RG .O DS EE W AS .T W W W WEEDS SPRING 2009 NUMBER 44 FEATURE Weeds a priority for Survey results 4 local government NEWS Not all greens Leaf it out 8 are good for you ON THE GROUND Wrenching out Native weeds? 10 the locals can be a real wrench WEED PROFILE Getting wind Salix species 15 of the willows TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 FROM THE you are hoping for a bit of drier weather to head our way soon. I am sad to hear PRESIDENT will improve soon. Joining TWS Weed Society include: Contents your neighbourhood controlling these seedlings before they get established and newsletter – Tasweeds From the President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 who actually understand topics of interest Feature Article Axel Meiss Sponsorship Councils respond to Weed Society survey . . . . . . . 4 valuable contacts Membership is timed to coincide with News the AGM and is therefore valid for a year statewide and one local southern supplier have agreed to ...........................7 TWS Executive Committee Not all salad vegetables are good for you . . . . . . . 8 CO-PRESIDENTS (AND CAWS DELEGATES) your details either online or using the .................8 Councils report back form available at www.tasweeds.org. Preventative weed management We have had a great response from Tasmanian councils to Cost of Membership in its infancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Student $10.00 VICE PRESIDENT Ordinary $25.00 Corporate $55.00 worst weeds by 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Please forward form and remittance to: PAST PRESIDENT 17th Australasian Weeds Conference . . . . . . . . . . . The Secretary Elizabeth Schrammeyer resourcing and priorities for weed control. Tasmanian Weed Society TREASURER AND PUBLIC OFFICER PO Box 4608 On the Ground Bathurst Street Gus Green trophy Hobart TAS 7000 Tasmanian native weeds? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 SECRETARY (MINUTES) We are currently calling for nominations for the newly instigated the challenge posed by weeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 SECRETARY (CORRESPONDENCE) About Tasweeds Tasweeds them. Application forms are available at our web site. Tasmanian Weed Society Inc. the urban environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE (NORTH WEST) Tasweeds Greg Taylor and Timm Newlands Weed Profile Design and layout: Timm Newlands Tasweeds for the Willows (Salix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE (NORTH) Readers are free to circulate and repro duce material published in Tasweeds. We Regional Weed Management REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE (SOUTH) AND WEBSITE Southern Tasmanian Weed Strategy – one for being so committed. Members of the weed community are en Weed update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 couraged to submit articles to Tasweeds. NEWSLETTER over the roles of newsletter editor and designer. If you are NRM North – Battling Berberis and more . . . . . . . Cover images opportunity to get more involved in the society. Publications Papaver dubium NRM South and STCA issue weed warnings . . . . . 20 Tasweeds Erodium botrys Proceedings of weed conference available . . . . . . 20 CAWS DELEGATE 2 3 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 FEATURE Weeds a high priority for local government The case for weed mapping For a plan to be successful it must be possible to evaluate how effective it ARTICLE Councils respond to a Tasmanian Weed Society survey success is the reduced presence of weeds in some areas and the prevention FEATURE ARTICLE if we could be of any assistance to them in their efforts. necessary to have effective weed mapping in place to provide baseline and progress reports. David Lane be of assistance. Sandy Leighton TASMANIAN WEED SOCIETY councils. ground are not trained in its use. only slashing roadside verges and other public areas. Some councils have comprehensive weed management plans and others are developing plans. promotes a cooperative approach use. The Tasmanian Weed Society may be able to coordinate training in to weed control: half the councils (Photo by Sonya Stallbaum) that at least part of this considerable sum could be spent of how this could be achieved. Stopping weeds spreading One of the most important results of our survey was the How effectively are weed being managed? seems that the battle against weeds is not yet being won. In ed in most municipalities. considered to be a medium to high priority. form of machinery hygiene. Some councils have provided Most councils have machinery-hygiene equip- In order to pinpoint problem areas for weed manage ment, but less than half of those surveyed require employees to use it: a council employee demon- regularly. strates the in-and-outs of washing-down a grader spread of weeds is almost certain to continue. The re (Photo by Sandy Leighton) sults of poor practice are seen wherever material and authorities and utility providers to improve their weed man machinery have been brought in along power and phone agement practices. Weed management plans Mobile washdown units such as this one are an integral part of an effective weed hygiene strategy staff from various utilities are unwitting seed carriers. able expertise if it is to be done well. Whilst each municipality has its own individual needs and (Photo by Sandy Leighton) cils did not report some progress towards a plan. social and environmental sense. The Tasmanian Weed Society could play a facilitation role in the sharing of information on plans important area of weed management. Some of the areas where we might be able to help include good practice. 