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					CANAVIAIS, AÇÚCAR, ENGENHOS
                                          BIBLIOGRAFIA FUNDAMENTAL




                                                                                    ORGANIZAÇÃO de Alberto Vieira
                                                                                               avieira@avieira.net




Da Papua Nova Guiné à Madeira

Normalmente associa-se o açúcar à cana sacarina. Foi assim durante muito tempo, mas a
partir do século XVIII isto deixou de ser assim com a possibilidade de fabrico do mesmo a
partir da beterraba. Já em 1575 François Olivier de Serres (1539-1619) em "Theatre dell'A-
griculture" referia a possibilidade de extrair açúcar a partir da beterraba, mas só em1745
Frederico O Grande da Prússia ordenou aos químicos que investigassem a forma de retirar
sacarose.

Em 1747 o Barão Andreas Sigismond Marggraf [1709- 1782], da Academia de Ciências de
Berlim, confirmou que o açúcar existente na Beterraba era igual ao da cana sacarina. E em
1786 Carl Franz Achard a partir de um estudo sistemático sobre a beterraba e montou a
primeira fábrica de açúcar de beterraba. A partir daqui a beterraba avança na batalha para
suplantar o açúcar o que irá conseguir a partir de 1880. Foi o colapso do mercado do mer-
cado açucareiro que só as duas guerras mundiais do século XX puseram um travão 1.

A beterraba conduziu a inovações na indústria e química do fabrico do açúcar. A nova tec-
nologia usada desintegrou o sistema de fabrico de açúcar. A beterraba conduziu a uma
transformação do sistema de produção de açúcar, com o aparecimento das fábricas e labora-


1
  . Ware, Lewis Sharpe, 1851-Sugar beet seed; a work for farmers, seedsmen, and chemists, containing historical, botanical, and theoreti-
cal data, combined with practical directions for the production of superior sugar beet seed. Chicago, New York [etc.] Orange Judd com-
pany [1898]; Ware, Lewis Sharpe, 1851-The sugar beet: including a history of the beet sugar industry in Europe, varieties of the sugar
beet, examination, soils, tillage, seeds and sowing, yield and cost of cultivation, harvesting, transportation, conservation, feeding qualities
of the beet and of the pulp, etc. Illustrated with ninety engravings. Philadelphia, H.C. Baird & co., 1880; SAILLARD Emile. Betterave et
sucrerie de betterave. Paris J.B. Baillère 618 pages illustrées. Encyclopédie agricole 1913 ; Bridges, Archibald. Sugar beet in France,
Belgium, Holland and Germany, by A. Bridges and R.N. Dixey. Oxford, The Clarendon Press, 1928 La culture de la betterave, législa-
tion, technologie, Cambrai, Imprimerie de ligne, 1900 Palmer, Truman Garrett, Sugar beets in New England and free sugar bill of the
House of Representatives. Letter of Truman G. Palmer... concerning the production in 1837 at Northampton (Mass.) of the first beet
sugar produced in America... Washington: Government printing office, 1912; IDEM, 1858-Sugar beet seed, history and development, 1st
ed.New York, John Wiley & sons, inc.; [etc., etc.] 1918; Palmer, Truman Garrett,Sugar beets in New England and free sugar bill of the
House of Representatives. Letter of Truman G. Palmer... concerning the production in 1837 at Northampton (Mass.) of the first beet
sugar produced in America... Washington: Government printing office, 1912; IDEM-Sugar beet seed, history and development, 1st
ed.New York, John Wiley & sons, inc. [etc., etc.] 1918.
tórios. O sucesso beterraba deveu-se aos métodos avançados em termos tecnológicos e
quimicos.

O açúcar está ainda disponível numa variedade de frutos, mas sem valor industrial, apenas
no sorgo 2 e acer 3 se conhecem algumas tentativas de sucesso no fabrico do açúcar. No
arquipélago fizeram-se algumas tentativas de plantação no Porto Santo e Norte da ilha da
Madeira, mas apenas para fabrico de aguardente.

Até 1858, com as primeiras experiências em Barbados, a reprodução da cana para cultivo
fazia-se apenas pelo caule. A segunda metade do século XIX é o momento de afirmação
das sementes na expansão da cultura e do aparecimento de novas variedades de cana, fruto
da actividade de estações agrícolas experimentais, criadas em Mauritius (1840), Brasil
(1860), Puerto Rico (1872). A cana crioula deu lugar uma variedade, como a otaheiti,
bourbon, … 4

O Açúcar pode muito bem ser considerado uma conquista do mudo islâmico e budista 5, tal
como o pão e o vinho o são do cristianismo. O factor religioso foi fundamental na afirma-
ção e divulgação do produto, daqui resultará a cada vez maior afirmação a partir dos pri-
meiros séculos da nossa era. A cana sacarina (saccharum officinarum) terá sido domestica-
da há cerca de 12.000 anos na Papua (Nova Guiné). Entre 1500 AC e 500 DC a cultura
espalhou-se pela Polinésia e Melanésia, mas foi na Índia que adquiriu maior importância,
expandindo-se entre o século I e VI DC. Foi aí que os europeus tomaram contacto com o
produto e cultura, começando o comercio e depois com o transplante da cultura para os
vales dos rios Tigre e Eufrates. Aqui, os árabes tiveram conhecimento da cultura e levaram-
na consigo para o Egipto, Chipre, Sicília, Marrocos e Valência. Foi no culminar na expan-
são árabe no Ocidente que a Madeira serviu de trampolim da cultura para o Atlântico,
situação que foi o início da fase mais importante da História do açúcar.

O açúcar é, entre todos os produtos que no Ocidente se atribuiu valor comercial, o que foi
alvo de maiores inovações no seu fabrico. Note-se que no caso do fabrico do vinho a tecno-
logia pouco ou nada mudou desde o tempo dos Romanos. Várias condicionantes favorece-
ram a necessidade de permanente actualização, situação que se tornou mais clara no século
XVIII com a concorrência da beterraba. Mesmo assim ainda hoje persistem em alguns
recantos do Mundo, na China, Índia ou Brasil, onde a tecnologia da revolução industrial
ainda não entrou.

2
  . H. S. Olcott, Sorgo and Imphee, the chinese and african sugar canes…, Noa York, 1858; Adrien Sicard, Monographie de la Canne à
Sucre de la Chine dite Sorgho à Sucre. Culture, employs, etudes diverses, Paris, 1861.
3
  . Trelease, William, 1857-1945. The sugar maples, with a winter synopsis of all North American maples. [n.p., 1894], Fox , William F.
(William Freeman), 1840-1909. The maple sugar industry / by William F. Fox and William F. Hubbard; with a discussion of the adul-
terations of maple products. IWashington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Forestry, 1905; Sugar maple ecology and health
proceedings of an international symposium, June 2-4, 1998, Warren, Pennsylvania / edited by Stephen B. Horsley, Robert P. Long ;
sponsored by USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station ... [et al.]. Radnor, PA (5 Radnor Corp Ctr, Suite 200, Radnor 19087-
4585) : The Station, [1999]
4
  . Cf. S. Pruthi, History of Sugar Industry in Índia, N. D. 1995, pp.99-126; W. Kelleher Storey, Science and Power in colonial Mauritius,
Rochester, 1997, pp.5, 45, 71-151; Daniel Bégot, Le Sucre de l’Antiquité à son Destin antillais, Paais, 2000, pp.55, 58, 138; Dillewijn, C.
van. Botany of sugarcane, Waltham, Mass.: Chronica Botanica, 1952; Stubbs, Wm. C. Sugar cane. A treatise on the history, botany and
agriculture of sugar cane...[n.p., n.d.]; Zitkowski, Herman E. The seeding method of graining sugar, by H.E. Zitkowski ... Read at the
tenth annual meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Gorham and Berlin, N.H., June 19-22, 1918. [n.p., 1918]
5
  . Sucheta Mazumbar, Sugar and Society in China, Londres, 1998, pp.21-27; Christian Daniels, Agro-Industries: Sugarcane Technology,
in Joseph Needham, Science & Civilisation in China, vol. VI, part. III, Nova Iorque, 1996, pp-61-62, 278, 192
O fabrico do açúcar está limitado pela situação e ciclo vegetativo da planta. A cana sacarina
tem um período útil de vida em que a percentagem de sacarose era mais elevada. A cana
estava pronta para ser colhida e a partir daqui um dia que passasse era uma perda para o
produto. Acresce que a cana depois de cortada tem pouco mais de 48 horas para ser moída e
cozida, pois caso contrário começa a perder sacarose e inicia o processo de fermentação.
Daqui resulta a necessidade de acelerar o processo de fabrico do açúcar através de constan-
tes inovações tecnológicas que cobrem o processo de corte esmagamento e cozedura. A isto
junta-se o aumento da mão-de-obra, que se faz à custa de escravos africanos. A cana-de-
açúcar não está na origem da escravidão africana mas no processo de afirmação a partir da
Madeira.

