The Drug Trade in Latin America- A/1 Committee: UNODC Topic: Drug Trade in Latin America Resolution on Latin American Drug Trade ECOSOC, Recognizing the international threat that drug trade is to the international order, Acknowledging previous efforts to prevent drug trade through Latin American nations, Urging the reform of current policy used to prevent such illicit activity, Mindful of the fact that such illicit activity leads to more crime, Desiring that swift action be taken to further prevent drug trade, Recalling the policy made in Resolution 52/10 of the UNODC, Strengthening interregional cooperation among the states of Latin America and the Caribbean and the States of West Africa in combating drug trafficking, 1. Endorses the use of aerial surveillance on countries in Latin America and around the world to search for drug crops being grown; a. The UN can use unmanned aircraft provided by countries in support of this resolution to scan areas and find fields of drug crops, b. Should a field be found, action will be taken to destroy the fields: i. All persons associated with the area will be brought in for questioning and may be subject to arrest for conspiracy to distribute drugs, ii. Aerial surveillance may then spray the fields with pesticides to kill the crops; 2. Urges the tightening of border control systems in Latin America and the surrounding nations to prevent drugs from reaching other nations: a. The UN should organize a corps of officers made up of volunteers from existing law enforcement agencies in areas near state and national borders: i. Such a corps would patrol borders on a tighter shift than those that are currently in effect, ii. The officers of this corps would be obligated to inspect all persons and vehicles attempting to cross the border thoroughly, iii. The officers of this corps would have the right to detain without reason for up to 72 hours if illicit activity is suspected; 3. Considers it desirable to put into place a tracing system in Latin America to root out drug lords: a. The UN can track large sums of money (i.e. investments, donations, etc.) going into corporations suspected to be sympathetic to drug dealers: i. These sums would then in turn be traced to determine where the money is going to in an attempt to prevent money laundering; 4. Encourages the use of programs that help young persons avoid gang affiliation and drug use: a. Schools around the world should make drug education a top priority, particularly high schools in areas where drug use is more prevalent, b. After-school programs and extra-curricular activities are strongly encouraged to prevent adolescents and young adults from turning to drug abuse and gang violence; 5. Calls upon the use of other cash crops in lieu of drugs to stimulate economies where drugs have brought in substantial funds: a. The UN may organize a team of meteorologists and botanists through the UNODC whose job it will be to determine what other crops can be grown in areas once used for drug cultivation based on soil concentration and climate: i. This team would in turn assist the nations in developing markets for these new crops; 6. Implements the use of maritime surveillance to prevent the compromise of trade routes: a. All ships coming from and going to Latin America may be subject to search at certain checkpoints in the ocean and at ports: i. Any ship suspected of illicit activity may be detained for up to 48 hours without reason until confirmation of suspicions is attained; 7. Requests the use of a protection program for anonymous tips provided to law enforcement agencies: a. Law enforcement agencies to whom the offences are reported may take the informant into protective custody if a threat is detected: i. All law enforcement agencies are required to keep the identity of the informant in the strictest of confidentiality, ii. If no threat is detected initially but the informant requests, they may still be protected until the threat is no longer immanent; 8. Encourages the cooperation of all Latin American nations with the policy outlined in this resolution: a. Any country resistant to the outlined policy may be suspected of illicit activity and subject to tighter searches in the area; 9. Urges the tightening of borders in West African nations where drugs from Latin America are shipped: a. The nations in this region are subject to all of the above policy, but on a larger scale due to their increased involvement with the issue, b. All persons and companies found to be in possession of drugs will be subject to arrest and additional fines; 10. Implements the use of sanctions against all nations found to be producing and shipping illicit drugs: a. These nations are a threat to the international order and therefore must have such actions taken against their corruption: i. Trade and economic sanctions may be used against countries found to be guilty of illicit activity. A/2 Committee: UNODC Topic: The Drug Trade in Latin America Solutions to the Question Regarding the Drug trade in Latin America Recognizing Latin America is the world's leading producer and seller of cocaine, with South American drug centers representing real axes of power in control of considerable economic means and wartime arsenals, Reinstating the primary countries interested in cocaine production are Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Ecuador, Argentina and Brazil, Shocked At the UNODC report found that in some cases, the value of trafficked goods exceeds the gross domestic product (GDP) of