4 5 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 Interaction with ratepayers and other people Re-establishing the Tasmanian Weed Alert Network A progress report A national and international search for candidate weeds FEATURE ARTICLE NEWS by the Tasmanian Conservation Trust in partnership with ability to detect and intervene early against new weed in cursions is funded by the Tasmanian Community Fund. haphazard or simply done in response to complaints. the community that the council is serious about weed man as its previous manager have been interviewed. Many siphon and alligator weed. This is particularly relevant positive experience the recent push to expand irrigated agriculture in the state. In most municipalities there are already volunteer groups photos of target weeds and primary production partners. that are active in environmental issues and are involved in Some members added that they valued personal contact contact: Knowing where weeds are in a munici- eradication. pality, such as along roadsides, serves as a valuable planning and reporting widespread ignorance of the general public. Most people agement protocol has been used to identify target plants. tool: just over half the councils surveyed conduct some form of weed mapping found in home gardens. Councils already provide some in (Photo by Matt Baker) service. Summary others could be doing things better. have real concerns about how other levels of government deal with weeds in their municipality – get the advocacy they deserve. honesty of their responses. A full analysis of the results will be sent to them in the near future. 6 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 Not all salad vegetables are good for you Tasman Council on track to control five worst weeds by 2010 A customer shopping at a discount Samples were sent to the Univer weeds should be controlled by the Editor’s note carried out. Other weeds of impor stems of a poisonous weed in mixed pose is to control and map environ Nassella NEWS NEWS trichotoma Euphorbia the whereabouts of these weeds is still the recommended daily allowance – us this important health message. paralias Echi- store said. well as to establish a strategy for future Cress in a bag of locally produced um plantagineum Traces of Senecio vulgaris or Com dia reported. management. Minister for consumer protection the pungent smell of the cress hit tensive liver damage if ingested in In the interests of health and shoppers to be vigilant. target weed sites. Secondary treat edge of plants in a Plus store in the is happy to identify the contents northern city of Hanover. of your salad. (This does not in a statement on Wednesday. clude processed salads such as ‘No one should eat plants or parts of gated for potential weed populations. companied by sausages and a Caroline Copley The set-up used by the Tasman The Neck, just one part of the Tas- weeds in the area man Peninsula in which weeds are being controlled and monitored UK warning over ‘killer’ plant Preventative weed is dependent on the input of the peo management in its infancy weed populations are being found and against accidentally spreading an antipodean Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monil- ifera Ulex europaeus to a considerable expansion in the Crassula helmsii can Boxthorn (Lycium ferocissimum A small population of Gorse found numerous thistle plants now growing about Hobart town. In a few Pampas Grass (Cortaderia species at the Pettman Road quarry successful control of the target weeds and Asparagus Fern (Asparagus scan- well balanced parachutes to be wafted in all directions round the all over the Tasman is still achievable. food. dens Axel Meiss boats and trailers. seem achievable – all mother and Tasman Council Hobart Town Courier lance. Editor’s note 17th Australasian Weedable words the damp margins of ponds and in shallow wa ter. Weeds Conference New Frontiers in New Zealand Tasmanian Weed Buster Award 2010 The 17th Australasian Weeds Con The Tasmanian Weed Society is honoured to have received Ben Leditschke ference is fast approaching. It will be For more information regarding lation as a perpetual trophy. Why? Because Gus feels – and Jonah Gouldthorpe ‘As this is the time of year when boats are in Tasmania who deserve our respect and recognition. index.php. tions from individuals and groups for the Tasmanian Weed Dennis Morris Buster Award 2010. are also available at www.tasweeds.org. Don Watson 8 9 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 ON THE TITLE 1 Tasmanian native weeds? sophorae TITLE 2 GROUND Acacia longifolia subsp. longifolia from bushland areas throughout southern Tasmania. The weeds that we are usually can hybridise. ON THE GROUND Polyscias aff. sambucifolia Spanish Heath. endangered Tasmanian species that grows near Bicheno. P. sam- bucifolia Andrew Woolford as early as the 1800s. TASFLORA We have come across many examples of Tasmanian native of the plants chosen for revegetation activities may not be been observed growing in large stands in the greater Hobart these appear to be garden escapees that