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     Pratt Institute School of Architecture, Undergraduate Architecture

                         Arch 207
                 History of Architecture II
                             Course Syllabus

                   John Lobell and Alessandra Ponte

                            Spring 2005

              THE RULES
1.     Attend all lectures and your assigned
2.     Sign in and do not be late
3.     Do not wander in and out of the room
4.     Take notes and turn in copies
5.     Do your weekly reading summary
       assignments and turn them in
(This is a summary. See inside for complete list on p 6.)
Arch 207   2
Arch 207                                                                                3

   Pratt Institute School of Architecture
   Undergraduate Architecture Program

                             ARCH 207            History of Architecture II
Fall Spring 2005

   section number

   last name                        first name                       prefe rred name

   ___________________________________________        _______________________________
   email                                              telephone number

   two most interesting books you read in the past few years for school

   two most interesting books you read in the past few years NOT for school

   your two favorite movies

   your two favorite music groups

   web sites you most often visit

   particular interests in architecture

   particular interests outside of architecture

Arch 207   4
Arch 207                                                                                                5

Pratt Institute School of Architecture
Undergraduate Architecture Program
Course Syllabus

                                            Arch 207    History of Architecture II
     Spring 2005

Credits:                         3
Type of Course:                  Required, Lecture with Sections
Prerequisites:                   ARCH 206
Enrollment Capacity:             25 per section

Instructors:                     John Lobell (212-679-1935,
                                 Alessandra Ponte (

Time & Location:         Lecture, all sections    W 9-11 AM, Room 115 HHS

                         Sect. .01       Lobell           W 11-12 PM,    310 HHS
                         Sect. .02       Ponte            W 11-12 PM,    203 HHN
                         Sect. .03       Lobell           W 12-1 PM,     310 HHS
                         Sect. .04       Ponte            W 12-1 PM,     203 HHN

Course Overview:
This course is the second of a required three-semester sequence that examines the history of Western
and Non-Western architecture from its earliest beginnings to today. This semester deals with the history
and development of art, architecture and the built environment in the West from the 15 century to the
end of the 19 century, beginning with the Renaissance, moving on the the Baroque, Neoclassicism and
19 century revivals, and concluding with the movements leading to the rise of modernism. This
discussion is preceded by a three-week investigation of Non-Western developments in Pre-Columbia
(Meso and South) America, India and Southeast Asia, China and Japan. As in Arch 206, emphasis
throughout is on key architectural monuments considered in a broad cultural context.

Learning Objectives:
The study of architectural history is an important component of the professional architecture curriculum at
Pratt. Architectural history is a humanistic and critical discipline based on visual observation, liberal
research, and written analysis. As such, it complements the practical and conceptual projects of the
design studio by surveying and analyzing historical precedents for design, investigating their meaning,
and evaluating their usefulness as formal or programmatic models.

Throughout history, architecture has reflected the cultures in which it evolved and the social, economic,
and geophysical conditions which shaped it. This relationship continues today. Indeed, many issues with
which architects are currently concerned can be considered outgrowths of previous historical
developments. Thus, studying the architecture of the past gives students a focused historical lens
through which to consider contemporary architectural problems.

By familiarizing students with the body of world architecture and by illustrating the broad scope and uses
of architectural history, this course (and the others in the sequence), also provides a guide to elective
Arch 207                                                                                               6

Requirements and rules
1. Attend all lectures and sections
        You will lose one letter grade for more than two unexcused absences
        If you miss a lecture, let us know, and we will try to arrange a review of the lecture

2. Sign the sign-in sheet, and be on time and be attentive
        Sign-ins after 9:05 count as late, and the sheets come down at 9:30, at which time you must
           attend class, but it will count as an absence. Three lates count as an absence (so you can have
           5 lates before it affects your grade)
        Be attentive during lecture, do not talk, do not wander in and out of class (if you need to go to
           the rest room, go quietly)
        Attend the section to which you are assigned
        Attendance will be taken in sections with the same rules as for the lectures.

3. Take notes in lecture and in section
       Submit a xerox copy (you keep the originals) of your notes from the previous week’s lecture
          and section at the beginning of each section. Notes submitted late lose 1/2 credit.

4. Do the assigned reading and Reading Summary before class each week
        Write a one-page Reading Summary of the reading and submit it at the beginning of section
           each week. Reading summaries submitted late lose 1/2 credit. See Reading Summary
           Assignments for details.

5. Put this outline, your notes from lecture and section, Reading Summaries, assignments, and exams in
   a notebook.
        We will check notebooks at the end of the semester.

6. Read this entire course outline. Take the midterm and final. Don’t cheat. In short, you can’t master
   the material if you are not in class and you don’t do the work.

Not filling following these requirements and rules will result in a decrease in your grade.

Basis for grade
 Final Exam 45%                                          As a rough rule of thumb, you can assume
 Midterm 25%                                             that:
 Reading Summaries 20%                                   (there is no A+)
 Class notes 10%                                         A = 96—100
Grades will be lowered for absences, lateness,            A- = 90—95
failure to turn in papers on text and class notes,        B+ = 87—89
and failure to participate in class.                      B = 84—86
                                                          B- = 80—83
                                                          C+ = 77—79
                                                          C = 74—76
Arch 207                                                                               7

C- =       70—73                                    (there is no D-)
D+ =       68—69                                    F = below 65
D =        65—67

Semester Schedule

Week   Date         Lecture Subject   (Schedule and content are subject to change.)

1      1/19         Pre-Columbian American [JL]

2      1/26         India & Southeast Asia [JL]

3      2/2          China & Japan [JL]

4      2/9          Early Renaissance [AP]

5      2/16         High Renaissance & Mannerism [AP]

6      2/23         The Baroque & Rococo [JL]

7      3/2              Mid-Term Exam in Lecture period / No Sections

8      3/9          Neoclassicism [AP]

9      3/16         Gothic Revival [AP]

       3/23             No Class—Spring Break

10     3/30         Mid-19 Century Architecture Culture, Theory, and Technology [JL]

11     4/6          The Beaux-Arts [JL]

12     4/13         The Shingle Style and the Chicago School [JL]

13     4/20         Arts & Crafts and Art Nouveau [AP]

14     4/27             No Class—Jury Week

15     5/4              Final Exam
Arch 207                                                                                                8

Reading Summary Assignments

You have weekly reading assignments from Stockstad and Curtis that roughly parallel the lectures, and
you are to write a brief Reading Summary each week on the reading.

In each case:
 briefly answer the questions listed below
 fully identify (name of the building, name of the architect if known, culture, location, and date) key
    buildings referred to in the reading

           The Reading Summaries should be brief, about one page.
           They count for 20% of your grade.
           They are due at the beginning of section each week.
           Late papers lose half credit.

NOTE: These chapter assignments do not directly correspond to the lecture subjects. The
Stockstad material includes a lot of painting and sculpture, and each Curtis chapter includes
several of our topics. Therefore, you should skim the painting and sculpture material, and you will
have to dig through the chapters to find the material that corresponds to the lecture topic and to
answer the questions.

NOTE: Give us a copy and keep a copy for yourself.

At the upper left of each of your papers should be the following;

Your Name
ARCH 207
Section X
Date (due date)

Title (Example: China and Japan)

1       Date due 1/26         Pre-Columbian American
        Stockstad, Ch 12, 23
   Identify the major Meso- and South American cultures with their locations and dates
   What kind of cultural and social structures did these cultures have
   How were these cultural and social structures manifest in their architecture
   How are the Mayan pyramids similar to and different from the Egyptian pyramids and the
    Mesopotamian ziggurats

2     Date due 2/2            India & Southeast Asia
       Stockstad, Ch 9
   What are the key ideas of Hinduism
   How is Hinduism reflected in the Hindu temple
   What are the key ideas of Buddhism
Arch 207                                                                                                  9

    In which countries did Buddhism flourish
    How is Buddhism reflected in Buddhist architecture

3      Date due 2/9              China & Japan
        Stockstad, Ch 10, 11, 21, 22
    Contraast Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism in China
    How were these manifest in Chinese architecture
    Describe Shinto and Buddhism in Japan
    How were these manifest in Japanese architecture

4      Date due 2/16             Early Renaissance
        Stockstad, Ch 17
    Describe the role of humanism in the Renaissance
    Describe the technique of perspective in painting, and its influence on architecture
    What were Brunelleschi’s and Alberti’s contribution to Renaissance architecture

5      Date due 2/23             High Renaissance & Mannerism
        Stockstad, Ch 18
    How does High Renaissance architecture differ from Early Renaissance architecture
    Which architects worked on new St. Peter’s Basilica
    What distinguishes Mannerism
    What distinguished Palladio’s architecture

6      Date due 3/2              The Baroque & Rococo
        Stockstad, Ch 19, 26
    How does the Baroque architecture differ from High Renaissance architecture
    What distinguishes Rococo architecture

8      Date due 3/16             Neoclassicism
        Stockstad, Ch 26 (begin page 909)
    How does the understanding of the past change with Neoclassicism

9      Date due 3/30             Gothic Revival
        Stockstad, Ch 26
    How does Gothic revival differ from Neoclassical revival
10     Date due 4/6              Mid-19 Century Architecture Culture, Theory, and Technology
        Stockstad, Ch 27, Curtis Ch 2, 4
    How do iron and steel change architecture

11     Date due 4/13             The Beaux-Arts
       Stockstad, Ch 27, Curtis Ch 2
    What historical periods influence the Beaux-Arts
    Why is historical revival architecture still being built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

12     Date due 4/20             The Shingle Style and the Chicago School
       Stockstad, Ch 27, Curtis Ch 2
    What forces converged to bring about the sky scraper in Chicago in the late 19th century
Arch 207                                                                                               10

13     Date due 5/4            Arts & Crafts and Art Nouveau
         Stockstad, Ch xx, Curtis Ch 3, 5
    What are the key characteristics of Art Nouveau architecture, and how does it relate to Art Nouveau
     in other fields of the arts

Course Materials

Required Textbooks:

    Stokstad, Marilyn, Art History, Second Edition (Phaidon,) in the Pratt Bookstore.

    Curtis, William J., Modern Architecture Since 1900, 3rd edition,. (Prentice Hall)
        (You will also use this book next semester in ARCH 308, Modernism)

    Hacker, Diana, Rules for Writers, Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000 (Fourth Edition)
           This is the Pratt-wide handbook for writing style

Lecture Outlines
Included in this syllabus are outlines for each week’s lecture topic. Students are expected to
read the outline before each lecture and are advised to use the outline during the lecture as a
guide to note-taking. Lecture outlines include a general introduction to the period, a list of
architectural characteristics, a list of important buildings and artifacts, specialized terminology
relevant to the period, and a brief bibliography for further reading and research in the period. In
some cases, illustrations are also included with the lecture outline, but only when those
buildings or artifacts are asterisked (*) and not represented in the textbook.

Please note that all items marked with asterisks (*) under Important Buildings & Artifacts will
be emphasized in exams. Students are required to master a complete identification for each
asterisked work.

History Notebook
You are required to keep a history notebook with material from ARCH 207, and later from
ARCH 308. Get a three ring notebook and by the end of the semester place in it the material
listed below. Include:
 This course outline
 Your notes from the lectures and sections
 Your Reading Summary assignments (give us a copy each week, keep a copy for yourself)
 Your midterm (put it in a three hole plastic document folder)
 Your final (when you get it back)

You must bring the notebook to class on the day of the final exam.

You will need this material when studying for the licensing exams.
Arch 207                                                                                            11

Supplementary References
You may wish to purchase the following reference books (available in paperback) which will be
of use in this course and throughout their architectural education.
 John Fleming, Hugh Honour, Nikolous Pevsner, The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture, 4th
    edition (London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1991).
 Cyril M. Harris, ed., Dictionary of Architecture and Construction (New York: Mc-Graw-Hill,
    1975). [Note: this book was revised and expanded in 1993, but the older, cheaper edition is
    still generally available.]

Throughout the semester students may wish to consult the following pictorial references books,
all of which have useful illustrations. All are available in the Pratt library or the New York Public
 Trewin Copplestone, ed., World Architecture: An Illustrated History (New York: McGraw-Hill,
 Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method (1896; many
     reprints and expanded editions available).
 Henry A. Millon, Key Monuments of the History of Architecture (Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
     Prentice-Hall, 1964).
 John Julius Norwich, ed., The World Atlas of Architecture (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1984).

For further reading: While each lecture outline includes a suggested bibliography for the given
period, the following series are recommended as well. Various titles in these series cover most
periods from pre-history to the present day. Series titles and publishers are listed below.

   Great Ages of World Architecture (New York: George Braziller).
   History of World Architecture (New York: Rizzoli).
   Pelican History of Art (New Haven: Yale University Press).
   World of Art (London: Thames and Hudson).

Course Format
Weekly meetings of this course consist of 1 1/2-hour lectures, attended by all students, followed
by 1-hour sections in which the class breaks into small groups. The lectures are formal slide-
illustrated surveys of a given period which introduce students to the general historical and
cultural context and to key architectural monuments and art works of the period. In general, the
goal of each lecture is to demonstrate the period’s breadth and to acquaint students with
important concepts and ideas as expressed in the period’s art and architecture. Lectures are
intended to stimulate debate about each period, but students are asked to hold questions which
arise for discussion in their individual sections.

