beechcraft Bonanza, Victa Airtour, Grumman Cheetah, Cessna 182, Cessna 210, Piper Warriors,
Piper Archers, Piper Saratoga, Piper Cherokee 6, Piper Malibu, Beechcraft Duchess, Piper Seminole,
Grumman Cougar, Piper Chieftain, Piper Cheyenne and Citation.

Craig initiated his flying career by obtaining a Commercial Pilots Licence in 1983 and spent his
first few years flying for a shearing contractor in far southwest Queensland and gained a lot of
bush flying experience. He achieved his instructor rating in 1989 and worked on a casual basis               Craig Chapman
instructing during the 1990s.

                                                           Page 7 of 11
Schofields Flying Club Ltd                                                                          July/August 2008 Newsletter

After a break from the aviation industry Craig has returned to full time flying, and hopes to progress to grade one and ATO
approvals making flying a life long career.

Danial Martin
Danial has been working for Schofields for over three years on a part time/casual basis and has now
joined us as a full time pilot with the role of deputy Chief Flying Instructor (CFI). Danial's role with
the school is to assist both Patrick with the CFI role's and Nelson with the day to day CASA and VTAB
compliance and student management.

Danial is a grade one instructor, holding an Air Transport Pilots Licence with 3000 hours with a
Diploma in Aviation and has held a pilots licence for the past 17 years. Danial was a competent
assessor conducting external ground training and assessing of flight crew and ground crew with
airlines such as Regional Express, United Airlines, Singapore Airlines and other large aviation
organisations such as Menzies Aviation, and Inflight Logistic Services (Virgin Blue).
                                                                                                               Danial Martin
Danial joined the Australian Air League (an Aviation youth organisation) at the age of 12 and first
learnt to fly in 1991, completing his first solo at the age of 16. He then obtained his CPL in 1998 and achieved his instructor
rating shortly thereafter. He instructed part time whilst working for Turbomeca, a turbine engine manufacturer and
commenced employment with Schofields Flying Club back in 2005.

Danial has IFR Multi-Engine, Night, CSU, Retract, Formation and Instructor Rating teaching approvals.

His experience covers a vast variety of aircraft including Cessna 152, Cessna 172, Piper Tomahawk, Cessna 182, Piper
Warriors, Piper Archers, Piper Dakota, Cirrus SR22, Beechcraft Duchess, Partenavia as well as experience teaching in the
Garman G1000 and Avidyne Glass Cockpits.

Danial enjoys teaching all levels of flight training from ab-initio to advanced multi-engine instrument flying and hopes to
achieve his CASA CFI approvals and Approved Testing Officer (ATO). This is for his own career advancement and
satisfaction as well as assisting our CFI Patrick Watson.

Steve Reh
Steve is a grade one instructor with 5000 hours and has held a pilots licence for the past 32 years.
Steve has been a Chief Flying Instructor and has held CASA approval as a testing officer (ATO). Steve
has Multi-Engine, Night, CSU, Retract and Tail wheel, Instructor Rating teaching approvals.

Steve has experience on a vast variety of aircraft including Cessna 152, Cessna 172, Piper Tomahawk,
Cessna 182, Piper Warriors, Piper Archers, Piper Dakota, Piper Lance, Piper Saratoga, Citabria,
Chipmunk, Koliber, Turbo Seneca, Beechcraft Duchess, Partenavia as well as experience teaching in
the Garman G1000 Glass Cockpit.

Steve is a career instructor who takes pleasure in seeing people succeed with their dreams of
becoming pilots at both recreational and professional levels.                                                    Steve Reh

Danial Martin
Deputy CFI

                              UNEXPLAINED DISCREPANCY - BY LATRODECTUS

    n past years, a procedure that was applied to an ILS approach was that the OM crossing height was noted and, if
    this height was greater than the published value, the difference was added to the decision altitude. There was no
    correction required for OM crossing heights less than the published value.

This procedure was meaningless unless the aircraft
was exactly on the glideslope when it crossed the
outer marker although there was no requirement
for this. The only criteria were that the procedure
was flown within ± half scale deflection and that a
missed approach was initiated no later than the
decision altitude.

The rationale behind this procedure was that an
altimeter will read the correct (true) altitude only
under ISA temperature conditions. Conditions colder than ISA will cause the altimeter to over-read and, to reduce
the risk of the altimeter over-reading at DA when the aircraft is close to the ground, the over-reading that was noted
at the outer marker was added to the DA.
                                                           Page 8 of 11
Schofields Flying Club Ltd                                                                  July/August 2008 Newsletter

This procedure was fallacious because it assumed the same temperature error would be applicable at DA (200-300
feet AGL) as at the OM (1200-1300 feet AGL). [The temperature error is approximately in proportion to the height
AGL and is affected by aerodrome elevation in only a minor way.]

