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									Curiosity and engagement with learning:                  Dr. Mary Ainley
From disposition to on-task behaviour                    Psychology Department
                                                         Redmond Barry Building
AINLEY, M. (University of Melbourne).                    University of Melbourne, VIC, 3010                                    Tel: (03) 8344 6291

In previous studies (e.g., Ainley, 1998) it was          Sex differences in general intelligence: a re-
demonstrated that curiosity was positively               appraisal
related to students‟ perceptions of their
general school environment. In particular                ANDERSON, M. (The University of Western
students who had strong depth-of-interest                Australia), REID, C. (Murdoch University),
curiosity, that is, had a general tendency to            McCANN, B., TEO, G., & THOMPSON, T.
want to know and understand novel or                     (The University of Western Australia).
puzzling phenomena, reported perceptions of    
school as satisfying, school as a place where
important and valued activities occur. To                The received wisdom of over a century of
understand further the role of curiosity in              intelligence testing is that there is no sex
students‟ active engagement with specific                difference in general intelligence. Recently,
classroom activities, measures of curiosity as           however, Lynn (1999) has ventured that in
a general disposition were investigated as               fact there is a male superiority in general
predictors of students‟ reactions to specific            intelligence of about 4 IQ points and that this
learning tasks. On-task reactions included               has a precise developmental time-course,
measures of students‟ task goals, self-                  determined largely by the maturation of the
efficacy, affect, and after they had completed           bigger male brain. We revisit data collected
the task, their satisfaction with what they had          during 10 years of Project Kids at the
achieved. The results of a number of studies             University of Western Australia on
that have used a common methodology (BTL                 approximately 1000 children aged between 7
computer software) will be presented. The                and 11. Our intelligence measures include
advantage of this methodology is that it                 tests of fluid intelligence and the Wechsler
allows us to track the contingencies between             Scales. Preliminary data analysis suggests
action and reaction across a task. One of the            that indeed there are sex differences during
early studies using this methodology (see                development but they are not what Lynn
Ainley, Hidi, & Berndorff, 2002)                         would predict.
demonstrated that depth-of-interest curiosity
influenced the level of interest triggered by            A/Professor Mike Anderson
simple exposure to the topic of a reading task.          Head of School
In later studies different tasks, different topics       School of Psychology
and different choices have been available to             The University of Western Australia
participants. The patterns of association                35 Stirling Highway
between curiosity as a general orientation               Crawley, Western Australia, 6009
students bring to their learning, and a range of         Phone: 61 8 6488 3264
on-task measures will be described. The
potency of this disposition in relation to
students‟ engagement with specific
achievement tasks raises questions about the
origins and development of individual
differences in depth-of-interest curiosity.