Enquanto a cultura se fazia em pequenas parcelas a maior parte das questões não se coloca-
vam, mas quando se avançou para uma produção em larga escala houve necessidade de
encontrar soluções capazes de debelar a situação. A viragem aconteceu a partir de meados
do século XV na Madeira e deverá ter implicado mudanças radicais na tecnologia usada e
na afirmação da escravatura dos indígenas das Canárias e dos negros da Costa da Guiné. É
por isso que se assinala a partir da Madeira importantes inovações tecnológicas no sistema
de moenda da cana com a generalização do sistema de cilindros.

A história Tecnológica evidencia que a expansão europeia condicionou a divulgação de
técnicas e permitiu a invenção de novas que contribuíram para revolucionar a economia
mundial. Os homens que circularam no espaço atlântico foram portadores de uma cultura
tecnológica que divulgaram nos quatro cantos e adaptaram às condições dos espaços de
povoamento agrícola. Aos madeirenses foi atribuída uma missão especial nos primórdios
do processo.

Na Madeira, um dos aspectos mais evidente, da revolução tecnológica iniciada no século
XV prende-se com a capacidade do europeu em adaptar as técnicas de transformação con-
hecidas a circunstâncias e às exigências de culturas e produtos tão exigentes como a cana e
o açúcar. O tributo foi evidente. Ao vinho foi-se buscar a prensa, ao azeite e aos cereais a
mó de pedra. Por outro lado estamos perante uma permuta constante de processos
tecnológicos e formas de aproveitamento das diversas fontes de energia. A tracção animal,
a força motriz do vento e da água foram usadas em simultâneo com os cereais e cana saca-
rina. Por vezes a mesma estrutura assume uma dupla função. Sucedeu assim na Madeira,
com o engenho da Ribeira Brava, hoje Museu Etnográfico, onde a estrutura de aproveita-
mento da força motriz da água servia um engenho de cana e um moinho de cereais6.

 Também no Brasil, em Santa Amaro da Imperatriz, no Resort & Spa Plaza, fomos encon-
trar uma estrutura semelhante partilhada por um moenda de cana e um engenho de mandio-
ca. Sabemos que neste município e vizinhos persistem outras mais estruturas idênticas em
funcionamento, algumas delas usadas também para o arroz e o café. Já nas Antilhas pode-
mos encontrar idêntica partilha com a força motriz do vento para a cana e os cereais.

A dupla funcionalidade dos engenhos revela que no processo de evolução tecnológica
estamos perante um processo de adaptação de fontes de energia e técnicas. A prensa que

6
    . Jorge Valdemar Guerra, O Hospício Franciscano e a Capela de S. José da Ribeira Brava, in Islenha, nº.19, 1996, 61-94.
teve uma presença dominante no fabrico do vinho, acaba também por se associar ao azeite e
depois à cana-de-açúcar. A mó, a conhecida como mó olearia, surgiu no fabrico do açúcar,
mas o mundo açucareiro mediterrânico adaptou-o à cana sacarina, chegando até à Madeira.
Os cilindros começaram por ser usados na laminação de metais e no retirar dos caroços do
algodão, passando depois para a moenda da cana.

Até ao século XVIII torna-se difícil atribuir a paternidade das inovações que acontecem no
fabrico do açúcar. Estamos perante inventores anónimos que apenas se comprazem pelos
benefícios económicos da sua capacidade inventiva. Mas, a partir de então tudo parece ter
mudado. O espírito nacionalista e independentista favoreceram a paternidade dos inventos.
Os Estados Unidos da América foram o principal promotor desta politica e valorização da
capacidade inventiva. As patentes sucedem-se em catadupa e os autores são heróis recebi-
dos triunfalmente pela imprensa. O inventor sai do anonimato e afirma-se como um herói
na imprensa, como alimenta o ego através de memórias descritivas dos inventos 7. É nos
Estados unidos da América que encontramos o maior número de patentes, mas foi na Ingla-
terra e em França que surgiram as grandes fábricas de indústria pesada, especializadas em
equipamentos e na montagem dos engenhos de açúcar 8. As exposições universais da segun-
da metade da centúria oitocentista foram momentos privilegiados de exibição destes inven-
tos.

As mudanças ocorridas a partir de finais do século XVIII, com a plena afirmação da
máquina a vapor, conduziram a uma transformação radical do complexo açucareira que
assume a dimensão espacial de uma fábrica, onde todas as operações se executam em série
apenas numa planta. A revolução industrial legou-nos a fábrica, fez aparecer o laboratório,
uma peça chave no fabrico do açúcar, e obrigou a uma especialização dos técnicos envolvi-
dos. O mestre de engenho dá lugar ao engenheiro químico. Paulatinamente o processo de
transformação da cana sacarina em açúcar retirou espaço à presença de mão-de-obra escra-
vo, fazendo-a substituir por emigrantes europeus, indianos e chineses. Note-se que no
inventário industrial da Madeira de 1907 é assinalado apenas um químico na fábrica do
Torreão, com o salário mais elevado de todos os técnicos. Mesmo superior aos engenheiros
e cozedores, mantendo as demais 43 uma estrutura funcional da época pré-industrial 9.



7
  STEWART, j., A Description of a Machine or Invention to Grind Sugar-canes by the power of a fire Engine, Kingston, 1768; Basset,
Nicholas, 1824- Guide pratique du fabricant de sucre: contenant l'étude théorique et technique des sucres de toute provenance, la sac-
charimétrie chimique et optique, la description et l'étude culturale des plantes saccharifères, les procédés usuels et manufacturiers de
l'industrie sucrière et les moyens d'améliorer les diverses parties de la fabrication, avec de nombreuses figures intercalées dans le texte
Paris: E. Lacroix, 1861. Bessemer, Henry, Sir, 1813-1898. Sir Henry Bessemer, F.R.S. An autobiography. With a concluding chapter.
London, Offices of "Engineering," 1905. Bessemer, Henry, Sir, 1813-1898. On a new system of manufacturing sugar from the cane: and
its advantages as compared with the method generally used in the West Indies: also, some remarks on the best mode of insuring its
general and simultaneous introduction into the British colonies London: Printed by W. Tyler, [1852?]Bessemer, Henry, Sir, 1813-1898.
On a new system of manufacturing sugar from the cane: and its advantages as compared with the method generally used in the West
Indies: also, some remarks on the best mode of insuring its general and simultaneous introduction into the British colonies London:
Printed by W. Tyler, [1852?], BURGH. Nicholas Procter, A Treatise on Sugar Machinery: including the process of producing sugar from
the cane, refining moist and loaf sugar, etc., E. & F. N. Spon: London, 1863. Bühler, Friedrich Adolf, 1869- Filters and filter presses for
the separation of liquids and solids, from the German of F. A. Bühler, with additional matter relating to the theory of filtration and
filtration in sugar factories and refineries, by John Joseph Eastick. London, N. Rodger, 1914. Tromp, Lucas Andreas, 1892- Machinery
and equipment of the sugar cane factory; a textbook on machinery for the cane sugar industry, London, Eng., N. Rodger, 1936.
8
  . Compagnie de Fives-Lille pour constructions Mécaniques et enterprises. Matériel de Sucrerie, Paris, 1878; John a. Heitmann, the
Modernization of the Louisiana Sugar Industry. 1830-1910, Baton Rouge, 1987, p.143
9
  . Victorino José dos Santos, Relatorio dos Serviços da Secção Technicos de Industria no Funchal no anno de 1907, in Boletim do Traba-
lho Industrial, nº.24, 1909, p.19
Até ao advento do açúcar de beterraba em princípios do século XIX a tecnologia de moen-
da e fabrico do açúcar não sofreu muitas modificações. Ao nível da moagem da cana houve
necessidade de compatibilizar as estruturas com a expansão da área e o volume de cana
moída, avançando-se assim dos ancestrais sistemas para a adaptação dos cilindros. Entre os
séculos XV e XVII as inovações mais significativas ocorrem aqui. Os cilindros passam a
dominar todos os sistemas, de tracção animal, humana, vento e água, destronando o pilão, o
almofariz e a mó. Do simples mecanismo de cilindros duplos horizontais, evolui-se para os
verticais, que no século XVII passam a ser de três, o que permite uma maior capacidade de
moenda e aproveitamento do suco da cana. Com os dois cilindros poder-se-á aproveitar
apenas 20% do suco da cana, enquanto com três até 35%. As técnicas experimentadas na
moenda vão no sentido e um maior aproveitamento do suco disponível no bagaço da cana.
A situação de Cuba na década de setenta do século XIX pode ser elucidativa da realidade 10.

