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Microsoft PowerPoint - Sangkot Marzuki - International Cooperation

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					INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
 IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
     Indonesian perspective



              Sangkot Marzuki
   Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology
    Jl. Diponegoro 69, Jakarta, Indonesia
    WHY INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION?


• Collaboration beyond national boundaries is
  fundamental feature of scientific and academic
  culture
• For individual scientists
  – Common scientific and technological interests
  – Complementary expertise and advantage
  – Mentoring opportunities
• For institutions
  – Common scientific and technological agenda
  – Part of institutional building
• G to G
  – Common strategic needs
EXAMPLES FROM AUSTRALIAN INDONESIAN
           S&T COOPERATION
COOPERATIVE            YEARS    INSTTTU-      DESRIPTION
ACTIVITIES                      TIONS

Animal Husbandry       1974-    MoA RI -      Development of laboratories and campus,
Research Institute     1986     CSIRO         human capacity building – 35 Australian
(Balitnak)             AusAid                 scientists, administrators, technical
                                              supports
Aust-Indon Medical     1997-    Eijkman I –   Capacity building through fundamental
Research Initiative    2000     WEHI,         research, focus on malaria, 6 Australian + 6
(AIMRI)                AusAid   Monash Uni    Indonesian Scientists working together in
                                              Jakarta as one research unit
Natural Resistance     1999-    Balitvet,     Scientific research aimed to elucidate the
of Sheep to Liver      2001?    LIPI –        genetic factor behind the natural
Flukes                 ACIAR    Monash &      resistance of Indonesian sheep to liver
                                Sydney Uni    flukes – diagnostic, breeding, drug
                                              development
Postgraduate           1997-    Eijkman I –   Building for Indonesian capacity for
Diploma in Molecular   1998     U Q’land      molecular biology, key for national
Biology                                       biotechnology development – lectures
                                              +research
Discovery of Homo      2004-    Arkenas –     Discovery of 18,000 years old humanoid
floreciensis           2006     Uni New       remains – most significant scientific
                                Castle +      discovery of 2004 but international
                                Wollongong    disputes; Nature, Science, PNAS
 INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
      COOPERATION IN LIFE SCIENCES
             Eijkman Institute

COUNT-        PARTNERS       DESRIPTIONS                          SUPPORT
RIES
The           Utrecht,       Scientific research on malaria,      KNAW and others through
Netherlands   Leiden,        tuberculosis, hepatitis, HIV.        SPIN, PRIOR and other
              Nijmegen       Doctoral training is integral part   programs
              Unis           of research collaboration.

Italy         ICGEB          Molecular basis of thalassemia,      MoRT RI – Italian Ministry
              Trieste, Uni   human genome diversity and           of Foreign Affairs through
              Bari, Uni      health, hepatitis                    the Italy Indonesia
              Sardinia                                            scientific cooperation
Germany       Max Plank      DNA sequence of Homo                 Max Plank Institute
              Institute      fluoresiensis

Japan         Uni Tokyo      Drug resistance in malaria           JSPS, University of Tokyo


Australia     Uni Melb,      AIMRI continuation, Postgrad for     ?
              Monash Uni     Master in Molecular Medicine,
                             capacity building for AI diagnosis
CONSTRAINTS IN INDONESIAN AUSTRALIAN
          S&T COOPERATION



• Lack of interests in genuinely common problems and/or
  opportunities
• Funding – limited options for science and technology
  cooperation
• Security situation in Indonesia; more serious for
  Australians; repeated travel restrictions prevent real
  collaborations
       PAN-ASIAN SNP INITIATIVES
                        Science 306; 1667 (2004)

                                           East
                                          Sumba
• Singapore, Japan, China,
                                                                    Toraja
  Indonesia, Korea, Thailand,
  Malaysia, Philippines,
  Taiwan, Hongkong, India –
 Affymatrix 50K chips
                                                                            Toba
• Drive for ASEAN SNP                                                       Batak
  initiative                          Jakarta Tb
                                         Control
• Eijkman Institute and                          Java
  Genome Institute of
  Singapore
  • 100 individuals, 10 populations
                                                                      Benuaq
  • Affymatrix SNP typing chips -                                     Dayak
    10,000 SNP from 250 ng DNA
                                       Mark Seielstad (GIS) and Herawati Sudoyo (EI), Initital
                                          five populations + Tb control from Jakarta (NJ)
HUMAN GENETIC VARIATION AND MEDICINE


• Origin and evolution of human species
• Biomedical sciences
  – Variation in disease mutations and their phenotypic
    expression – complication in diagnostic and management
  – Predisposition to complex diseases – risk factors and
    predictive medicine, drug development
  – Resistance and susceptibility to infectious agents –
    drug and vaccine development
  – Response to environmental agents - drugs efficacy
    and side effects – pharmacogenetics and boutique medicine
• Rational use of DNA variation in forensic medicine

				
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