Sections are informal classroom seminars between the instructor and a small group of students.
The goal of each section is to examine the material presented in the lecture in greater detail, be
it a discussion of cultural concepts, an in-depth analysis of a particular building or artifact, or the
relevance of this period and its monuments to contemporary architectural practice. Sections
provide students with the opportunity to ask questions and to clarify ideas and concepts
regarding material presented in lecture or in the textbook. Sections will also include discussions
of course assignments, note-taking and study methods, reviews for exams, and other related
Arch 207                                                                                                12

Students are reminded that cheating and plagiarism are not permitted, and can lead to serious

Pratt Institute holds issues of academic integrity in the highest regard. So do we. Instances of
cheating, plagiarism, and misappropriation of intellectual property will not be tolerated and will be
handled in the following manner:
 We are required to report the incident to the registrar, and it will be recorded in your file.
 More than one report to the registrar during your entire time at Pratt will result in a hearing
     before the Academic Integrity Board, at which time appropriate sanctions will be decided.
     These may include dismissal from the Institute.
 We will determine the nature and severity of the infraction and apply appropriate sanctions
     that can range from asking you to repeat the assignment, failing you for the assignment,
     failing you for the course and/or referring the case to the Academic Integrity Board.
For more details about these procedures please see the Student Handbook, the Pratt Bulletins, and
the Judicial Procedures at Pratt pamphlet.

If you are using dishonest methods to fulfill course requirements, you are cheating. Examples of
this include, but are not limited to:
 Obtaining or offering copies of exams or information about the content of exams in advance.
 Bringing notes in any form to a closed book exam.
 Looking at another student’s paper during an exam.
 Receiving or communicating any information from or to another student during an exam.

Plagiarism is a bit more complicated, but the rules of documentation and citation are very specific
and are tailored to different academic disciplines. Types of plagiarism include:
 Including any material from any source other than yourself in a paper without proper
    attribution. This includes material from the Internet, books, papers from other students, and
    from any other source.
 The extensive use of the ideas of others in your paper, even if in your own words, without
    proper attribution.
 Turning in work as your own that was done by another person.

Please remember that all written work must be in your own words or cited and documented
appropriately. If you do not understand how to do this properly, it is your responsibility to ask.
Arch 207                                                                                                           13


This lecture discusses the cultures which flourished “before Columbus” in Central (Meso) and South America.

                                      PRE-COLUMBIAN MESOAMERICA

The geographical setting is the Mexican peninsula and other parts of Central America, including Guatemala and
Honduras. Much of this large area is tropical, marked by dry and rainy seasons. A number of distinct cultures
flourished within specifc zones of this region, including the Olmec and Totanac peoples on the Gulf Coast of
Mexico; Teotihuacan, Toltec, and Aztec cultures in the Valley of Mexico; the Zapotec, and Mixtec in Oaxaca,
Mexico; the Maya in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as other parts of Central America. These cultures flourished during
several millenia which are divided into three periods: Preclassic (2000 B.C.-300 A.D. with Early, Middle, and Late
division); Classic (A.D. 300-900); and Postclassic (A.D. 900-1521). The end date of 1521 indicates the year of
conquest by the Spanish.

These Mesoamerican cultures share a number of characteristics including their calendrical systems, religious beliefs,
technological advances, and social organization.
 Time: 2 Calendars: 365 day agricultural & 260 day sacred calendar; 52 year century celebrated with New Fire
 Technology: Advanced naked-eye astronomy; glyphic writing; vigesimal number system (based on 20) with zero;
    no wheeled vehicles, cattle, or horses
 Religion: Plumed Serpent Quetzalcoatl/Kukulcan (return expected in 1519 A.D.); rain deities Tlaloc & Chacs;
    dualism; hierarchically tiered heavens & hells; Four Suns (previous worlds); jaguars & eagles (clan
    designations); Caves of Emergence
 Social: theocratic with dynastic rulers, distinct classes and castes, and priestly and/or warrior aristocracies.

Characteristics of Mesoamerican Architecture
 Ceremonial cities of stone
 Design around large plazas
 Stepped temple-pyramids
 Ball courts
 Corbel arch severely limits span length
 Carved stone ornamentation, originally colorfully painted; prominent motifs include the Feathered Serpent
    (Quetzalcoatl) and rain deities (Tlaloc, Chacs)
 Astronomical alignments of major structures to solstices and equinoxes, Venus, Sirius, the Pleiades, and other
    important stars & constellations

OLMEC CULTURE [4 Quarters – Pyramid]
The Olmec culture was the first Mesoamerican ―pyramid‖ culture with ceremonial compounds (some with earthen
pyramids) at La Venta, San Lorenzo, and Tres Zapotes in Veracruz and Tobasco provinces, Mexico. The Olmec
numerical system, hieroglyphs, and artistic motifs were used by successive cultures. The Olmec culture is known
especially for its colossal basalt heads, jaguar-baby motifs, and cave-emergence images in art.

Considered the first highly influential urban civilization; it flourished between 150 B.C. and 750 A.D (Classic
Period) when it disappeared for unknown reasons. The magnificent capital city, Teotihuacan, is 30 miles north of
Mexico City in the Valley of Mexico. This earliest Mesoamerican city had an astronomically-aligned grid layout
with massive ceremonial pyramids and temples, and residential courtyard compounds housing a large population
(100,000 or more). Teotihuacan is rightly regarded as a well-spring of civilization, having widespread artistic and
spiritual influence on successive cultures all over Mesoamerica. Note: the Teotihuacan culture is sometimes called
Arch 207                                                                                                             14

―Toltec,‖ but this is misleading. This largely peaceful, highly spiritual culture should not be confused with the later
warrior culture of the Tula Toltecs.

Teotihuacan architectural techniques and characteristics:
• Pyramids and platforms in the Talud-tablero style
• Obsidian used in mortar
• Painted murals and bas reliefs
• Images of feathered-serpent god Quetzalcoatl and rain god Tlaloc
• Astronomically aligned grid layout (within a pyramid archetype civilization)

THE MAYA [Pyramid]
A highly developed, artistic, literate, and pyramid-building culture centered mainly in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula
and in Central America. Very adept in astronomy, mathematics and calendrics. Some major Mayan towns include
Cuello, Dzibilchaltun (Preclassic:); Tikal, Copan, Palenque, Uxmal (Classic); Chichén Itzá, Tulum (Post-Classic).

THE TOLTECS [Pyramid – Radiant Axes]
A Post-Classic warrior culture in the Valley of Mexico. Influenced by the Teotihuacan, the Toltecs invaded the
Yucatan producing the ―Postclassic Maya‖ civilization. Toltec was a model culture to the Aztecs. The capital Tula
has a platform pyramid with large stone warrior statues, similar to the Temple of the Warriors at Chichen Itza.

THE AZTECS [Radiant Axes]
A Post-Classic empire based in the Valley of Mexico. A.D. 1428-1521. Noted for Calendar Stone; well developed
engineering and agriculture; human sacrifices to Sun God. The capital of Tenochtitlan is now Mexico City.


The geographic setting is the coasts and highlands of western South America stretching from Columbia and Ecuador
through all of Peru into parts of Bolivia and Chile. The area is bounded by the ocean to the west, the Andes to the
east and beyond the mountains the dense, vast rainforest of the Amazon.

Though the Incas dominated pre-Columbian South America, they were not the only culture at the time (and, in
addition, were not a very ancient culture). Their empire was contemporaneous with that of the Aztecs, spanning
from 1438 to the Spanish Conquest in approximately 1532. Before the Incas, a number of cultures thrived in
Ecuador, Columbia, Peru, and Bolivia. Archeologists are still discovering evidence of other cultures throughout
South America. These pre-Incan cultures include:
 Valdivia: Ecuador, 3500-1600 B.C.; well-developed prehistoric pottery showing some similarities to Neolithic
  Jomon of Japan [Great Round]
 Huaca Prieta: Peru, 2300-1200 B.C.; early Neolithic settlement with evidence of semi-subterranean houses, plant
  domestication, textiles, basketry [Great Round]
 Kotosh: Peru, ca 1850 B.C.; Temple of the Crossed Hands [4 Quarters]
 Cerro Sechín: Peru, 1500 B.C.; rectangular platform temple with brutal, monumental, sculpted monoliths showing
  warriors, human trophy heads, and priests sacrificing people by chopping them apart [4 Quarters]
 Chavin: Peru, ca. 1000-300 B.C.; the capital Chavin de Huantar had the “Staff God” and the Lanzon Stele; Chavin
  pottery has Chinese-looking motifs [4 Quarters – Pyramid]
 San Agustín: Columbia, ca. 1000 B.C.- A.D. 800; site long occupied by different cultures and known for its rich
  variety of tombs; its stone carvings, some monumental; and gold funerary offerings [4 Quarters – Pyramid]
 Mochica: Peru, 100 B.C - A.D. 700; the capital Moché had canals and Pyramids of the Sun and Moon; the
  Mochica made unique, sexually-explicit, pottery figures Pyramid]
 Nazca: Peru, 100 B.C - A.D. 700; highly developed state society with pyramid cities is famous for constructing
  the immense networks of lines and figures in the Nazca desert; also known for pottery and textiles [Pyramid]
 Tiahuanaco: Peru and Bolivia, A.D. 100-1100; Centered around Lake Titicaca (the legendary birthplace of the
  sun); cultural ancestors of the Incas; their capital, Tiahuanaco in Bolivia, had the Gateway of the Sun, a pyramid,
  and a large sunken courtyard complex with terra cotta heads tenoned into the walls [Pyramid]
 Huari: Peru, 250-1100; a powerful warrior state that spread Tiahuanacan culture [Pyramid--Radiant Axes]
Arch 207                                                                                                          15

 Chimu: Peru, 1100-1470; coastal empire conquered by Incas; extensive capital city of Chan Chan had nine major
  rectangular palace compounds [Radiant Axes]

THE INCA [Radiant Axes]
From 1438 to 1532, the Inca ruled a highly organized, bureaucratic empire with capitals at Cuzco, Peru, and Quito,
Ecuador. Their society was based on the allyu, a large clan or kinship-linked village. Although they had no
wheeled vehicles and no written language, the Inca kept elaborate state records on quipus (knotted strings). They
were masterful engineers and built impressive road systems lined with government buildings, terraced agricultural
fields, irrigation canals, bridges, etc. As in most pre-Columbian cultures, weavings and textiles were important.
Like the ancient Egyptians, the Inca had brother/sister royal marriages and practiced mummification. Incan rulers
claimed descent from the Sun God Inti, were religiously tolerant, and expected their creator god Viracocha to return.
The capital city of Cuzco was the focus of a remarkable sun-like ceque system of 41 radial alignments of 328
huacas or ―spirit places.‖ The maintenance of the system and the celebration of its huacas coordinated the entire
Incan culture and social structure with the calendar, the landscape, religion, the ceremonial cycle, astronomy and the
cosmos, molding all into a powerful mirror of the dominant Radiant Axes archetype.

Characteristics of Incan Architecture
 ―Cyclopean‖ stonework
 Trapezoidal doors & windows
 Importance of the sun
 No surviving ornamentation

Important Pre-Columbian (Meso & South American) Buildings & Artifacts
  OLMEC, Colossal head, La Venta, Veracruz, Mexico, c.800 BC - 800 AD (12-3)
* TEOTIHUACAN, Teotihuacan, Mexico, c. 350 BC -650 AD (12-4, 12-5, 12-6): so-called ―Avenue of the Dead‖
     with Pyramid of the Moon, Pyramid of the Sun, Citadel with Temple of Quetzalcoatl
  MAYA, Nunnery Quadrangle, Uxmal, Yucatan, Mexico, 600-900
  MAYA, Caracol observatory, Chichén Itzá , Yucatán, Mexico, 11th century
* MAYA, Pyramid of Kukulcan or ―Castillo,‖ Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico, 900-1521 (12-13)
  MAYA, Ball Court, Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico, 900-1521
  AZTECS, Tenochtitlan (Mexico City), 1438-1521
  AZTECS, Sun Stone, Mexico, 1500
  PRE-INCAN, Nazca Desert Figures, Peru, 100 B.C.-300 AD (12-16)
  PRE-INCAN, Gateway of the Sun, Tiahuanaco, Peru, 300
* INCAN, Machu Picchu, Peru, 1500 (23-7): ―Hitching Post of the Sun‖ ―Tower of the Sun,‖ and terraced fields
  INCAN, Ceque System of Cuzco, Peru. 1438-1532

Aveni, Anthony F. Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico. Austin: U of Texas, 1980.
Bennett, Ross S., ed. Lost Empires, Living Tribes. Washington: National Geographic Society, 1982.
Benson, Elizabeth, ed. Mesoamerican Sites and World Views. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks, 1982.
Bingham, Hiram. Lost City of the Incas. 1948; rpt. New York: Atheneum, 19??
Coe, Michael D. The Maya. London: Thames & Hudson, 1993.
Coe, Michael, et al. Atlas of Ancient America. New York: Facts on File, 1986.
Ferguson, William M. and Arthur H. Rohn. Mesoamerica’s Ancient Cities. Nimot: U of Colorado, 1990.
Heyden, Doris. Pre -Columbian and Meso-American Architecture. New York: Abrams, 1975.
Ivanoff, Pierre. Monuments of Civilization: Maya. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1973.
Lanning, Edward P. Peru Before the Incas. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1967.
McIntyre, Loren. The Incredible Incas and their Timeless Land. Washington: National Geographic Society, 1975.
Muser, Curt. Facts and Artifacts of Ancient Middle America. New YorK E.P. Dutton, 1978.
Stierlin, Henri. Art of the Inca. New York: Rizzoli, 1984.
Stierlin, Henri. Art of the Maya. New York: Rizzoli, 1991.
Stierlin, Henri. Living Architecture: Ancient Mexican. Grosset & Dunlap, 1968..
Stierlin, Henri. Living Architecture: Mayan. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.
Stephens, John. Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan. 1841; rpt. New York: Dover, 1969.
Arch 207                                                                                    16

Thompson, J. Eric S. Maya History and Religion. 1970; rpt. Norman: U of Oklahoma, 1990.
Zuidema, R.T. ―The Inca Calendar‖ in Native American Astronomy. Austin: U of Texas, 1977.
Arch 207   17
Arch 207                                                                                                            18


HINDU ARCHITECTURE [4 Quarters — Pyramid]

The geographic setting: The subcontinent of India, varying from arid to tropical climates. Cultural context:
traditional dark-skinned Dravidian population mostly based in small farming villages, with many cultural
characteristics similar to the Neolithic: reverence for goddesses, sacred bulls and cows, serpents, etc. In 1500 B.C.,
invasion of nomadic, sheep-herding, light-skinned Indo-European (Aryan) culture with a color-based caste system,
sky and war gods, and later, a sophisticated body of Vedic literature (Rig Veda, Upanishads, etc.). Hinduism is a
combination of indigenous Dravidian and superimposed Vedic traditions. Vedic caste system and social hierarchy
are reflected in the mystical diagrams called mandalas on which Hindu temples and cities are based.