West African nations, which are among the world’s poorest, Understands traffickers are taking advantage of the weaknesses of West African States, including porous borders, abundant unemployed youth, widespread corruption and poverty; 1. Recommends stricter smuggling laws: a. more detailed inspections on goods from Latin American countries, b. harsher penalties for drug traffickers including: i. buyers, ii. sellers, iii. Equal punishment for anyone involved in the crime; 2. Promotes economic opportunity through: a. the developing the infrastructure, b. encouraging companies to take economic risks with in the nation by providing incentives: i. Scarcely taxed; 3. Urges government to realize: a. supporting organized crime undermines their authority, b. drug lords are benefiting financially instead of the government. A/3 Committee: UNODC Topic: The Drug Trade in Latin America Stopping the Drug Trade In Latin America ECOSOC, Recalling that the UN has strengthened alternative development in order to reduce trafficking and the supply of illicit drugs in the resolutions E/cn.7/2005/ln.24 and E/cn.7/2005/ln.25 in the areas of Latin America, Aware that the UN has worked with organizations such as Centre for International Crime Prevention and the United Nations Drug Control Programme to fund the prevention of the spread of illicit drugs in Latin America, Recognizing that the UN has worked with the World Drug Report to perform annual reports on the spread, prevention, and trafficking status of illicit drugs within Latin America; 1. Calls upon the need to strengthen the border control around those countries most affected by the drug trade to further prevent the smuggling of illicit drugs into other countries; 2. Draws attention to the need to better train the police officers with special tests funded by the UN and various organizations to train them how to act in various situations and to see if they truly qualify for their job; 3. Encourages Latin American governments to perform background checks and monthly reports on all police officers and their actions to reduce the amount of “dirty cops” in Latin America; 4. Suggests that the law enforcers and police officers in Latina America need to provide better payments and benefits to better earn their loyalty and trust in order to further reduce the amount of “dirty cops” as well as motivate the police to work harder and more efficiently; 5. Expresses the need to replace these crops used to produce drugs with other crops to reduce the supply of drugs produced and smuggled; 6. Considers it desirable to make an economic investment in the Latin American countries by having the five strongest countries as well as others in the world purchase the resources and non-drug producing crops of these Latin American countries to strengthen their economies in order to further reduce the amount of drugs produced and smuggled having their governments able to stop the drug trade themselves and also produce other crops instead of those used to make drugs; 7. Declares that once their economies will become stronger, they will be able to perform background checks, better pay the law enforcers, and replace a majority of the crops used to produce drugs; 8. Proclaims that the need to legalize these drugs, while putting a high tax on them to strengthen the economy, only as a last resort. A/4 Committee: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Topic: The Drug Trade in Latin America Resolution on the Drug Trade in Latin America To ECOSOC, Recognizing that the Drug Trade in Latin America is becoming harder to detect and attack, Aware that money laundering is a huge problem, Realizing that social, economic, and political issues continue to rise out of the drug trade; 1. Supports the use of alternative development to the cultivation of crops that produce illegal drugs; 2. Stresses that the drug trade not only causes negative health effects, but it also causes violence, and money laundering; 3. Recommends the promotion of direct policing efforts which includes: A. Local Police, B. Regional Groups (including the UN); 4. Draws attention to the effort called “Products of Peace”, which will help the effort against the drug trade in Latin America. A/5 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime The Drug Trade in Latin America DRUG CRIMES AND DRUG TRADE IN LATIN AMERICA The Economic and Social Council, Recalling resolution AGN/66/RES/15 of October 1997, which deals with the situations of illicit trafficking, money laundering, and other drug related issues, Supporting the ideas in the resolution AGN/66/RES/17 to help stop money laundering through police efforts and support, Realizing the number of illicit drug trafficking that has been occurring, Examining the amounts of opium poppies and coca plants being detected; 1. Encourages that property used for agricultural purposes, or property over an acre that could be used for agriculture, be registered to the county register so that the property could be monitored by random police checks: a) if caught not registered be fined by the local city ordinate, or government, b) if caught with opium poppies or coca plants, be stripped of property and charged a fine decided by the International Court of Justice, c) if caught not registered and with illegal drugs, be stripped of property and be sentenced to prison time decided by the court in which the government sends the convict to; 2. Suggests that any person cashing or depositing a check made out for more than 20,000 dollars from