NUMBER 44 SPRING 2009 by lindash



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                SPRING 2009 NUMBER 44
                      FEATURE Weeds a priority for
                Survey results 4 local government

                           NEWS Not all greens
                    Leaf it out 8 are good for you

               ON THE GROUND Wrenching out
               Native weeds? 10 the locals can be
                                  a real wrench

                WEED PROFILE Getting wind
                Salix species 15 of the willows
                 TASWEEDS                                                                          SPRING 2009                                   TASWEEDS                                                                SPRING 2009

            FROM THE                     you are hoping for a bit of drier weather to head our way soon. I am sad to hear

           PRESIDENT                     will improve soon.
                                                                                                                                  Joining TWS
                                                                                                                                  Weed Society include:
                                         your neighbourhood controlling these seedlings before they get established and             newsletter – Tasweeds
                                                                                                                                                                              From the President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
                                                                                                                                    who actually understand

                                                                                                                                    topics of interest
                                                                                                                                                                              Feature Article
                 Axel Meiss                                   Sponsorship                                                                                                     Councils respond to Weed Society survey . . . . . . . 4
                                                                                                                                    valuable contacts
                                                                                                                                  Membership is timed to coincide with        News
                                                                                                                                  the AGM and is therefore valid for a year
                                                              statewide and one local southern supplier have agreed to
    TWS Executive Committee                                                                                                                                                   Not all salad vegetables are good for you . . . . . . . 8
                                                                                                                                  your details either online or using the                                             .................8
                                                              Councils report back                                                form available at
                                                                                                                                                                              Preventative weed management
                                                              We have had a great response from Tasmanian councils to             Cost of Membership                           in its infancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
                                                                                                                                   Student   $10.00
    VICE PRESIDENT                                                                                                                 Ordinary  $25.00
                                                                                                                                   Corporate $55.00                            worst weeds by 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                  Please forward form and remittance to:
    PAST PRESIDENT                                                                                                                                                            17th Australasian Weeds Conference . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                   The Secretary
    Elizabeth Schrammeyer
                                                              resourcing and priorities for weed control.                          Tasmanian Weed Society
    TREASURER AND PUBLIC OFFICER                                                                                                   PO Box 4608                                On the Ground
                                                                                                                                   Bathurst Street
                                                              Gus Green trophy                                                     Hobart TAS 7000                            Tasmanian native weeds? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
    SECRETARY (MINUTES)                                       We are currently calling for nominations for the newly instigated
                                                                                                                                                                               the challenge posed by weeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    SECRETARY (CORRESPONDENCE)                                                                                                    About Tasweeds
                                                              them. Application forms are available at our web site.              Tasmanian Weed Society Inc.                  the urban environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
                                                              Tasweeds                                                                    Greg Taylor and Timm Newlands       Weed Profile
                                                                                                                                  Design and layout: Timm Newlands
                                                                                                            Tasweeds for the                                                  Willows (Salix                   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
    REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE (NORTH)                                                                                               Readers are free to circulate and repro
                                                                                                                                  duce material published in Tasweeds. We
                                                                                                                                                                              Regional Weed Management
    REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE (SOUTH) AND WEBSITE                                                                                                                               Southern Tasmanian Weed Strategy –
                                                              one for being so committed.                                         Members of the weed community are en         Weed update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
                                                                                                                                  couraged to submit articles to Tasweeds.
    NEWSLETTER                                                over the roles of newsletter editor and designer. If you are                                                    NRM North – Battling Berberis and more . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                      Cover images
                                                              opportunity to get more involved in the society.                                                                Publications
                                                                                                                                                         Papaver dubium
                                                                                                                                                                              NRM South and STCA issue weed warnings . . . . . 20
                                                                                                                                                         Erodium botrys       Proceedings of weed conference available . . . . . . 20

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            TASWEEDS                                                                             SPRING 2009                                    TASWEEDS                                                                       SPRING 2009

             FEATURE                Weeds a high priority for local government                                                                                            The case for weed mapping
                                                                                                                                                                          For a plan to be successful it must be possible to evaluate how effective it
             ARTICLE                Councils respond to a Tasmanian Weed Society survey
                                                                                                                                                                          success is the reduced presence of weeds in some areas and the prevention

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         FEATURE ARTICLE
                                    if we could be of any assistance to them in their efforts.                                                                            necessary to have effective weed mapping in place to provide baseline and
                                                                                                                                                                          progress reports.