PGR Project: Targeting parents to
improve children‟s food choices                        The secrets of their success: Explaining the
                                                       long term benefits of school-based activity
BAKER, H., & STRINGFELLOW, E. (The                     participation
Cancer Council Western Australia).                                 BARBER, B. (Murdoch University).
Healthy eating and physical activity are
important for healthy growth and                       There is growing evidence that participation
development during childhood, and both                 in school and community-based activities
physical and mental health across the lifespan.        facilitates positive development (e.g., Eccles
Parental influences on food patterns are               and Barber, 1999; Larson, 2000; Mahoney &
critical in the development of food                    Cairns, 1997; Roth, Brooks-Gunn, Murray, &
preferences. The Parental Guidance                     Foster, 1998; Youniss & Yates, 1997).
Recommended (PGR) Project targets parents              Participation in activities is positively related
of children aged 2-12 years and aims to                to achievement, self-esteem, willingness to
promote the increased consumption of                   help others, leadership qualities, physical
vegetables, fruits, breads and cereals to              health, educational and occupational
Western Australian children aged 2-12 years.           attainment, and civic involvement in young
PGR is a train-the-trainer model, where health         adulthood (e.g., Barber, Eccles, & Stone,
professionals such as child health/school              2001; Holland & Andre, 1987; Quinn, 1995;
nurses and dietitians are trained by the PGR           Otto, 1975; 1976; Scales, Benson, Leffert, &
Project Officer to run workshops for parents           Blyth, 2000). The evidence for benefits is
in their local community. Evaluation results           encouraging, but we are only beginning to
show health professionals trained as PGR               understand the processes behind the gains,
Educators rate their satisfaction with the             and the individual differences in advantage.
training highly. Parents attending PGR                 Using a 20-year longitudinal data set, this talk
workshops are also satisfied with PGR                  will consider how attributes of the youth, the
workshops and the majority intends to                  activities, and their social systems interact to
improve their children‟s/family‟s eating               predict positive development. Activity-based
habits after attending one or more workshops.          identities, peer group characteristics, and
Challenges implementing the PGR Project                connections to school-based adults such as
include: a lack of interest from the majority of       teachers and coaches all emerge as key
WA schools, a lack of parent interest and              aspects of the participation experience.
parents‟ reluctance to form groups to
advocate for improved nutrition and physical           Professor Bonnie Barber
activity options for children at school and in         School of Psychology
the community. This paper presents the                 Murdoch University
results of the three year project and discusses        Murdoch WA 6150
the project‟s successes and challenges.                Phone 08 9360 2879
Lessons learned from the PGR Project and its
evaluation can be used to further improve              Complex beginnings: Initial formal
PGR and inform the development of new                  engagement in sport and music.
nutrition initiatives.
                                                       BELTMAN, S. (Curtin University).
Helen Baker                                  
The Cancer Council Western Australia
46 Ventnor Ave, West Perth WA 6005.                    This paper takes a person-context perspective
Ph: (08) 9212 4353                                     and examines factors involved in the
commencement of formal engagement in                    Response of Motivation Spiral Models
sport and music. In sport this means joining a          (MSM) to context: Developing children‟s
community sporting organisation and                     motivation in reading, movement and
commencing individual or group instrumental             social activities
lessons in music. Debate regarding the
relative importance of “nature versus nurture”          BORNHOLT, LJ. (University of Sydney).
or “person versus context” is still present in
the literature on talent development in general
(Barab & Plucker, 2002), and within the                 Major consequences for health and well-being
domains of sport (Williams & Reilly, 2000)              demand better understanding of children‟s
and music (Howe, Davidson, & Sloboda,                   motivation to engage in cognitive, social and
1998). The reported experiences of 30 high-             physical activities. Does a common model
achieving athletes and musicians, obtained              apply? The aim of this project is to examine
through two semi-structured interviews, were            context effects on the Motivational Spiral
analysed to explore the way personal and                Model (MSM). MSM integrates particular
contextual factors operated together to shape           thoughts, feelings and behaviour, feeding
initial engagement. Adolescents in secondary            forward over time. There are three main
school sport and music programs and adults              features: self concepts are central to
ranging from community musicians to                     motivation, aspects vary in stability/response
Olympic athletes explained how they began               to experience, and cross-links create a
playing their major sport or instrument.                spiralling effect over time. The hypothesis is
Participants played a range of team sports and          that our explanations of developing
different instruments. Characteristics relating         motivations need to vary with the context, in
to the individual person and to the context             this project across reading, movement and
emerged but the relative importance of each             friends. Participants were younger and older
factor in initial engagement varied between             girls and boys (N = 87) at Time 1 and Time 2,
participants. The main finding is that, for each        a year apart. MSM-R about reading links self
participant, personal and contextual factors            concepts, strategies and participation, and
operate together in a complex, reciprocal               highlights variations in stability/
process. For example, an individual might               responsiveness. Cross-links are negative
demonstrate a particular ability or interest, but       feelings to subsequent performance, and
engagement might only occur when a family               reciprocal links for self concepts and positive
or community has the resources to support               feelings about reading. MSM-M about
this interest. The findings support a person-           movement shows that participation constrains
context view of the nurturing of talented               worry about movement, and positive feelings
individuals and have implications for                   about movement supports subsequent
understanding engagement and persistence in             performance. There were also variations in
other domains.                                          stability-responsiveness to experience in
                                                        ephemeral feelings, responsive self concepts
Susan Beltman                                           and participation, and stable indicators of
Lecturer in Education                                   performance on physical activities.
Curtin University of Technology                         MSM-F about making friends shows that
GPO Box U1987                                           feeling guilty may constrain children‟s self
Perth WA 6845                                           concepts about making friends, and that self
Tel: (08) 9266 2161                                     concepts may constrain feelings of disgust. In
                                                        addition, there are also typical variations in
                                                        stability-responsiveness to experience. The
                                                        findings show the distinctions, as well as the
                                                        commonalities, in the models of children‟s
motivations for cognitive, social and physical         48%, median age 13 years), and young adults
activities. Outcomes are critical to                   (N = 117, women 44% men 56%, median age
understanding developments in children‟s               20 years). Results show that indicators of
motivation to read, engage in physical                 identity are reliable for adolescents and young
movement and making friends. Further                   adults, and suggest the validity of identity of
research is therefore worthwhile on                    place in relation to behavioural intentions to
Motivational Spiral Models for other                   act as a citizen. For both adolescents and
activities in diverse clinical and education           young adults, indicators of individuality,
settings.                                              belonging and place are discrete aspects of
                                                       identity, with moderate links among
Dr Laurel Bornholt                                     indicators of local-regional-national identities.
School of Development & Learning                       This means that identity of place is in addition
University of Sydney                                   to, and not necessarily associated with,
NSW 2006                                               personal identity as a sense of individuality
Phone 02 9351 2618                                     and a sense of one‟s belonging socially.
                                                       Findings are ital to understanding the
Citizenship as a sense of belonging and                categorisations about oneself as a citizen that
identity of place for adolescents and young            support/constrain young people‟s health,
adults in urban communities                            education, well-being and active participation
                                                       in their local communities.
(University of Sydney).                                Dr Laurel Bornholt                           School of Development & Learning
                                                       University of Sydney
Issues of identity and belonging are central to        NSW 2006
young people‟s development as they approach            Phone 02 9351 2618
adulthood. This project is concerned with
social identity in context. The focus is on            Phonological recoding and rapid
young people‟s ideas of citizenship. It is clear       orthographic learning in third-grade
that „citizenship‟ is a contested concept –            children‟s silent reading: A critical test of
although we can agree that being a citizen is          the self-teaching hypothesis
more than being of voting age. The aim of
this project is to understand more about how           BOWEY, JA., & MULLER, D. (University of
young people think about their identity. We            Queensland).
argue that categorisations of oneself as a   
citizen may refer to the place as a geographic
location, as well as personal-social relations         This research investigated rapid orthographic
with people in the community. To                       learning following silent reading in third-
disentangle these dimensions we consider               grade children. In each of two test sessions six
indicators of personal and social identity, and        days apart, children silently read a series of
a new identity of place about the local area,          short stories to later answer some
region and nation. The hypothesis is that ones         comprehension questions. Each story
identity of place is not necessarily associated        contained four or eight repetitions of a
with a sense of individuality and belonging            different target nonword, denoting the name
socially. Correlational evidence is used to            of a place, object, animal, or plant. In the
examine measurement models, and to                     second session, after the stories had been
examine identity of place, in relation to              read, children read short lists of the target
individuality and belonging. The participants          nonwords or homophonic alternatives. They
were adolescents (N = 103, girls 52% boys              were then given an orthographic choice task,
in which they had to select which of three             risk factors for depression and/or anxiety
alternatives (the target, the homophone,               there are women who not only cope with the
visually similar foil) was the “word” that they        challenge of caring for infant twins but
had seen in the stories. Children read target          actually enjoy the first year of their twins‟
nonwords faster than homophones, indicating            lives. This paper presents data from 11 semi-
that they had formed functional orthographic           structured interviews and two brief
representations of the target nonwords                 questionnaires used to explore the internal
through phonologically recoding them during            and external resources utilised by mothers of
silent story reading. They also preferred target       twins during pregnancy and in the first year
nonwords to homophones in the orthographic             postpartum. Resources discussed include an
choice task. These findings provide critical           ability to see the bright or funny side of
evidence in support of Share‟s self-teaching           circumstances (internal), rallying the troops
through phonological recoding hypothesis.              (external), organisational skills (internal) and
However, rapid orthographic learning can               establishing a routine (internal). This study
occur in the absence of successful                     provides insight to the way families manage
phonological recoding. Some children who               the arrival of twins and the subsequent impact
could not accurately name target nonwords at           infant twins have on the emotional health and
post-test nevertheless displayed a significant         well-being of mothers.
preference for target nonwords over
homophones in the orthographic choice task.            Janette Brooks
                                                       School of Psychology
Associate Professor Judith Bowey                       Edith Cowan University
School of Psychology                                   100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027
University of Queensland                               Ph: (08) 6304 5194
St Lucia
Queensland 4072                                        Results of the Western Australian cohort of
Tel: 07 3365 6885                                      the beyondblue National Postnatal
                                                       Depression Program
The emotional health and well being of
mothers of twins                                       BROOKS, J., DOHERTY, D., &
                                                       SPEELMAN, C. (Edith Cowan University &
BROOKS, J. (Edith Cowan University).                   Women and Infants Research Foundation).                          

