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Enhanced Measurements from Ships of Opportunity 2010-2013 IMOS EIF

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					                 Enhanced Measurements from Ships of Opportunity
                      2010-2013 IMOS EIF Facility Project Plan
 Overview:
Infrastructure              Extend and enhance multi-disciplinary ship of opportunity observations in
Investment:                 Australian waters
IMOS Facility:              Enhanced Measurements from Ships of Opportunity (SOOP)

Operating Institution:      CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR)
Facility Leader (for this
                            Ken Ridgway (CMAR), (03) 62325226, ken.ridgway@csiro.au
Proposal):
                            XBT - Ann Thresher (CMAR), ann.thresher@csiro.au
                            BGC – Bronte Tilbrook (CMAR), bronte.tilbrook@csiro.au
                            CPR – Anthony Richardson (CMAR), Anthony.richardson@csiro.au,
Sub-Facility Leaders                 Graham Hosie,(AAD), graham.hosie@aad.gov.au
                            SST – Helen Beggs (BOM), h.beggs@bom.gov.au
                            Air-sea Flux – Eric Schulz (BOM), e.schulz@bom.gov.au
                            Bio-acoustics – Rudy Kloser (CMAR), rudy.kloser@csiro.au
                            Dr Richard Matear, Mark Underwood, Dr Peter Thompson, Dr Chris
                            Wilcox (CMAR), Dean Roemmich (SIO), Phil Sutton (NIWA), Graeme
Other(s) key people         Ball, Lisa Cowen (BOM), Dave McKinnon, Craig Steinberg (AIMS), Fred
involved:                   Stein (MNF), Prof. Ian Robinson (NOC), Dr. Craig Donlon (ESA), Dr
                            Graham Hosie, Dr Steve Nicol, Dr Andrew Davidson, Dr Andrew
                            Constable (AAD), ,
                            Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), Scripps Institute of
                            Oceanography, Royal Australian Navy, Australian Antarctic Division,
                            Marine National Facility, Australian Climate Change Science Program,
Collaborating
                            Water Studies Centre, School of Chemistry, Monash University,
Institutions:
                            Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS), National Oceanographic
                            Centre, Southampton, European Space Agency, Group for High
                            Resolution SST (GHRSST), University of Tasmania

Nature of Investment:

This proposed investment involves
   1. Extending for a further 2 years the existing set of 5 SOOP sub-facilities
   2. Enhancing 1 of these sub-facilities with new measurements
   3. Including 1 new sub-facility collecting new data streams.

The proposal includes the following sub-facilities

    1. Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) – collect temperature profiles using high-resolution
       XBT lines to monitor the major boundary currents around Australia.
    2. Biogeochemical (BGC) - obtain high quality biogeochemical (BGC) data from two ships; the
       Astrolabe in the Southern Ocean and the Southern Surveyor, which operates from the
       tropics to the 50°S. These data help to determine the regional uptake of carbon dioxide
       (CO2) around Australia and in the Southern Ocean and provide data to evaluate the
       biogeochemical models of the region
    3. Australian Continuous Plankton Recorders (AusCPR) - tow CPRs behind ships to collect
       plankton samples for subsequent identification in the laboratory. Data products are
      abundances and species composition of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, as
      well as simultaneous auxiliary data (temperature, salinity, fluorescence).
   4. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) – collect sea surface temperature bulk measurements
      using hull-mounted sensors from a range of vessels for cal/val of satellite SST products and
      incorporation into SST analyses.
   5. Air-Sea Flux (ASF)- routinely measure while at sea all the meteorological observations
      (wind, air and sea temperature, humidity, pressure, precipitation, long- and short-wave
      radiation) required to estimate bulk air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat and mass.
   6. Bio-Acoustic (BA) - collect bio-acoustic measurements to estimate mid-trophic organism
      distribution and abundance around the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) shelf,
      slope and oceanic environments.