          David Lane                be of assistance.
       Sandy Leighton
                                                                                                                                                                          ground are not trained in its use.
                                                            only slashing roadside verges and other public areas. Some
                                                            councils have comprehensive weed management plans and
                                                            others are developing plans.                                       promotes a cooperative approach            use. The Tasmanian Weed Society may be able to coordinate training in
                                                                                                                               to weed control: half the councils

                                                                                                                                          (Photo by Sonya Stallbaum)
                                                            that at least part of this considerable sum could be spent

                                                            of how this could be achieved.                                   Stopping weeds spreading
                                                                                                                             One of the most important results of our survey was the
                                                            How effectively are weed being managed?

                                                            seems that the battle against weeds is not yet being won. In     ed in most municipalities.

                                                            considered to be a medium to high priority.                      form of machinery hygiene. Some councils have provided
         Most councils have machinery-hygiene equip-         In order to pinpoint problem areas for weed manage
     ment, but less than half of those surveyed require
      employees to use it: a council employee demon-                                                                         regularly.
     strates the in-and-outs of washing-down a grader
                                                                                                                             spread of weeds is almost certain to continue. The re
                              (Photo by Sandy Leighton)
                                                                                                                             sults of poor practice are seen wherever material and
                                                            authorities and utility providers to improve their weed man      machinery have been brought in along power and phone
                                                            agement practices.

                        Weed management plans                                                                                                                                                  Mobile washdown units such as this one are an
                                                                                                                                                                                               integral part of an effective weed hygiene strategy
                                                                                                                             staff from various utilities are unwitting seed carriers.
                        able expertise if it is to be done well. Whilst each municipality has its own individual needs and                                                                     (Photo by Sandy Leighton)

                        cils did not report some progress towards a plan.                                                    social and environmental sense.
                         The Tasmanian Weed Society could play a facilitation role in the sharing of information on plans

                                                                                                                             important area of weed management. Some of the areas where we might be able to help include

                                                                                                                             good practice.

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                  TASWEEDS                                                                            SPRING 2009                                  TASWEEDS                                                                   SPRING 2009

                            Interaction with ratepayers and other people                                                          Re-establishing the Tasmanian Weed Alert Network
                                                                                                                                  A progress report
                                                                                                                                                                                               A national and international search for candidate weeds

                                                                                                                                  by the Tasmanian Conservation Trust in partnership with

                                                                                                                                  ability to detect and intervene early against new weed in
                                                                                                                                  cursions is funded by the Tasmanian Community Fund.

                                                                 haphazard or simply done in response to complaints.

                                                                 the community that the council is serious about weed man         as its previous manager have been interviewed. Many
                                                                                                                                                                                                siphon and alligator weed. This is particularly relevant

                                                                                                                                    positive experience                                         the recent push to expand irrigated agriculture in the

                                                                  In most municipalities there are already volunteer groups         photos of target weeds                                    and primary production partners.
                                                                 that are active in environmental issues and are involved in       Some members added that they valued personal contact


                    Knowing where weeds are in a munici-         eradication.
                    pality, such as along roadsides, serves
                      as a valuable planning and reporting       widespread ignorance of the general public. Most people
                                                                                                                                  agement protocol has been used to identify target plants.
                  tool: just over half the councils surveyed
                     conduct some form of weed mapping           found in home gardens. Councils already provide some in
                                       (Photo by Matt Baker)


                            others could be doing things better.

                            have real concerns about how other levels of government deal with weeds in their municipality
                            – get the advocacy they deserve.

                            honesty of their responses. A full analysis of the results will be sent to them in the near future.