Uma maior capacidade na moenda implica maior disponibilidade de garapa a ser processa-
da para se poder dispor do melado ou do açúcar. Uma situação empurra a outra conduzindo
a soluções cada vez mais avançadas. As dificuldades com a obtenção de lenhas ou os ele-
vados custos do transporte até ao local do engenho conduzem a soluções que paulatinamen-
te vão sendo adoptadas por todos. Primeiro reaproveita-se o bagaço da cana e depois atra-
vés de um mecanismo de fornalha única consegue-se alimentar as cinco caldeiras de cozi-
mento. O sistema ficou conhecido por trem jamaicano, por, segundo alguns, ter tido aí ori-
gem, mas na verdade temos informação do seu uso, não tão apurado na Madeira e Canárias,
no século XVI. Em 1530 Giulio Landi descreve o sistema de fabrico de açúcar com cinco
caldeiras agrupadas.

Jamaica esteve na frente das inovações da tecnologia açucareira a partir da segunda metade
do século XVIII. São os ingleses que dão o passo definitivo para a mudança radical através
da introdução da máquina a vapor. O primeiro engenho horizontal de tipo moderno foi de-
senhado em 1754 por John Smeaton na Jamaica, recebendo a partir de 1770 o impulso da
máquina a vapor. A nova tecnologia, que se aperfeiçoou com o andar dos tempos, poderá
acoplar até 18 cilindros em sistema de tambor, tornando mais rápida e útil a moenda. Com
cinco cilindros o aproveitamento do suco pode ir até 90%, enquanto que com os tambores
de 18 cilindros quase se atinge a exaustão com 98%. Por outro lado nos engenhos tradicio-
nais a média de moenda por 24 horas não ultrapassava as 125 toneladas, enquanto que com
o novo sistema a vapor começa por atingir mais de três mil toneladas de cana.

Outro factor significativo da safra prendia-se com a velocidade a que o processo da moenda
da cana deveria ocorrer, mais uma vez no sentido de se retirar o maior rendimento da cana
através da sacarose. A cana tem um momento ideal para ser moída e depois de cortada os
prazos para a moenda são curtos, caso queira evitar-se a fermentação, que é sinónimo de
perda de sacarose 11. Nos avanços tecnológicos tem-se em conta esta corrida contra o tem-
po, criando-se mecanismos capazes de moer cana como maior rapidez 12.



10
   . João josé Carneiro da Silva, Estudos Agrícolas, Rio de Janeiro, 1872, p.94
11
   .Cf. J. de Laguarrique d eSurvilliers, Manuel de Sucrerie de Cannes, Paris, 1932, pp. 29.
12
   . Cf. Nilo Cairo, O Livro da Canna de Assucar, Curitiba, 1924, pp. 85-86, 109; A. Bernard, A Evolução das Moendas de Canas, Brasil
Açucareiro, XXXVIII, 2, 1951, pp. 73, 76.
Segue-se o processo de fabrico do açúcar que se distribui por quatro momentos: purificação
da garapa, evaporação da água e, finalmente a clarificação e cristalização. Até aos inícios
do século XIX o processo poderia durar de 50 a 60 dias, mas as aportações tecnológicas,
conduziram a que o mesmo se passasse a fazer em apenas um mês em 1830 e apenas 16
horas em 1860, através do novo sistema de centrifugação. As primeiras mudanças ocorrem
ao nível do processo de clarificação. Em 1805 Guillon, refinador do açúcar em New
Orleans preconiza o uso do carvão para purga xarope, em 1812 Edward Charles Howard
constrói a primeira caldeira de vacuum, conhecida como “howard saccharine evaporator”,
que veio revolucionar o sistema de fabrico do açúcar. Três anos depois surge em Inglaterra
o sistema de filtros de Taylor. O evaporador de múltiplo efeito foi inventado em 1830 por
Norbert Rillius [1806-1894] de New Orleans, sendo usada nos primeiros engenhos desde
1834 13. Deste modo torna-se mais fácil a retirada de cerca de 85% de água que existe no
suco da cana e um maior aproveitamento do açúcar. As novidades na clarificação e cristali-
zação ocorrem num segundo momento. Assim, em 1844 o alemão Schottler aplicou pela
primeira vez a força centrífuga na separação do melaço do açúcar branco, mas foi Soyrig
quem construiu em 1849 a primeira máquina de centrifugação, que abriu o caminho para o
fabrico do primeiro açúcar granulado, em 1859. Este sistema vinha sendo utilizado desde
1843 na indústria têxtil. Os equipamentos contribuíram para acelerar o processo de purga
do açúcar permitindo que se passasse do moroso processo de quase dois meses para apenas
16 horas e hoje em apenas alguns segundos.

A segunda metade do século XIX foi o momento da aposta definitiva na engenharia açuca-
reira, contribuindo para importantes inovações14. O mercado ocidental foi inundado de açú-
car de cana e beterraba.
13
   , Otto Kratz, The Robert Diffusion Process aplied to sugar-cane in Louisiana inthe Years 1873 and 1874. a Report to the President and
Directors of the Julius Robert Diffusion Process Co, Nova Orleans, 1975; The Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manufacture, XIII, Nov. 24,
1894; George Mead, Negro Scientist of slavery Days, in Negro History Bulletin, Abril 1957, pp.159-163.
14
   . C. Stammer, Traité complet théorique et Practique de la Fabrication du Sucre, guide du fabricant, Paris, 1876; James Stewart, Steam
engineering on sugar plantations, steamships, and Locomotive engines, Nova York, 1867; IDEM, A Description of a Machine or Inven-
tion to Work Mills, by the Power of a fire-engine, but Particulary useful and Profitable in grinding Sugar-canes, Londres, 1767; Baeta
Neves, Luiz M. Technologia da fabricação do assucar de canna, por Luiz M. Baeta Neves ... Patrocinado pela Associação de usineiros
de S. Paulo. S. Paulo [Emp. graph. da "Revista dos tribunaes"] 1937. BURGH. Nicholas Procter, A Treatise on Sugar Machinery: includ-
ing the process of producing sugar from the cane, refining moist and loaf sugar, etc., E. & F. N. Spon: London, 1863.--The Manufacture
of Sugar, and the machinery employed for colonial and home purposes. Read before the Society of Arts ... April 4th, 1866.Trubner & Co.:
London, [1866.] Bühler, Friedrich Adolf, 1869- Filters and filter presses for the separation of liquids and solids, from the German of F.
A. Bühler, with additional matter relating to the theory of filtration and filtration in sugar factories and refineries, by John Joseph Eas-
tick. London, N. Rodger, 1914; Burgh, N. P. (Nicholas Procter) A treatise on sugar machinery: including ... producing sugar from the
cane, refining ... sugar ... with rules for the proportions and estimates. London, E. & F.N. Spon, 1863. El catálogo azucarero. Nueva
York, El Mundo Azucarero.1949; DEERR, Noel, classic papers of a sugar cane technologist / compiled by John Howard Payne. Am-
sterdam; New York: Elsevier; New York, N.Y.: Distributors for the U.S. and Canada, Elsevier Science Pub. Co., 1983; Dejonghe, Gas-
ton. Technologie sucriere. -2. ed. completement refondue et considerablement augmentee. - [s.l.]: Lambersart-Lille, 1910 ; Gama, Rui.
Engenho e tecnologia, Sao Paulo: Duas Cidades, 1983; Guimarães, Benicio Domingues. Locomotivas a vapor nas atividades industriais
no Brasil, Petropolis, RJ: [s.n.],, 1996; HUGOT. Émile. Ingénieur des Arts et Manufactures.pp. xvii. 872. Elsevier Publishing Co.:
Amsterdam, 1960. Handbook of cane sugar engineering / by E. Hugot; translated and revised, with the collaboration of the author, by
G.H. Jenkins. - Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1960- 1904-Handbook of cane sugar engineering, Rev. by the author, with the collaboration of the
translator, and translated by G. H. Jenkins. 2d completely rev. ed. Sucrerie de cannes. English Amsterdam, New York, Elsevier Pub. Co.,
1972. --Sucrerie de cannes. English Handbook of cane sugar engineering / E. Hugot; revised by the author, with the collaboration of the
translator, and translated by G.H. Jenkins. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier; New York, NY: Distributors for the United States and
Canada, Elsevier Science Pub. Co., 1986. --La sucrerie de cannes; manuel de l'ingénieur, Dunod, 1950. Jenkins, G.H. Introduction to
cane sugar technology, New York: Elsevier London:Amsterdam, 1966. Jenkins, G.H. Introduction to cane sugar technology New York:
Elsevier, London: Amsterdam: , 1966; López Ferrer, F. A. Manual práctico de maquinaria y aparatos en los ingenios de azúcar de caña.
Habana, Cultural, 1949 ; Maier, Emile Adolph, 1897- A story of sugar cane machinery. New Orleans, Sugar Journal [1952]; Maxwell,
Francis. Modern milling of sugar cane, London: Norman Rodger, 1932. Methods and machinery for application of diffusion to extraction
of sugar from sugar cane and sorghum, and for use of lime, and carbonic, and sulphurous acids in purifying diffusion juices [Washing-
ton, D.C.] : U.S. G.P.O., 1886; Mirrlees Watson Co.,Sugar machinery[ca. 1907]; M'Intosh, John Geddes. The technology of sugar, by
John Geddes M'Intosh, with eighty-three illustrations and seventy-six tables. London, Scott, Greenwood & co.; New York, D. Van
Nostrand company, 1903. Neves, Luiz M. Baeta.Technologia da fabricação do assucar de canna, Sao Paulo: [s.n.], 1937; Principios de
O desenvolvimento da indústria de construção de equipamentos para o fabrico de açúcar,
seja de cana ou de beterraba, aconteceu em países onde esta assumia uma posição significa-
tiva na economia. Deste modo a França e a Inglaterra assumiram a posição pioneira no
desenvolvimento da tecnologia açucareira. À sua posição no início da indústria do açúcar
de beterraba temos a colonial. Os Franceses detinham importantes colónias açucareiras nas
Antilhas, enquanto os Alemãs apostavam forte em Java. Os ingleses surgem por força da
colonial nas Antilhas e Índia e os Estados Unidos da América com New Orleans e, depois o
Havai. Cuba foi um dos espaços açucareiros onde mais se inovou em termos tecnológicos.
As primeiras décadas do século XIX foram de plena afirmação da ilha, que se transformou
em modelo para a indústria açucareira.