Mandalas are meditation aids in the spiritual quest for transcendence of the ordinary, phenomenal world, which is
considered illusory when contrasted with the eternal life of pure consciousness. The contrast between unity/eternity
(center of the mandala) and multiplicity/temporality (outer parts of the mandala) forms the basic focus of the
meditation. The ritual chanting of mantras associated with various parts of the mandala helps to coordinate form
and space, sound and energy to achieve cosmic harmony. The Hindu temple is a 3-dimensional mandala, giving
form to cosmic harmony.

Characteristics of Hindu temples
• Design based on mandalas — e.g. the Vastu Purusha Mandala
• Buildings and cities model the caste system and the Hindu world view
• North Indian temple (Nagara style): division into one or more assembly halls with pyramidal roofs and a
  sanctuary (garbha-griha) contained within with a phallic tower
• South Indian temple (Dravida Style): simple sanctuary under a pyramidal roof
• Temples are used for individual and small group rituals involving offerings and purification
• Inner sanctuary is usually very plain and may contain a lingam
• Temples = the cart or chariot (ratha ) of the spirit = old nomadic Vedic carts of the gods

Bindu: Extensionless point, symbol of the cosmos in its unmanifested state; often the central point of a yantra, the
    focus of meditation; beginning of the cosmic dance
Chakra: ―Wheel,‖ a center of subtle energy in the spine; Dharmachakra = ―Wheel of the Law‖ (Buddhism term)
Deva: A god
Dharma: Divine law and moral code
Garbha-Griha: ―Womb house,‖ the inner sanctuary of a Hindu temple
Kundalini: Subtle energy that rises up the spinal column activating the consciousness-altering nerve centers or
    chakras, symbolized as a Serpent Goddess
Lingam: (pl. linga), phallus, usually Shiva’s, found in temple sanctuaries and roadside shrines; also the phallic
    tower (Sikhara) of a Hindu temple
Mandala: Concentric meditation diagram used in plans of temples and cities
Mantra: Sacred sound affecting cosmic form through sonic vibration, invokes deities for their protective blessings
    of places and persons
Yantra: Mystical diagram, a tool for meditation which harnesses cosmic forces, a type of mandala
Raja: King or lord
Ratha: (Or rath) cart, temple modeled after a cart, chariot of the spirit, equivalent of the Egyptian sacred barges
Tantra: Esoteric yoga seeking a spiritual union of opposites, a variant of the Sacred Marriage focusing more on
    spiritual realization than on physical fertility
Vastu purusha mandala: A type of yantra used for temple and city plans in North India
Arch 207                                                                                                           19


Geographic setting: Buddhism originates in Northern India and Southern Nepal (Bodh Gaya) in the 6th cent. B.C.
and spreads throughout India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, and the Far East. By the 13th cent., Buddhism is forced
out of India by the Moslem and Hindu Dynasties. Cultural context: Buddhism develops out of Hinduism in a search
for simplicity, purity, and equality (it rejects the Vedic caste system). Siddhartha Gautama (ca. 563-483 B.C.)
attained enlightenment while meditating under the Bodhi Tree and became the Buddha (meaning ―the awakened
one‖). He commanded his disciples to build stupas at crossroads to hold relics of the enlightened ones to encourage
others to follow the Buddhist spiritual path. The stupa is an image of the Buddhist world view.

Characteristics of the Buddhist stupa
• Mounded sacred structure used as a reliquary and circumambulated by devotees in imitation of the Buddha’s
  sunwise path around the Bodhi Tree when he became enlightened (most stupas have little or no interior space)
• Based on garbha-griha (―womb-house‖) of Neolithic burial mounds
• Model of Mount Meru as World Mountain with Bodhi Tree as axis mundi
• Model of ―macrocosmic‖ human body (geometric forms symbolize chakras, senses, elements, seed sounds, levels
  of consciousness, etc.)
• Form and sculptures illustrate life and teachings of the Buddha
• Parts of the stupa: anda = ―egg‖ (hemisphere), harmika = square top where relic came to be located, torana =
  gates, medhi = base.
• Evolves into the pagoda in China and Japan

ANGKOR [Pyramid — Radiant Axes]

Geographical setting: jungles of Cambodia (Kampuchea).
Cultural context: The fabulous expanse of canals, reservoirs, and ornamented buildings at Angkor is an expression
of the theocratic civilization of the Khmers, 9th - 15th centuries A.D. Angkor was their capital city and contained
several elaborate tomb/temple complexes such as Angkor Wat, built by Suryavarman II (Surya = ―Sun,‖ varman =
―protector‖) in the 12th century. The architecture of Angkor lacks the structural sophistication developing in the
Gothic cathedrals in the West at the time — the Khmers relied only on the simple corbel vault — however, its
opulent, visionary perfection rivals anything done in the West before or since.

Angkor Architectural Characteristics
• Square, cross-axial tomb/temple complexes made of stone corbel-vaulted galleries and towers
• Surrounded by vast system of irrigation canals and reservoirs
• Hindu and Buddhist motifs
• Elaborate bas reliefs and carvings throughout Angkor showing serpents, the ―Churning of the Sea of Milk,‖
  dancers, floral motifs, deities, heavens and hells, donors and patrons, myths and legends, writing, historical
  battles, etc.
• Symbol of World Mountain with the devaraja lingam (phallus of the God-King) at the center
• Site of Sacred Marriage between God-King (Devaraja) and priestess representing the sacred serpent

Important Buildings & Artifacts
  SOUTH INDIAN HINDU, Rock-cut rathas (Mahabalipuram Mamallapuram), India. Early 7th c. A.D. (9-25)
  NORTH INDIAN HINDU, Vastu Purusha Mandala
  NORTH INDIAN HINDU, Bhubaneswar temples (Brahmeshvara, Mukteshvara, Lingaraja), 11th c. A.D.
  NORTH INDIAN HINDU, Surya (―sun‖) Temple, Konarak. 13th c. A.D.
* BUDDHIST, Great Stupa, Sanchi, India. 2nd c. B.C. (9-9, 9-10, 9-11)
  BUDDHIST, Chaitya Hall, Karle, India. Early 2nd c. A.D. (9-12, 9-13)
* BUDDHIST, Borobudur, Java, Indonesia. A.D. 800 (Lect.)
  BUDDHIST, Queen Dedes as Prajnaparamita, Java, Indonesia. Early 13th c. A.D. (Lect.)
  Angkor Temples (Angkor Wat, Angkor Thom, etc.) Cambodia. 10th-13th c. A.D. (Lect.)
Arch 207                                                                                   20

Cohen, Joan. Angkor: Monuments of the God-Kings. Abrams.
Fontein, Jan. The Sculpture of Indonesia. National Gallery of Art & Abrams.
Freeman, Michael, and Roger Warner. Angkor: The Hidden Glories. Houghton Mifflin.
Govinda, Lama. The Psycho-Cosmic Symbolism of the Buddhist Stupa. Dharma.
Huntington, Susan L. The Art of Ancient India. Weatherhill.
Khanna, Madhu. Yantra: The Tantric Symbol of Cosmic Unity. Thames & Hudson.
Kramrisch, Stella. The Hindu Temple, 2 vols. Motilal Banarsidass (Delhi)
Miksic, John, and Marcello Tranchini. Borobudur: Golden Tales of the Buddhas. Shambhala.
Olschak, Blanche Christine, and Geshé Thubten Wangyal. Mystic Art of Tibet. Shambhala.
Rowland, Benjamin. The Art and Architecture of India. Penguin.
Snodgrass, Adrian. The Symbolism of the Stupa. SEAP/Cornell
Volwahsen, Andreas. Living Architecture: Indian. Grosset & Dunlap.
Zimmer, Heinrich. The Art of Indian Asia, 2 vols., edited by Joseph Campbell. Princeton.
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WEEK 3           CHINA & JAPAN


Geographically, China is a vast country formed like a series of terraces from the Tibetan Himalayas and the
Mongolian steppes to the west and north down to the fertile river valleys of the southeast in which civilization
developed and flourished. The north is always seen in China as a negative direction — the dark, cold, source of
―barbarian invaders‖— while the beneficent south is the direction of fertile land and the sun’s warmth and light.

Far Eastern architecture contrasts with that of the West in that it stems from a deep-seated desire to live in harmony
with nature rather than to conquer nature. Consider the dragon — symbol of nature’s power. Unlike the West, with
its tradition of the heroic Dragon-Slayer, the Far East loves and respects its dragons. Also, in landscape painting,
people are completely integrated into the natural setting. Several cultural influences are pronounced:

Taoism (pronounced ―Daoism‖): Philosophy founded in the 6th c. B.C. by Lao Tzu and written in the Tao te Ching.
It values the yin ―feminine‖ principle and following the tao (the Way) revealed through the mystical contemplation
of nature. Taoism influenced the naturalness and spontaneity of Chinese landscape architecture and painting.
Confucianism: A social and moral code written in the 6th c. B.C. by Confucius. It values the yang ―masculine‖
principle and stresses the patriarchal chain of authority and the duty to conform to social and moral obligations.
Confucianism influenced the symmetry and formality of Chinese architecture and portraiture.
Buddhism: Religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama in India in the 6th c. B.C., which stresses non-attachment and
the transcendence of ego as a means of dealing with life’s suffering. Buddhism entered China in 65 A.D., and the
marriage of the Buddhist stupa and an indigenous type of Chinese watchtower produced the pagoda.

Architectural Characteristics
• Geomancy: (geo = earth, mancy = divination) or “feng Shui” ( = wind and water): divination of the earth’s yin and
  yang subtle energy currents and topographical formations for the proper siting of buildings, cities, tombs,
  furniture, travel routes, etc. Yin & yang = the principle of opposing complimentary energies: Yin = darkness,
  cold, night, the moon, North, ―female,‖ water, valleys, receptivity; yang = light, warmth, day, South, the sun,
  ―male,‖ earth, mountains, activity.
• The Ming T’ang: Legendary heavenly mansion of the ―Son of Heaven‖; identified with the Pole Star as the center
  of the universe; prototype for palaces, capital cities, royal temples, etc.
CHINESE PLANNING PRINCIPLES (seen in cities, palaces, houses, etc.)
• Courtyards: walled enclosure with gates
• Symmetry about the North/South axis
• Orientation to the South
• Protection against the North
• Podium of rammed earth
• Wood columns on stone bases
• Wood roof support systems
• Tiled roof
• Non-structural walls


The geographic setting: forested, volcanic islands of Japan, with a predominantly temperate climate ranging from
very cold in the north to sub-tropical in the south. Subject to hurricanes, earthquakes, and tidal waves, and heavily
timbered. Insular life, but nonetheless influenced by contact with China, Korea, Indonesia and Southeast Asia, and
Polynesia. Traditionally dependent on rice-farming and fishing. Several cultural influences are pronounced:

Shinto: nature-based religion with roots in prehistoric shamanism and goddess worship. Veneration of the kami or
spirits of places, things, and certain people (e.g. the emperor). Myths about the primordial parents Izanami and
Arch 207                                                                                                           23

Izanagi, the Sun-Goddess Amaterasu, etc. Architectural example: Ise Shrine, 3rd century A.D. or earlier. As the
Imperial Ancestral Shrine, Ise had two temples: the Naiku dedicated to the Sun-Goddess Amaterasu and the Geku
honoring the Goddess of Agriculture (and Beer). The Naiku symbolized a granary holding the Imperial
paraphernalia (jewel, mirror, and sword). Ise is reconstructed (without nails) every 20 years to renew the structures
and their kami.
Buddhism: Buddhism entered Japan in A.D. 538 and flourished in various sects, producing a multitude of temples,
monasteries, nunneries, and important works of art.
Zen Buddhism (Ch’an in Chinese, jhana in Pali, dhyana in Sanskrit): Imported from China and adopted as a reform
movement against the growing ritualism and dogmatism of the older schools of Japanese Buddhism, Zen increased
in importance between the 12th and 17th centuries. Its simple, disciplined ways appealed to the military rulers
(Shogons) and their warrior aristocracies (samurai) during Japan’s feudal period. Assimilating the appreciation of
nature and the irrational found in Taoism and Shintoism, Zen encouraged simplicity, humility, asymmetry,
spontaneity, subdued natural materials, the contemplation of nature and the changing seasons (in Zen gardens, for
instance), appreciation of the moment (as in the tea ceremony) and of the essences of things (as in the arts of flower-
arranging and calligraphy).