have spread into Callitris rhomboidea seedlings growing ate a particular environment. If these plants establish them Kunzea ambigua outside their natural range changing the natural species mix and therefore introducing Leptospermum laevigatum Melaleuca ericifolia the greater Hobart area. Callitris rhomboidea Some Tasmanian plant species have also made an impact as weeds internationally. For the east coast and on the Tasman Peninsula. A patch of Acacia dealbata A. melanoxylon and Eucalyptus globulus and growing as weeds in the coastal region of northern Spain. Blue Gum is also a weed and appears to have originated from local plantings made the hills of Mt Nelson and is spreading in the bush unchal smothering a wet gully in Proctors Road, Hobart the lower hills of Mt Wellington. These may have derived as environmental weeds? Or should our efforts continue to focus mainly on removing Acacia uncifolia Acacia retinodes var. uncifolia cies native to Flinders Island. This species is often seen as a garden escapee in coastal areas in the south of the state. Muehlenbeckia gunnii ing and smothering everything in its vicinity. A classic example of this plant can be viewed growing rampant grower. Tasmanian Land and Water Professionals weeds on their properties. Juncus pallidus Lomandra longifolia Pteridium EXCELLENCE IN NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT esculentum Oliver Strutt management planning Level 1 Acacia longifolia subsp. Proposals and grant applications 10 condition assessments TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 ON THE Roads, rates, rubbish... and weeds determined according to technical documents such as the Department of Primary In GROUND ON THE GROUND and indicative costs. Other sections include - cation and Description Criteria for Action and Re- sources Required as the picture becomes clearer through mapping and Stuart Brownlea as weed managers. While many have spraying cer land is extensive. This leads to a temptation to throw up crews have been provided with documentation (pic tidy and reacting to persistent complaints. Where there are otherwise. countability into weed management expenditure. These plans are valuable. As a rural body with both high density beyond spraying can be employed. Another approach in the plan is the nomination of Key Management Areas – a select few sites at which lenge. Despite the development of a number of initia ment crews was ever established. munity importance. These areas are currently being determined. A recorded Spanish Heath spraying site at Rosevale; Valley Council Weed Management Plan 2008–2010 reviewed for content and layout so that it remains rel Maps and other resources such as this Spanish and evaluating where we stand before doing more. It Heath spray plan (top) and mapping board the ground. (bottom) are used by council staff to monitor and manage targeted weeds The plan is built on simple premises and sets out a number of approaches: con to bear fruit. a short period of time. and Erica scoparia 12 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 ON THE Fire management, weed control Willows WEED and the urban environment Salix species GROUND PROFILE What are they? Willows belong to the Salicaceae family. The willow genus is large in terms of the areas in their urban reserves every spring and autumn. Areas are burnt to achieve Populus Chris Moore PARKS PLANNER regions of the northern hemisphere. Some species are also found in the tropical re LAUNCESTON CITY COUNCIL WEED TAXONOMIST TASMANIAN HERBARIUM has seen them spread widely throughout the world. spraying and mechanical methods. Because urban scale areas are others are in early stages of becoming naturalised or at least have the potential to. The Tasmanian Herbarium has recently conducted a survey of willows in Tasmania. The re Once a decision is made to burn and the area is appropriately pre burn is very important for overall weed management. While a high Salix nia. Muelleria it does create a situation where more aggressive weeds can estab lish afterwards with little initial competition. This is mainly due to the What is their weed potential? conditions they can be highly competitive and invasive. The problem species infest vast lengths can therefore compete more readily with weed species. Therefore our experience is that low intensity burning coupled with effective weed displace and modify native biodiversity and cause chemical imbalances in the waterways. management is more effective for weed control than high intensity Salix fragilis var. fragilis is an extreme Controlled burning programs are an important part of the Launceston City controlled conditions. ment will readily root and become established. Other willows with less brittle stems can also Council’s weed management approach means. last few years are generally less weedy than those burnt once or not at This young willow The second type of weedy willow spreads and becomes naturalised via seed. Willows are (Salix matsudana ‘Tor- may be detrimental to certain vegetation communities and species. tuosa’ x Salix fragilis) has grown from seed patible taxa to breed. The seed that ported by wind as well as on water. If transported to suitable habi and grow into mature plants. weed threat in Tasmania. There is also potential for some willows Many organisations and property owners are reluctant to get involved in burning. Apart from dealing to reproduce and spread via both sexual and vegetative means. S. fragilis var. fragilis hybridised with S. matsudana 1. Physical separation of compatible willow species (plants re Many willows are planted as ornamental trees; these Golden Weeping Willows are growing are of one sex only beside the Elizabeth River at Campbell Town vegetation communities better able to resist the constant impact of weeds in the urban environment. 