As with most areas of psychological research,          Postnatal depression (PND) affects about 14%
a pathological or mental illness perspective           of women who give birth, and recent evidence
has been employed to explore the emotional             suggests that many women may in fact be
health and well being of mothers of twins.             depressed during their pregnancy. Research
The outcome is consistent, although limited,           has linked depression at this time to chronic
evidence that the emotional health and well            depression, marital difficulties and
being of mothers of twins is poorer and they           behavioural and cognitive delays in children.
are at higher risk of becoming depressed,              Despite the prevalence and consequences of
anxious and clinically exhausted after                 depression occurring antenatally and
childbirth than mothers of singletons. All             postnatally, most women commonly remain
mothers of twins reportedly experience severe          unidentified and untreated. The beyondblue
fatigue and an excessive workload in the first         PND Program looked at the use of a simple
year postpartum, but not all mothers of twins          mental-health screening tool, the Edinburgh
experience symptoms of depression and                  Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), in an
anxiety. Even with the presence of established         Australian population, to identify women who
may be at risk of antenatal and postnatal            Depression Program, the Western Australian
depression. A demographic and psychosocial           (WA) research team conducted a project
risk factors questionnaire was also completed        focusing on the mental health of women
by participants to examine the range of              pregnant with or caring for infant twins and
potential risk factors associated with               higher order multiples. A 45-page information
depressive outcomes. Antenatal screening for         booklet was developed in collaboration with
depression occurred at 26-34 weeks gestation,        the Australian Multiple Birth Association
consisting of the EPDS and the                       (AMBA) and 12,000 copies distributed
demographic/psychosocial risk factors                nationally to expectant or new families with
questionnaire. Four thousand, eight hundred          multiples. In addition to national education
and twenty nine women were accessed                  and awareness raising initiatives this project
through antenatal clinics at three major             aimed to explore the assertion that mothers of
obstetric hospitals. Postnatal screening with        twins are at higher risk of developing
the EPDS was conducted at approximately 12           perinatal depression than mothers of
weeks postpartum in collaboration with WA            singletons by investigating the incidence of
child health nurses (with a return rate of           depressive symptoms amongst women giving
approximately 80%). This paper will present          birth to singletons or twins in WA. Of the
the main findings from the analyses of the           4829 WA women participating in the
4829 women recruited in Western Australia            beyondblue Program, 121 women gave birth
from 2002 to 2004, as part of the beyondblue         to twins (2.5%). Three focus groups were also
PND Program and outline educational                  conducted with mothers of multiples from
initiatives conducted with health care               across Australia to explore the emotional
professionals over the four years of the             experiences of women during pregnancy and
Program.                                             postpartum, the current level of support
                                                     services and information availability. This
Janette Brooks                                       multifaceted project provides much needed
WA Project Manager                                   information on the mental health status of
The Beyondblue National Postnatal                    mothers of multiples, how to best support
Depression Program                                   these families and subsequently provide the
School of Psychology                                 healthiest environment for the emotional and
Edith Cowan University                               cognitive development of infant twins.
100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027
Ph: (08) 6304 5194                                   Janette Brooks
                                                     WA Project Manager
Emotional health for families with multiple          The Beyondblue National Postnatal
birth children                                       Depression Program
                                                     School of Psychology
BROOKS, J., & SPEELMAN, C. (Edith                    Edith Cowan University
Cowan University).                                   100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027                                  Ph: (08) 6304 5194

The dramatic increase in the numbers of
multiple births over the last decade is of
concern to various health professionals as the
physical and emotional risks for the mother,
the infants, and the families are numerous.
These families have special needs that are not
always fully understood or appreciated. As
part of the beyondblue National Postnatal
Longitudinal study of New Zealand                    Children and decision-making: An
children and families- development phase             impossible dream?

BROWN, I., & MACKAY, R. (Ministry of                 CAMPBELL, A. (Edith Cowan University)
Social Development)                        
                                                     This paper explores children‟s views of their
The New Zealand Ministry of Social                   ability to make decisions about their future
Development is leading the development of a          following parental separation. Between
new Longitudinal Study of New Zealand                November 2002 and April 2003, 16 children
Children and Families. This is in recognition        aged between 7 and 17 years were invited to
of the utility of longitudinal studies for           discuss their perceptions of their ability to
understanding the complex processes of child         participate in decisions about them. Their
development, the recent upsurge in                   comments provide some insight into their
investment in longitudinal studies by other          understandings about how decisions are made
governments around the world, and the value          within their families and how decision-
of two existing New Zealand longitudinal             making processes could be more child-
studies, based in Dunedin and Christchurch.          inclusive. The paper presents results of the
The paper will describe the development              research which indicates that children are
phase of the project, during which the               aware of current decision-making processes
contractor will be required to define the            within their families and have ideas about
sample design, envision how the study will           how these processes could be more respectful
proceed from birth to adulthood, specify the         of the children about whom adults are
range of information to be collected in four         deciding. Recommendations arising from the
data collection waves during the first two           research indicate that children have a role in
years and conduct a range of tests of the data       decision-making and that their ideas have the
collection procedures and measures. An               potential to change the way in which adults
account will be given of the context, goals,         perceive them.
process and governance arrangements for the
development phase. The paper will discuss            Dr Alan Campbell
the range of questions that the study proper         School of Psychology
will be expected to address and how these            Edith Cowan University
will inform policy in the area of children and       Joondalup WA 6027
families. The presentation will also touch on        Phone 08 6304 5021
how the Longitudinal Study of Australian
Children (LSAC) is informing the                     The multifactorial nature of theory of
development phase of its counterpart in New          mind: A structural modelling study
                                                     CASHION, L., DRYER, R., & KIERNAN,
Isobel Brown                                         M. (Charles Sturt University)
Ministry of Social Development
PO Box 12 136                                        Although theory of mind is often referred to
Wellington                                           as if it is a unitary construct, it is recognised
NEW ZEALAND                                          in the literature that a wide variety of abilities
Tel: 64-4-918 9518                                   are covered by this term.The descriptors first-,
                                                     second- and higher-order theory of mind are
                                                     often used to relate to the difficulty and
                                                     cognitive capacities required to complete
various theory of mind tasks. Despite the              line with current developmental theory.
widespread use of this nomenclature, the               Questionnaire data were collected from 2572
empirical support this practice has essentially        families, participating in the 2yr, 6yr, and
been based on the ages at which the majority           10yr follow-up of a longitudinal prospective
of children pass certain tests. The present            study of children‟s health and well-being.
study examines the multifactorial nature of            Environmental stress was indicated by
theory of mind using structural equation               measures of stressful life events, family
modelling. Seven theory of mind tasks were             functioning and maternal affect. Resistance
administered to 216 Australian primary                 factors were indicated by mother‟s report of
school children aged between 6 and 12 years            her own social support at yr2, by child‟s
as part of a larger study. Structural models of        verbal ability at yr5 and by child‟s perceived
one, two and three factors based on current            self-efficacy at yr10. Internalising symptoms
theoretical perespectives were developed and           on the Child Behaviour Checklist indicated
tested against the data for best fit. The three-       the child‟s emotional well-being. Path
factor model provided a better fit than either         analysis using structural equation modeling
the one- or two- factor models. The current            showed that the resistance factors moderated
research provides support for theories that            the relationship between environmental stress
regard theory of mind as a multifactorial              and psychological adjustment as
construct. Implications of these findings are          hypothesised. Over time, these factors shifted
discussed.                                             from being located within the parent-child
                                                       dyad at yr2 to being internally located within
Larry Cashion                                          the child at yrs 5 and 10. Furthermore,
Doctoral Student (Developmental                        consistent with the child‟s progression from
Psychology)                                            concrete to abstract reasoning, resources
School of Social Sciences & Liberal Studies            shifted from concrete in yr5 to more abstract
Charles Sturt University                               forms in yr10. The impact of psychosocial
Panorama Avenue                                        stressors on child emotional well-being may
Bathurst NSW 2795                                      be moderated by resources that are both
Tel: 02 6582 6038                                      external and internal to the child. The nature
                                                       of these protective factors is dynamic such
Environmental stress and emotional well-               that specific protective factors are more
being in childhood: Developmental shifts in            important at specific times in development.
specific moderating factors through time
                                                       Jacqueline Cesareo
CESAREO, JM., FRENCH, DJ., SLY, PD.                    MPsych/PhD Candidate (Clinical)
(University of Western Australia) SILBURN,             School of Psychology
SR. (Curtin University of Technology) &                The University of Western Australia
THE RAINE STUDY INVESTIGATORS                          35 Stirling Hwy
(TVW Telethon Institute for Child Health               Crawley WA 6009
Research).                                             Tel: (08) 9451 2121