Architectural Characteristics
• Influences from China, Korea, etc. (See CHINESE ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS in the previous
  section of this SYLLABUS.)
• Use of impermanent materials due to the availability of wood and bamboo and the frequent need to rebuild after
  earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcanic eruptions
• Modularity resulting from the use of timber products: tatami mats, shoji screens, etc.
• Play of formality and spontaneity
• Very fine woodworking
• Tendency toward miniaturization (gardens, flower arranging, bonsai trees), perhaps related to living on small

Important Buildings & Artifacts
   Chnia, Bronze Ceremonial Vessel, royal tomb, Anyang, Henan Province. Shang Dynasty, 12th c. B.C.
   China, Terra Cotta Army: Cavalryman and Horse, Tomb of Emperor Shi Huang Di (Mount Li), Lintong, Shenxi
  Province. Qin Dynasty, ca. 210 B.C. (10-1)
   China, Tang Dynasty Horse, A.D. 618-907. Terra cotta tomb figurine.
   China, Emperor Ming Huang’s Journey to Shu, Li Zhaodao (A.D. 670-730), Tang Dynasty. Ink & color on silk
   China, Guan Yin, Song Dynasty, A.D. 960-1279. Polychromed wood. (Lect.)
* China, Forbidden City, Beijing, Ming Dynasty, 17th c. A.D. & later. (Lect. and 21-9)
   China, Temple of Heaven, Beijing (Peking). 15th-18th c. A.D. (Lect.)
* Japan SHINTO, Ise Shrine, Ise, Japan. 3rd century A.D. or earlier. (11-5)
* Japan BUDDHIST, Horyu-ji, Nara, Japan. A.D. 610. (11-6)
  Japan BUDDHIST, Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto, Japan. Early 17th Century A.D. (Lect.)

Blunden, Caroline and Mark Elvin. Cultural Atlas of China. New York: Facts on File, 1983.
Chang, Kwang-chih. The Archæ ology of Ancient China. Yale.
Collcutt, Martin, et al. Cultural Atlas of Japan. Facts on File.
Cotterell, Arthur. The First Emperor of China. Holt Reinhart Winston.
Herrigel, Eugen. Zen in the Art of Archery. Vintage (and other editions).
Laurence G. Liu. Chinese Architecture. Rizzoli.
Masuda, Tomoya. Living Architecture: Japanese. Grosset & Dunlap.
Morse, Edward S. Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings. Dover.
Okakura, Kakuzo. The Book of Tea. Dover (and other editions).
Paine, Robert Treat, and Alexander Soper. The Art and Architecture of Japan. Penguin.
Sickman, Laurence, and Alexander Soper. The Art and Architecture of China. Penquin.
Watanabe, Yasutada. Shinto Art: Ise and Izumo Shrines. Heibonsha.
Willetts, William. Chinese Art, 2 vols. Pelican.
Yu Zhuoyun. Palaces of the Forbidden City. Viking/Allen Lane.
Arch 207                                                                                                              24

WEEK 4                      EARLY RENAISSANCE

Geographic setting: In Italy the important cultural centers of the Early Renaissance were located north of Rome.
The city of Florence was the first significant economic and artistic hub; other centers followed such as Pisa, Milan,
Venice, Mantua, Ferrara, and Urbino.

In the 14th century Italy was politically divided into different self-governed independent city based political units
that developed on their own terms creating a great variety of artistic schools like the Florentine, Sienese, Lombard,
Umbrian, and Venetian. Toward the end of the 14th century Italy slowly started to become an economic power
based on trade and banking. Cosimo de’Medici the Elder of Florence, the wealthiest businessman in Italy, led in
intellectual and artistic patronage. At this point the different people started to think of themselves as a unified entity
with the desire to connect with the splendours of the Roman Empire and their classical past. Thus, we have the term
―Renaissance‖ which means ―re-birth,‖ a term that was coined in 1550 by the art historian Giorgio Vasari. A ―re-
birth‖ implied the birth of Humanism whose main purpose was to establish a scholarly program which included art
and architecture for a select group of intellectual people to recreate and even surpass their ancestral world of
classical antiquity. Important to Humanistic thought was that it was centered on the human world of the here and
now rather than on the medieval emphasis on God and the church.

Early Renaissance Architectural Characteristics
• The role of the architect emerges as separate from that of the master builder
• Architectural theory influences the design of buildings and the city
• The appearance of from is more important than the actual form
• The idea of building types based on the principles of Republican Rome are re-introduced
• Roman classical motifs are revived in new ways
• Emphasis on neo-platonic ideal forms
• Concepts of symmetry, order, balance, and harmony are used in design
• Systems of modular design evolve based on the analysis of the human form
• The invention of perspective influences design

Important Buildings and Artifacts
* Dome of Florence Cathedral, Filippo Brunelleschi, Florence, Italy, 1417-36, lantern completed 1471 (17-33 & 34)
  Foundling Hospital facade, Filippo Brunelleschi, Florence, Italy, c. 1419 (17-35.)
  San Lorenzo, Filippo Brunelleschi, Florence, Italy, c. 1421-46 (17-36, 17-37)
* Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Michelozzo di Bartolommeo, Florence, Italy, begun 1444 (17-38)
  Palazzo Rucellai, Leon Battista Alberti, Florence, Italy, 1455-70 (17-38, 17-39)
  Gates of Paradise, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Florence Baptistery, 1425-52 (17-50-17-51)
  Tempio Malatesta, Leon Battista Alberti, Rimini, Italy, c. 1450 (Lect.)
  Sant’Andrea, Leon Battista Alberti, Mantua, Italy, 1470 (17-41, 17-42, 17-43)

arcade                                     engaged half column                         pilasters
architrave                                 entablature                                 quoins
balustrade                                 intarsia                                    rusticated
brackets                                   lantern                                     sacristy
cartouche                                  loggia                                      sanctuary
centering                                  motifs                                      transept
cornice                                    oculus                                      vanishing point
crossing                                   pediment

Borsi, Franco. Leon Battista Alberti: The Complete Works. New York: Electa/Rizzoli, 1989.
Johnson, Eugene. S. Andrea in Mantua: The Building History. University Park: Penn State Press, 1975.
Klotz, Heinrich. Filippo Brunelleschi. New York: Rizzoli, 1990
Murray, Peter. Renaissance Architecture. New York: Electa/Rizzoli, 1978.
Saalman, Howard. Filippo Brunelleschi: The Buildings. University Park: Penn State Press, 1993.
Wittkower, Rudolf. Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism. New York/London: W.W. Norton, 1962.
Arch 207                                                                                                          26


The geographic setting: Rome becomes the center of the arts; other important centers in Italy include Florence,
Milan, Mantua, Venice, and Vicenza. International travel and exchange brought the Renaissance to France,
England, the Netherlands, Spain, and surrounding areas.

High Renaissance
With the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Rome once more claimed to be the political center of Christian Italy led by
a strong papacy that saw itself in Imperial terms and wanted to recreate and surpass the Roman Empire in all its
monumental splendor. Thus the church became the main patron of the arts and architecture, and commissioned the
building of a new St. Peter’s among many other projects.

Mannerism appeared as a movement of young architect’s who felt that the High Renaissance, namely Bramante, had
achieved pure classicism and they were challenged to find a different more exciting style. They experimented with
the rules of classicism to find new combinations. Mannerism is a sophisticated and intellectual play with the orders.

High Renaissance Architectural Characteristics
• Clear articulation of the classical vocabulary
• Clarity of structural function of the classical order
• Simplification of elements
• Repetition of identical elements
• Symmetry

Mannerism Architectural Characteristics
• Entire facade is much richer in surface texture
• Much applied surface decoration
• The classical language is not clear
• There is no visual structural clarity
• Complex rhythms

Important Buildings and Artifacts
* David, Michelangelo, Florence, Italy, 1501-4 (18-12)
* The School of Athens, Raphael, Vatican, Rome, Italy, 1510-11 (18-8)
  Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo, Vatican, Rome, Italy, 1475-1541 (18-13, 18-14. 18-15, p 659)
* Tempietto, Donato Bramante, San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, Italy, 1502 (18-19)
* Saint Peter’s, Michelangelo, Vatican, Rome, Italy, c. 1546-64 (18-43 & p. 663)
  San Giorgio Maggiore, Palladio, Venice, Italy, c. 1566 (18-35, 18-36)
* Villa Rotonda, Palladio, Vicenza, Italy, 1566-69 (18-63, 18-64)
* Madonna with Long Neck, Parmigianino, Florence, Italy, c. 1535 (18-52)
  Palazzo del Tè, Giulio Romano, Mantua, Italy, 1525-32 (18-21)
* Vestibule of the Laurentian Library, Michelangelo, Florence, Italy, 1524-59 (18-18)
  Chateau de Chambord, Domenico da Cortona (?), Chambord, France, 1519 (Lect.)
  Escorial, Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera, Near madrid, Spain, 1563-84 (18-69)
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segmental pediments

Ackerman, James. The Architecture of Michelangelo. London: Zwemmer, 1966.
Blunt, Anthony. Art and Architecture in France: 1500-1700. London: Penguin, 1981.
Boucher, Brude. Andrea Palladio: The Architect in His Time. New York: Abbeville, 1994.
Bruschi, Arnaldo. Bramante. London: Thames and Hudson, 1977.
Hartt, Frederick. Michelangelo. New York: Abrams, 1984.
Howard, Deborah. Jacopo Sansovino: Architecture and Patronage in Renaissance Venice. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1975.
Kubler, George. Building the Escorial. Princeton University Press: Princeton, 1982.
Lieberman, Ralph. Renaissance Architecture in Venice. New York: Abbeville, 1982.
Murray, Linda. The High Renaissance. New York: Praeger, 1967.
Murray, Linda. Late Renaissance and Mannerism. London: Thames and Hudson, 1967.
Shearman, John. Mannerism. Harmonsworth: Penguin, 1967.
Summerson, John. Architecture in Britain: 1530-1830. Harmonsworth: Penguin, 1983.
Tavernor, Robert. Palladio and Palladianism. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1991.
Vasari, Giorgio. The Lives of the Artists. Trans. Julia Conaway Bondanella and Peter Bondanella. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1971.
Vitruvius, Pollio. The Ten Books on Architecture. Trans. Morris Hicky Morgan. New York: Dover, 1960.
Arch 207                                                                                                               28

WEEK 6            BAROQUE & ROCOCO

The Baroque style originated in Italy and then spread northward during the 17 th century where it evolved into several
distinct regional variations in which Baroque and local tendencies merged. In Italy it is associated with the Counter-
Reformation in the Catholic Church (based in Rome). Elsewhere in continental Europe, it is associated with the
heavy concentration of political power which developed in “divine-right” or absolute monarchies, as in France
during the reign of Louis XIV. These institutions (church and monarchy) utilizied architecture to persuade
adherents of their complete authority in spiritual and political realms. This “persuasion” was accomplished through
the sheer size of buildings (especially palaces), the extension of the designed environment from the buildings into
the surrounding landscape, and the emotional involvement of onlookers in the architectural experience.

In Italy, Baroque activity was concentrated in Rome under papal patronage, especially of Paul V and Urban VIII. A
reinvigorated Catholic Church became preoccupied with making the city of Rome into a visual expression of its
spiritual power, especially in the rebuilding projects of the St. Peter’s and the Vactican, but also in a variety of
smaller churches, fountains and adornments in public squares.

In France, Baroque architecture became a concrete emblem of the centralized state, exemplified in a variety of state-
sponsored building programs (palaces, churches, hospitals, military schools). It also reflected the systematic
organization and regulation of social and cultural activities which included through founding of Academies of
various arts and sciences and the enforced gathering of societal leaders in a single, unified court at Versailles. Court
activity required an appropriate architectural setting which Baroque forms served practically and symbolically.

In England, the Baroque was not institutionalized. Rather, it influenced the work of a limited group of architects
working for those Protestant nobles who achieved the “bloodless revolution” (1688) which established the
constitutional monarchy. This class wanted greater political power for parliament (Whigs) and subscribed to the
political principles of Locke which argued that a civil society must be based on natural rights of all people rather
than divine rights of royalty—one of the first statements of modern Liberalism. This produced a doctrine of
individualism among the Whigs and an emerging middle class. Baroque architecture in England may be seen as a
direct expression of this individualism as the design and construction of private estates became a means to the
owner's expression of social independence and self-importance.