Em França tudo começou com o químico Charles Derosne (1779-1846) que montou em
1812 uma fábrica de construção de aparelhos de destilação continua. Nesta empresa passou
a trabalhar em 1824 J. F. Cail na qualidade de operário de carvão, que em 4 de Março de
1836 passa à condição de associado. A sociedade Derosne et Cail 15 manteve-se até 1850,

tecnología azucarera, [Traductor José Luis Esparza Delgado] México: Compañía Edit. Continental, [1969]; Technologie des Zuckers;
bearb. von Dietrich Becker [et al.] Hannover, M. & H. Schaper, 1955. Tromp, Lucas Andreas, 1892- Machinery and equipment of the
sugar cane factory; a textbook on machinery for the cane sugar industry, London, Eng., N. Rodger, 1936. Wallis-Tayler, A. J. (Alexan-
der James), b. 1852. Sugar machinery; a descriptive treatise devoted to the machinery and processes used in the manufacture of cane and
beet sugars, London, W. Rider and Son, Limited [1895]. Wilkinson, J. B., jr. The diffusion process in Louisana and Texas. New Orleans,
L. Graham & Son [1889?].Wilkinsons report on diffusion and mill work in the Louisiana sugar harvest of 1889-'90 / by J. B. Wilkinson,
Jr. ... Imprint New Orleans: Brandao & Gill, 1890.
15
   . Avis de M. Richemond ingénieur - arbitre - rapporteur sur les divers chefs de contestation existant entre MM. Grieninger et Bachoux
et MM. Cail et Cie extrait textuellement du rapport de M. l'arbitre, 31 octobre 1867, Paris, impr. de Renou et Maulde: 1869; Cail et Cie:
Mesures proposées au Gouvernement pour changer la situation de nos colonies des Antilles, Paris 1860; Cail, F. et C.Derosne: Examen
des divers procédés de fabrication de sucre et motifs déterminant de la préférence à accorder aux appareils dans le vide à double effet
pour l’application aux colonies. 1843; Cail, F. et C. Derosne: Note sur les avantages à retirer de l’introduction des sucres bruts à un
droit modéré, uniforme quelle que soit leur nuance, 1842; Cail, J. F., une réussite exceptionnelle Poitiers, Le Picton: 1984; Cail, J.F. et
C. Derosne: De la fabrication des sucres aux colonies et des nouveaux appareils propres à méliorer cette fabrication.1843; Cail, J.F. et
C.Derosne: Mémoire sur les usines centrales à la Guadeloupe,1843; Cail, Jean-François, Description de l'appareil d'évaporation à triple
effet propre à toutes les grandes évaporations de liquides salins et autres, spécialement utilisable dans les fabriques et raffineries de
sucre... (Par J.-F. Cail et Cie.) Paris, impr. de Guiraudet et Jouaust: 1852; -Exploitation agricole des plants appartenant à M. J.-F. Cail.
Mémoire pour concourir à la prime d'honneur du département de la Charente en 1868, Paris, librairie agricole de la Maison rustique:
(1867); --(Circulaire adressée aux fabricants de sucre par A. Périer, L. Possoz et J.-F. Cail et Cie au sujet de leurs procédés d'épuration
du jus de betterave.) Paris, impr. de J. Bonaventure: 1868; -A S. E. M. le ministre de l'Agriculture et du Commerce, Paris. (Lettre de J.-
F. Cail et Cie, au sujet du décret du 10 janvier 1870, relativement à l'importation jusque dans les usines des matières destinées aux
travaux pour l'étranger.) (Paris,), impr. de Haristéguy: (1870) -Tribunal civil de la Seine... Pour la société anonyme des anciens établis-
sements Cail contre les liquidateurs de la Société Cail et Cie. (29 Février 1884.), Paris, imp. de Chaix: 1884; -Notice sur les machines et
appareils des établissements Derosne et Cail... figurant à l'exposition universelle de 1865, Paris, imp. de Guiraudet et Jouaust: 1855;
Chaussenot, B., Notice sur le calorifère à air chaud, inventé par B. Chaussenot... construit exclusivement par Ch. Derosne et Cail,...
(Paris,), impr. de L. Bouchard-Huzard: (1841); Cheilus, L., Discours prononcé par M. L. Cheilus au banquet offert par lui, le 6 janvier
1856, aux gérants et chefs des différents services des établissements Derosne et Cail, Paris, Impr. de Rival: (s. d.,); Conclusions pour la
Société anonyme des anciens établissements Cail contre la société de la sucrerie de Pithiviers-le-vieil, Paris, imp. de Chaix: 1893;
Debonne, Michel: Jean-François Cail à Grenelle (1844 – 1871) et Histoire de la société Cail. Bulletin de la Société historique et archéo-
logique du XVe arrondissement de Paris, n° 13 et 14, 1999; Derosne, Charles, Tableaux divers sur la densité des jus et des sirops, la
quantité de sucre pur contenue dans les solutions sucrées... Extrait de la publication sur la Fabrication du sucre, par MM. Ch. Derosne
et Cail,... Paris, impr. de Ve Bouchard-Huzard: (s. d.); -Tableau comparatif de divers brevets fondés sur la condensation par évaporation,
montrant les emprunts faits par le brevet Reybaud, du 2 novembre 1833, à ceux antérieurement délivrés. [Signé: Ch. Derosne et Cail. 12
avril 1847.] (Paris,), impr. de Ducessois: (1847.); - Notice sur la machine à vapeur à rotule inventée par M. Ch. Faivre... construite... par
MM. Ch. Derosne et Cail... impr. de L. Bouchard-Huzard, Paris, 1839, -De la Fabrication du sucre aux colonies, et des nouveaux appa-
reils propres à améliorer cette fabrication, par MM. Ch. Derosne et Cail,... 2e partie, 2e section. 2e édition... avec un appendice sur la
fabrication des sucres de sirops, sur la comparaison des divers systèmes d'appareils qui peuvent être proposés aux colonies, Paris, impr.
de Vve Bouchard-Huzard: 1844; Dolabaratz: Rapport à M. Cail et Cie sur sa mission à l’île de la Réunion, octobre 1873; Du Rieux, P.
Notice historique sur les filtres-presses, réponse à MM. A. Périer, L. Possoz, J.-F. Cail et Cie adressée à MM. les fabricants de sucre par
P. Du Rieux et Cie... Lille, impr. de Mme Bayard: 1866; Dureau, Jean-Baptiste, Jean-François, Cail, sa vie et ses travaux, Paris, Gau-
thier-Villars: 1872;Dureau: J.F.,Cail, sa vie et ses travaux, Paris, Gauthier Villars, 1872; Etablissements Derosne et Cail... Notice sur les
objets admis à l'exposition universelle de 1878, Paris, imp. de A. Chaix: 1878; Fabrication du sucre. Epuration et décoloration des jus
sucrés par carbonation multiple. Précédés Périer, Possoz, Cail et Cie. Instance en contre-façon contre MM. Maumené et Théry, Paris,
impr. J. Bonaventure: 1867; Griéninger, Note pour MM. Bachoux et Griéninger [fabricants de sucre à Francières (Oise)] contre MM.
Cail et Compagnie [constructeurs-mécaniciens à Paris]... Paris, impr. Dubuisson, [1867]. La Mécanique pratique. Guide du mécanicien.
altura em que passou a chamar-se J. F. Cail et Cie, que em 1861 passou a cooperar com a
nova Cie Fives-Lille, especializada no fabrico de equipamentos para fábricas de açúcar e
caminhos-de-ferro 16. Os equipamentos, saídos da empresa Cail, chegaram às colónias
holandesas, espanholas, inglesas e francesas, México, Rússia, Áustria, Holanda, Bélgica e
Egipto. À indústria francesa juntaram-se outros complexos industriais na Europa: Inglaterra
(Glasgow, Birmingham, Nottingham, London, Manchester, Derby), Holanda (Breda,
Roterdão, Schiedam, Ultrecht, Delft, Hengelo, Amsterdam), Estados Unidos da América
(Oil City, Ohio, Denver, New Jersey), Alemanha (Magdeburgo, Zweibruecken, Halle, Dus-
seldorf, Sangerhausen, Ratingen, Halle), Bélgica (Bruxelas, Tirlemont).