The aim of the present study was to apply a
developmental perspective to inform current
understanding of the relationship between
environmental stress and psychological
adjustment in children. It was proposed that
the resistance factors most likely to moderate
this relationship would change over time in
Effects of multiple study contexts on false            retrospectively. Previously, information was
recognition of pictures: Evidence for                  predominantly obtained from anecdotal
developmental differences in recognition               retrospective descriptions by parents or
memory                                                 carers, these being reliant on memory.
                                                       Recently, a more reliable way to sample
CHALMERS, KA., & PETERSEN, B.                          behaviour in order to establish the ontogeny
(University of Newcastle).                             of autism has been used: the retrospective                        analysis of home videos of infants who are
                                                       later diagnosed with autism. This technique
Developmental differences in episodic                  aids in identifying early autistic
recognition of pictures were investigated in a         characteristics years before a child is
multi-list paradigm. Preschool and                     diagnosed. The data from a retrospective
kindergarten children aged 3 ½ to 6 years              video study will be presented. The aim in this
viewed pictures of common objects presented            study is to assess the early social problems in
over two consecutive days. In a subsequent             eye contact, affect and shared attention
episodic recognition test containing both              experienced by infants with autism, in
studied and non-studied pictures, children             comparison to developmentally matched
were asked to indicate whether each picture            children. The videotapes of 23 infants (aged
was old (presented during either study                 0 to 24 months) who later received a
session) or new (not previously studied).              diagnosis of autism, and 14 infants without
Results revealed a positive relationship               autism, were used in this study. Both groups
between age and recognition accuracy (d‟),             were matched on both current (between the
with developmental differences being                   ages of 3 to 5 years) verbal and non-verbal
primarily due to a higher false alarm rate for         mental age. The infants with autism showed
younger than older children. The findings are          deficits in eye contact and smiling from as
interpreted as being due to developmental              early as the first 5 months of life, and deficits
differences in the ability to reinstate multiple       in non-verbal communicative behaviours
study contexts.                                        (e.g., pointing) became apparent in the second
                                                       year of life. The results indicate that autism
Dr Kerry A Chalmers                                    can be distinguished from developmental
School of Behavioural Sciences                         delay within the first year of life.
Aviation Bldg
University of Newcastle                                Sally Clifford
Callaghan NSW 2308                                     Department of Psychological Science
Tel: 02 4921 5757                                      La Trobe University
                                                       Bundoora VIC 3086
Assessing early social behaviour in children           Ph:    03 9471 2151
with autism using home video observations
                                                       A school approach to enhancing resilience
CLIFFORD, S. (La Trobe University).                    in children
                                                       COHEN, L., PIKE, LT., & POOLEY, J-A.
One of the most pervasive and commonly                 (Edith Cowan University).
reported problems in young children with     
autism is the disordered sharing of attention, a
deficit that emerges during infancy. Despite           This paper will share our research which
this, diagnosis usually occurs after the infancy       reported on the contributions of the children
years. Therefore, much of the information on           and young people in identifying the protective
very early autistic symptomatology is derived          factors which have a beneficial effect on the
child. The findings of this study suggested             Professor Max Coltheart
that if a sense of belonging can be identified          ARC Federation Fellow
and nurtured in young people, it is possible            Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science
that the beneficial effects such as reciprocal          Macquarie University NSW 2109
friendships, belonging to a group, and pro-             Phone 02 9850 8086
social behaviours may develop and continue
throughout the individual‟s lifespan. The               Exploring women‟s experiences of a
words of the children will illustrate the               medically necessary caesarean
connections between some childhood issues
and how they contribute to resilience. The              COTTERELL, M., PIKE, LT., & MURPHY,
financial, social and psychological                     PT. (Edith Cowan University).
implications for various institutions such as
the education and justice systems will be               Caesarean delivery accounts for
discussed.                                              approximately one in four births both in
                                                        Australia and on a global level. Examination
Dr Lynne Cohen                                          of the experience of caesarean delivery is
School of Psychology                                    limited, although as caesarean delivery rates
Edith Cowan University                                  are increasing, a practical understanding of
Joondalup, WA 6027                                      the constructs surrounding surgical birth
Phone 08 6304 5575                                      needs to be gained. Much research has
                                                        explored caesarean birth in terms of the
Developmental disorders of language and                 experience as comparable to other modes of
literacy                                                delivery and peripheral events, such as
                                                        societal views that can impact on the overall
COLTHEART, M. (Macquarie University).                   experience. The present study aims to attempt                                     to understand the unique and personal
                                                        interpretation the woman makes of her
Most children learn easily and effortlessly to          experience, through exploring the pre-birth,
speak and to understand spoken language, but            delivery and post-partum constructs that occur
a significant number of them – about 7% - do            during a medically necessary caesarean birth
not; these are children suffering from Specific         procedure. An interpretative
Language Impairment (SLI). Many people                  phenomenological approach was utilised with
diagnosed in childhood as exhibiting SLI will           conversational style interviews of 18 women.
still have language abnormalities in                    The interviews were transcribed verbatim and
adulthood. In this talk I will summarise the            two superordinate themes emerged after
features of SLI with particular emphasis on             initial individual analysis with a network
the different subtypes of SLI which can be              design and overall analysis with a thematic
distinguished. Even those children who                  conceptual matrix of birth experience and
acquire spoken language completely normally             post partum events. The superordinate themes
may show a specific difficulty in acquiring             of disappointment and acceptance were
written language abilities – the ability to read        directly related to mode of delivery,
or the ability to spell/write. Developmental            unplanned or planned. High incidence of
disorder of literacy also comes in subtypes;            traumatic delivery and Post-natal depression
these will be described and interpreted in              were found. Women perceived post partum
terms of a model of how normal reading and              care to be inadequate and it is suggested that
spelling is accomplished, and some current              care needs to be reflective of delivery context.
research on treating such reading and spelling
difficulties will be discussed.                         Michelle Tolson
                                                        School of Psychology
Edith Cowan University                                 Veronica Dall
Joondalup WA 6027                                      Centre for International Health
                                                       Curtin University of Technology
Child development in Bangladesh: The                   GPO Box U1987, Perth
determinants of malnutrition relapse                   WA 6845
among Bangladeshi children following a
food supplementation program                           Fluid intelligence and the many faces of
                                                       executive function
DALL, V., & EARNEST, J. (Curtin
University of Technology).                             DAVIS, HL. (Murdoch University).               