The Baroque, especially in Italy, contrasts decidedly with the balanced and dispassionate ideals embodied in
Renaissance designs, though it, too, utilized a classical vocabulary. With respect to the dynamics of stylistic
evolution, the Baroque can be seen as an outgrowth of the Renaissance. In Baroque architectural interiors, painting
and sculpture were often coordinated into a complete aesthetic experience which sought to heighten and extend
spatial and perceptual realities through dramatic and dynamic compositions which were often illusionistic. This
experience may be understood as a continuum or synthesis of space/time/light. Scuplture intended to be seen fully
in the round and over-sized, often enourmous, paintings characterize the art of the period. Artistic themes included
naturalism, the passions of the soul, a transcendental view of reality, and exploitation of allegory.

As the Baroque spread to northern European countries it was not simply wholesale extension of the Italian manner
and not all characteristics of the Italian Baroque are evident in norther buildings. Sensuous forms, such as
undulating curved surfaces are rare, for example. Also, the symbolic implications change: e.g., monumental scale,
which is associated with the Counter-Reformation in Italy, implies political absolutism in France and liberalism in
England; moreover, Baroque motifs were sometimes employed simply because they were fashionable.

The Northern Baroque was a synthesis of the imported style and local, national styles. In France and England in
particular, Baroque architecture retained traditional building forms which originated in earlier Gothic and
Renaissance architecture in the region. In particular, northern Baroque buildings have an evident classical quality
(carryover from the Renaissance). While the Baroque spirit is apparent in overall impressiveness and grandeur, the
elements themselves are clear and restrained (rather than overlapping and dynamic).
Arch 207                                                                                                               29

Baroque Architectural Characteristics (Italian)
• utilized Renaissance classical vocabulary, but extended (as if to infinity), Renaissance systems for the orderly
subdivision and organization of space
•contrasts with Renaissance; Baroque architectural forms were dynamic, not static; continuous not subdivided;
emotional, not rational; sculptural, not planar; and massively scaled
•integration of painting, sculpture, architecture into single environment characterized by dramatic lighting and
spatial illusions
• monumental size and scale in public buildings: colossal order, large unbroken masses, vast exterior spaces; grand
conceptions and bombastic details
• seemingly infinite extension of main architectural axes into surrounding landscape ; exterior ”rooms” formed of
shrubbery geometrically shaped and arranged, terraces, pools; thus, nature incorporated into the architectural scheme
and, symbolically, subdued;
• centralized organization: radial planning (“rond point,” a French motif), entry and main rooms (“corps-de-logis”)
with symmetrical wings
•grand, imposing effects: integrated use of all arts; in interiors: mirrors, illusionistic painting (”trompe l”oeil”) and
sculpture, sensuous materials, elaborate staircases, in landscape: vistas, fireworks

Regional Variations of Baroque Architectural Characteristics
France: Italian characteristics merged with local French tradition to include
• clarity in overall organization: expression of separate parts subdued in favor of unified balanced whole; hence
horizontal rather than vertical emphasis; visual economy
• traditional five part elevations formed by vertical ”pavilions” at center and ends; origins in late Middle Ages
• overall quality: grace, lightness: airy bays, fine scale, long continuous lines, gradual transitions
• concern with rules and principles governing architecture (as well as nature, art, society)
England: Italian characteristics took on local English details including
• geometric elements : bold and distinct, often undecorated rectilinear rather than curved
• traditional building forms: medieval parish church with single western steeple; spires, towers, battlements
• preference for experiment and empirical investigation rather than a priori belief in universal standards
•scientific view that natural beauty is rooted in geometry (esp. Christopher Wren)

The Rococo was an 18th century style which evolved in France out of the late Baroque and spread throughout
Europe, especially to Germany. Its forms and patterns of organization are akin to those of the Baroque, but its spirit
is intimate, delicate, and playful. It is associated largely with interior design and decoration and is found typically in
palaces and churches and, in France, is characteristic of a small townhouse known as the ―hotel.‖ The Rococo is
extremely elaborate and decorative, and is sometimes not regarded as a fully developed form of architecture.
Rococo buildings tend to have modest exteriors, but florid, almost ―orgiastic‖ interiors with surfaces completely
swathed in gold and painted decoration.

As it arose in France, the Rococo may be seen as a social reaction to the formality and scale of court society typified
by Versailles. Thus, it can be understood as typical of the upper middle class and lesser aristocracy living in
Parisian townhouses (as opposed to palaces) and possessing economic limitations but cultivated taste. It reflects a
desire for informality, privacy, indulgence in personal interests. Eventually, it also became the style of the
monarchy, namely that of Louis XV, and indicates a re-orientation of court activity away from formality and pomp
toward amusement and escape and the indulgences of sensual pleasure, fantasy, sentimental longing.

Rococo Architectural Characteristics
• residential plans: small scale, intimate and inward turned, variety in organization and room shapes, invention
• continuity in all decorative surfaces: curvilinear elements; dissolution of divisions—overlapping, intricate
interlocking, eroded edges
• lightness: in materials and colors—plaster, gold; in forms—2-D decoration, filagree, rocaille shellwork
• decorative motifs: non-Classical motifs: arabesques (twisting linear configurations); fantastic (herms, masks,
sphinxes, batwings); naturalistic (leaves, twisted branches); exotic (Chinoiserie)
Arch 207                                                                                                      30

Important Buildings & Works of Art

Italian Baroque
  Church of Il Gesù , Giacomo della Porta, Rome, ca. 1575-1584 (18-44, 18-45, p 686)
* Piazza of St. Peter’s (San Pietro), Gianlorenzo Bernini, Rome, 1656 (19-3)
   Baldacchino of St. Peter’s, Gianlorenzo Bernini, Rome, 1624-33 (19-2)
* Ecstasy of St. Theresa, Cornaro Chapel, Gianlorenzo Bernini, Rome,1645-52 (19-8 & 19-9)
* David, Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1623 (19-10)
* San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane, Francesco Borromini, Rome, 1638-41 (19-4, 19-5, 19-6)
  Sant Ivo Della Sapienza, Francesco Borromini, Rome, 1642 (Lect.)
  Chapel of the Holy Shroud, Guarino Guarini, Turin, 1667-1694 (Lect.)
  Entombment, Caravaggio, 1603 (19-18)
French Baroque
* Palace of Versailles, Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart, begun 1669 (19-21, 19-22, 19-23, p 741)
Dutch Baroque
  Self-Portrait, Rembrandt van Rijin, 1667 (19-57)
English Baroque
  St. Paul’s Cathedral, Christopher Wren, London, begun 1675 (19-70, 19-71)
  Blenheim Palace, John Vanbrugh, Woodstock, 1705 (19-72)

* Church of the Vierzehnheiligen (Fourteen Saints), Johann Balthasar Neumann, Staffelstein, Germany, 1743-72,
        (26-5, 26-6, 26-7)
  Benedictine Monastery Church, Jakob Prandtauer, Melk, Austria, 1702-36, (19.30-19-31)
  Departure from Cythera, Jean-Antoine Watteau, 1717 (26-9)

Blunt, Anthony. Art and Architecture in France, 1500 to 1700. New York: Penguin, 1973.
Blunt, Anthony, ed. Baroque and Rococo: Architecture and Decoration. New York: Harper & Row, 1978.
Blunt, Anthony. Borromini. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979.
Downes, Kerry. English Baroque Architecture. London: Zwemmer, 1966.
Hart, Vaughan. St. Paul’s Cathedral: Sir Christopher Wren. London: Phaidon Press, 1995.
Held, Julius and Donald Posner. 17th and 18th Century Art. New York: Abrams, 1971.
Marder, Tod A. Bernini and the Art of Architecture. New York: Abbeville Press, 1998.
Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Baroque Architecture. New York: Abrams, 1972.
Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Late Baroque and Rococo Architecture. New York: Abrams, 1974.
Otto, Christian F. Space Into Light, The Churches of Balthasar Neumann. New York: The Architectural History
Foundation, 1979.
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Historical & Social/Cultural Background
• historical era 1750-1830s: a radical transition in Western society: dissolution of the preindustrial world and
emergence of modern civilization; in architecture, it marks the beginning of an ”age of revivals”
•circa 1750, Renaissance epoch was carried to a close; new ideas evolved concerning the way buildings should be
designed and interpreted, and about which stylistic precedents from the past constituted the correct model or basis
for design; made possible eclecticism in the 19th century; brought about in two important and different late 18th
century architectural movements: Neoclassicism and the Picturesque
• period of the Enlightenment : skepticism regarding all unquestioning acceptance of authority leads to rejection of
traditional attitudes in politics, society, and religion in favor of an open-minded quest for concrete knowledge of
human nature and the surrounding world; optimistic belief that individuals and entire societies can be progressively
reformed and perfected; expressed in utopian, or idealized, architectural designs and city planning projects;
culmination in the American Revolution of 1776 and French Revolution of 1789
• definitive principle of Enlightenment thought: faith in man’s ability to reason, or make sound judgments based
upon logical thinking; believed universally applicable in the study of man and nature; derived from the example of
cause and effect present in newly emergent physical and biological sciences
• outgrowth of Enlightenment philosophy: the scientific study of the past and new interest in history; differences
between previous civilizations discovered to be merely the logical outcome of differences in their respective
historical situations; hence no one can be deemed intrinsically more valuable as a model than any other; this
acknowledgement encourages a new sense of cultural relativity, undermines the authority of the Renaissance as the
only acceptable precedent and leaves the way open for the acceptance and use of styles from other eras
•Neoclassicism involved the rejection of the Baroque and Rococo because of their superfluous elaboration, hence
distortion of Renaissance ideals; proposed instead a return to Roman and Greek architectural origins (not just a
more correct version of the Renaissance) in order to redefine the fundamental principles of the classical tradition
(Marc-Antoine Laugier’s Essay on Architecture, 1753); this philosophical stance occurs alongside new
archaeological research, often performed by architects themselves, in the form of scaled drawings reconstructing the
appearance of ancient buildings published in the 1750’s (Julien David Leroy’s Ruins of the Most Beautiful
Monuments of Greece, 1758; James Stuart and Nicholas Revett’s Antiquities of Athens, 1762)
•movement was diverse rather than unified with variations across European nations and the United States; in each
place the meaning and uses of classicism varied
•architects frequently disagreed about: whether Greece or Rome was Classicism's true source; whether Classical
vocabularies should be interpreted strictly or freely (Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Of the Magnificence and the
Architecture or Rome, 1761)
•reliance upon rationality tempered by sensationalism, or doctrine that all knowledge is derived from experience
through sensations, including emotional reactions like pleasure, surprise and fear; led to idea that architecture can
affect the emotions, shape human experience, and direct human behavior; suggested concept of “architecture
parlante,” or architecture that “speaks” about its function and purpose through ornamental symbolism and aims to
moves the viewer emotionally (Claude-Nicholas Ledoux’s Architecture Considered in Relation to Art, Morals and
Legislation, 1804); introduced the aesthetic category of the sublime--with attributes of obscurity, power, vastness
and infinity--found in nature but able to be contrived in architecture (Edmund Burke’s A Philosophical Inquiry into
the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful, 1757)
Arch 207                                                                                                               33

Architectural Characteristics
• elements drawn directly from Greek and/or Roman vocabularies : Greek Doric columns, Roman domes, vaulting,
apsidal niches
• visual simplification : (a) elemental shapes in volumes, plan forms, details (hemispherical domes, semicircular
niches, rectilinear edges); (b) restrained use of decoration; (c) continuity (blank wall surfaces, uninterrupted rows of
columns and windows); (d) simple contrasts (column/wall, coffered/smooth surfaces)
• general spirit: ”noble, simple, tranquil” : qualities believed to be Classical and indicative of Enlightenment desire
to control passions with reason
• rational theories (e.g., Laugier): that building forms can be derived directly from principles, mainly structural (e.g.,
Soufflot): columns used only for support with proportions determined structurally, rather than aesthetically;
elimination of pilasters because they are only decorative
• innovative rather than traditional combinations and composition
• formal simplicity taken to the extreme: unadorned, absolutely pure geometric shapes
• systematic symbolism (”architecture parlante”): (a) of building functions; (b) of architectural character through
imagery, dramatically large scale, lighting
• visionary and utopian Classical designs emphasizing the sublime, primal, tragic
• building designs meant to contribute to revolutionary social programs

Important Buildings & Artifacts (* indicates required work)

* Jacques-Germain Soufflot, Church of Ste-Geneviève (now the Le Panthéon), Paris, 1755-92
      (Stokstad: 26-40, 26-41)
* Claude-Nicholas Ledoux, Town of Chaux, project, 1790-1804 [Stokstad: 26-42]
  Claude-Nicholas Ledoux, Les Barrières, Paris, 1784-89
  Etienne Louis Boullée, Royal Library, project, 1784
* Etienne Louis Boullée, Cenotaph for Sir Isaac Newton, project, 1784 [Stokstad: 26-43]
* Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii, 1784 (Stokstad, 26-48)
  Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Marat, 1793 (Stokstad, 26-49)
  Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Altes Museum, Berlin, 1822-30 (Stokstad, 27-30) [Curtis # 3]
  Lord Burlington, Chiswick House, England, 1724-29 (Stokstad: 26.22, 26-23)
  John Soane, Bank of England, London, 1791-1833
  Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1770-84; 1796-1806 (Stokstad: 26-54)
  Thomas Jefferson, University of Virginia, Lawn and Rotunda, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1817-22
  Thomas Jefferson, Virginia State Capitol, Richmond, 1785-89
  William Thornton, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Charles Bulfinch, Thomas U. Walter, U.S. Capitol,
          Washington, c. 1793-1867 (Stokstad, 27-28, 27-29)