                    TASWEEDS                                                                         SPRING 2009                                   TASWEEDS                                                                        SPRING 2009

       Not all salad vegetables are good for you                                                                                Tasman Council on track to control five worst weeds by 2010
       A customer shopping at a discount        Samples were sent to the Univer                                                                                                                                      weeds should be controlled by the
                                                                                          Editor’s note                                                                      carried out. Other weeds of impor
       stems of a poisonous weed in mixed                                                                                       pose is to control and map environ                                     Nassella

                                                                                                                                                                             trichotoma               Euphorbia      the whereabouts of these weeds is still
                                               the recommended daily allowance –          us this important health message.
                                                                                                                                                                             paralias                     Echi-
       store said.                                                                                                              well as to establish a strategy for future
                                                                                          Cress in a bag of locally produced                                                 um plantagineum
        Traces of Senecio vulgaris or Com      dia reported.                                                                    management.
                                                Minister for consumer protection
                                                                                          the pungent smell of the cress hit
       tensive liver damage if ingested in
                                                                                           In the interests of health and
                                               shoppers to be vigilant.
                                                                                                                                                                             target weed sites. Secondary treat
       edge of plants in a Plus store in the                                              is happy to identify the contents
       northern city of Hanover.                                                          of your salad. (This does not in
                                               a statement on Wednesday.                  clude processed salads such as
                                                ‘No one should eat plants or parts of                                                                                        gated for potential weed populations.
                                                                                          companied by sausages and a
                                                                    Caroline Copley
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           The set-up used by the Tasman
                                                                                                                                   The Neck, just one part of the Tas-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          weeds in the area
                                                                                                                                   man Peninsula in which weeds are
                                                                                                                                     being controlled and monitored
       UK warning over ‘killer’ plant                       Preventative weed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     is dependent on the input of the peo
                                                            management in its infancy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     weed populations are being found and
       against accidentally spreading an antipodean                                                                             Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monil-
                                                                                                                                ifera        Ulex europaeus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     to a considerable expansion in the
        Crassula    helmsii                                                                                                     can Boxthorn (Lycium ferocissimum              A small population of Gorse found
                                                            numerous thistle plants now growing about Hobart town. In a few     Pampas Grass (Cortaderia species                     at the Pettman Road quarry      successful control of the target weeds
                                                                                                                                and Asparagus Fern (Asparagus scan-
                                                            well balanced parachutes to be wafted in all directions round the                                                                                        all over the Tasman is still achievable.
       food.                                                                                                                    dens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Axel Meiss
       boats and trailers.                                                                                                                                                   seem achievable – all mother and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tasman Council
                                                                                                          Hobart Town Courier
                                                            Editor’s note
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17th Australasian
                                                                                                                                   Weedable words
       the damp margins of ponds and in shallow wa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Weeds Conference
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      New Frontiers in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      New Zealand
                                                                Tasmanian Weed Buster Award 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The 17th Australasian Weeds Con
                                                                The Tasmanian Weed Society is honoured to have received            Ben Leditschke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ference is fast approaching. It will be

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       For more information regarding
                                                                lation as a perpetual trophy. Why? Because Gus feels – and
                                                                                                                                   Jonah Gouldthorpe
        ‘As this is the time of year when boats are             in Tasmania who deserve our respect and recognition.
                                                                tions from individuals and groups for the Tasmanian Weed           Dennis Morris
                                                                Buster Award 2010.

                                                                are also available at                            Don Watson

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         TASWEEDS                                                                        SPRING 2009                   TASWEEDS                                                                            SPRING 2009

           ON THE
           TITLE 1            Tasmanian native weeds?                                                                                                               sophorae

           TITLE 2
          GROUND                                                                                                                                                                                Acacia longifolia subsp. longifolia

                              from bushland areas throughout southern Tasmania. The weeds that we are usually                                                       can hybridise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ON THE GROUND
                                                                                                                                                                               Polyscias aff. sambucifolia
                              Spanish Heath.                                                                                                                        endangered Tasmanian species that grows near Bicheno.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  P. sam-

     Andrew Woolford                                                                                                                                                as early as the 1800s.
                                                        We have come across many examples of Tasmanian native
                                                                                                                                                                    of the plants chosen for revegetation activities may not be
                                                       been observed growing in large stands in the greater Hobart

                                                       these appear to be garden escapees that have spread into        Callitris rhomboidea seedlings growing       ate a particular environment. If these plants establish them
                                                                                               Kunzea ambigua                        outside their natural range
                                                                                                                                                                    changing the natural species mix and therefore introducing

                                                                                       Leptospermum laevigatum                                         Melaleuca ericifolia