Malnutrition is a complex global issue                 Executive function (EF), including the ability
resulting from interplay of social and                 to inhibit distracting information, to switch
biomedical determinants that are rooted in             attention efficiently, to maintain and update
poverty and discrimination. It is characterised        goals in working memory and to plan and
by growth failure with a child‟s bodyweight            monitor behaviour, has been implicated in
less than the ideal for the child‟s age (WHO,          individual differences and changes in fluid
2000). The “three pillars of well-being”               intelligence throughout the lifespan. Debate
according to the World Health Organisation is          surrounds the issue of whether EF is a single
a complex interaction of the food we                   construct that can be equated with g. There is
consume, the environment we live and the               further disagreement about whether it can
overall state of our health. The purpose of            account for individual differences in fluid
this research was to identify the determinants         intelligence within age groups as well as
of malnutrition relapse among a core group of          developmental change. This study addresses
Bangladeshi children under the age of three            the questions of whether executive function
years who despite having had food                      forms a unitary construct among children and
supplementation to boost their low                     whether it is associated with differences in
bodyweight through the Bangladesh                      fluid intelligence both between and within age
Integrated Nutrition Project fail to be                groups. Thirty-four 7-year-olds and 40 10-
rehabilitated. The research explored the               year-olds completed a Stroop colour-word
dietary perceptions, behavioural issues of the         task, an attention switching task, measures of
children and of the guardians or parents of            forward and backward digit span and Raven‟s
these children plus any other socio-cultural           Progressive Matrices. Despite the fact that all
factors. Research fieldwork was conducted in           of these measures showed clear
Faridpur in rural south Bangladesh. Data               developmental change, the EF measures
gathering techniques used were participant             showed little to no correlation with each other
observation together with interviewing of              and made substantially independent
parents and guardians of the children,                 contributions to developmental differences in
chronological recording of field notes, memos          fluid intelligence. None of the EF measures
and a personal reflective journal. A total of          correlated with age-standardised fluid
167 children‟s parents were interviewed.               intelligence, although standard deviation of
Poverty, poor socio-economic conditions,               reaction time did. These findings are
household food insecurity, lack of clean               inconsistent with the notion that EF is a
running water, poor sanitation, lack of                unitary construct. They also suggest that
affordable accessible health care and                  developing executive functions may
transport, and concerns with program                   contribute to intellectual development, but not
implementation were some of the problems               to within-age differences, during childhood.
identified with malnutrition relapse.
Dr Helen Davis                                          Managing the normative tasks of adult life
School of Psychology                                    and the exceptional demands of type 1
Murdoch University                                      diabetes
South St, Murdoch WA 6150
Tel. 08 9360 2859                                       DODSON S., KELLY G., & LAWRENCE
                                                        JA. (The University of Melbourne).
Constructing personal transitions to adult    
life as a student in the 21 st century
                                                        How do people manage normative
DODDS, AE., & LAWRENCE, JA. (The                        developmental tasks at the same time as
University of Melbourne).                               managing type1 diabetes, a life-influencing                                  chronic illness? Individual differences in
                                                        perceptions of their experiences and their
As individual young adults construct their              management styles point to the need for
own experiences and priorities to cope with             person-oriented and in-depth analyses of
changing circumstances, they give priority to           people‟s meanings for the experiences of
different parts of their lives. We asked over           chronic illness, and the use of personal and
200 advanced psychology students to build up            environmental resources. In Study 1 we used
an on-line „life map‟ of the organisation of            qualitative analyses of the accounts of their
their lives, identifying the parts that they saw        personal development made by 24 women
as either central or peripheral, and                    (aged from 18 to 55 years) with type1
commenting on personal experiences of                   diabetes. While making varying observations
change and transition. The interactive                  about their experiences of diabetes, the
computer program allowed students to draw               women generally described it as an intrusive
connecting links of influence between                   force that disrupted everyday living and plans.
different parts of their lives. We identified 3         In personal areas of their lives, they felt the
clusters with distinct patterns of influence and        impact most strongly in areas of: being a
experience of transitional change. A „Single‟           parent or planning a family; establishing
Cluster made few links between relationships.           control and setting goals, and facing physical
They had experienced positive changes in                changes and aging. In the area of work, they
life-style, and their study influenced only             reported the impact of their diabetes on
friendships. A „Connected‟ Cluster had                  pursuing career goals, and in socialising. We
multiple links between family, friends and              used the women‟s concerns to construct areas
intimate relationships. They had experienced            of impact to present to a larger group of
more negative events and geographical                   young men and women with diabetes in a
moves. A „Student‟ Cluster had complex                  web-based study. Person-oriented analyses of
arrays of connections in their lives and had            patterns of impact point to individual
experienced leaving home and transitions to             differences in concerns and emphases, with
student status. The results are discussed in            distinctive patterns in comments on how
relation to personalised constructions of the           young men and women manage the mix of
transition to student life, and their                   normative tasks and exceptional, disease-
implications for institutional interactions with        related circumstances.
young adults in Australian universities.
                                                        Sarity Dodson,
Agnes Dodds,                                            School of Behavioural Science,
Faculty Education Unit,                                 The University of Melbourne
The University of Melbourne                             Melbourne, Vic., 3010
Melbourne, Vic., 3010                                   Tel: 61-3-8344-4453
Tel: 61-3-8344-0183
Family meals and adolescent well-being                 Adolescent and young refugee perspectives
                                                       on psychosocial well-being: Strategies for
DZIURAWIEC, S., TILBURY, F.,                           school-based mental health promotion
(Murdoch University).                                  EARNEST, J., & GILLEATT, S. (Curtin                            University of Technology).
The disappearance of family mealtimes has
been cited by some commentators as one of              Today‟s migration patterns have shifted in
the factors contributing to the rising level of        ways that bring new challenges to the field of
childhood obesity that is emerging in both             refugee mental health. New refugee arrivals in
national and international statistics. If it is        developed countries are an extremely diverse
true that family meals are becoming                    group. As a result, multiple treatment
increasingly rare, then it may be that more            approaches must be developed addressing the
than physical health is at risk, as recent U.S.        psychosocial needs of diverse, multicultural
research using a retrospective data set                populations. There is now clearer recognition
(Eisenberg et al., 2004) has suggested that            that, in a country as culturally and
family mealtimes also enhance the                      linguistically diverse as Australia, specific
psychosocial well-being of adolescents. In the         attention must be paid to the cultural
Australian context, very little is known about         dimensions of mental disorder and the
the social, cultural, nutritional and                  specific needs of Indigenous people,
psychological impact of family meals. This             immigrants and refugees. It has been clearly
research aims to address this lack of                  demonstrated that refugee children and
knowledge of the family meal and its role              adolescents are vulnerable to the effects of
across a range of different contextual                 war, displacement and trauma. Refugee
frameworks, including family composition,              children are often torn between their
income, location and ethnicity. This paper             homeland culture and the culture of their new
presents data from the first wave of an                resettled country. The main aims of this study
ongoing survey of adolescents drawn from a             are to examine how adolescent refugee
number of schools in the Perth metropolitan            children perceive the process of migration,
region. Using an online questionnaire,                 resettlement and consequent acculturation and
adolescents were asked about their current             to explore refugee adolescent views of their
family meal practices and their ideas about            personal and social environment, their
family meals, as well as about their own               experiences at school, their struggles over
activities, their health and well-being, and           language and skill acquisition, and the
their sense of family connectedness.                   formation of emerging identities. The study
Relationships between various demographic              uses a psychosocial conceptual framework
factors, family and individual level variables,        where wellbeing is defined with respect to
health indicators and eating practices are             three core domains: human capacity, social
presented and issues regarding the                     ecology and culture and values. This
methodology are described.                             qualitative study combines multiple methods
                                                       that include in-depth interviews, school visits,
Dr. Suzanne Dziurawiec                                 accumulation of documentary data and
School of Psychology                                   reflective narratives. The study provides a
Division of Health Sciences                            framework for further research and
Murdoch University                                     interventions into school psychosocial health
Murdoch, WA 6150                                       promotion for adolescent refugee children.
Tel: 08 9360 2388
                                                       Dr. Jaya Earnest
Centre for International Health                         Edith Cowan University
Curtin University of Technology                         Joondalup WA 6027
GPO Box U1987, Perth
WA 6845                                                 Lexicalised phonological recoding in
Tel: 08 9266 4151                                       children with developmental reading
School‟s out: Adolescent „leisure‟ activities           FLETCHER-FLINN, CM. (University of
FAWCETT, LM., GARTON, AF., &                            Auckland), & THOMPSON, GB. (Victoria
DANDY, J. (Edith Cowan University).                     University of Wellington).                         