any name that is not a large company be run through a history check to avoid money laundering in drug trades with the history checks including: a) a background check of checks made out in the past year, b) a background check to see if an illegal products have been purchased, c) a background check to insure the person has not ever been charged for fraud; 3. Encourages property found being used for opium and coca growth be changed by governmental positions and the FAO from opium poppy and coca plants to cash crops such as tobacco and even fruits and vegetables such as cucumbers, watermelons, artichokes and other new crops in Latin America to keep cash flow in process while eliminating drug trades by changing previously owned opium and coca farms; 4. Approves rehabilitation centers run through the UN be started for any one involved in the drug trade who has become addicted to any of the drugs such as heroine and cocaine to help the people get off the drug and also to inform them about the consequences of drug use; 5. Welcomes the idea of sending UN peacekeepers over to Latin America to reduce the violence and gang related fights resulting from the drug trades and to reduce drug trading; 6. Urges that border control run by the UN be set up around all countries in Latin America and those caught by border control be fined and taken to the International Court of Justice to be tried by the government. Alternatives to Opium in Afghanistan- B/1 UNODC Alternatives to Opium in Afghanistan ESTABLISHMENT OF ALTERNATIVE LIVELIHOOD PROGRAMS TO INCENTIVIZE FARMERS NOT TO GROW OPIUM Ecosoc, Recognizing that the Opium trade generates large amounts of money which flow into the hands of drug lords, corrupt politicians, and terrorists, Acknowledges that Afghanistan is one of the world’s poorest countries with about five million people under the poverty line and its impoverished farmers, needing means for survival, have very limited alternatives, Noting that the climate in Afghanistan is extremely dry and desolate making it very challenging for the cultivation of other crops beside opium, Noting with deep concern that any counter-narcotic operations can easily lead to dramatic hostilities in the region; to include instability, violence, and terrorism; 1. Requests that there be a program linked to central banks where by loans are available for infrastructure projects that would serve to provide micro-financing, toward alternative livelihood programs; 2. Seeks solutions to find viable alternative crops to replace opium through the development of irrigation and needed roads for the people of Afghanistan; 3. Strongly affirms the international/political support to President Karzai’s commitment to eradicate the production of Opium, as well as the influence of the Taliban; 4. Urges that President Karzai must change this culture of impunity and start cleaning house, beginning with his own party in Kabul. Only then can much-needed economic aid be assured safe passage; 5. Suggests that all monies allocated to fund this effort funnel through a newly created non- governmental agency to insure that corrupt politicians are unable to pocket financing prescribed for the opium trade. B/2 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Alternatives to Opium in Afghanistan CHANGE OF OPIUM IN AFGHANISTAN The Economic and Social Council, Realizing the great amounts of opium being found in Afghanistan, Acknowledging the high incomes and economy based on opium poppy growth, Shocked by the amount of poor farmers who turn to growing opium poppies to maintain some kind of income; 1. Encourages a governmental organization be set up for farmers so they can set up pipes for drip irrigation to slowly allow water to trickle to the roots of plants so that water will be evenly distributed in a costly manner while still allowing plant growth to occur; 2. Requests micro finance institutions run through the government be created in Afghanistan: (a) to provide small loans to previous opium farm owners, (b) with the land of person receiving loan must be checked by a Police Officer, (c) given no more than 30 years to repay loans back; 3. Encourages the Food and Agriculture Organization be used to apply their efforts in Afghanistan by giving previous opium farm owners food shelters to receive food portions after dealing with lack of money and food to provide for families; 4. Rejects the continuation of growing opium poppies on any property and if caught having opium on one’s property be fined and then tried at the International Court of Justice by whom they were accused of growing and selling the opium poppies; 5. Directs previous opium farmers to plant other crops such as wheat, grapes, and tree fruits such as walnuts, almonds, and mulberries that are efficient to fund one’s self and that is legal by using loans received from micro financing. B/3 Committee: UNODC Topic: Alternatives to Opium in Afghanistan Resolution on Opium in Afghanistan ECOSOC, Recognizing the economic benefits that opium cultivation has to the country of Afghanistan, Urging the use of other crops for economic stimulation, Mindful that Afghanistan’s climate is ideal for opium cultivation and that other crops are difficult to grow under such conditions, Desiring that opium trade be ceased, Acknowledging the UNODC’s previous effort to raise awareness through the World Drug Campaign; 1. Appeals for the collaboration between the Afghan government and WHO to improve the current state of water resources: a. Encouraging the use of