Na Inglaterra foi desde meados do século XVII um dos mais importantes centros de refina-
ção de açúcar na Europa. As refinarias proliferam nas cidades de nas cidades de Bristol,
Essex, Greenock, Lancaster, Liverpool e Southampton 17. Isto justifica o desenvolvimento
tecnológico. Aqui, merece destaque a iniciativa de Mirless Watson 18.

A abertura às inovações tecnológicas, como forma de tornar concorrencial o produto, acar-
reta algumas consequências para a indústria ao nível nacional. Os investimentos são vultuo-
sos e, por isso mesmo só se tornam possíveis mediante incentivos do Estado. A inovação e
recuperação da capacidade concorrencial só se tornaram possível à custa da concentração.
Tanto em Cuba como no Brasil a década de oitenta foi marcada pelos grandes engenhos
centrais 19.

Procédés de travail. Explication méthodique de tout ce qui se voit et se fait en mécanique, par Eugène Dejonc, ancien chef d'atelier de
l'Ecole des arts et des mines, contremaître des Maisons Cail, Bréguet, etc. Revue et corrigée par M. C. Codron, ingénieur, professeur à
l'Institut industriel du Nord, lauréat de l'Académie des sciences. 6e édition augmentée, par René Champly, ingénieur-mécanicien. 755
gravures dans le texte Orléans, impr. H. Tessier, Paris, libr. Desforges, 29, quai des Grands-Augustins: 1924; La Vérité biographique. J.-
F. Cail, . (Signé: Louis Clot.) Paris, Impr. de Moquet: (1857); Lantrac, E., Notice sur la vie et les travaux de M. Félix Moreaux, ancien
ingénieur en chef de la Société en participation J.-F. Cail et Cie et compagnie de Fives-Lille... : par M. E. Lantrac,... Impr. de Chaix,
Paris, 1890; Mémoire pour M. Degrand, contre MM. Ch. Derosne et Cail [qui n'avaient pas respecté dans leurs ventes à l'étranger les
clauses du contrat conclu après un procès en contrefaçon de 1834, pour leur laisser fabriquer un condensateur destiné aux sucreries,
dont il était l'inventeur, Paris, E. P. E. : [1983]; Note pour MM. Bachoux et Griéninger [fabricants de sucre à Francières (Oise)] contre
MM. Cail et Compagnie [constructeurs-mécaniciens à Paris]. Demande en payement de 83, 446 fr. 20 c. à titre de dommages-intérêts
pour retard dans la livraison et le montage d'appareils destinés à la fabrication du sucre. [Suivi de:] Conclusions pour MM. Bachoux et
Griéninger contre MM. Cail et Compagnie, Paris, impr. Dubuisson : [1867]; Note pour MM. J.-F. Cail et Cie contre M. Allier [, relative
à l'enlèvement du matériel de l'ancienne distillerie de betteraves de Petit-Bourg, aux frais de constructions de la nouvelle et aux appoin-
tements et notes de frais du directeur, jugés excessifs], S. l., S. n.: 1855; Notice sur la Briche, propriété de M.J.F.Cail à l’occasion de
l’exposition universelle de 1867; Librairie agricole de la Maison Rustique, 1867; Payen, Anselme, Société d'encouragement pour l'indus-
trie nationale.... Rapport fait par M. Payen... sur l'appareil de MM. Rolhfs et Seyrig pour l'égouttage et le clairçage des sucres... con-
struit dans l'établissement de MM. Derosne et Cail. Paris, impr. de Vve Bouchard-Huzard: (1851); Possoz, Louis, Participation Périer,
Possoz et J.-F. Cail et Cie. Procédés brevetés pour l'épuration des jus de betterave, Paris, impr. de Jouaust et fils: 1863; Proust, Ray-
mond: Le célèbre constructeur mécanicien J.F.Cail, Imprimerie Romain, Chef-Boutonne.1990; Proust, Raymond, [Un ]constructeur
mécanicien, Jean-François Cail (1804-1871) Chef-Boutonne, Chassebray-Moncontié: 1955
16
   . Compagnie de Fives-Lille pour constructions Mécaniques et Entreprises. Matériel du sucrerie, Paris, 1878, Reedição Granada, 1999;
Vincens, E. Compagnie générale d'électro-chimie.... Rapport du commissaire vérificateur des apports, sur les apports faits à la Société
par la Compagnie de Fives-Lille pour constructions mécaniques et entreprises. [Signé: E. Vincens.]; --Rapport du commissaire vérifica-
teur des apports, sur les apports faits à la Société par la Compagnie de Fives-Lille pour constructions mécaniques et entreprises. [Signé:
E. Vincens.] (Paris,), impr. de Chaix: 1898; Godefroy, H.-C. Notice explicative sur les tableaux photographiques représentant les usines
de Fives-Lille, Paris, impr. de Vves Renou, Maulde et Cock: 1876
17
   . John M. Hutcheson, notes on the Sugar Industry of the United Kingdon, Greenock, 1901; Frank Lewis, Essex and sugar, 1976.
18
   . STEWART, j., A Description of a Machine or Invention to Grind Sugar-canes by the power of a fire Engine, Kingston, 1768. IDEM,
Steam engineering on sugar plantations, steamships, and locomotive engines, New York, Russell's American Steam Printing House,
1867. Watson, Laidlaw & Co., Engineers, millwrights and machine makers. specialities machinery for the treatment of sugar after boil-
ing ... etc., etc.Watson, Laidlaw & Co.[1892].
19
   . José Curbelo, Proyecto para fomenter y Poner en Estado de Producción seis Ingenios Centrales com alambiques, Havana, 1882;
Andrade, Bonifacio.Do bangue a usina em Pernambuco, Recife (PE): UFPE, PIMES, 1975; Andrade, Manuel Correia de Oliveira.
Historia das usinas de açucar de Pernambuco, Recife: Fundaçao Joaquim Nabuco, Editora Massangana, em co-edição com o Ministerio
da Ciencia e Tecnologia-CNPq/Comissão de Eventos Historicos, 1989. Arquivo Nacional (Brazil) Engenhos centrais: catálogo de docu-
mentos, 1881-1906 / Ministério da Justiça, Arquivo Nacional, Divisão de Pesquisas e Atividades Técnicas, Seção de Estudos e Pesquisas.
Rio de Janeiro: O Arquivo, 1979. Avestruz, Fred S., 1948- Risk and technology choice in developing countries: the case of Philippine
A concorrência do açúcar é cada vez mais evidente obrigando as autoridades nacionais a
intervir no sentido da defesa das suas culturas e indústrias. A política proteccionista inicia-
da pelos Estados Unidos da América alastrou a todo o mundo açucareiro 20. Se o século XIX
foi o momento da aposta na tecnologia a centúria seguinte será marcada pela política açuca-
reira. Ao nível internacional reúne-se uma convenção em Bruxelas, em 1902 e 1929, no
sentido de limitar o apoio financeiro do estado e medidas de defesa e proteccionistas dos
diversos estados produtores de cana e açúcar. Entretanto em 1937 a Sugar Organization
procura estabilizar o mercado através do estabelecimento de cotas que acabaram em 1977.
Desde a década de setenta persiste o enfrentamento entre o comércio livre e a politica pro-
teccionista dos estados.