The current study entailed a preliminary                Many studies have shown that children with
investigation of the out-of-school activities in        developmental reading disability have
which adolescents participate, and factors              difficulty with explicit phonological
influencing their participation.                        processing, including poor knowledge of
Fourteen Year 8 and 14 Year 10 students                 explicit letter-sound skills and phonemic
(with equal numbers of males and females)               awareness. However, little is known about
attending a private Western Australian                  their ability to implicitly induce patterns of
secondary school, participated in one of four           letter-sound relations called induced
focus groups comprised of same age and                  sublexical relations (ISRs) from their reading
gender cohorts. The purpose of the focus                vocabulary (lexicon). This study investigated
groups was firstly to trial a questionnaire to          the induction of the sublexical relation
be used in a later, more comprehensive study,           involving b in final position of words among
and secondly to obtain qualitative data                 severely reading-disabled (RD) children and
regarding adolescent perception of leisure,             reading-age matched (RA) normal progress
reasons for participation and non-participation         controls, using a training-transfer design. The
in structured out-of-school activities, and the         results showed that the RD children took
influence of parents and peers on their                 longer than controls to reach criterion on the
behaviour. Adolescent definitions of leisure            training words presented in sentence contexts,
included concepts of fun, exercise, social              and showed less transfer to ISRs when
contact, enjoyment, challenge, free choice and          reading unfamiliar words. This suggests that
relaxation. They participated in organised              among RD children there are those who have
out-of-school activities for friendship,                a deficit in the use of print lexical experience
enjoyment, exercise, challenge, competition             and consequently are impaired in the
and self-improvement. Reasons for ceasing               formation of ISRs.
such activities included: laziness, boredom,
lack of enjoyment, increased commitments                Claire Fletcher-Flinn, PhD
(homework, part-time employment) resulting              Department of Psychology
in lack of time, not „cool‟, coaches‟ attitudes,        University of Auckland
friends not participating and unsuitability of          Tamaki Campus
activity. This group of adolescents believed            Private Bag 92019
that they personally were not negatively                Auckland, New Zealand
influenced by peers and generally perceived             Tel: +64 9 373 7599
their parents as supportive especially in
regard to their school work and involvement
in organised out-of-school activities.

Lillian Fawcett
School of Psychology
Comparing memory improvement                              reinforce previously held negative memory
strategies for older adults: Effects on recall            beliefs.
and memory self efficacy
                                                          Dr Natalie Gasson
GASSON, N., BELL, JA., & HOSKINS, KE.                     School of Psychology
(Curtin University).                                      Curtin University                                    Bentley WA 6102
                                                          Tel: (08) 9266 4308
In this study we compared two memory
improvement strategies for older adults and               Speaking Out: Children‟s experiences of
evaluated their effect (individual and                    residency and contact disputes in the
cumulative) on word list recall and memory                Family Court of Western Australia when
self efficacy. Goal Setting and Positive                  child abuse is alleged
Stereotyping techniques, with demonstrated
positive effects on recall were employed. As              HAY, AJ. (Monash University).
well as cognitive processing factors (e.g.,
processing speed) it is suggested that poor               This paper will report on the findings of a
memory self efficacy (e.g., McDonald-                     unique exploratory study, on: “The
Miszczak et al, 1995) is partly responsible for           experience of children and protective parents
reduced memory performance, therefore we                  being assessed for residency and contact
investigated the effect of both strategies on             disputes in the Family Court of Western
memory self efficacy. Thirty three males and              Australia where there are allegations of child
69 females (61 to 89 years) were allocated to             abuse”. Specifically, the paper presents what
one of four groups. Participants completed the            the children themselves identify as the key
Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test                         experiences and consequences of involvement
(RAVLT). Prior to this the Control Group                  in the family law process in WA. In-depth
read a neutral passage; the Positive                      interviews with 13 children were combined
Stereotyping Group read a positive stereotype             with data from their resident parent, child and
passage; the Goal Setting Group read the                  family therapists who work with abused
neutral passage and were assigned goals for               children involved in the family law system
each trial of the RAVLT; and the Combined                 and an analysis of the Family Court Expert
Group read the positive stereotyping passage              reports written about the child participants.
and were assigned goals. Memory self                      The focus of the paper will be on the ways in
efficacy was assessed using the Metamemory                which the family law processes silences
in Adulthood Questionnaire (Dixon et al,                  and/or makes space for the voices of children
1988). A 2 x 2 repeated measures ANOVA                    to be spoken, heard and acknowledged and
across the trials of the RAVLT showed no                  the impact of this on children‟s lives. The
significant effects, indicating that neither              findings suggest that alternative family law
strategy had any effect on recall. A 2 x 2                processes need to be established in the
independent groups ANOVA of memory self                   interests of the child.
efficacy found a main effect for goal setting,
F(1, 86) = 9.263, p = .003. This indicates that
memory self efficacy was lower in those who
participated in goal setting. With participants
failing to achieve the set goals on 55 to 82%
of trials, it is likely that this technique served
to highlight poor memory performance, and
instead of being motivating, served to