In accordance with ICAO practice, the above procedure has been replaced in AIP ENR 1.5-33 para 7.3.1, which reads:

          "The final approach segment contains a fix at which the glide path / altimeter relationship should be
          verified. If the check indicates an unexplained discrepancy, the ILS approach should be discontinued."

The only difficulty with this new procedure is to agree on what is meant by the term 'unexplained discrepancy'.

The altimeter/glideslope cross-reference at the outer marker is really a confidence check. Provided the altimeter is
in tolerance (±60 feet) and the procedure is flown within ½-scale glideslope deflection, possible reasons for the
altimeter reading other than the published height might be:

          Not on glideslope at the outer marker. Generally, glideslope
          displays are not calibrated in degrees per dot like most
          localiser CDIs so a particular indication can't be related to a
          height deviation. Using the VASI for comparison, the
          displacement between full fly-up and full fly-down
          represents approximately -100 to +150 feet at a typical OM
          position. This would correspond to about -15 to +20 feet at
          the middle marker. So a ½-scale glideslope fly-down
          indication might correspond to about 60-80 feet of
          'explainable discrepancy'.
          Altimeter tolerance. This could account for as much as ±60
          feet of 'explainable discrepancy'.
          Temperature error. In the of the order of +50 feet at ISA-10
          and about +150 feet at ISA-30. In winter in southern
          Australia, this might account for an over-reading of 50 feet
          or more.

It is necessary to aggregate these effects to decide whether a discrepancy from the published height is 'explained' or
'unexplained'. Bear in mind, though, that a pilot will know whether or not he's on glide-slope, the magnitude of any
altimeter error and the likelihood of a temperature error. An incorrectly set altimeter subscale could give a
significant, 'unexplained discrepancy'. A false glideslope (highly unlikely these days) might also be a reason.

It would be convenient from a training and checking/testing viewpoint to put a ± number of feet on this
'unexplained discrepancy'. Unfortunately, it's not possible to be more prescriptive.

Latrodectus J. Hasseltii


       he participants of the NSW Interclub Comp met at the airport at Mudgee on Saturday morning, 5th June. The
       morning was a little chilly, but the sun was out and it bode well for a beautiful day.

After the briefing the first competitor settled into his aircraft with the air judge. The Schoies competitors were
waiting for the arrival of SFK, which was on its way, being brought by John Hook and Peter Cunningham. After the
aircraft arrived, the Schoies competitors, 5 in total, commenced their competition sequences. Les Rapolti was the
first of the Schoies crew, followed by me, Richard Van Doornham, John
Hook and Peter bringing up the rear. At the presentation dinner that
evening the following (corrected) results were announced:

Forced Landing                 Apes
1st Peter Cunningham           2nd Rae Cauchi

Instrument Climb               Spot Landing
2nd Les Rapolti                2nd Peter Cunningham
3rd Peter Cunningham           3rd John Hook

Schoies achieved a good result for the 2nd round of the Interclub, but it
would be great if we could get some more participation by Schoies members
for the 3rd round which will be held at Wagga Wagga on 8th November.
                                                                              Peter Cunningham receives his trophy
Rae Cauchi (Apette)

                                                         Page 9 of 11
Schofields Flying Club Ltd                                                                       July/August 2008 Newsletter


          ost pilots and LAMEs are aware that stone damage to a
          propeller blade can result in blade failure. However, very few
          people in the aviation industry understand why stone
damage is critical or why the blade can sometimes fail from stone
damage. Understanding why stone damage to a propeller blade is
critical comes from being reminded of just what a propeller blade is.

Propeller blades
An aircraft wing creates lift from its aerofoil shape. A helicopter rotor
blade creates lift and thrust for hovering and flight from its aerofoil
shape. A propeller blade creates thrust from its aerofoil shape. When a
propeller blade is damaged from a stone, the most common form of
damage is a nick to the leading edge. Just as damage to the leading
edge of a wing will disrupt the smooth flow of air over that wing,
                                                                                 The propeller manufacturer's approved
damage to the leading edge of a propeller blade will disrupt the flow of          maintenance data clearly requires the
air over the propeller blade. It is essential to repair propeller blade          blade's aerofoil shape to be maintained.
stone damage as soon as it is discovered and in accordance with
approved maintenance data.

Propeller blade repairs
Aircraft owners would naturally expect a damaged wing leading edge to be repaired by restoring the wing aerofoil
shape. Why then do most owners accept propeller blade stone damage being repaired by rounding off the leading
edge in the area of the stone nick or worse, filing the leading edge flat? The propeller manufacturer's approved
maintenance data clearly requires the blade's aerofoil shape to be maintained. There are two reasons for that

Propeller blade performance
Just as the efficiency of an aircraft is related to the aerofoil shape of its wing, a propeller blade is only as effective as
its aerofoil shape. Degrade the shape of the blade by an improper leading edge repair and you will degrade the
performance of that propeller and therefore the aircraft. A badly repaired propeller can rob an aircraft of take-off
and climb performance, increase fuel consumption and cause a loss of speed.