sugar factories. Lanham: University Press of America, c1985. Peres, Gaspar. A industria assucareira em Pernambuco, Recife: Imp.
Industrial, 1915.--A industria assucareira em Pernambuco / [Gaspar Peres, Apollonio Peres; apresentação, Manuel Correia de Andrade].
[Recife] FUNDARPE, Secretaria de Educação, Cultura e Esportes, Sistema de Bibliotecas Públicas e Documentação, [1991]-- A Repú-
blica das Usinas R. J., Ed. Paz e Terra, 1978; Perruci, Gadiel, 1937- A república das usinas: um estudo de história social e econômica do
Nordeste, 1889-1930 / Gadiel Perruci. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 1978, c1977. SOUZA, Jonas Soares de O Engenho Central de Porto
Feliz. Uma empresa pioneira em São Paulo Leis, etc.[organizado por] Jonas Soares de Souza, São Paulo: Museu Paulista, [1978?].
20
   Atwood H., Donald W., Raising Cane. The Political Economy of Sugar in Western Indie, Boulder, 1992; Bernhardt, Joshua, Govern-
ment Control of the Sugar Industry in the United States, N. Y. 1820; Brunner, Henrich, Cuban Sugar Polity from 1963 to 1970, Pitts-
burgh, 1977; Buzzanell, Peter J. Sugar and corn sweetener: changing demand and trade in Mexico, Canada, and the United States / Peter
Buzzanell, Ron Lord. [Washington, D.C.?]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, [1993]; Cernic, Barbara, Sugar –
Internacional Control of Production and Preale, 1985; Conférence internationale sur le Regime des Sucres, tenue à Londres (deuxième
session, Avril-Mai), 1888. Documents présentés à la Conférence et procès-verbeaux. [n.p. 1888] ; Dalton, John E., A Case Study of
Government Control (N. Y., 1937); Eichner, Alfred S., The Emergence of oligopoly: Sugar Refining as a case Study, 1969; T. H. Ferrer,
The Sugar Convention, Londres, 1899; Grissa, Abdessatar, Structure of the Internacional Sugar Market, Paris, 1976; Leynseele, Jacques
van. La Politique de la betterave. Paris, Éditions Cujas, 1967; Martins, R. M., The Sugar Question in Relation to Free Trade and Protec-
tion, Londres, 1848; G. Martineau, Free Trade in Sugar. A Reply to sir Thomas Farrer, Londres, 1889 ; IDEM, Both Sides of the Sugar
Convention, Londres, 1907; Melo, Joaquim de. Um decenio de defesa do açucar. Instituto do açucar e do alcool. Rio de Janeiro, 1942;
Stinchcombe, Arthur L. Sugar island slavery in the age of enlightenment: the political economy of the Caribbean world Princeton, N.J.:
Princeton University Press, c1995; The World sugar economy in war and depression, 1914-40 / edited by Bill Albert and Adrian Graves.
London; New York: Routledge, 1988; The world sugar economy--structure and policies national sugar economies and policies / Interna-
tional Sugar Organization. Imprint [London]: The organization, 1982. Bernhardt, Joshua, 1893- Government control of the sugar industry
in the United States: an account of the work of the United States food administration and the United States sugar equalization board, inc.
/ by Joshua Bernhardt. INew York: Macmillan, 1920. The sugar industry and the Federal Government; a thirty year record, 1917-1947.
Washington, Sugar Statistics Service, 1948 [i.e. 1949]
BIBLIOGRAFIA FUNDAMENTAL

A bibliografia sobre a temática é vasta. Desde o século XVIII que se sucedem inú-
meros estudos que procura aclara a História das culturas da cana sacarina e beter-
raba, das tecnologias usadas e dos novos processos de transformação do fabrico
trazidos pela Química. A incidência desta produção literária tem a ver com o
empenho de cada país ou império na produção e comércio de açúcar. É em língua
inglesa que encontramos o maior número de publicações, mas também não é des-
prezível o número no idioma alemão e francês. A maior parte dos que escrevem
sobre o tema, mesmo sobre a História, estão de uma forma ou de outra, envolvidos
profissionalmente com a cultura e indústria. É no campo da Engenharia Química e
da Agronomia que encontramos o maior número de estudiosos e de estudos.

No domínio da História sobressaem dois autores, como clássicos da abordagem da
matéria. Edmond von Lippmann, químico alemão publicou em 1890 a sua História,
que teve várias edições (1929, 1934, 1938) e uma tradução no Brasil (1941-42). Noel
Derr ficou conhecido pela “History of Sugar”, publicada em 1949-50, mas não
deverá esquecer-se os contributos no âmbito da química e tecnologia. Para perío-
dos mais recentes temos o texto de J. H. Galloway (1989) e os encontros de Motril
desde 1992 e do Funchal a partir desde 2000, que culminou em 1993 com a criação
da Associação Internacional de História e Civilização do Açúcar, com sede no Funchal.

O acervo bibliográfico da História da cultura e fabrico do produto é o que assume
menor dimensão no conjunto da bibliografia existente. Maior incidência foi dada a
partir de meados do século XIX às questões que se prendem com a Agronomia,
Tecnologia e Química. É nos dois últimos domínios que a profusão de estudos sur-
ge, tendo como factor dinamizador a beterraba. Foi o uso da nova cultura para o
fabrico do açúcar que eu o arranque definitivo para os estudos e avanços tecnoló-
gicos e químicos.



1- BIBLIOTECAS SOBRE A HISTÓRIA DO AÇÚCAR


Fundação Joaquin Nabuco

Base de dados bibliográfica, contendo informações sobre livros, folhetos, teses e
artigos de revistas nacionais e estrangeiras, relacionados com o tema açúcar, exis-
tentes no acervo da Biblioteca Central Blanche Knopf da Fundação.
http://www.fundaj.gov.br/isis/acucar.html
CENICAÑA. Centro de investigación de caña de azucar de Colombia, criado em
1977
La base datos bibliográfica SNICA cubre información sobre el cultivo y procesa-
miento de la caña de azúcar, publicada en libros, revistas, tesis, folletos, boletines, e
informes. http://www.cenicana.org/documentacion/snica.htm



BDPA
Acervo Documental da Embrapa com 374.613 referências bibliográficas, abrangen-
do a produção científica de seus pesquisadores, teses e literatura nacional e inter-
nacional.
http://bdpa.cnptia.embrapa.br/fr_inicial.html


Bibliotecas

O acervo das bibliotecas nacionais é fundamental, podendo-se citar o caso de

   1. Espanha[http://www.bne.es]
   2. França[http://www.bnf.fr]
   3. Cuba[http://www.lib.cult.cu/]

Para além disso a New York Public Library[http://www.nypl.org] reune um acer-
vo valioso que não pode ser descurado.




2- REVISTAS


   1. Actualidades: boletin mensual de la Asociación de Técnicos Azucareros de Puerto
      Rico. San Juan: La Asociación, -1951.

   2. Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service. Washington, D.C. : The Service, 1987-
      1988.

   3. L'Annee sucriere. Revue general annuelle des progres de la fabrication du sucre en
      France ta l'etranger. Annee 1- ; 1909-10—
4. Anuario azucarero de Cuba = Cuba sugar year book. Habana, Cuba : Cuba
   Economica Financiera, 1937-

5. Archief voor de suikerindustrie in Nederlandsch-Indië.Surabaya: Algemeen Syndi-
   caat van Suikerfabrikanten in Nederlandsch-Indië.

6. Brasil açucareiro. Rio de Janeiro, Instituto do Açúcar e do Álcool, 1932-

7. Bulletin mensuel - Bureau des relations publiques de l'industrie sucrière. Port-
   Louis, Mauritius, Bureau des relations de l'industrie sucrière.Mauritius sugar news
   bulletin 1949 [Reduit]. Mauritius Chamber of Agriculture

8. CEF [Cuba Económica y Financiera] (1937-1959): Anuario Azucarero de Cuba. La
   Habana.

9. Centre technique de la canne et du sucre de la Martinique. Rapport de campagne.
   1979 [Martinique?]: CTCS-Martinique,

10. Cuba azucar. La Habana: Ministerio de la Industria Azucarera de Cuba, 1966-

11. Cuba: Anuario Azucarero (1937-1962).

12. El Mundo azucarero [Nueva York] [etc.] 1913-56

13. English annual report of the Sugar Beet Seed Breeding Station of Wohanka & Co.,
    Prague, Bohemia, Austria. Detroit, Mich.: De Rekowski, -1909.