Implementation Strategy:
Summary
The aim of the SOOP Facility is to implement a set of integrated observing systems in Australian
regional seas that link physical, chemical and biological oceanography. Our ships of opportunity
include both commercial vessels on regular routes and research vessels covering more varied
routes. This is a very cost effective means of obtaining data. The target regions are the boundary
current systems off Eastern and Western Australia, the Southern Ocean, the shelf seas around
Australia, and the Great Barrier Reef.

Objectives
General
This portfolio of SOOP sub-facilities;
   1. Leads to the ongoing development of a coherent, well-positioned Bluewater and Climate
       Node
       These SOOP activities provide a truly integrated marine observing system involving several
       major institutions with an ongoing investment in the Australian bluewater region. The
       comprehensive set of SOOP observations represent a major opportunity within IMOS of
       linking climate change to ecosystem effects and therefore will be used to address some of
       the main science questions within the Bluewater and Climate Node (BCN).
   2. Provide impact and delivery through improving model output
       The SOOP data provide in situ input and/or validation to model and data analyses covering
       the waters around Australia. For example the SST and air-sea flux measurements are
       used to calibrate and validate satellite products, to improve model parameterizations and
       are directly input to data analyses and assimilated into models.
   3. Contributes to the national backbone
       Observing boundary currents, by measuring the mean, seasonal, interannnual and decadal
       changes in the transport of mass, heat and freshwater across the major boundary currents,
   4. Develops a whole of system approach
       By implementing fully integrated repeated SOOP lines across the Tasman Sea and
       Southern Ocean which include a suite of physical, biogeochemical observations.
   5. Drives down the cost per observation
       By exploiting ships of opportunity as observation platforms
   6. Builds the national capacity
       Demonstrated in plankton observation systems, including the collection, processing and
       analysis of samples, to enable a comprehensive network to be established.
   7. Partnering for sustained ocean observing
       The number of national and international institutions involved and the high level of
       collaboration associated with these 8 sub-facilities draws upon the main strengths of the
       Australian marine research community producing a robust set of observation systems well
       capable of being sustained in the longterm.


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Specific
   • Collect, count and archive plankton samples from Australian waters and regional seas, and
        to make these available to the community.
   • Establish a baseline of plankton population and distribution to be used to reference
        changes due to climate change, eutrophication, pollution, exotic species introductions, and
        overfishing.
   • Determine the temporal changes of plankton species on seasonal, interannnual timescales.
   • Determine the long-term mean, annual cycle, interannual and decadal fluctuations of
        temperature and large-scale velocity and circulation in the top 800m of the ocean.
   • Characterize the structure of baroclinic eddies and estimate their significance in the
        transports of heat and water masses,
   • Determine the spatial statistics of variability of the temperature and geostrophic velocity
        fields, identify persistent small-scale features,
   • Estimate the wet weight biomass of mid-trophic functional groups their energetic transfer
        between the epi and mesopelagic layers for decadal trends and region and global
        ecosystem models.
   • Determine baseline and long term (decadal) trends in the changes of distribution, biomass
        and behaviour of mid-trophic micronekton (primarily myctophids).
   • Obtain time series of nutrients in association with CPR
   • Deliver sustained observations of surface CO2 in the Australian region and the critical
        Southern Ocean.
   • Obtain meteorological observations of sufficient accuracy to enable the calculation of
        climate quality air-sea fluxes of heat, mass and momentum.
   • Provide in situ input and/or validation to model and data analyses covering the waters
        around Australia (SST, Air-Sea flux, BLUElink, Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for
        Australia (POAMA), etc).

Vessels are selected for inclusion into the SOOP network if they meet the following criteria:
   o Meets one or more of the above science goals.
   o Multiple parameters are measured on the one platform
   o The voyage track is either repeated regularly or over time covers some portion of the
       waters around Australia
   o The route is stable
   o Agreement is obtained from the vessel owners, operators, master and crew
   o The vessel is able to be serviced adequately from one or more ports.
   o The data-stream is overseen by an interested party


An Integrated Observing System
There is now a suite of mature technologies that provide at least a preliminary integrated marine
observing system. While it is still not practical to routinely measure all components of the marine
ecosystem, there is a subset of key trophic levels and their drivers that have mature and tested
observing technology (see Table 1).