drip irrigation to preserve water reservoirs, b. Implements the construction of desalination plants near key agricultural areas to allow for more water to be used to grow crops; 2. Implements the use of aerial and ground surveillance of areas suspected to be used for opium cultivation: a. The United Nations may use unmanned aircraft and ground surveillance to scan large areas for opium cultivation: i. Fields where opium is being cultivated may be sprayed with pesticides and all personnel working the fields will be taken into UN custody; 3. Encourages the use of a system to track suspected illicit funds: a. The UNODC and the 5th committee may join forces to track funds going to and from certain areas suspected of illicit activity, b. In addition, funds going to Afghanistan should also be tracked to ensure that the funds do not go towards opium cultivation; 4. Calls upon the assistance of the UN and countries surrounding Afghanistan to assist in developing alternative crops to opium: a. A team of botanists specializing in the climate of Afghanistan may be put together by the UNODC to assist in the planning of the growth of new crops in lieu of opium, b. Another team of economists should be then organized by the Afghan government to ensure the economic success of these new cash crops; 5. Offers the protection of all anonymous informants who report opium cultivation in Afghanistan to the UN: a. The UN will offer a program to keep the identity of informants secret and to ensure the safety of all informants; 6. Considers it desirable to offer subsidies to the Afghan government in return for their assurance that opium will not be grown: a. These subsidies from the UNODC funded by the 5th Committee given to the Afghan government will in turn be given to regional farmers as incentive to not grow opium: i. Any violation of the aforementioned policy will result in withdrawal of all subsidies; 7. Encourages the cooperation of all Middle Eastern states in the assistance of Afghanistan in improving their agricultural profit without the use of opium: a. The other Middle Eastern states are encouraged to provide assistance, be it manual labor or funds, to Afghanistan in cultivating new cash crops, b. Any country found to be conspiring with Afghanistan to corrupt and/or sabotage the UN’s efforts will have serious consequences to face; 8. Supports the use of sanctions should opium continue to be produced and distributed internationally through Afghanistan: a. Any country found to be in league with Afghanistan in producing and shipping opium will be subject to financial sanctions: i. Financial sanctions will be increased with repeated offences, ii. Repeated offences may eventually result in military action sponsored by the UN; 9. Urges the tightening of border control to ensure the prevention of distribution of opium: a. The UN can set up a corps of UN soldiers at checkpoints on the Afghan border: i. This corps would inspect and question all persons and vehicles attempting to cross the border, ii. Any person(s) found to be in possession of opium or any paraphernalia or cultivation tools will be subject to arrest; 10. Invites the Afghan government to organize the creation of clinics and help centers for opium abusers wishing to go through rehab: a. These clinics can be funded by grants from the UN’s World Bank and International Monetary Fund and will assist the addicted in their rehabilitation process, b. In addition, these clinics may reduce the demand for opium in Afghanistan, in turn leading to less need to grow opium. B/4 Topic: Alternatives to Opium in Afghanistan Committee: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime To ECOSOC, Fully aware that the plant opium is a main source of income for poor farmers in Southern Afghanistan, Realizing that some farmers are forced to grow these drugs by different cartels, Keeping in mind that providing all farmers with alternative crops will be hard and costly; 1. Encourages for countries to provide for farmers through asking for: a. Alterative growing crops for farmers, b. Protection from cartels, c. land to start a new farm on; 2. Draws attention to taking out cartels that are actually sponsoring the growing of opium drugs in Southern Afghanistan: a. Asks the government of Afghanistan to support the rainbow strategy in order to cut drug productions therefore forcing cartels to leave; 3. Emphasizes governments to discourage the growing of opium by: a. Increasing security within Afghanistan along with its border, b. Passed harsher laws on the punishment of possession or opium; 4. Calls upon the government to provide land for farmers that want to grow alternate crops. B/5 Committee: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Topic: Alternatives to Opium in Afghanistan Solutions to the Question Regarding Alternatives to Opium in Afghanistan ECOSOC, Acknowledging the involvement of the United Nations in the fight against the problem of Opium in Afghanistan, primarily in southwest regions, Recognizing the increasingly problematic issue of Afghanistan growing large amounts of opium, Noting that the people in the country of Afghanistan are part of one of the poorest nations around the globe and that these people must have means of survival if their only previous profit- maker of growing the drug opium is stripped away from them, Realizing that immediate actions must be taken in order to prevent the opium based economy to prosper through corruption of the Afghanistan government, Aware of the fact that the