Braham, Allan. The Architecture of the French Enlightenment. Berkeley, 1980.
Bergdoll, Barry. European Architecture 1750-1890. Oxford, 2000.
Middleton, Robin and David Watkin. Neoclassical and Nineteenth Century Architecture. New York, 1980.
Pierson, William. American Buildings and Their Architects: The Colonial and Neo-Classical Styles. Garden City,
Vidler, Anthony. Claude-Nicholas Ledoux: Architecture and Social Reform at the End of the Ancient Régime.
Cambridge, 1990.
Stroud, Dorothy. The Architecture of Sir John Soane. London, 1984.
Summerson, John. Architecture in Britain, 1530-1830. Baltimore, 1963.
Watkin, David and Tilmann Melinghoff. German Architecture and the Classical Ideal. Cambridge, 1986.
Arch 207                                                                                                               34


In formal terms, architecture in the 19th century was characterized by a diversity of styles and, in particular, a contest
between advocates of classical design and proponents of gothic architecture – a debate often referred to as the
―battle of the styles.‖ Last week we examined the origins/emergence of one side of the battle: Neo-classicism. This
week we will consider the other side, the Gothic Revival and its subsequent stylistic manifestation, High Victorian
Gothic. While it is convenient to think of this debate in terms of formal differences alone, the actual situation was
more complicated, having less to do with strict definitions of style, than with aesthetic theories and cultural

The Picturesque: a movement originating in England in the 18 th century which comprised a visual aesthetic and a
theory about the nature of visual experiences; first taken up in the design of gardens, landscapes, and finally
architecture; its aesthetic principles of asymmetry and irregularity were in basic opposition to those of the
Renaissance (symmetry and consistency); inspired by compositions seen in landscape paintings (hence the term
”Picturesque”) and reinforced by the persistence of late Gothic architecture in England; the movement contributed to
the end of the Renaissance (as had Neoclassicism) by introducing an alternative style, the Gothic, and by suggesting
that by virtue of an associational response, any style can be found meaningful (be it classically-derived or
medieval/gothic). Associationism, the heart of Picturesque theory; an extension of Locke’s sensationalism,
expounded by British empiricist philosophers; argued that physical objects prompt chains of associated ideas in
mind of the observer, including emotional, literary and historical associations; held that architectural meanings are
triggered by such associations, as if mechanically, by building appearances—a diversity of styles is thus encouraged
by architects attempting to generate a wide range of meanings, e.g., meanings evoked by the sight of a Gothic
building might be thoughts about the circumstances and values of medieval life

Picturesque architectural characteristics:
• irregular forms : in buildings (informal corridors, asymmetrical elevations and massing); in landscape
    (meandering paths, loosely clumped plantings)
• variety of elements : in buildings (different room shapes)
• variety of experience : unfolding views, spaces; surprise; for the sublime, gloom, mystery
• response to context : site conditions (topography views, regional character); interior functional needs (volumes
    such as towers, bays); in landscape (plant forms)
• introduction of Gothic style in houses but not necessarily interested in archeological accurateness

The Gothic Revival reflected two essential features of 19th-century architecture: historicism, or the practice of
reviving styles from the past; eclecticism, or the use of a variety of styles and/or the combination of decorative
elements from more than one style. Today we will focus upon the Gothic Revival in England, and certain design
echoes in America. In general, however, 19th-century architects felt free to borrow form and ideas from many
different cultures, both Western and non-Western, and from every major period in the past. In England, Gothic
designs were first used rather playfully in the second half of 18th century, they were intended to evoke literary
associations and were often used as follies in picturesque garden schemes; early use in gardens related to later idea
that the character of natural settings should inform architectural designs (a gentle setting, predominantly horizontal
might suggest an Italian villa; an irregular site in the woods, vertical in spirit, a Gothic cottage, etc.) and the
publication of numerous domestic architecture pattern books (e.g. John Claudius Loudon’s Encyclopaedia of
Cottage, Farm and Villa Architecture, 1833). By turn of the century, increasing scholarly interest in Gothic
buildings, too; prompted by nationalism and informed by antiquarianism; archeologists sought to categorize its
formal periods and to identify its national origin; debates arose regarding whether it was the ―national style‖ of
France, England or Germany (Thomas Rickman’s Attempt to Discriminate the Styles in English Architecture, 1819).
As the century progresses, the style begins to be widely used again for churches; Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin
argued that it is the only ―proper‖ style for Christian churches (Contrasts, 1836; True Principles of Pointed or
Christian Architecture, 1841); Anglican reformers known as the Ecclesiologists hoped ―correctly‖ restored and/or
newly designed and furnished Gothic churches will help strengthen the Church of England. By mid-century,
architects and theorists start to consider the ―development‖ of the Gothic style, or its formal evolution and
Arch 207                                                                                                            35

progressive adaptation to meet modern needs; and its use for a variety of building types, not just churches; as part of
this quest, new design features such as polychrome, horizontal banding and brick are borrowed from European
Gothic examples – this creative blend of eclectic elements is often referred to as High Victorian Gothic;
concurrently, John Ruskin promoted other ―virtues‖ of Gothic design (especially that of Northern Italy), including
its ―truth‖ to nature, honesty of construction, and expression of hand-craftsmanship (The Seven Lamps of
Architecture, 1849; The Stones of Venice, 1851-53). Ruskin’s notion of truth to nature originated in his theories on
modern painting and his defense of the Romantic painter Joseph Mallord William Turner – Romanticism is a term
used to describe the a late 18th and early 19th-century emphasis upon free artistic expression, love of nature, and
intense emotional experience in the arts; not a style but an attitude of mind, a sensibility. Ruskin’s attention to the
role of the craftsman in Gothic construction laid the foundation for the English Arts and Crafts movement of the late
19th century, a topic that will be discussed in the last lecture of this course.

Important Buildings & Paintings (* indicates required work)

    Henry Hoare and Capability Brown, Garden of Stourhead, England, 1741 [Stokstad, 26-24]
    Capability Brown, Weston Park, England, c. 1750
*   Horace Walpole, Strawberry Hill, near London, begun 1748 [Stokstad 26-26, 26-27]
    James Wyatt, Fonthill Abbey, Wiltshire, England, 1796
    John Claudius Loudon, plates from Encyclopedia of Cottage, Farm and Villa Architecture, 1833
    Andrew Jackson Downing, plates from A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening,
       Adapted to North America, 1841
    Alexander Jackson Davis, Villa of Lyndhurst, Tarrytown, NY, 1838-65
    J.W.M. Turner, The Fighting Temeraire, 1838 [Stokstad 27-20]
    J.W.M. Turner, Stormy Sea Breaking in a Shore, 1840-45
*   Charles Barry & A.W.N. Pugin, Houses of Parliament, London, 1836-60 [Stokstad 27-31]
    A.W.N. Pugin, own house, St. Marie’s Grange, England, 1835
    A.W.N. Pugin, Church of St. Giles, Cheadle, England, 1840-6
*   Richard Upjohn, Trinity Church, New York City, 1839-46 [Stokstad, 27-32]
    William Butterfield, All Saints Margaret Street, London, 1849-59
*   Deane and Woodward, University Museum, Oxford, England, 1853-60
    George Gilbert Scott, St. Pancras Station, London, 1868-74
    Peter Bonnet Wight, National Academy of Design, New York, 1861-65
    Frank Furness, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 1873

Atterbury, Paul and Clive Wainwright. Pugin: A Gothic Passion. New Haven, 1994.
Clark, Kenneth. The Gothic Revival, 1928; rpt. 1975.
Dixon, Roger and Stefan Muthesius. Victorian Architecture. New York, 1988.
Hersey, George. High Victorian Architecture: A Study in Associationism. Baltimore, 1972.
Pierson, William. American Buildings and Their Architects: Technology and the Picturesque, Garden City, 1970.
Thomas, George E., ed. Frank Furness: The Complete Works, New York: 1996.
Stanton, Phoebe B.. The Gothic Revival and American Church Architecture, An Episode in Taste, 1840-1856,
Baltimore: 1968.
Arch 207                                                                                                              36


The 19th century in the West witnessed a turbulent transition between preindustrial and industrial or modern
civilization. The structure of society was transformed in every respect: representational democracy replaced
monarchy as the form of government; social equality replaced rigid class distinctions as the principle of social
organization; capitalism replaced the feudal system as the basis of the economy; industrialization replaced handicraft
as the means of production, or technology. The effects of these revolutionary changes were compounded both by an
unprecedented explosion in population and by a mass urbanization which saw the uprooting and shifting of large
populations from small villages to unfamiliar burgeoning cities.

The pattern of daily life was now radically altered and materialism and comfort became vitally important.
Materialism reflected the prevalent optimistic belief that machines and mass production would enable goods to
become universally available and affordable (thus alleviating human misery). At times, the reverence for machines
could be almost religious. Materialism and comfort were also important as symbols of personal economic and social
success for the rising middle class. Since this group had become a new influential patron of buildings, its values and
preoccupation with substance, quantity, and variety were evinced in architectural terms throughout the century.

All aspects of visual culture were drastically altered by the rapid progress of industrialization in the middle of the
19th century. In architecture, these changes were reflected in the continued debates over the old styles (classical vs.
medieval revivals) and sensibilities (rationalism vs. romanticism) and, increasingly, the new technologies (iron &
glass, prefabrication). These debates became more fractious due to the radical changes in practice brought about by
industrialization. Rapid technological progress drastically changed the materials and methods with which buildings
were constructed. These included the development of cast iron, glass, the balloon (wood) frame, the steel frame,
reinforced concrete, mechanical lifts (elevators), and the mechanical conditioning of the interior environment
(heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and plumbing). Though some materials and methods were not new, the speed
and scale at which they could now be manufactured, distributed, and utilized was significant and deeply impacted
building culture. Engineers and designers of so-called utilitarian buildings were the first to adopt the new materials
and methods, especially in large-scale constructions such as bridges and exhibition halls. For architects, the new
materials and technologies initially added to the architectural confusion as designers were unsure how to employ the
materials on aesthetic grounds and often employed them in imitation of older materials and styles. Eventually,
critics and theorists began a search for architectural forms that exploited the potential of the new materials without
resorting to stylistic imitation of the past. This search would dominate architectural discourse in the later part of the
19th century.

In particular, the discourse of rationalism was reworked to embrace the realities of the industrial age. Rationalism is
a theory of design based on the premise that architectural forms should be derived from practical rather than
aesthetic considerations, mainly those having to do with structure and function. Rationalism originated in the
Neoclassical period and was associated with Greek and Roman architecture, but by the mid-19th century, many
rationalists had come to believe that Gothic architecture was a purer expression of structural principles. Rationalism
was not an organized movement but simply a set of beliefs shared by a number of architects who practiced
independently, and whose architecture varied; also, some took up rationalist ideas through their writing, while
others employed these ideas in the design of actual buildings. One of the most significant outcomes of rationalists'
thinking was the realization that the 19th century could develop its own architecture, independent of any in the past,
if architects concerned themselves with underlying principles rather than with style—and if they recognized the
potential of the new materials of the industrial age. At mid-century, Henri Labrouste, Eugene Viollet-le-Duc, and
Gottfried Semper were some of the leading voices of rationalism.

Viollet-le-Duc was one of the most influential architectural theorists in the 19th century and had a profound effect
on many important Modern architects such as Antonio Gaudi, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Mies van der Rohe. He
practiced occasionally, in the Gothic style, and was officially responsible in France responsible for the historical
restoration of Gothic cathedrals. The extensive study of Medieval architecture this work required formed the basis
for his theories. Viollet was the most important proponent of structural rationalism which, in his view, had three
main tenets:
Arch 207                                                                                                              37

1.   Structural principles formed the basis of all great architecture in the past; all great architectural forms in other
     words re in essence structural forms. Further, the structural forms themselves depended upon the nature of the
     materials of which they were composed.
2.   19th century architects must use materials which have become widely available in their own age, and must
     develop forms which exploit their structural properties, instead of using the new materials to imitate shapes
     from past styles which had been derived from other materials. Iron, for example, should not be used to replicate
     the pointed structural configuration of Medieval stone arches but should be given its own proper shape.
3.   As such, a new kind of architecture must arise which will be appropriate to the 19th century .

In art, especially painting, similar and perhaps more heated debates were underway which reflected the profound
changes that industrialization was bringing to society. These changes, which included the concentration of capital in
the hands of the bourgeoisie, burgeoning urbanization and overcrowding in the cities, worker unrest and
dissatisfaction with established institutions, eventually erupted in a series of political revolutions and uprisings that
swept across Europe at mid-century (1848 in Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Rome--the same year Karl Marx and Friedrich
Engels publish The Communist Manifesto).

In art, the emergence of a movement known as Realism parallels these social and political changes. The Realist
painters rejected (or were rejected by) the art academies and the normal channels for displaying and selling their
work. They were not interested in history and its depiction but rather in contemporary events, especially those in
which the had participated or witnessed. They rejected the action and emotion of both Neoclassicism and
Romanticism in favor of sober depictions of quiet and everyday events, especially those concerning the working
classes with whom the Realist painters sympathized. When dramatic events were depicted, the Realists favored a
factual clarity that spared no aspect of actual existence, however unpleasant.