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Table 1. Physical and biogeochemical marine properties with mature technologies that enable sampling
using SOOPs.
Group              Measurements     Device             Maturity           Deployed on
                                                                          SOOPs by
                                                                          project Team
Physical           Temperature       XBT               A fundamental      Many years of
properties         profiles                            tool of climate    experience
                                                       research
                   Temperature,      CTD-F             Deployed on        Yes within IMOS
                   salinity,                           Continuous         and SO-CPR
                   fluorescence                        Plankton
                                                       Recorders in the
                                                       North Atlantic
                                                       over the past
                                                       decade
                   SST               Hull-mounted      Proven on range Operates on
                                     sensor            of vessels         several vessels

Chemical          pCO2               pCO2 system       Proven in many     Yes, within
properties                                             installations      IMOS on SS &
                                                                          Astrolabe
Meteorological    wind, air & sea    Automatic         BOM has long       Installed on
properties        temperature,       Weather Station   experience         Southern
                  humidity,                            deploying on       Surveyor,
                  pressure,                            AVOS               Aurora Australis
                  precipitation,
                  long- and short-
                  wave radiation
Phytoplankton     Abundance,         Continuous        Robust             Yes within IMOS
                  species            Plankton          technology
                  composition,       Recorder          deployed since
                  biomass,                             1931 in the
                  functional                           North Atlantic
                  groups
Zooplankton       Abundance,         Continuous        Robust             Yes within IMOS
                  species            Plankton          technology
                  composition,       Recorder          since 1931 in
                  functional                           the North
                  groups                               Atlantic
Mid trophic       Biomass            Echosounders      Used               Yes since 2002
levels (fish,     estimates                            qualitatively
squid, large                                           since 1932 and
crustaceans)                                           quantitatively
                                                       since 1980s

To provide a high level of integrated measurements we focus on 2 lines, a Tasman Sea crossing
and the Southern Ocean transect. Additional integrated datasets will be obtained from the suite of
instruments on Southern Surveyor.

The Tasman Sea integrated transect

The Tasman Sea is a key area to establish time series observation to document and understand the
response of aspects of marine ecosystems including nutrients, plankton and mid-trophic levels. We
propose an integrated SOOP line across the Tasman Sea. Such an integrated package would be
unique globally. Bringing these technologies together, will provide new insights into pelagic marine
ecosystem dynamics and provide a long-term baseline for assessing impacts of climate variability and
climate change on marine biological systems.




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The Tasman Sea transect will be towed seasonally from either Brisbane or Sydney to Wellington or
Auckland, depending on the most feasible route. CSIRO has existing very strong relationships
with shipping companies through the XBT and AusCPR programs. A flow analyser will be installed
on the water intake for nutrient analysis. A towing point for the CPR will be installed upon the ship.
If the existing vessels echosounder is not suitable a 38 kHz split beam system would be installed
on the vessel. Additional annual transects of the Tasman Sea would be obtained to provide a
regional synoptic view. The vessels will be with an automatic weather station including a hull-
mounted SST sensor. If a Sydney-Wellington line is used it would include XBT measurements.


The Southern Ocean integrated transects

This aims to study the links between climate variability, biogeochemical processes and ecosystem
biodiversity by regular measurement of key oceanographic parameters. These include the
distribution, composition and productivity of phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish and other
mesopelagic fauna; coupled with measurements of biogeochemical properties influencing the
ecosystem processes.

Measurements will include temperature (surface from TSG and hull-mounted sensors and depth
profiles from XBTs), Zooplankton will be measured by surface collection using towed Continuous
Plankton Recorders, coupled with bioacoustic measurements in multiple frequency bands that will
provide depth distribution data of zooplankton, fish and other mesopelagic fauna. Biogeochemical
sampling will include underway measurements of pCO2. A full set of meteorological properties will
be collected using an Automated Weather system (AWS) - already on Aurora and to be installed in
l’Astrolabe).