14 15 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 What do they look like? Other Salix species Salix fragilis WEED PROFILE WEED PROFILE This is the most common weedy wil low in Tasmania. It infests numerous in the same league as the aforementioned species watercourses throughout the settled – is Pussy Willow (Salix Xriechardtii regions of the state. It spreads by willow is an exempt species as far as the Tasma- stem fragments. nian Weed Management Act Salix fragilis grows into a large tree be found across the state in locally naturalised populations. The spread in these cases is always The stems are erect (never pendu always male and produce spreading those of Salix cinerea. It can be distinguished from S. cinerea The habit of Salix fragilis (above) tree with erect branches that form an upright and and its catkins (left) narrow crown (as opposed to the rounded crown of S. cinerea Some species such as the Tortured Willow (Sa- Salix cinerea lix matsudana This is a particularly successful weedy willow in Tasmania. It has received substantial inter municipal tips in the wetter parts of the state. Five willows are grown in Tasmania but are not yet spreads mainly by wind and water dispersed seed. fully naturalised: Salix cinerea var. vitellina nothovar. chrysocoma (Golden wide and are green in colour. There are two subspecies in Tasmania: Salix cinerea subsp. Three willows are common in Tasmania but are cinerea Salix cinerea subsp. oleifolia (Rusty main distinguishing feature being that S. cinerea subsp. × S. alba oleifolia has both translucent and rust colored hairs on the var. pendulina S. cinerea subsp. cinerea has only trans lucent hairs. Salix Xriechardtii (top) and branches of Salix matsudana ‘Tortuosa’ (bottom) The habit of Salix cinerea (bottom left) and its male catkins (top left) and female catkins (right) 16 17 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 REGIONAL WEED Southern Tasmanian Weed Strategy – Weed update NRM North – Battling Berberis and more REGIONAL WEED MANAGEMENT The recent period of prolonged wet weather has delayed the completion of several MANAGEMENT been sent to residents. Posters were distributed to all councils where Bridal Creeper Weed workshops Greg Stewart Sandy Leighton Ferry. A recent survey of the Royal Hobart Golf Course at Seven Mile Beach found WEEDS COORDINATOR SOUTHERN TASMANIAN NRM NORTH munity groups. The ongoing provision of weed education helps individuals and WEED STRATEGY Road. These sessions have removed Boneseed from the last remaining untreated part of the Pittwater Orielton Lagoon foreshore. Several awareness control weed species in their local area. printed brochures have arrived from Hillary Cherry (National Boneseed Davies Wax Flower protect an area of Davies Wax Flower (Phebalium daviesii Davies Wax Flower is a riparian shrub that is endemic to Tasmania. The species listed as Endangered under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act and as Critically Endangered under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and and the National Chilean Needle Grass Coordinator. Biodiversity Conservation Act. is the highest national Chilean Needle Grass priority area for eradica Boneseed and Bridal Creeper Davies Wax Flower, an endangered Contractors have been busy controlling Boneseed and Bridal Creeper at sites in Purging the Spurge: learning how to species being threatened by remove Sea Spurge at a training session weeds near St Helens held at Denison Beach in September as to stop further spread from the sites. Berberis will be funded by the National Chilean Needle Grass Coordinator. Spring weed blitz Berberis darwinii Plan – Northern NRM Region. The main infestation of Berberis is near Nabowla this site will occur soon. neseed control at Pittwater Orielton Lagoon and Seven Mile Beach to achieve further primary control Berberis darwinii and ultimately the protection of the Pittwater Orielton Lagoon Ramsar site. Building awareness and capacity ground level. The wood is coloured yellow by the chemical berberine. The They are borne in clusters of 2–7. The upper surface is Berberis darwinii, the fourth priority species in NRM North’s Weed dull. Fine sharp spines 5–10 mm long occur under the Action Plan leaf clusters. tember. The session was attended by twelve people who can now recognise the spread as a result of birds consuming the ripe fruit and passing the seeds in their droppings. or on 6270 2242. 18 19 TASWEEDS SPRING 2009 NRM South and STCA issue weed warnings Proceedings of weed conference available Weeds described include: published by NRM South and the Southern Tasmanian Councils Authority. These infor PUBLICATIONS nian Weed Society held the 2nd mative and colourful pamphlets describe Tasmanian Weed Conference in bution and appearance of each weed. They The proceedings of the confer ence have now been published and suggestions for controlling them. copies are still available.