Along side Realist painting, photography emerged in the 1840s as a direct by-product of the industrial era (the
processing of chemicals, mechanical reproduction, increased availability of camera equipment). Though often used
in a ―painterly‖ manner to produce works that purposefully resembled academic art (staged historical or
allegorical/mythological scenes), it was the camera’s potential to capture reality in all its detail and with factual
precision that made it an important realist medium. Traditional painters balked that photography as an art, declaring
it a science or, at best, a documentary tool, but its widespread popular appeal, especially for portraits and travel
photos, guaranteed its acceptance as an art form for the industrial age.

Photography became increasingly important as a means of reporting contemporary events such as wars, natural
disasters, public ceremonies, and international expos. It was especially useful for documenting the rapid changes to
the urban fabric then underway, and many builders and planners began to use photography to record the progress of
their work. The photographic record of the so-called Haussmannization of Paris is a case in point.

Beginning in the mid 1700s and accelerating through the 1800s, the industrial revolution (and the associated
urbanization) was to have an impact on all areas of human experience: politics, economics, social structures, public
life, family structure, the arts, and architecture. The industrial revolution effected architecture in three ways:

1. Changes in building types through changes in the society. The factory is the most obvious
2. Changes in esthetics, particularly through changes in individual perception.
3. Changes in the materials and methods with which buildings are constructed. This is the most
              direct (although not necessarily the most important) effect of industrialization,
              and the subject of this lecture.
Arch 207                                                                                                             38

Architectural Concepts and Important Buildings & Artifacts
Items preceded by an asterisk (*) will be emphasized on quizzes and final

This lecture is concerned with the introduction of six major new materials, methods of construction, or
technologies. They are 1.) cast iron, 2.) glass, 3.) steel frame, 4.) reinforced concrete, 5.) balloon frame wood
construction, and 6.) mechanical conditioning of the interior environment (heating, ventilating, air conditioning,
and plumbing).

Cast iron made it possible for columns and other members to be far thinner and lighter than they had been in stone.
First used for bridges (sometimes imitating stone construction) and later in various building types, including
factories, department stores, and most notably exhibition halls. When combined with glass, iron made possible
large, light, transparent and airy spaces. The
pre-cast iron elements also led to repetitive, modular construction.

  Royal Pavilion at Brighton, John Nash, England. 1815
  Design for Factory, James Bogardus, United States. 1856
  Biblioteque Ste-Genevieve, Henri Labrouste, Paris, France. 1843-50 [Curtis # 17]
* Crystal Palace, Joseph Paxton, London, England. 1851 [Stokstad 27-38] [Curtis p 20, # 14, 18]
  Eiffel Tower, G. Eiffel, Paris, Fance. 1889 [Stokstad, p 940] [Curtis # 15]
  Viollet-le-Duc, Project for a Concert Hall in Iron, 1872 [Curtis # 4]
  Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve, Paris, France, 1843-50

While glass had been available for centuries, in the mid 1800s it became possible to manufacture large sheets of it
in large quantities. The Crystal Palace, 1851, is the most important example of the use of glass during this period.

The steel frame is perhaps the most influential technological development in modern architecture, leading to the
skyscraper which dominates the world today.

  Home Insurance Company, William Le Baron Jenny, Chicago, 1883-85 (First modern
        skyscraper, although still in iron.)
  The Fair Buidling, William Le Barron Jenny, Chicago, 1891. Steel frame. [Curtis # 23]
  Reliance Building, Burnham and Company, 1894, Chicago. [Curtis # 31]
* Wainwright Building, Louis Sullivan, St. Louis, Missouri. 1890-91 [Stokstad, 27-103] [Curtis # 32]

Concrete had been used by the ancient Romans, and was rediscovered in 1774 by John Smeaton in constructing the
Eddystone Lighthouse. Concrete reinforced with iron (ferroconcrete) works in tension as well as compression.
The first example is 1868.

  Trabeated system for reinforced concrete, Francois Hennebique, 1892 [Curtis # 67]
* Perret flats, 25 A Rue Franklin, Auguste Perret, Paris, 1903 [Curtis # 70, 71, 72, 73]
  Project for an Industrial City, Tony Garnier, 1901-04 [Curtis # 78, 79]
  Concrete Bridge, Robert Maillart, Tavanasa, Switzerland 1905

Balloon frame is a general term which includes Western platform frame, etc. Developed in the mid 1800's, it
replaces a few heavy timbers with many light members. It has been very important in the development of the
single family house.

  St. Mary's Church, Chicago, 1833. First balloon frame building.
Arch 207                                                                                                         39


 Edouard Manet, Dejeuner sur l’Herbe, 1863 [Stokstad 27-57]
 John Roebling, Brooklyn Bridge, New York City, 1867-83 [Stokstad 27-39] [Curtis p 72, # 66]


Billington, David. The Tower and the Bridge. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
Clarke, T.J. The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the Art of Manet and His Followers. Princeton, 1986.
Frampton, Kenneth. Studies in Tectonic Culture. Cambridge, 1995.
Fried, Michael. Corbet’s Realism. Chicago, 1990.
Giedion, Sigfried. Space, Time, Architecture. Cambridge, 1941 (various reprints).
Hearn, M.F., ed. The Architectural Theory of Viollet-le-Duc: Readings and Commentary. Cambridge: MIT Press,
Johns, Elizabeth. Thomas Eakins: The Heroism of Modern Life. Princeton, 1980.
Levine, Neil. ―The Romantic Idea of Architectural Legibility: Henri Labrouste and the Neo-Grec‖ in Arthur Drexler,
The Architecture of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. New York: 1977.
Moffett, Charles S. The New Painting: Impressionism 1874-1886. Washington, 1986.
Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography. New York, 1982.
Pevsner, Nikolaus. A History of Building Types. Princeton, 1976.
Semper, Gottfried. The Four Elements of Architecture and Other Writings. Trans. Cambridge, 1989.
Arch 207                                                                                                           40

WEEK 11           THE BEAUX ARTS

Historical Context
The term Beaux-Arts means, meaning literally the beautiful arts, refers to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, a French
national school established after the Revolution (but descending from schools established by Louis XIV) and
reorganized by Napoleon. Architecture was taught at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts from 1819 until the student revolts
of 1968. During the 19th century the Ecole enjoyed a reputation as the world’s finest school of architecture,
attracting students from around the world. Significantly, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts was not the only state school
offering courses in architecture. The Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole des Ponts-et-Chaussées both provided
architectural training but with a focus on engineering and civil construction. By contrast, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts
stressed the study of architecture as a fine art with a strong emphasis on the classical tradition.

Education at the Ecole, which was tuition-free, was highly organized and progressive, though it was not terminal in
any strict sense and a diploma was not awarded until 1867. Students could stay on at the Ecole for any number of
years working toward the ultimate goal--winning the prestigious competition for the Grand Prix de Rome which
enabled the student to travel to Rome for further study. The curriculum was divided between theory and practice.
Theory, which included such subjects as architectural history, archaeology, principles of construction and materials,
and aesthetics, took place in the lecture hall. Practice took place in the atelier which, for many students, was the
center of learning. Ateliers were studios of varying sizes (as many as 30 students) which were directed by
professors of the Ecole or independent architects of distinction. During a given course, the students worked on
programs established by the Ecole. There were three general categories of programs--public buildings, ecclesiastical
buildings, private buildings--with such specific topics as baths, schools, monuments, and even stores (but never
factories or industrial buildings).

Students used a rationalist approach to these programs, proceeding from a belief in reason and beauty derived from
harmony and proportion. Initial design work began with a sketch that attempted to distinguish significant program
elements and to establish the parti or scheme of organization. Once the parti was established, students worked out
the composition and produced large-scale plans, sections, and elevations. In completed designs the emphasis was on
legible massing, formal planning, axial symmetry, and monumentality with a strong graphic sense of marché
(movement from street to interior) and poché (thickness of the wall). As a style, Beaux-arts architecture is
characterized by its rich and creative use of classicism and the classical orders, including Roman, Renaissance, and
Baroque architectural precedents.

In the last quarter of the 19th century many American students went to Paris to study architecture at the Ecole,
Richard Morris Hunt and Henry Hobson Richardson among them. These students brought back not only an
enthusiasm for the style of architecture promoted at the Ecole, but also an understanding of its rational basis as a
compositional and programmatic tool that could be readily adapted to meet the architectural needs of expanding
urban centers. The Ecole also became a model for the establishment of professional standards and professional
schools of architecture in the United States. The architecture schools at MIT, Columbia, and the University of
Pennsylvania were all based on principles of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In the United States, Beaux-Arts
architecture is especially associated with the so-called American Renaissance (1877-1917) when the 100-year old
country was seen to be entering a period of cultural maturity and was capable of fostering a resurgence of the arts
comparable to that of Renaissance Italy. Many of the nation’s art museums, university campuses, libraries and other
civic institutions date to this period. In this context, the American Renaissance and Beaux-Arts architecture cannot
be separated from the economic prosperity which made it possible. By 1900 vast amounts a capital, accumulated in
such industries as oil, railroads, and land speculation, were concentrated in the hands of a few wealthy families (the
so-called Robber Barons) who became patrons of the new institutions and the architects who designed them.

After the rise of modernism and the International Style, the term Beaux-Arts, which is often used interchangeably
with the term academic, was considered negative in connection to architecture, wrongly implying a type of
architecture that was retrogressive and old-fashioned. This dominant, though distorted view of Beaux-Arts
architecture was begun to be corrected in the 1970s when a major exhibition of Beaux-Arts architecture appeared at
Arch 207                                                                                                               41

the Museum of Modern Art. Today, we understand this architecture as rigorously rational, programmatically
complex, and fully engaged with problems of institutional representation in the modern city.

Baron Georges Eugène Haussmann is largely responsible for the form of the city of Paris as we know it today.
From 1853 until 1868, Haussmann served as Prefect of the Seine in the direct employ of Emperor Napoleon III who
was determined to recreate the city as a triumphant imperial capitol reflecting the wealth and power of the industrial
bourgeoisie who had supported his rise to power--at the expense of the working poor. Haussmann undertook public
works on a grand scale, destroying much of the medieval urban fabric and remaking the city through construction of
a massive boulevard system which transformed the spatial and social patterns of Paris. Linking these new
thoroughfares were a related series of public monuments (some new, some already existing), such as Charles
Garnier’s Opera House and Chalgrin’s Arc de Triomphe, which provided focal points for the expansive vistas
Haussmann was opening up. His goal was to promote ease of circulation for people, goods, and the police; to
promote health through the introduction of light, air, drainage, and greenery; and to choreography the social
interactions of modern life.

The social and spatial realities of Haussmann’s Paris had a direct influence on a generation of artists who emerged in
the 1870s and were known as the Impressionists. The Impressionists found in modern Paris a new and vital subject
for their work. Departing from the sober chronicles of the Realists, the Impressionists were inspired by the spectacle
of the city: its boulevards, cafes, parks, and theaters. These they sought to record not with factual accuracy of
depiction, but as visual ―impressions‖ which indicated the effect of light, air, and physical movement through rapid
daubs of paint, intense use of color, and hazy transcription of form. Seemingly undisturbed by the political realities
of the modern industrial metropolis (worker discontent, class inequity), the Impressionists ―documented‖ daily life
as a continual record of bourgeois leisure which included the demi-monde and industry, but only as encountered by
the apparently prosperous middle classes. Aesthetically, the Impressionists grew out of the radical, non-academic
tradition of the Realists, but, in their departure from the literal transcription of visual reality led the way toward the
modernism of the early 20th century.

Important Buildings
* Henri Labrouste, Biblioteque Ste-Genevieve, Paris, 1843-50 (Stokstad, 27-40)
* Charles Garnier, Opera House, Paris, 1861-74 (Stokstad, 27-41, 27-42)) [Curtis # 8]
  Richard Morris Hunt, Biltmore (G.W. Vanderbilt estate), North Carolina, 1888-95 (Stokstad, 28-55)
  Richard Morris Hunt, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, 1895-1902
* Daniel Burnham, et al, World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893 (Stokstad 27-101) [Curtis # 36]
        Richard Morris Hunt, Court of Honor
        McKim, Mead & White, Agriculture Building Building
        Louis Sullivan, Transportation Building
  Daniel Burnham, Plan of Improvement for Chicago, 1909
  Reed & Stern, Warren & Wetmore, Grand Central Station, New York City, 1903-13
  McKim, Mead & White, Pennsylvania Station, New York City, 1906-10
* McKim, Mead & White, Boston Public Library, Boston, 1887-92

The American Renaissance: 1876-1917. New York, 1979.
Draper, Joan. ―The Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the Architectural Profession in the United States.‖ In The Architect.
Ed. Spiro Kostoff. New York, 1977.
Drexler, Arthur, ed. The Architecture of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. New York, 1977.
Jordy, William H. Progressive and Academic Ideals at the Turn of the 20th Century. American Buildings and Their
Architects, Volume 4. Oxford, 1972. (especially Chapter 7)
Middleton, Robin. The Beaux-Arts and Nineteenth Century French Architecture. London, 1982.
Stern, Robert A.M., et al. New York 1900: Metropolitain Architecture and Urbanism, 1890-1915. New York, 1983.
Arch 207                                                                                                             42


Historical Context

In the late 19th century, the city of Chicago was the commercial and industrial center of the midwest of the United
States, second only to New York City in its economic importance. Established as a military outpost (on the western
frontier) in 1812, Chicago was incorporated as a town in 1833 an event which signaled the first of many cycles of
land speculation and building booms. Situated on the swampy banks of the stream-like Chicago River and lake
Michigan’s western shore, and linked by direct waterway to the economically-important Missouri River, Chicago
was ideally situated to become a transportation hub (by canal & railway) as the United States expanded westward.
Known as ―the golden funnel,‖ Chicago received agricultural products from the farmlands of the west and shipped
them to eastern markets. Eventually, it also became the nation’s foremost center of meat-processing, further
powering the city’s economic engine and contributing to Chicago’s rapid development. By 1870 the city’s
population was nearly 300,000.