Measurements will focus on transects of l’Astrolabe between Hobart and Dumont d'Urville (up to 8
occupations per year) and Aurora Australis which occupies various routes (depending on Antarctic
operations) providing spatial comparison with Astrolabe transects. These transects will be
augmented by data from Japanese Antarctic vessels and wherever possible, fishing vessels
visiting the Kerguelen-Heard Island plateau. The Southern Ocean observations are an integral
component of the Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) and thus provide a link between
IMOS and this global program.

List of major activities – including major party(s) involved, duration, start, finish

       Extension
       XBT
       1.     Collect data and report in real-time from 4 High-density and 2 frequently repeating
              lines (2011-2013, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR), Bureau of
              Meteorology (BOM)).

       BGC
       2.      Prepare, calibrate and maintain instrumentation on ships of opportunity. CSIRO staff
               from the biogeochemistry/CO2 group are trained in maintaining these systems and
               data QC. (mid 2010 to 2013, CMAR).
       3.      Complete laboratory van and test on Astrolabe (mid 2010 to early 2011, CMAR).

       CPR
       4.      Extend the AusCPR East Australian Current route from Brisbane to Melbourne and
               the Southern Ocean route from Hobart to Antarctica (2011-2013, CMAR, AAD).

       SST
       5.      Continue collection of SST from hull-mounted SST sensors 13 vessels in the
               Australian region. (2011-2013, BOM, CMAR,AIMS, AAD).


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6.     Existing hull-contact temperature sensors recalibrated. Start: Jul 2011. Finish: Jun
       2012. BOM.
7.     SST collected in near real-time, Quality Controled (QC’d), bulk SST available to
       GTS and Ocean Portal from at least 13 vessels (3 tourist ferries, 2 research vessels
       and at least 8 AVOF). Start: Jul 2011. Finish: Jun 2013. BOM/CMAR/AIMS
8.     Purchase 4 extra hull-contact sensors for any additional AVOF-AWS vessels and for
       spares. Start: Jan 2012. Finish: Jun 2012.
9.     All new AVOF-AWS vessels (expect 2) installed with hull-contact sensors. Start: Jul
       2011. Finish: Dec 2012.
10.    Near real-time, QC’d, SST from new ships available to GTS and Ocean Portal.
       Start: Jan 2013. Finish: Jun 2013.

ASF
11.   Continue collection of high-quality meteorological data from Southern Surveyor and
      Aurora Australis and the subsequent generation of air-sea flux products (2011-2013,
      BOM, AAD, MNF).


Enhancement
BGC
1.    Purchase General Oceanics partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) system for ship (mid
      2010).
2.    Prepare, calibrate and maintain instrumentation on Aurora Australis (mid 2010 to
      2013). CSIRO staff from the biogeochemistry/CO2 group, are trained in maintaining
      these systems and data QC.

CPR
3.    June 2010: Buy 4 new CPRs from the North Atlantic CPR survey (SAHFOS).
4. June 2010: Buy 4 RBR-XR420 CTD-Fs, one for each CPR.
5.    June 2010: Buy 4 Chelsea Trilux sensors measuring phytoplankton pigments
      (chlorophyll-a,phycoerythrin, phycocyanin).
6.    Enhance the existing AusCPR survey in Australian waters and regional seas to
      include quarterly routes in:
      a.    The Northern Tasman Sea (Brisbane to Wellington; March 2011)
      b.    The Great Barrier Reef (from Cairns to Gladstone; Oct 2010)
      c.    Southern Australia (from Melbourne to Adelaide; July 2010)
      d.    Western Australia (The Kimberley from Wyndham to Broome, and the Leeuwin
      e.    Current from Carnarvon to Fremantle; Jan 2011)
      f.    Tasmania east coast (Melbourne to Hobart; May 2011)
      g.    The Southern Tasman Sea (Annual route only; Devonport to Nelson; Jul 2010)




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Bio-acoustics
7.     Undertake repeated acoustic transects from Surveyor, Aurora Australis and large
       fishing vessels;
8.     Collection of data from SS, AA and FV with existing echosounders commenced in
       July 2010.
9.     Calibration of vessels carried out at the most cost effective time July 2010 to June
       2011.
10.    Finalise procedures and personnel for data quality and data management, July
       2010 to Dec. 2010.
11.    Posting of calibrated data from vessels on web site from Jan 2011 to June 2013.