14. Estadística de la industria azucarera en el Perú.1911-36Lima Dirección de Aguas
    y Agricultura.

15. Estadísticas azucareras. [México] Azúcar, S.A. de C.V.

16. Facts about sugar, New York, Russell Palmer, etc.1914-41

17. Indian sugar manual. 1940, Kanpur, Sugar Technologists' Association of India.

18. Industrial and machinery journal. [Manila : Sugar News Press, 1936-

19. Jahres-Bericht über die Untersuchungen und Fortschritte auf dem Gesammtgebeite
    der Zuckerfabrikation / von C. Scheibler und K. Stammer. Breslau: Eduard Tre-
    mendt, 1863-1912.

20. Journal of the American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists. [Fort Collins, Colo.:
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ESTUDOS ESPECIALIZADOS
1.TECNOLOGIA e Industria


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14. ALLEN, Benjamin. A story of the growth of E. Atkins & Co. and the sugar indus-
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15. ALVAREZ, Jose, 1940- Cuba's sugar industry / José Alvarez and Lázaro Peña
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16. Anales de la ... Convención de Tecnólogos Azucareros / Asociación Peruana de
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17. Analysis of the beet sugar industry in the U.S. [s.l.]: Research Department,
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18. ANDRADE, Bonifacio. Evolução da agro-indústria do açúcar em Pernam-
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20. ANDRADE, Manuel Correia de Oliveira. Historia das usinas de açucar de Per-
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24. Annuaire general des fabricants & rafineurs de sucre de France, de Belgique & de
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25. ANWAR, Abdul Aziz. A survey of the sugar industry of West Pakistan, with
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26. Arquivo Nacional (Brazil) Engenhos centrais: catálogo de documentos, 1881-
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27. AUBERTIN, Catherine. Le programme sucrier ivoirien: une industrialisation ré-
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28. AURANGZEB. Muhammad, The development of sugar manufacturing in Paki-
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30. Australia. Industry Commission. The Australian sugar industry / Industry
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31. AVESTRUZ, Fred S., 1948- Risk and technology choice in developing countries:
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32. AZEVEDO, Fernando de, 1894-1974. Canaviais e engenhos da política do Brasil,
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34. BAETA NEVES, Luiz M. Technologia da fabricação do assucar de canna, por
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35. BAGUÉ, Jaime. Del ingenio azucarero patriarcal a la central azucarera corporati-
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36. BAIMA, Antonio da Cunha. Tecnologia do açucar. [Livro] Rio de Janeiro: 1974
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38. BARROS, Henrique de. Custos de produção da cultura canavieira no Brasil:
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39. BARUCHSON, Arnold. Beetroot sugar: remarks upon the advantages derivable
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40. BASALLA, George, The Evolution of Techology, Cambridge, 1988.

41. BASSET, Nicholas, 1824- Guide pratique du fabricant de sucre: contenant l'étude
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42. --Notes Sur la Sucrérie, Extraites des Annales du Génie Civil, Paris, 1868.

43. BAXA, Jakob, 1895- Studien zur Geschichte der Zuckerindustrie in den Ländern
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44. BEACHEY, R.W. The British West Indies sugar industry in the late 19th century,
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45. BECERRA DE LA FLOR, Julio Cesar. Resultado de projetos demonstrativos de
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46. Beet sugar factories of the United States. Washington, [s.n.] 1961.

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51. BERNHARDT, Joshua, 1893- Government control of the sugar industry in the
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54. BESSEMER, Henry, Sir, 1813-1898. On a new system of manufacturing sugar
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55. --Sir Henry Bessemer, F.R.S. An autobiography. With a concluding chapter. Lon-
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56. BERTHIER, Paul, Les Anciennes sucreries du Maroc et leurs réseaux hydrauli-
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63. BOTTOMLEY, Allen William Thompson, 1873-1933. A statement concerning
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71. BUCELLATO, M. R. Dentici, Un’attivitá industriale nella Sicilia del’400: il
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75. BUNKER, Ellsworth, 1894- The continental cane sugar refining industry Burgh,
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76. BUREAU, A., De la Fabricación de Sucre de Betterave, Paris, 1858.

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433.      VUKOV, Konstantin. Physics and chemistry of sugar-beet in sugar manu-
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434.      WACHTEL, Ritter van. Hilfsbuch für chemisch-technische Untersuchun-
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436.       WARE, Lewis Sharpe, 1851-1918. The sugar beet: including a history of
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441.       WEATHERLEY, Henry. A treatise on the art of boiling sugar, crystalliz-
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445.       WIECHMANN, Ferdinand Gerhard, 1858-1919.Sugar analysis. For re-
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446.       --Sugar analysis: for refineries, sugar-houses, experimental stations, etc.,
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447.       --Sugar analysis: for cane-sugar and beet-sugar houses, refineries and ex-
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448.       --Dehydrated cossettes. Chicago, Sugar, 1915.

449.      WILEY, Harvey Washington, 1844-1930. Analyse des cannes a sucre, des
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454.     WILKINSON, J. B., jr. The diffusion process in Louisana and Texas. New
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455.     --report on diffusion and mill work in the Louisiana sugar harvest of 1889-
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456.       WRAY, Leonard, The Practical Sugar Planter, London, 1848.

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461.       --Chemisch-technisches Rechenbuch für die Zuckerindustrie. Ein Hilfsbuch
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462.      ZEITSCH, Karl J. The chemistry and technology of furfural and its many
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463.       ZEVIN, Mark, Pattern of the Chinese Past, Stanford, 1973

464.      ZINN, John Brown, 1888- Osmotic pressure measurements of cane sugar
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465.      ZOEGA, F.-S. (Frédéric-Salvator), b. 1798. Nouveau manuel complet du
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4. ENGENHEIROS E QUIMICOS NA INDUSTRIA DO AÇÚCAR



FIVES-LILLE
   1. Compagnie de Fives-Lille pour constructions Mécaniques et Entreprises. Matériel
      du sucrerie, Paris, 1878, Reedição Granada, 1999

   2. VINCENS, E. Compagnie générale d'électro-chimie.... Rapport du commissaire
      vérificateur des apports, sur les apports faits à la Société par la Compagnie de Fives-
      Lille pour constructions mécaniques et entreprises. [Signé: E. Vincens.]
   3. --Rapport du commissaire vérificateur des apports, sur les apports faits à la Société
      par la Compagnie de Fives-Lille pour constructions mécaniques et entreprises.
      [Signé: E. Vincens.] (Paris,), impr. de Chaix: 1898

   4. GODEFROY, H.-C. Notice explicative sur les tableaux photographiques représen-
      tant les usines de Fives-Lille,.Paris, impr. de Vves Renou, Maulde et Cock:
      1876


JEAN FRANÇOIS CAIL

   1. Avis de M. Richemond ingénieur - arbitre - rapporteur sur les divers chefs de con-
      testation existant entre MM. Grieninger et Bachoux et MM. Cail et Cie extrait tex-
      tuellement du rapport de M. l'arbitre, 31 octobre 1867, Paris, impr. de Renou et
      Maulde: 1869

   2. CAIL et Cie: Mesures proposées au Gouvernement pour changer la situation de
      nos colonies des Antilles, Paris 1860;

   3. CAIL, F. et C.Derosne: Examen des divers procédés de fabrication de sucre et
      motifs déterminant de la préférence à accorder aux appareils dans le vide à double
      effet pour l’application aux colonies. 1843 .
   4. --et C. Derosne: Note sur les avantages à retirer de l’introduction des sucres bruts
      à un droit modéré, uniforme quelle que soit leur nuance, 1842;
   5. -- une réussite exceptionnelle Poitiers, Le Picton: 1984
   6. -- et C. Derosne: De la fabrication des sucres aux colonies et des nouveaux appa-
      reils propres à méliorer cette fabrication.1843;
   7. --et C.Derosne: Mémoire sur les usines centrales à la Guadeloupe,1843;
   8. --, Description de l'appareil d'évaporation à triple effet propre à toutes les grandes
      évaporations de liquides salins et autres, spécialement utilisable dans les fabriques et
      raffineries de sucre... (Par J.-F. Cail et Cie.) Paris, impr. de Guiraudet et
      Jouaust: 1852
9. -Exploitation agricole des plants appartenant à M. J.-F. Cail. Mémoire pour con-
    courir à la prime d'honneur du département de la Charente en 1868, Paris, librai-
    rie agricole de la Maison rustique: (1867)
10. --(Circulaire adressée aux fabricants de sucre par A. Périer, L. Possoz et J.-F. Cail et
    Cie au sujet de leurs procédés d'épuration du jus de betterave.) Paris, impr. de J.
    Bonaventure: 1868
11. -A S. E. M. le ministre de l'Agriculture et du Commerce, Paris. (Lettre de J.-F. Cail
    et Cie, au sujet du décret du 10 janvier 1870, relativement à l'importation jusque
    dans les usines des matières destinées aux travaux pour l'étranger.) (Paris,), impr.
    de Haristéguy : (1870)-Tribunal civil de la Seine... Pour la société anonyme des
    anciens établissements Cail contre les liquidateurs de la Société Cail et Cie. (29
    Février 1884.), Paris, imp. de Chaix: 1884
12. -Notice sur les machines et appareils des établissements Derosne et Cail... figurant à
    l'exposition universelle de 1865, Paris, imp. de Guiraudet et Jouaust: 1855

