The Golden Gate Bridge - Augsbur

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					          The Golden Gate Bridge

Presented by:
        The Third Row Six
        Brett Portner-Kuhlow
        Scott Tumm
            Important Dates
• 1920: A feasibility Study
  recommends construction
  of the Golden Gate Bridge
• 1923: The State
  Legislature Passes the
  Golden Gate Bridge and
  Highway District Act of
  California into Law
• 1930: Joseph
  Strauss, Chief Engineer
  submits his final plans for
  the bridge
• January 5, 1933:
  Construction of the bridge
• February 1933:
    Anchorages are
•   June 1935: The
    towers are completed
•   March 1936: The
    suspension cables are
•   April 1937: The deck
    surface is completed
•Official Pedestrian Day:
      May 27, 1937

•Bridge opens for traffic:
      May 28, 1937
Spanning the Golden Gate
• The entrance to San Francisco Bay was named
    the ‘Golden Gate’ by early settlers
•   One mile wide gap
•   60 Mph wind tunnel like gusts of wind for much
    of the year
•   2.5 Million cubic feet of water per second pass
    through the Golden Gate
•   Currents
•   Earthquakes
  Project Management Before the
         Manhattan Project
James Reed        Joseph Strauss
General Manager   Chief Engineer
Joseph Strauss: Chief Engineer
            Strauss the Man
• Rude
• Short-tempered
• Arrogant
• Labeled ‘brilliant bully’ by his peers
-Strauss thought big. His graduate thesis
  proposed a 50 mile long bridge across the
  Bering Strait that would connect Siberia
  and Alaska.
Build a bridge spanning the Golden Gate
  -Must be tall enough for ships to pass underneath
There was no real set timetable; managers
ensured the project progressed as quickly as

                  Financial Facts
•   $35 million in bonds
•   $38 million in interest
•   Bridge completely paid off on June 30, 1971
•   Bridge completely paid for by tolls
•   No state or federal money went into the bridge
•   Bank of America extended a $5 million line of credit to
    the bridge project
•   People put up their homes, farms and businesses as
    collateral for the bridge to generate the $35 million in
    bond issue
•   Presently, bridge still operates only with money collected
    from tolls
             To Build a Bridge
• Strauss spent three years researching his first
•   He assembled a team of engineers to create the
    final design
•   Strauss expected that three dozen workers
    would die during the construction, about one for
    every one million dollars spent on the
•   11 deaths occurred
     Black Wednesday: February
             17, 1937

A scaffold slipped off the bridge and through
   the protective netting below, taking ten
               men to their deaths.
           Safety Under Strauss

•   1st Mandatory use of hard hats
•   Issuing of safety belts and tie off lines
•   Dizzy riveters: respirators for burning paint fumes
•   Riveters and ironworkers required to wear leather gloves
•   Sun goggles, sun-block lotion
•   Field hospital at south end staffed full time; treated
    12,000 injuries by December, 1935.
•   No deaths for the first 3 years and 8 months of project
                The Net

$120,000 Safety net
  suspended 60 feet
    below the road
   surface: nineteen
      men saved
    The ‘Halfway to Hell’ Club

• Nineteen official members, some jumped
  for fun
• Named by tabloids looking for a story
• First official member hit the ground as
  well, broke four vertebrae
Unexpected Delays and Challenges

• Temporary trestle knocked over twice
• The ten day San Francisco Strike
• Fort Point
                    Fort Point
• Located directly under
  south end of bridge
• Historians and the
  community in general
  protested to preserve the
      Records held by the Bridge
              (in 1937)

• Longest bridge
• Tallest free standing structure in the world
 (over 740 feet)
           Golden Gate Fun Facts
• Riveting crew held unofficial speed contests; they sometimes threw
    red-hot rivets distances of 70 feet or more
•   80,000 miles of pencil diameter steel cable in bridge
•   Steel for the bridge was made in Pennsylvania and ‘shipped’ to
    California via the Panama Canal
•   $75,000 paid in tolls each day
•   A gold rivet was hammered into place to celebrate the completion of
    the bridge
•   ‘International Orange’
•   Blind woman and guide dog the first pedestrians ever to cross the
•   1.25 billion cars have crossed bridge since ’37
•   Bridge ‘Firsts’
        First person to cross on stilts
        First person to cross sticking tongue out all the way
        First wooden hat to cross the bridge
• Each anchorage weighs as much as 17,000 elephants
1.   Barter, James. The Golden Gate
     Bridge. San Diego: Lucent
     Books, 2001.
2.   The Golden Gate Bridge. Narr.
     Jack Perkins. Videocassette.
     A&E Home Video, 1994.
3.   Strauss, Joseph. The Golden
     Gate Bridge. San Francisco:
     Golden Gate Bridge and
     Highway District, 1938.
4.   Van Der Zee, John. The Gate:
     The True Story of the Design
     and Construction of the Golden
     Gate Bridge. New York: Simon
     and Schuster, 1986.