12.    Installation of two new echosounder recorders (and potentially transducers) on
       selected fishing or cargo vessels.
13.    Selection and trials of appropriate vessels with recording of existing echo-sounder
       transducers July 2010 to March 2011.
14.    If required installation of two new transducers on the selected vessels at the most
       cost-effective time (dry docking) March 2011 to Dec. 2011.
15.    If required calibration of new vessels transducers carried out at the most cost
       effective time March 2011 to Dec. 2011.
16.    Posting of calibrated data from vessels on web site from installation and calibration
       times (March 2011 – June 2013).


All sub-facilities
17.     Process raw data, apply quality control procedures and produce a final high-quality
        data stream.
18.     Provide data to eMII and international data facilities in:
        a.      Real-time with initial quality control.
        b.      Delayed mode following full quality control.

Note that for some data-streams; CPR and Bio–Acoustics, data will only be delivered in
delayed mode but in a timely fashion (1-3 months) and on a regular basis.




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Figure 1:   The 6 XBT routes included in the proposal.




Figure 2:   SOOP and mooring (existing and proposed) CO2/acidification measurements with Australian involvement.
            The approximate area of operation for the Southern Surveyor is shown by the light grey areas. Ancillary
            measurements of carbonate parameters at mooring reference sites and on the SOOP BGC lines are used
            with the moored sensor data to describe the carbonate chemistry (saturation states, pH). The Tasman and
            Coral Sea underway SOOP line (green) sampling is done by the National Institute for Environmental Studies
            (NIES), Japan, and CSIRO have a collaboration to obtain some data on carbonate chemistry through discrete
            sampling.




Figure 3:   Map of current AusCPR routes (in red) and enhanced AusCPR routes (in black)




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Figure 4:   SST data have been collected on these routes using hull-mounted sensors within the existing IMOS program.




Figure 5:   Proposed annual within season collections for IMOS SOOP, solid existing and dashed new. Priority - Green
            long term 5 year transect lines, blue new fishing vessel routes, orange Aurora Australis route and gray is
            approximate Southern Surveyor route/ year. New routes proposed are dashed with Eastern Tuna fisheries
            region blue and combined CPR/Acoustic routes red dashed.




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Figure 6:    Routes occupied by Aurora Australis, and L’ Astrolabe. Data from the 2 additional
             vessels shown will be available to supplement the IMOS observations.

List of major equipment to be purchased
    Extended
    XBT
        o 5 Devil data acquisition systems 2010 (5x $5K)
        o 5 XBT Iridium communication systems 2011 (5x $2K)
    BGC
        o three oxygen optodes ($22K),
        o replacement laboratory van for Astrolabe ($130K),
    CPR
        o none
    SST
        o 4 SBE 48 Hull-Contact Temperature Sensors: (4x $4.5).

   ASF
      o     standard off-the-shelf marine research grade instrument, such as the systems currently
            deployed on the SS and AA.

   Enhanced
   BGC
      o pCO2 system for Aurora Australis ($85K).

   CPR
     o      4 CPRs will be purchased from the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science
            (SAHFOS)
   BA
        o   2 Simrad Acoustic transducer & transceiver sets plus installation costs (2x $120K).




                                                                                                  10
Access, pricing regimes:

   Data Access
   Preliminary quality data from the existing sub-facilities (apart from CPR) are available from eMII
   in near real-time. All delayed mode data at the highest quality are routinely delivered from
   eMII. All these data are contributed to other international systems (eg Global
   Telecommunications System) for input to analysis systems, operational and seasonal ocean
   forecasting models. Data are also contributed in delayed mode to other global data archives
   (eg Global Data Assembly Centre (GDAC) in Washington at the National Ocean Data Centre
   (NODC)).