Unraveling RAN: What‟s going on in                    Language and reading skills in children
children with slow retrieval?                         with developmental disabilities

HEATH, S. (The University of Western                  JACOBS, D., & RICHDALE, A. (RMIT
Australia), LEITAO, S., CLAESSEN, M.                  University).
(Curtin University of Technology),          
University of Western Australia)                      Reading and spelling are complex cognitive                                  tasks that children require in order to
                                                      successfully access the school curriculum.
Rapid automatised naming (RAN) has                    Not all children, however, develop adequate
emerged during the past decades as a strong           literacy. Children diagnosed with Specific
predictor of long-term literacy outcomes. The         Reading Disability (SRD) are the best-known
relationship between RAN and the integrity of         group with literacy deficits. Research has
phonological representations has interested           shown a strong relationship between reading,
researchers within a psycholinguistic                 spelling and language ability with 13 to 63%
framework. The question of which underlying           of children with SRD having concomitant
processes RAN is tapping into remains                 language difficulties. Thus, young children
unresolved. We have previously reported data          with language difficulties are at significant
from Pre Primary children with poor RAN in            risk for literacy failure. The finding that 50%
our longitudinal study of literacy predictors.        or more of children with Specific Language
These children appear to fall into two                Impairment (SLI) have co-morbid literacy
subgroups based on performance on a                   impairments supports this view. Another
judgment task which tapped into the quality           group at risk of possible literacy difficulty due
of a child‟s underlying phonological                  to a language deficit is high-functioning
representation of words (QPR). This paper             children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
incorporates data on another aspect of                (HFASD). No studies appear to have
phonological processing as measured by                examined and compared the literacy
phonological output (naming) tasks. It                development of these children in the first few
examines relationships between different              years of school. The present study examines
measures of children‟s phonological                   the language, reading and spelling skills of
representation of words, and their ability to         approximately 60 children aged between 5
rapidly retrieve phonological information, in         and 9 years with varying developmental
an attempt to further unravel the processes           disabilities, investigates the interrelationships
involved in RAN. Implications are discussed           between these skills and examines the
for (1) our view of RAN, and (2) improved             relationship between language, literacy and
support of intervention-resistant children.           behavioural concerns.

Dr Steve Heath                                        Diane Jacobs
Child Study Centre                                    Division of Psychology
M008 The University of Western Australia              School of Health Sciences
35 Stirling Hwy                                       RMIT University
Crawley WA 6009                                       Bundoora, VIC, 3083
Phone +61 8 6488 3259                                 Tel: 03 9925-7366

The effects of work-personal life conflict on
overall wellbeing                                        Leila Karimi PhD Candidate
                                                         School of Psychology
KARIMI, L. (Curtin University of                         Curtin University of Psychology
Technology).                                             Bentley Campus, Perth, WA                                   Tel: +61 402 631 141

The balance between work and personal life               Specific reading comprehension difficulties
has recently received a lot of attention among           in children with specific language
scholars due to some radical trends. Recent              impairment
years have witnessed some economic and
socio-demographic changes in the workplace,              KELSO, K. (Language, Speech & Learning
such as an expansion in the global market and            Services), & FLETCHER, J. (University of
an increase in women‟s employment. This has              Western Australia).
made the work-personal life interface a        
significant issue. Generally, three bodies of
research have been conducted in this area: one           Children with Specific Language Impairment
trend considers the forms of work-personal               (SLI) have tended to be included, without
life relationships (e.g., work-personal life             specific identification, in groups of poor
conflict, work-personal life facilitation), the          readers in reading research. However, the
second focuses on predictors of work-                    findings from research on a less well
personal life interface (e.g., job                       identified group of children with specific
characteristics, family characteristics), and the        reading comprehension difficulties indicate a
other explores the work-personal life                    profile of reading and language processing
outcomes (e.g., job-satisfaction, life                   skills that can potentially exist in children
satisfaction, wellbeing). The aim of the                 with SLI. This paper reports on a study that
present study was to examine the effects of              investigated these skills in children with SLI.
work-personal life conflict on overall                   A group of children meeting the criteria for
wellbeing (i.e., life satisfaction, depression,          poor comprehenders (i.e., average decoding
and anxiety) among a group of Iranian                    skills but below average reading
employees. The sample consisted of 400                   comprehension skills) was found, and their
Iranian male and female employees from a                 language skills compared with a group of
variety of organisations. The study used a               generally poor readers (i.e., below average
questionnaire based on existing measures,                skills in both decoding and reading
translated from English to Persian and then              comprehension). As predicted, the poor
back-translated to English. The study                    comprehenders performed significantly better
controlled for the effect of demographic                 than the generally poor readers on
variables such as age, marital status, level of          phonological awareness tasks and did not
education, working hours and temperament                 differ from them on oral comprehension tasks
(i.e., positive-negative affect (PANAS)) in the          at the word and sentence level of language
final analysis. The results of canonical                 processing. However, unexpectedly, the two
correlation and multiple regression revealed             groups did differ on paragraph level
that work-personal life conflict was a good              comprehension. A significant educational
predictor of the overall wellbeing of the                implication arising from this study is that
employees. There were, however, some                     while the poor comprehenders had made good
differences in the degree of work-to-personal            progress with their oral language skills by
life conflict and personal life-to-work conflict         Year 3 or 4 and presented with “normal”
and their predictions of wellbeing.                      decoding skills, these children continued to
                                                         have significant reading comprehension
problems which may go unrecognised and                 interviews, videotaped observations, and
hence unsupported in a mainstream                      questionnaires to assess child behaviour,
classroom.                                             parent-child interactions, parenting practices,
                                                       and parental involvement with the target
Katrina Kelso                                          child. The study findings will broaden our
Language, Speech & Learning Services                   understanding of the impact of hyperactivity
P.O. Box 81                                            across family members and will contribute to
Subiaco WA 6094                                        early interventions for young children with
Tel: 08 9388 0461                                      hyperactivity.