                                                       the greater Hobart area.
                                                        Callitris rhomboidea                                                           Some Tasmanian plant species have also made an impact as weeds internationally. For
                                                       the east coast and on the Tasman Peninsula. A patch of                                                   Acacia dealbata                A. melanoxylon
                                                                                                                                      and Eucalyptus globulus
                                                                                                                                      and growing as weeds in the coastal region of northern Spain. Blue Gum is also a weed
                                                       and appears to have originated from local plantings made

                                                       the hills of Mt Nelson and is spreading in the bush unchal
                                  smothering a wet
                    gully in Proctors Road, Hobart     the lower hills of Mt Wellington. These may have derived                       as environmental weeds? Or should our efforts continue to focus mainly on removing

               Acacia uncifolia                                  Acacia retinodes var. uncifolia
              cies native to Flinders Island. This species is often seen as a garden escapee in coastal areas in the
              south of the state.

              Muehlenbeckia gunnii

              ing and smothering everything in its vicinity. A classic example of this plant can be viewed growing

              rampant grower.                                                                                                   Tasmanian Land and Water Professionals
              weeds on their properties. Juncus pallidus                Lomandra longifolia               Pteridium
                                                                                                                                      EXCELLENCE IN NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

                                                                                                                                      Oliver Strutt                             management planning

                                                                                                                                           Level 1
                                                                                           Acacia longifolia subsp.
                                                                                                                                                                              Proposals and grant applications

                                                                                                                                                                                condition assessments
            TASWEEDS                                                                          SPRING 2009                       TASWEEDS                                                                  SPRING 2009

              ON THE               Roads, rates, rubbish... and weeds
                                                                                                                                              determined according to technical documents such as the Department of Primary In

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ON THE GROUND
                                                                                                                                                                             and indicative costs. Other sections include     -
                                                                                                                                                                             cation and Description Criteria for Action and Re-
                                                                                                                                                                             sources Required
                                                                                                                                                                             as the picture becomes clearer through mapping and
       Stuart Brownlea

                                                                                                                                                                             as weed managers. While many have spraying cer
                                                             land is extensive. This leads to a temptation to throw up
                                                                                                                                                                             crews have been provided with documentation (pic
                                                             tidy and reacting to persistent complaints. Where there are


                                                             countability into weed management expenditure. These
                                                             plans are valuable. As a rural body with both high density                                                      beyond spraying can be employed.
                                                                                                                                                                              Another approach in the plan is the nomination of
                                                                                                                                                                             Key Management Areas – a select few sites at which
                                                             lenge. Despite the development of a number of initia

                                                             ment crews was ever established.                                                                                munity importance. These areas are currently being

     A recorded Spanish Heath spraying site at Rosevale;

      Valley Council Weed Management Plan 2008–2010                                                                                                                          reviewed for content and layout so that it remains rel
                                                                                                                           Maps and other resources such as this Spanish
                                                             and evaluating where we stand before doing more. It               Heath spray plan (top) and mapping board      the ground.
                                                                                                                             (bottom) are used by council staff to monitor
                                                                                                                                             and manage targeted weeds
                                     The plan is built on simple premises and sets out a number of approaches: con

                                                                                                                                              to bear fruit.

                                   a short period of time.

                                                      and Erica scoparia

           TASWEEDS                                                                           SPRING 2009                                       TASWEEDS                                                                     SPRING 2009

             ON THE               Fire management, weed control                                                              Willows                                                                                    WEED
                                  and the urban environment                                                                  Salix species
            GROUND                                                                                                                                                                                                      PROFILE
                                                                                                                             What are they?
                                                                                                                             Willows belong to the Salicaceae family. The willow genus is large in terms of the
                                  areas in their urban reserves every spring and autumn. Areas are burnt to achieve

            Chris Moore
         PARKS PLANNER                                                                                                       regions of the northern hemisphere. Some species are also found in the tropical re
LAUNCESTON CITY COUNCIL                                                                                                                                                                                                 WEED TAXONOMIST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TASMANIAN HERBARIUM
                                                                                                                             has seen them spread widely throughout the world.