Chicago’s rise to architectural importance was due, at least according to the mythology of modernism, to the Great
Fire of 1871, a conflagration which raged for 36 hours and destroyed 1/3 of the city fabric, including nearly 18,000
structures, many of them in the downtown district known as the Loop, the heart of Chicago’s economic and cultural
life. As a result of the fire, nonmasonry construction was banned and city-use patterns were drastically altered,
especially downtown which saw the complete cessation of residential occupancy as the Loop was rebuilt with
increasing density and purposeful centralization during the late 1870s and 1880s. Another development spurt was
underway and by 1890 the city’s population reached one million.

The centralization of downtown Chicago required special buildings to accommodate the thousands of people drawn
to the city’s commercial heart during the working day. The demands of this concentration of people and activities,
combined with land costs and esclating real estate values, eventually pushed buildings higher. However, this would
not have been possible without a rapid succession of technological developments. Advances in foundation
engineering and metal frame construction, reliable lighting systems (gas and electric), improvements in steam
heating and fire-proofing, and fast, safer elevators made the tall building--the skyscraper--a reality.

The ―Chicago School‖ was not a school in any organized sense, but rather refers to the group of architects practicing
in and around Chicago from the time of the fire until the turn of the century responsible for defining the tall building
from a technical and, especially, an aesthetic standpoint. In their work, the metal frame was used not only to realize
a new building type, the skyscraper, but also to create a new architectural idiom. In particular, Chicago School
architecture is characterized by the way in which aesthetic expression is derived from the structural or tectonic
reality of the metal frame. Though this expression could produce buildings of austere simplicity (which seemed to
portend the modernism of the early 20th century), it did not necessarily imply the exclusion of ornament or
historicizing veneers.
Arch 207                                                                                                         43

Important Buildings (* indicates required work)

  Henry Hobson Richardson, Trinity Church, Boston, 1873-77
  Henry Hobson Richardson, Crane Memorial Library, Quincy, MA, 1880-83
  Henry Hobson Richardson, Allegheny County Courthouse, Pittsburgh, PA, 1883-6
* Henry Hobson Richards, Marshall Field Warehouse, Chicago, 1885-87 [Stokstad 27-102]
  William Le Baron Jenney, Leiter Building, Chicago, 1879
  William Le Baron Jenney, Home Insurance Building, Chicago, 1883
* William LeBaron Jenney, Steel frame from Fair Store, Chicago, 1891
  Daniel Burnham & John W. Root, Monadnock Building, Chicago, 1889-91
  Daniel Burnham & Co. (Charles Atwood, designer), Reliance Building, Chicago, 1895
  Daniel Burnham & Co., Flatiron Building, New York City, 1902
  Dankmar Adler & Louis Sullivan, Auditorium Building, Chicago, 1887-9
* Louis Sullivan, Wainwright Building, St. Louis, MO, 1890-91 [Stokstad 27-103]
  Louis Sullivan, Prudential/Guaranty Building, Buffalo, NY, 1894-5
  Louis Sullivan, Carson, Pirie Scott Store, Chicago, 1899; 1903-4

Bletter, Rosemarie. ―The Invention of the Skyscraper.‖ Assemblage 2 1987): 110-17.
Bluestone, Daniel. Constructing Chicago. New Haven: 1991.
Condit, Carl. The Chicago School of Architecture. Chicago: 1964 (and later editions).
de Wit, Wim, ed. Louis Sullivan: The Function of Ornament. New York: 1986.
Jordy, William H. Progressive and Academic Ideals at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. American Buildings and
          Their Architects, Volume 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Rowe, Colin. ―The Chicago Frame‖ in Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays. Cambridge: 1982.
Willis, Carole. Form Follows Finance: Skyscrapers & Skylines in New York & Chicago. Princeton: 1995.
Zukowsky, John, ed. Chicago Architecture: Birth of a Metropolis, 1872-1922. Munich & Chicago: 1987.
Arch 207                                                                                                             44


Historical Context
The rise of industrialization in the late 18th century caused a radical transformation of material conditions in the
west. Initially, these transformations (including mass-production, factory work, and burgeoning urbanization) were
regarded as progressive in terms of long-term social benefit, since it was believed that they would eventually have a
positive effect on society. However, by early in the 19th century, the down-side of industrialization was already
becoming apparent. Factory work was brutal and dehumanizing; factory conditions were intolerable, if not outright
dangerous; factory towns were overcrowded and polluted; and factory workers (including many children) were ill-
paid and ill-housed. Far from reaping the benefits of industrial capitalism, poverty-stricken workers formed a new,
but rapidly growing industrial underclass. By mid-century, social critics began to demonstrate the ills of industrial
capitalism and to document the dire living conditions of the working poor. Friedrich Engles ―The Condition of the
Working Class in England‖ (1844) is a notable example.

In response to such critiques, there arose social reform movements which were morally committed to societal
betterment and which attempted to mediate the debilitating impact of industrialization. Progressive manufacturers
tried to improve the physical and economic conditions of laborers through model factories, through profit-sharing
plans, by providing decent housing and recreational areas; visionary planners tried to institute new utopian
communities; political reformers tried to develop new political systems, such as socialism, which would provide a
more equal distribution of wealth and power. Some reformers focused on the effects of industrialization; others on
its root causes. Militant examples of the latter include the Luddites (1811), who rebelled against the tyranny of
machine labor by destroying factory equipment.

Growing out of social reform efforts were a number of groups and movements interested in the reform of art and
design. A.W.N. Pugin and John Ruskin were both influential theorists of art and design reform who impacted what
would emerge as the Arts & Crafts movement in England and the United States in the second half of the 19 th century
and the early 20th century. In particular, their work influenced the theorist and designer regarded as the guiding light
of Arts & Crafts--William Morris.

Arts & Crafts
William Morris (1834-1896) was trained as an architect in the Victorian Gothic tradition, but turned to the applied
arts because he believed that the condition of social life in the 19th century made it impossible to create good
buildings. He became an outstanding designer, famous for his furniture, carpets, and wallpaper, but was influential
as a theorist as well as a craftsman. A founder of the Socialist League in England, Morris was concerned with the
relationship between art and social life and thought the two were inseparable. Morris believed that the fundamental
purpose of art (meaning all designed objects, including architecture) was social and, as such, art had to enhance the
life of its owner and fulfill the life of its maker. For Morris, the quality of art could never rise above the moral
condition of society.
Arch 207                                                                                                             45

Morris sought to reform contemporary art and design as he found it in England at mid-century. In particular, he
argued that the specialization of labor and use of machines in the manufacture of aesthetic objects not only resulted
in bad design, but also deprived artists of satisfaction in their labor. As an alternative, he proposed that handcraft be
revived, as practiced in the Middle Ages. In practice, Morris was willing to use certain mass-production techniques
(such as the handblocking of wallpaper), because they enabled him to produce more affordable products. Morris
also found that craftsmen in capitalist societies destructively competed with each other. As an alternative, he
proposed that medieval-type guilds be re-established, so that designers could work cooperatively in supportive
communal groups in which they would teach and assist one another. Morris also believed that the concept of high or
fine art, that arose in the Renaissance and persisted in the present day, was inherently undemocratic since it was
neither affordable nor comprehensible to the mass public. As an alternative, Morris proposed that greater emphasis
be given to the applied arts or design arts (including architecture) so that the most ordinary object in the most
ordinary household would have an elevated aesthetic quality. In this way, the experience of ―art‖ could be shared by
all humanity, including the working people.

Through a design firm known as Morris & Company, through extensive lectures, and numerous publications,
William Morris influenced several generations of architects and designers in England and the United States. Arts &
Crafts societies sprung up across both countries in the 1880s and 1890s. Though Morris’ program of social reform
was often a starting point, his followers usually faced the same inherent problem which had caused Morris himself
to become disillusioned: in the age of the machine, handcrafted products were simply too expensive, meaning that
the good design Morris championed for all people was, too often, only available to the bourgeoisie. While this did
not negate its aesthetic value, the social program of arts & crafts was often forgotten.

Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau is usually regarded as a form of decoration utilized in architecture and design. The term, meaning
literally ―new art,‖ can be applied to a variety of buildings and objects produced in many European countries at the
turn of the century, though it went by different names and had different characteristics in each place (Jugendstil,
Stile Liberty, Secessionstil). Art Nouveau designers practiced in France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Spain, Italy,
and in the United States as well. Art Nouveau enjoyed a period of intense popularity among the European elite
beginning around 1890, but the movement was exhausted by 1910. It was inspired in part by late 19 th century
artistic movements (including Post-Impressionism and Symbolism) and aesthetic theories and was influenced by the
arts & crafts movement, though without the moral underpinning and interest in social reform.

Art Nouveau constituted a stylistic transition between 19 th century historical eclecticism and 20th century
modernism. Though it is not free of historical associations, it draws upon diverse traditions including ―exotic‖ high
styles (such as Japanese architecture) and rediscovered vernaculars (such as Celtic art). Its forms and ornamental
language are also derived in large measure from nature and the organic world. Images of living things such as
plants, vines, flowing hair, and insects and natural phenomenon such as sea waves and flames were meant to evoke
energy and animation and to reflect the dynamism of the turn-of-the-century. Because these references were
unusual and largely unfamiliar, Art Nouveau imagery was regarded as new, free, and youthful but its designers and
patrons. By its critics, including the early modernists, Art Nouveau was regarded as decadent because of its
ephemerality and luxuriousness.

Art Nouveau designers advocated the complete integration of the designed environment; ideally, every feature of the
building and its setting—exterior, interior, furniture, fixtures, furnishings, even the clothing of the occupants—
would be designed within a visually consistent, highly individualized and customized architectural aesthetic. Art
Nouveau design is characterized by its stylized ornamental forms and two-dimensionality. Surfaces often possess a
graphic linearity (either undulating or rectilinear). Though the emphasis is on hand-craft and custom work (as
opposed to mass production), new materials and technologies are employed for aesthetic and symbolic purposes.
Certain aspects of Art Nouveau architectural forms can be traced to the structural rationalism of Viollet-le-Duc and
Auguste Choisy.
Arch 207                                                                                                          46

Important Buildings & Designs (* indicates required work; other works may be discussed in lecture)

* Philip Webb & William Morris, The Red House, Kent, England, 1859 [Curtis # 83, 84]
  Philip Webb, Standen, Sussex, England, 1892-4
  Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Beata Beatrix, 1860-70
  Norman Shaw, Cragside, Northumberland, England, 1870-85
  Charles Francis Annesley (C.F.A.) Voysey, Perrycroft, near Malvern, England, 1893
  C.F.A. Voysey, Broadleys, Lake Windermere, Lancashire, England, 1898
  C.F.A. Voysey, The Homestead, Essex, England, 1905-06
  Greene and Greene, Gamble House, Pasadena, California, 1908 [Curtis # 93, 94, p 86 s]
  James McNeil Whistler, Nocturne in Blue and Silver, 1872
  James McNeil Whistler, Peacock Room for the Frederic Leyland House, London 1876
  E.W. Godwin, White House, London, 1877-9
  Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Hill House, Helensburgh, Scotland, 1903
* Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Glasgow School of Art, Glasgow, Scotland 1907-09 [Curtis # 37]
  Hector Guimard, Metro station entrances, Paris, c. 1900 [Curtis # 43]
  Hector Guimard, Castel Henriette, Paris, 1899
* Victor Horta, Hôtel Tassel, Brussels, Belgium, 1892-93 [Stokstad, 27-83] [Curtis # 40]
  Victor Horta, own house, Brussels, Belgium, 1898-1900
  Joesph Hoffman, Palais Stoclet, Brussels, Belgium, 1905-11
  Joseph Maria Olbrich, Secession Building, Vienna, Austria, 1898-99
  Gustav Klimt, Pallas Athene, 1898
  Antoni Gaudi, Guell Park, Barcelona, Spain, 1900-14
* Antoni Gaudi, Casa Mila, Barcelona, 1905-07 [Stokstad 28-2] [Curtis # 51]
  Antoni Gaudi, Sagrada Familia, [Curtis # 48]


Cumming, Elizabeth and Wendy Kaplan. The Arts and Crafts Movement. London: 1991.
Davey, Peter. Architecture of the Arts and Crafts Movement. New York: 1980.
Greenhalgh, Peter, ed. Art Nouveau 1890-1914, New York: 2000.
Hitchmough, Wendy. C.F.A. Voysey, London: 1995.
Madsen, Stefan. Sources of Art Nouveau. New York: 1976.
Naylor, Gillian. Arts and Crafts Movement. London: 1971.
Pevsner, Nikolaus. Pioneers of Modern Design. London: 1936 (and subsequent editions)
Russell, Frank, ed. Art Nouveau Architecture. New York: 1986.
Stansky, Peter. Redesigning the World: Morris, the 1880s and Arts and Crafts. Princeton: Princeton University Press,

 [Curtis # xx]