country of Afghanistan is the leader of opium production in the world, Regretting the suffering of many farmers too poor to provide for their family any other way than growing opium illegally, Declaring that the opium production in Afghanistan must quickly be brought down, along with the corruption of the government and its officials causing this production to continually grow every year in Afghanistan, Recalling three important resolutions in the matter relating to alternatives to opium in Afghanistan, which are Resolution 2005/24, Security Council Resolution 1735, and Security Council Resolution 1822, Supporting North American Treaty Organization (NATO) as well as other organizations assisting the UN in its struggle against Afghanistan’s opium production; 1. Provides the necessary funding for the improvements, alternate resources, and programs, which are managed by the UNODC (ECOSOC) and the Security Council, through the following: a. Part of the funds will come directly from a portion of the regular United Nations dues, b. Voluntary contributions of member nations or Non Government Organizations (NGOs) will provide some of the funds to implement the measures needed to provide alternatives to opium production, c. Further details on specifics of the funding issue will be finalized by the General Assembly’s 5th Committee, which is the part of United Nations that deals with the budgetary questions in the UN; 2. Determines to provide the farmers in Afghanistan with some monetary incentives: a. Providing a small sum money to provide for their families and to start a new business farming other crops or a new industry as a reward to those farmers who agree to stop growing opium will act as a great incentive for them to halt their growing of opium, b. This money as an incentive to the people of Afghanistan is essential to ensuring their compliance with stopping their growth of opium; 3. Encourages the increase of Afghanistan’s infrastructure by building new roads: a. A new network of roads accessible by farmers that have switched their production of products from opium to a new crop or industry must have roads connected from their farms to towns available to buy the goods sold by these farmers, b. These roads will provide these fortunate farmers with a new opportunity to make profits from their efforts legally and for their family’s benefit, not the drug lords anymore; 4. Supports the building of irrigation systems in Afghanistan for farmers: a. These systems serve as an incentive to farmers that stop their growing of opium to get away from the dangers of the drug lords and start a new business of growing legal crops successfully with fresh water readily available, b. The irrigation systems will provide all of the necessary water for growing crops besides opium that will legally provide the farmer’s family with profits and benefits of the new crop; 5. Considers it desirable to stop the corruption of the government and government officials of Afghanistan: a. These corrupt government officials have the potential to take away the farmers money incentives out of greed or support of the opium production, b. A neutral United Nations representative will monitor the officials in Afghanistan’s government and note the behaviors and actions of them to find out which officials are possible corrupt and leave it up to Afghanistan to deal properly with the corrupt people; 6. Urges the decrease of the power of the drug lords in Afghanistan: a. With the drug lords’ power decreasing in Afghanistan, the opium production will, in turn, decrease with the drug lords’ power, b. The transition of many farmers from illegal growing of opium to legal farming of crops such as wheat with proper irrigation will greatly impact the drug lords’ power over opium production; 7. Confirms the necessity of increasing law enforcement against opium farmers: a. Law enforcement officers must patrol farms throughout their region in Afghanistan looking to crack down on farmers still growing opium, b. This strict monitoring will make farmers change their ways of growing opium to a more beneficial, legal technique of making profits for themselves and their families; 8. Stresses the importance of the development of a cash crop in Afghanistan that can be sold on the world market: a. A cash crop for farmers to grow once they stop growing their opium must be ready for them to make profits off of, b. Wheat will be the cash crop that the government will give farmers to grow in Afghanistan, c. With the newly implemented irrigation systems, wheat will grow very efficiently and provide profits for the farmers on the world market; 9. Calls upon Afghanistan’s government to make accurate statistics about opium in their country: a. Detailed statistics on the farmers that are growing opium in Afghanistan and the amounts of opium farmed by them must be kept annually, b. The government of Afghanistan must also try to keep track of the amount of opium processed by drug lords and spread around annually as well; 10. Directs the honest monitoring of the actions of Afghanistan’s government officials in relation to opium and their farmers: a. The president of Afghanistan, Hamid Karzai, should monitor all officials close to him and involvement in opium and send reports to the United Nations regarding different officials and where their loyalties actually lie, b. A United Nations member should also be watching the actions of all the officials in Afghanistan’s government and making reports directly to the United Nations.