   Data Management
   The data processing, QC delivery systems have been developed and implemented for the
   existing sub-facilities. The proposed components will require the development of appropriate
   systems with coordination with eMII. More details for each sub-facility are provided in the
   individual proposals.

   External dependencies
   This portfolio of SOOP projects involves the collaboration of many institutions (see list on page
   1). There is a high dependence on the owners, master and crew of a range of commercial
   vessels. The cooperation of the volunteer ships requires very good negotiation and
   communication skills, which must be maintained at a high level.

   Collaborative structures for allocation of priorities
   An overarching aim of this facility is where possible to provide an integrated set of observations
   which will address the main science questions with a complete dataset. To this end we have
   focused on a limited number of platforms that are instrumented with the widest array of
   observations systems. These include the Southern Ocean transect (L’ Astrolabe), a trans
   Tasman Sea line, and the research vessels Southern Surveyor and Aurora Australis.

   Furthermore each of the sub-facilities have followed guidelines established in international
   science plans. For example, the 6 XBT lines were allocated the highest rating at the Upper
   Ocean Thermal Review Workshop (1999) conducted under the auspices of the CLIVAR Upper
   Ocean Panel, the GCOS/GOOS/WCRP Ocean Observations Panel and IOC/WMO Integrated
   Global Ocean Service System. This has been confirmed by the SOOP recommendations at
   OCEANOBS09. We have also drawn from recommendations included in other SOOP white
   papers presented at the Ocean OBS09 meeting (Venice, September 2009).

Governance
   Performance indicators
      o Achievement of milestones for instrument deployment and operation
      o Production of high quality data
      o Data delivered to international programs, assimilated into models, merged into data
         analyses
      o Data products delivered through the eMII data portal in near real-time
      o All delayed mode data available through eMII at the highest quality in a timely fashion
         (1-3 months).
      o Uptake of the data in regional and global models and by national and international
         researchers.
      o Uptake by management agencies of the derived information using the data or
         supporting ongoing data collections for long term monitoring.
      o Use of data by researchers and included in PhD studies
      o Publications in international journals using the SOOP data.




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    Key Risks and Risk Management strategies
.
Risk                Risk mitigation



Vessels are         The Southern Surveyor is in service until mid 2013 where it will be replaced by a new ship. The
relocated           equipment will be installed and used until then. The Aurora Australis should also be in operation until
                    mid 2013.

                    The Astrolabe is used to resupply the French Base, Dumont D’Urville. The size of Astrolabe means it
                    needs to make a number of repeat trips from Hobart to Antarctica for resupply, making it an ideal ship
                    for Southern Ocean observations. The contract for the ship was recently re-signed and it is expected
                    to remain on the line past mid-2013.