                                                spraying and mechanical methods. Because urban scale areas are
                                                                                                                             others are in early stages of becoming naturalised or at least have the potential to.
                                                                                                                                                            The Tasmanian Herbarium has recently conducted a survey of willows in Tasmania. The re
                                                 Once a decision is made to burn and the area is appropriately pre

                                                burn is very important for overall weed management. While a high                                                                                                          Salix
                                                                                                                                                           nia. Muelleria
                                                it does create a situation where more aggressive weeds can estab
                                                lish afterwards with little initial competition. This is mainly due to the                                 What is their weed potential?

                                                                                                                                                           conditions they can be highly competitive and invasive. The problem species infest vast lengths
                                                can therefore compete more readily with weed species. Therefore our
                                                experience is that low intensity burning coupled with effective weed                                       displace and modify native biodiversity and cause chemical imbalances in the waterways.
                                                management is more effective for weed control than high intensity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Salix fragilis var. fragilis is an extreme
        Controlled burning programs are an
      important part of the Launceston City     controlled conditions.                                                                                     ment will readily root and become established. Other willows with less brittle stems can also
     Council’s weed management approach
                                                last few years are generally less weedy than those burnt once or not at             This young willow       The second type of weedy willow spreads and becomes naturalised via seed. Willows are
                                                                                                                               (Salix matsudana ‘Tor-
                may be detrimental to certain vegetation communities and species.                                               tuosa’ x Salix fragilis)
                                                                                                                                has grown from seed
                                                                                                                                                           patible taxa to breed. The seed that

                                                                                                                             ported by wind as well as on water. If transported to suitable habi

                                                                                                                             and grow into mature plants.

                                                                                                                             weed threat in Tasmania. There is also potential for some willows
                 Many organisations and property owners are reluctant to get involved in burning. Apart from dealing         to reproduce and spread via both sexual and vegetative means.
                                                                                                                                           S. fragilis var. fragilis

                                                                                                                             hybridised with S. matsudana

                                                                                                                             1. Physical separation of compatible willow species (plants re

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Many willows are planted as ornamental trees;
                                                                                                                                                                                                    these Golden Weeping Willows are growing
                                                                                                                                are of one sex only                                                 beside the Elizabeth River at Campbell Town
                vegetation communities better able to resist the constant impact of weeds in the urban environment.

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                            TASWEEDS                                                                    SPRING 2009               TASWEEDS                                                                SPRING 2009

               What do they look like?                                                                                                               Other Salix species

               Salix fragilis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        WEED PROFILE

                                  This is the most common weedy wil
                                  low in Tasmania. It infests numerous                                                                                                          in the same league as the aforementioned species
                                  watercourses throughout the settled                                                                                                           – is Pussy Willow (Salix Xriechardtii
                                  regions of the state. It spreads by                                                                                                           willow is an exempt species as far as the Tasma-
                                  stem fragments.                                                                                                                               nian Weed Management Act
                                    Salix fragilis grows into a large tree                                                                                                      be found across the state in locally naturalised
                                                                                                                                                                                populations. The spread in these cases is always
                                  The stems are erect (never pendu

                                  always male and produce spreading                                                                                                             those of Salix cinerea. It can be distinguished from
                                                                                                                                                                                S. cinerea
                                                                              The habit of Salix fragilis (above)                                                               tree with erect branches that form an upright and
                                                                              and its catkins (left)                                                                            narrow crown (as opposed to the rounded crown
                                                                                                                                                                                of S. cinerea
                                                                                                                                                                                  Some species such as the Tortured Willow (Sa-
               Salix cinerea                                                                                                                                                    lix matsudana
                                  This is a particularly successful weedy willow in Tasmania. It has received substantial inter
                                                                                                                                                                                municipal tips in the wetter parts of the state.

                                                                                                                                                                                Five willows are grown in Tasmania but are not yet
                                  spreads mainly by wind and water dispersed seed.
                                                                                                                                                                                fully naturalised:
                                   Salix cinerea
                                                                                                                                                                                           var. vitellina

                                                                                                                                                                                                  nothovar. chrysocoma (Golden

                                  wide and are green in colour.
                                   There are two subspecies in Tasmania: Salix cinerea subsp.
                                                                                                                                                                                Three willows are common in Tasmania but are
                                  cinerea                   Salix cinerea subsp. oleifolia (Rusty