Propeller blade failure
A more sinister result may occur from a badly repaired propeller blade That is, the blade may be subjected to
aerodynamic flutter. Laboratory examination of failed propeller blades suggests a damaged propeller blade may
flutter at certain engine RPM due to stalling of the aerofoil in the area of leading edge damage. In each blade failure,
the blade leading edge had been repaired by rounding off or flattened. That is, the aerofoil shape was lost.

Microscopic examination of a number of recent stone damage related propeller blade failures have identified the
failure mode to be high cycle fatigue. High cycle fatigue cracks have initiated from improper leading edge repairs,
repairs which did not restore the aerofoil shape of the blade. The magnitude of the high cycle fatigue is consistent
with stress resulting from aerodynamic flutter. Photos detailing a typical stone damage related fracture of a
propeller blade are shown above. Note the shape of the leading edge. The crack initiated from the lower leading
edge in the area of an apparent stone damage repair.

Associated damage
The presence of propeller blade flutter can not only affect the airworthiness of the propeller, but the associated
vibration can also affect the engine. The most common effect is cracking of baffles, brackets, accessories mounts
etc. More sinister is the possibility of crankshaft de-tuning. That is, the propeller flutter vibration frequency may
result in crankshaft failure.

Pilots and LAMEs should be aware, propeller blades are aerofoils. Any damage or repair to the propeller that
changes the aerofoil shape of the propeller blade will affect the performance of that propeller and therefore the
performance of the aircraft. Of importance, there is now evidence to suggest, changes to aerofoil shape of a
propeller blade may result in aerodynamic flutter and possible high cycle fatigue fracture of the blade. All repairs to
a propeller blade must be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer's published procedures.

                                                         Page 10 of 11
Schofields Flying Club Ltd                                                                       July/August 2008 Newsletter

                                       THE LAST WORD – BY LATRODECTUS

Does the statement "We've always done it that way" ring any
bells? The US standard railroad gauge (distance between the
rails) is 4 feet, 8½ inches. That's an exceedingly odd number.

Why was that gauge used? Because that's the way they built
them in England, and English expatriates built the US railroads.
Why did the English build them like that? Because the first rail
lines were built by the same people who built the pre-railroad
tramways, and that's the gauge they used.

Why did "they" use that gauge then? Because the people who
built the tramways used the same jigs and tools that they used
for building wagons, which used that wheel spacing.

Okay! Why did the wagons have that particular odd wheel
spacing? Well, if they tried to use any other spacing, the wagon             The US standard railroad gauge is 4' 8½"
wheels would break on some of the old, long-distance roads in
England, because that's the spacing of the wheel ruts.

                                So who built those old rutted roads? Imperial Rome built the first long distance roads in
                                Europe (and England) for their legions. The roads have been used ever since. And the
                                ruts in the road? Roman war chariots formed the initial ruts, which everyone else had to
                                match for fear of destroying their wagon wheels. Since the chariots were made for
                                Imperial Rome, they were alike in the matter of wheel spacing. The US standard
                                railroad gauge of 4 feet, 8½ inches is derived from the original specifications for an
                                Imperial Roman war chariot. And bureaucracies live forever.

                                So the next time you are handed a spec and told we have always done it that way, and
                                wonder what horse's arse came up with that, you may be exactly right, because the
                                Imperial Roman war chariots were made just wide enough to accommodate the back
                                ends of two war horses.

                                Now the twist to the story ... when you see a space shuttle sitting on its launch pad, there
                                are two big booster rockets attached to the sides of the main fuel tank. These are solid
                                rocket boosters, or SRBs. The SRBs are made by Thiokol at their factory in Utah. The
                                engineers who designed the SRBs would have preferred to make them a bit fatter, but
   And you thought              the SRBs had to be shipped by train from the factory to the launch site. The railroad line
  being a horse's arse          from the factory happens to run through a tunnel in the mountains. The SRBs had to fit
   wasn't important!            through that tunnel. The tunnel is slightly wider than the railroad track, and the
                                railroad track, as you now know, is about as wide as two horses' behinds.

So a major space shuttle design feature of what is arguably the world's most advanced transportation system was
determined over two thousand years ago by the width of a horse's butt. And you thought being a horse's arse wasn't

Contributions & feedback
Well, that's your Newsletter for this month. You should check the latest news on the Club's website at Contributions, comments, feedback, and suggestions to

Thought for the month
Statistics show that at the age of seventy, there are five women to every man. Isn't that the darndest time for a guy
to get those odds?

Until next time.

Latrodectus                  Schofields Flying Club Ltd – 60 Birch Street Bankstown Airport 2200
                                     (PO Box 200, Georges Hall, NSW 2198 AUSTRALIA)
                             Phone: +61 2 9709 8488 Email:
                              Schofields Flying Club Website:

                                                          Page 11 of 11

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