                    Commercial shipping is very volatile and there is a high degree of uncertainty with ships moving on
                    and off established lines in response to commercial demand. This is managed by having a thorough
                    knowledge of the industry and a good relationship with the companies which operate on our lines of
                    interest. Priority will be placed on installing acoustic system on vessels that have proven stable
                    longevity on selected routes. When a ship is moved, we are in a good position to find a replacement
                    at short notice and have therefore successfully maintained these lines for many years. The likelihood
                    is ‘likely’, the impact could be ‘significant’ but the rating of the risk is ‘moderate’ with a history of
                    effectively managing this risk over the years. If equipment needs to be moved most of the hardware
                    can be unbolted although an installed acoustic transducer would be only recovered at the next
                    scheduled dry dock. Installation costs would be lost in that event.
System failure      The equipment is chosen because it is robust, delivers high quality data, and is proven to work for
                    long periods in harsh conditions at sea. Regular checks and maintenance procedures are carried out
                    on the ships and almost all data lost to date has been through failure of ship’s equipment (pumps,
                    thermosalinographs). The work in the last two years has resulted in identifying and correcting a
                    number of issues on the ships and data returns of about 95% are routine
Operator/crew
safety              CPR - We use methods that reduce to as small as possible the safety risks to ships’ crew. We
                    emphasise that safety is our key concern and ask them not to deploy the device if they have safety
                    concerns (e.g., rough weather, fishing vessels nearby). We have provided a manual for deploying
                    and retrieving the CPR, which emphasises these precautions.
Laboratory          CPR - Formalin, which is a carcinogen, is used as a fixative in our plankton samples. We have used
Safety              best practice to reduce risks posed by formalin. We cut the silks in a fume cupboard, conduct
                    phytoplankton counts within a microscope fume hood, and count zooplankton in water without
                    fixative. All samples once counted are preserved in a safer chemical and removed from the laboratory
                    as soon as possible. We also check that formalin readings within the lab are below recommended
                    levels using a formaldemeter.
CPR Loss            CPRs have been deployed in the North Atlantic survey since 1931. Over 4000 deployments have
                    been completed, and only a single unit has been lost during deployment when the tow vessel failed to
                    retrieve the recorder before entering port. As a precaution to loss, CPR towing points on vessels are
                    tested and certified after installation (to 2 tonnes safe working load). We also inspect the towing
                    points on the CPR unit itself after each deployment, and replace when necessary. We replace the
                    towing wire after every 6 tows. CPR loss is considered unlikely.
CPR Damage          The CPR is built to withstand the rigours of deployment behind large vessels travelling at >20 knots.
                    However, minor damage is common, usually in the form of damage to the sacrificial fender, which is
                    easily replaced. We inspect the CPR after each deployment and replace any worn components.
                    AusCPR now has considerable experience in maintaining and servicing CPRs. The crew retrieve the
                    CPR under rough sea conditions (Beaufort Scale 7), minimising the chance of damage and loss. CPR
                    damage is commonplace, but we have taken all necessary precautions to minimise this problem.
Loss of key staff   Staff are not expected to leave the project. The CO2 group in Hobart have ensured there are a
                    number of people trained in the maintenance and repair of the equipment. Any loss of a staff member
                    from the group could be covered by others. The CSIRO electronics group in Hobart are familiar with
                    the software.




                                                                                                                          12
Response to IMOS Review
The review panel made the following recommendation.

   SOOP in conjunction with nodes need to develop;
     1.    A clear plan for uptake of data, especially the new data-streams,
     2.    Integration of the components within the SOOP facility, & into coastal Nodes.

1. Data Uptake
We note that the Bluewater and Climate Science and Implementation Plan includes a
comprehensive strategy for data uptake.
    o The XBT, SST, meteorology, and PCO2 data are available in real-time and submitted to the
        GTS. Operational centres and data archive centres automatically receive data via the GTS,
        enabling dissemination to scientists, research institutions and assimilation into operational
        forecast systems (atmospheric and ocean models). In such applications the data will be
        downloaded in bulk (all data for a particular time, region or platform type) rather than as
        data-streams from single platforms.
    o The high-quality meteorology data is an Australian contribution to the Shipboard Automated
        Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative
        (http://samos.coaps.fsu.edu/html/). SAMOS aims to improve the quality of meteorological
        and near-surface oceanographic observations collected in-situ on research vessels and
        select volunteer observing ships. Australia is the first international contributor to this
        American initiative.
    o A further group includes users of analysis products such as BLUElink, GHRSST and Air-
        Sea Flux products (such as HOAP: http://www.hoaps.org/ , and the NOCS flux dataset).
        Here the SOOP data provides major inputs into the product but is not used as individual
        data-streams
    o XBT data from the IMOS lines have been used in many research projects (more than 75
        published papers).
    o Several PhD students at the University of Queensland will use IMOS data. Discussion
        occurring regarding the use of CPR data within the New South Wales (NSWIMOS) Node.
        Four areas where AusCPR data will be valuable are (1) climate variability and climate
        change, (2) fisheries, (3) eutrophication/pollution, and (4) validation of ecosystem models
        and remote sensing products.
    o The availability of the high-quality IMOS SOOP SST data stream will be promoted at the
        next Group for High Resolution SST (GHRSST) Data Users Symposium and GHRSST
        Science Team Meeting in California in May/June 2009. This will ensure that the
        international satellite SST research and operational community make the most of this very
        valuable resource for validation of satellite SST products and research.