                                                                    main distinguishing feature
                                                                    being that S. cinerea subsp.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 × S. alba
                                                                    oleifolia has both translucent
                                                                    and rust colored hairs on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                 var. pendulina
                                                                                       S. cinerea
                                                                    subsp. cinerea has only trans
                                                                    lucent hairs.
                                                                                                                                     Salix Xriechardtii (top) and branches of
                                                                                                                                       Salix matsudana ‘Tortuosa’ (bottom)

                                                                    The habit of Salix cinerea (bottom
                                                                    left) and its male catkins (top left)
                                                                    and female catkins (right)

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           TASWEEDS                                                                            SPRING 2009                                    TASWEEDS                                                                         SPRING 2009

REGIONAL WEED                       Southern Tasmanian Weed Strategy – Weed update                                          NRM North – Battling Berberis and more                                                        REGIONAL WEED
 MANAGEMENT                                                                                                                 The recent period of prolonged wet weather has delayed the completion of several

                                    been sent to residents. Posters were distributed to all councils where Bridal Creeper

                                                                                                                            Weed workshops                                                                                Greg Stewart
        Sandy Leighton              Ferry. A recent survey of the Royal Hobart Golf Course at Seven Mile Beach found                                                                                                      WEEDS COORDINATOR
     SOUTHERN TASMANIAN                                                                                                                                                                                                   NRM NORTH
                                                                                                                            munity groups. The ongoing provision of weed education helps individuals and
          WEED STRATEGY             Road. These sessions have removed Boneseed from the last remaining untreated
                                                 part of the Pittwater Orielton Lagoon foreshore. Several awareness         control weed species in their local area.
                                                  printed brochures have arrived from Hillary Cherry (National Boneseed                                                 Davies Wax Flower

                                                                                                                                                                        protect an area of Davies Wax Flower (Phebalium daviesii

                                                                                                                                                                         Davies Wax Flower is a riparian shrub that is endemic to Tasmania. The species

                                                                                                                                                                        listed as Endangered under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act and
                                                                                                                                                                        as Critically Endangered under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and
                                                   and the National Chilean Needle Grass Coordinator.                                                                   Biodiversity Conservation Act.

                                                   is the highest national Chilean Needle Grass priority area for eradica
                                                                                                                                                                        Boneseed and Bridal Creeper
                                                                                                                             Davies Wax Flower, an endangered           Contractors have been busy controlling Boneseed and Bridal Creeper at sites in
         Purging the Spurge: learning how to                                                                                       species being threatened by
     remove Sea Spurge at a training session                                                                                             weeds near St Helens
        held at Denison Beach in September                                                                                                                              as to stop further spread from the sites.

                                                   will be funded by the National Chilean Needle Grass Coordinator.

                 Spring weed blitz                                                                                          Berberis darwinii
                                                                                                                            Plan – Northern NRM Region. The main infestation of Berberis is near Nabowla

                                                                                                                            this site will occur soon.
                 neseed control at Pittwater Orielton Lagoon and Seven Mile Beach to achieve further primary control
                                                                                                                             Berberis darwinii
                 and ultimately the protection of the Pittwater Orielton Lagoon Ramsar site.

                 Building awareness and capacity
                                                                                                                            ground level. The wood is coloured yellow by the chemical berberine. The

                                                                                                                                                   They are borne in clusters of 2–7. The upper surface is          Berberis darwinii, the fourth priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    species in NRM North’s Weed
                                                                                                                                                   dull. Fine sharp spines 5–10 mm long occur under the             Action Plan
                                                                                                                                                   leaf clusters.

                 tember. The session was attended by twelve people who can now recognise the

                                                                                                                                                   spread as a result of birds consuming the ripe fruit and
                                                                                                                                                   passing the seeds in their droppings.
                 or on 6270 2242.

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                         TASWEEDS                                                               SPRING 2009

               NRM South and STCA issue weed warnings                                 Proceedings of weed
                                                                                      conference available
                                                           Weeds described include:
               published by NRM South and the Southern
               Tasmanian Councils Authority. These infor

                                                                                      nian Weed Society held the 2nd
               mative and colourful pamphlets describe
                                                                                      Tasmanian Weed Conference in

               bution and appearance of each weed. They
                                                                                       The proceedings of the confer
                                                                                      ence have now been published
               and suggestions for controlling them.
                                                                                      copies are still available.

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