13. CHAUSSENOT, B., Notice sur le calorifère à air chaud, inventé par B. Chausse-
    not... construit exclusivement par Ch. Derosne et Cail,... (Paris,), impr. de L.
    Bouchard-Huzard : (1841)

14. CHEILUS, L., Discours prononcé par M. L. Cheilus au banquet offert par lui, le 6
    janvier 1856, aux gérants et chefs des différents services des établissements Derosne
    et Cail, Paris, Impr. de Rival: (s. d.,)

15. Conclusions pour la Société anonyme des anciens établissements Cail contre la
    société de la sucrerie de Pithiviers-le-vieil, Paris, imp. de Chaix: 1893

16. DEBONNE, Michel: Jean-François Cail à Grenelle (1844 – 1871) et Histoire
    de la société Cail. Bulletin de la Société historique et archéologique du XVe arron-
    dissement de Paris, n° 13 et 14, 1999.

17. DEROSNE, Charles, Tableaux divers sur la densité des jus et des sirops, la quanti-
    té de sucre pur contenue dans les solutions sucrées... Extrait de la publication sur la
    Fabrication du sucre, par MM. Ch. Derosne et Cail,... Paris, impr. de Ve Bou-
    chard-Huzard : (s. d.)
18. -Tableau comparatif de divers brevets fondés sur la condensation par évaporation,
    montrant les emprunts faits par le brevet Reybaud, du 2 novembre 1833, à ceux
    antérieurement délivrés. [Signé: Ch. Derosne et Cail. 12 avril 1847.] (Paris,),
    impr. de Ducessois : (1847.)
19. - Notice sur la machine à vapeur à rotule inventée par M. Ch. Faivre... construite...
    par MM. Ch. Derosne et Cail... impr. de L. Bouchard-Huzard, Paris, 1839
20. -De la Fabrication du sucre aux colonies, et des nouveaux appareils propres à amé-
    liorer cette fabrication, par MM. Ch. Derosne et Cail,... 2e partie, 2e section. 2e
    édition... avec un appendice sur la fabrication des sucres de sirops, sur la
   comparaison des divers systèmes d'appareils qui peuvent être proposés aux
   colonies Paris, impr. de Vve Bouchard-Huzard: 1844

21. DOLABARATZ: Rapport à M. Cail et Cie sur sa mission à l’île de la Réunion,
    octobre 1873;

22. DU RIEUX, P. Notice historique sur les filtres-presses, réponse à MM. A. Périer,
    L. Possoz, J.-F. Cail et Cie adressée à MM. les fabricants de sucre par P. Du Rieux
    et Cie... Lille, impr. de Mme Bayard : 1866
23. DUREAU, Jean-Baptiste, Jean-François Cail, sa vie et ses travaux, Paris,
    Gauthier-Villars: 1872
24. -- J.F.,Cail, sa vie et ses travaux, Paris, Gauthier Villars, 1872;
25. Etablissements Derosne et Cail... Notice sur les objets admis à l'exposition uni-
    verselle de 1878, Paris, imp. de A. Chaix: 1878
26. Fabrication du sucre. Epuration et décoloration des jus sucrés par carbonation mul-
    tiple. Précédés Périer, Possoz, Cail et Cie. Instance en contre-façon contre MM.
    Maumené et Théry, Paris, impr. J. Bonaventure: 1867

27. GRIÉNINGER, Note pour MM. Bachoux et Griéninger [fabricants de sucre à
    Francières (Oise)] contre MM. Cail et Compagnie [constructeurs-mécaniciens à
    Paris]... Paris, impr. Dubuisson, [1867].

28. La Mécanique pratique. Guide du mécanicien. Procédés de travail. Explication
    méthodique de tout ce qui se voit et se fait en mécanique, par Eugène Dejonc, ancien
    chef d'atelier de l'Ecole des arts et des mines, contremaître des Maisons Cail, Bré-
    guet, etc. Revue et corrigée par M. C. Codron, ingénieur, professeur à l'Institut
    industriel du Nord, lauréat de l'Académie des sciences. 6e édition augmentée, par
    René Champly, ingénieur-mécanicien. 755 gravures dans le texte Orléans, impr.
    H. Tessier, Paris, libr. Desforges, 29, quai des Grands-Augustins: 1924

29. La Vérité biographique. J.-F. Cail, . (Signé: Louis Clot.) Paris, Impr. de Moquet:
    (1857)

30. LANTRAC, E., Notice sur la vie et les travaux de M. Félix Moreaux, ancien ingé-
    nieur en chef de la Société en participation J.-F. Cail et Cie et compagnie de Fives-
    Lille... : par M. E. Lantrac,... Impr. de Chaix, Paris, 1890

31. Mémoire pour M. Degrand, contre MM. Ch. Derosne et Cail [, qui n'avaient pas
    respecté dans leurs ventes à l'étranger les clauses du contrat conclu après un procès
    en contrefaçon de 1834, pour leur laisser fabriquer un condensateur destiné aux
    sucreries, dont il était l'inventeur, Paris, E. P. E.: [1983]
32. Note pour MM. Bachoux et Griéninger [fabricants de sucre à Francières (Oise)]
    contre MM. Cail et Compagnie [constructeurs-mécaniciens à Paris]. Demande en
    payement de 83, 446 fr. 20 c. à titre de dommages-intérêts pour retard dans la
    livraison et le montage d'appareils destinés à la fabrication du sucre. [Suivi de:]
    Conclusions pour MM. Bachoux et Griéninger contre MM. Cail et Compagnie,
    Paris, impr. Dubuisson: [1867]

33. Note pour MM. J.-F. Cail et Cie contre M. Allier [, relative à l'enlèvement du maté-
    riel de l'ancienne distillerie de betteraves de Petit-Bourg, aux frais de constructions
    de la nouvelle et aux appointements et notes de frais du directeur, jugés excessifs],
    S. l., S. n. : 1855

34. Notice sur la Briche, propriété de M.J.F.Cail à l’occasion de l’exposition universelle
    de 1867; Librairie agricole de la Maison Rustique, 1867.

35. PAYEN, Anselme, Société d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale.... Rapport
    fait par M. Payen... sur l'appareil de MM. Rolhfs et Seyrig pour l'égouttage et le
    clairçage des sucres... construit dans l'établissement de MM. Derosne et Cail.
    Paris, impr. de Vve Bouchard-Huzard: (1851)
36. POSSOZ, Louis, Participation Périer, Possoz et J.-F. Cail et Cie. Procédés brevetés
    pour l'épuration des jus de betterave, Paris, impr. de Jouaust et fils : 1863

37. PROUST, Raymond: Le célèbre constructeur mécanicien J.F.Cail, Imprimerie
    Romain, Chef-Boutonne.1990;
38. -- [Un ]constructeur mécanicien, Jean-François Cail (1804-1871) Chef-Boutonne,
    Chassebray-Moncontié: 1955

39. SCHNAKENBOURG, Christian: La Compagnie sucrière de la Pointe -à-Pitre .
    L’Harmattan, 1997.
40. -- Histoire de l’industrie sucrière en Guadeloupe aux XIX et XXème siècles, Tome
    1. Editions de l’Harmattan, 1980;

41. THOMAS, Jean-Louis: Jean-François Cail: 1804- 1871, un génial novateur du
    XIXe siècle. Bulletin de la Société Historique et Scientifique des Deux-Sèvres, 1994;

42. TURGAN, Julien[Les ]Grandes usines..., 1 = Les Etablissements Derosne et Cail,
    La savonnerie Arnavon, la monnaie, manufacture impériale de tabac, literie Ducker,
    fabrique de pianos de MM. Pleyel Wolff et Cie, filature de laine de Davin Paris, M.
    LÉVY FRÈRES (C. LÉVY): 1869

43. VESSIOT, Alexandre, Cail et Cox, Illustrations de De Bergevin Paris, Lecène,
    Oudin et Cie: 1893

				
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