2. Integration of Datastreams
A detailed explanation of how we propose to provide an integrated SOOP observing system is
presented in our implementation plan. Note also that several SOOP lines are now closely linked
with the coastal nodes (see Table 2).

   Budget:

Detailed budget in ‘Final IMOS EIF Project Plan’ submitted to DIISR 26 February 2010




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                              TABLE: Observations required by the Nodes in relation to this Facility
                                        TABLE 2: Observations required by the Node

NODE                                                         Observations required by the Node
                  NCRIS Funded               EIF first $8M funded          Extension of existing facility   Enhancements of existing
                  (already allocated to      (already allocated to Jun10)  infrastructure out to 2013.      Facilities / new infrastructure
                  Jun11)                                                                                    required 2010-2013
                              (see Appendix 1 of the Guidelines)
BCN               XBT                                                       Extend XBT lines
                  Maintain HD and FRX
                  lines
                  BGC                                                       Extend CO2 on SS and
                  L’Astrolabe, Southern                                     Astrolabe
                  Surveyor
                  CPR                                                       Extend CPR existing lines       Expand CPR survey to include
                  EAC, Southern Ocean                                                                       other regional nodes and trans
                  lines                                                                                     Tasman Sea line
                  SST                                                       SST - Extend existing lines     SST - Radiometers on
                  In situ SST on ferries,                                   & roll out new sensors          research vessels
                  research vessels                                                                          Extend onto new vessels

                  ASF                                                       ASF – extend Existing lines     ASF Underway obs on trans-
                  Southern Surveyor &                                       SS & AA                         Tasman CPR line
                  Aurora Australis
                                                                                                            BA , Nutrients
                                                                                                            On Trans-Tasman lines,
                                                                                                            integration with CPR

                                                                                                            Southern Ocean Ecosystem
                                                                                                            Suite of obs on Aurora
                                                                                                            Australis, Astrolabe

All data from SOOP sub-facilities are required by the BCN.
NODE                                                        Observations required by the Node
               NCRIS Funded                   EIF first $8M funded          Extension of existing facility   Enhancements of existing
               (already allocated to Jun11)   (already allocated to Jun10)  infrastructure out to 2013.      Facilities / new infrastructure
                             (see Appendix 1 of the Guidelines)                                              required 2010-2013
WAIMOS         Fremantle-Singapore line                                       Extend XBT, SST                CPR line (Fremantle-Carnarvon
               (IX1) provides largescale                                                                     and Wyndham to Broome)
               context of Indian ocean
               circulation and time series of
               Leeuwin Current
               SST – Rotmest Ferry
Q-IMOS         Brisbane-Fiji line provides                                    Extend XBT, SST                CPR – Cairns – Gladstone, trans
               long-term time series of EAC                                                                  Tasman Sea, AFS, BA, MA
               off southern Queensland.
               SST - GBR Ferry
NSW-IMOS       The EAC flow off Sydney is                                     Extend XBT                     CPR – cross Tasman
               monitored by the Sydney-                                       CPR – Melb to Brisbane         Nutrients, Bio –acoustics, AFS
               Wellington line (PX34). Data
               available from 1991.
               CPR – Melb to Brisbane
SAIMOS         Limited transects available                                    Extend XBT                     CPR – Melb to Adelaide
               off southern Australia – end
               of southern Indian Ocean
               line (IX15). See Figure 1.
TASIMOS        Southern Ocean XBT line                                        Suite of properties on         BA & CPR line - Devonport to
               Astrolabe                                                      Astrolabe                      Nelson
                                                                                                             BA - East coast Tas line



Note Southern Surveyor provides data to all nodes at some time.




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Description: Enhanced Measurements from Ships of Opportunity 2010-2013 IMOS EIF ...