Fathering, mothering, and preschool                    Dr Louise Keown
hyperactivity                                          School of Education
                                                       University of Auckland
KEOWN, LJ. (University of Auckland).                   Private Bag 92019                                 Auckland
                                                       New Zealand
Hyperactivity affects 5-10% of children,               Tel: 09 3737599 ext 86435
resulting in disrupted social, school, and
family interactions, poor academic                     A model for assessing adult attachment
performance, and increased risk of subsequent
mental health problems. While there have               KIRKLAND, J., BIMLER, D. (Massey
been significant advances in understanding             University) & KLOHNEN, E. (University of
the biological and cognitive nature of                 Iowa).
hyperactivity, research into families of     
children with hyperactivity has received less
attention. In particular, work in this area            One method for assessing adult attachment
needs to be expanded from a primary focus on           relationships is to obtain descriptions of self
mothers to include both parents. Evidence is           or other with a standardised, restricted set of
emerging from studies of typically developing          adjectives. Studies typically invite
children that fathers make a unique                    participants to rate the target against a number
contribution to their children‟s behavioural           of supplied adjectives, on Likert-style scales.
development, yet relatively little is known            These responses are correlated against
about the role of fathers in the development of        criterion judgements (aggregated from
children with hyperactivity. This paper                experts) to locate the pattern within the
presents preliminary findings from an                  attachment typology. This study offers an
ongoing study that aims to identify paternal           alternative framework for analysing adjectival
and maternal parenting factors associated with         attachment data. Conceptual
patterns of activity, attention, and impulse           interrelationships among 160 adjectives were
control in 4-year-old boys. There is a specific        depicted as a concrete geometrical model or
focus on parent-child relationship qualities           „map‟, constructed by applying
important to the development of children‟s             multidimensional scaling to (dis)similarity
self-regulation including mutual                       sorting judgements. Published criterion
responsiveness, emotional warmth, and                  patterns for each of the four adult attachment
positive involvement. The sample consists of           “types” (Autonomous, Dismissive,
hyperactive and comparison boys, selected on           Preoccupied and Disorganised) were fitted
the basis of parent and teacher ratings on the         into this map. Significant canonical
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire               correlations confirm that the map-making
(SDQ). Taking a multi-method, multi-                   informants and the criterion experts applied
informant approach, the study uses                     the same basic conceptual frame to their
respective tasks, thus validating the structure          they gravitate towards analogies spawned
of the map and its underlying dimensions.                from this metaphor. This paper will provide a
Crucially, the same map provides                         bridge for researchers wishing to apply DS
mathematical tools for focussing and                     theory to their research interests, aiming at
summarising Likert-scale adjectival self-                contributing to our collective general
report data. Zones in the map are identifiable           understanding of human development
as key areas or themes of psychological                  mechanisms and processes.
meaning. We report on validity data and offer
an entirely new approach for gathering                   John Kirkland
reliable adult attachment data.                          Department of Health and Human
John Kirkland                                            College of Education
Department of Health and Human                           Massey University
Development                                              Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New
College of Education                                     Zealand.
Massey University                                        Phone: +64 6 351 3351
Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New
Zealand.                                                 Emotion and social problem solving
Phone: +64 6 351 3351                                    strategies in Hong Kong preschool children

Dynamic systems: A working model for                     LAU, B. (Hong Kong Institute of Education).
analyses of social science data                

KIRKLAND J. MACLEAN B. & BIMLER                          During the preschool years, social interactions
D. (Massey University).                                  with peers are exciting new experience for                                  children. Interacting with peers provides a
                                                         context for children to learn how to get along
The “dynamic systems” paradigm (DS)                      with others. However, conflicts are also part
includes terms such as self-organisation,                of any peer interaction in young children that
chaos, non-linear change, attractors, phase              always involve emotional reactions and
shift and control surface. In this paper we              coping. We have seen the emergence of
summarise pertinent DS concepts and provide              research into the problem solving strategies of
illustrated examples. These will show how                children in conflict but very little is known
individual data sets relevant to DS can be               about children‟s emotionality and how it
gathered easily and economically as well as              affects children‟s choice of how to solve
how a suite of multidimensional scaling                  social problem. This paper explores data from
algorithms can produce results interpretable             a study conducted in Hong Kong with 70
within a DS frame. An off-putting difficulty is          preschool children. Teachers were asked
the nest of concepts surrounding DS, in which            about the behavior of each child related to
a newcomer can easily become lost; its                   their emotionality and regulation in a
„topography‟ involves a reconfiguration of               Questionnaire. The children were videotaped
traditional linear approaches, where familiar            at their schools in two sessions of same-sex
tools are not appropriate. A second difficulty           dyadic peer play involving social problem
is that on the face of it DS appears to be better        solving. The play situations were divided into
suited to natural sciences (where growth and             two segments. The first segment was designed
change trajectories are followed) and applied            to observe social problem solving with
physics (e.g., designing wind-turbine blades).           enough resources and the second one was to
In contrast, the social sciences tend to lack            elicit social problem solving with limited
suitable methodological protocols, although              resources. The interactions and the problem
solving strategies adopted were observed,              effective as a treatment for children with
coded and analysed. The study provides                 DCD (Wilson et al., 2005).
information on children‟s emotionality and
their choice of social problem solving                 Dr David J Livesey
strategies.                                            School of Psychology
                                                       The University of Sydney
Becky Po Lin Lau                                       NSW 2006
School of Early Childhood Education                    Tel: 02 9351 3120
Hong Kong Institute of Education
10 Lo Ping Road, Tai Po                                Balancing life and work: Priorities and
Hong Kong                                              development tasks in early career
Tel: 852-29487569                                      development

The effect of verbalisation on haptic to               LYONS J., & DODDS AE. (The University
visual cross-modal transfer in kindergarten            of Melbourne).
aged children                                

                                                       The developmental tasks of early adult life are
(University of Sydney).
                                                       varied, covering careers, relationships and
                                                       personal life-styles. In two studies, we applied
                                                       Havighurst‟s (1972) classic concept of the
The ability to perceive and identify objects by
                                                       developmental tasks of young adult life to
their feel (haptically) develops relatively
                                                       contemporary conditions. Study 1 involved
slowly over the early years of life. Such
                                                       four rounds of investigation to identify a set
object recognition may also rely on the ability
                                                       of developmental tasks. In the final round, 30
to transfer this haptic information into the
                                                       young adults (aged 19 to 32 years) embarking
visual modality (cross-modal transfer). The
                                                       on professional and vocational careers
creation of such a visual representation
                                                       suitable for life in the 21 st century drew „life
(visual image) is likely to be aided by self-
                                                       maps‟ of their priorities, and rated their
talk, the use of verbalisation to focus on
                                                       accomplishment of 20 developmental tasks
critical aspects of the haptically perceived
                                                       (e.g., achieving career and personal goals,
object. This paper explores the role of overt
                                                       providing friendship and support to others). A
verbalisation in haptic to visual cross-modal
                                                       „Time-poor‟ Cluster Group focused on their
transfer of information about abstract three
                                                       lack of leisure and personal time. A
dimensional objects. It was found that
                                                       „Balanced‟ Cluster gave time to career goals
kindergarten-aged children who
                                                       without sacrificing personal goals,
spontaneously verbalised while feeling such
                                                       friendships, or socialising and domestic
objects were more accurate in selecting the
                                                       chores. A „Relationships‟ Cluster was mostly
objects from a visual array than those who did
                                                       concerned with family, friends and intimate
not verbalise. Children who were not
                                                       relationships and the responsibilities of
spontaneous verbalisers were trained on
                                                       providing friendship and support to others. In
verbal/exploration strategies and showed
                                                       Study 2, the priorities and accomplishments
improved performance on the object
                                                       of 50 advanced medical students were
recognition task. The results are discussed in
                                                       examined using the developmental tasks and
relation to the use of visual imagery training
                                                       participants‟ self-constructed „life maps‟
to enhance performance on tasks requiring
                                                       refined from Study 1. Subgroups again
cross-modal transfer to the visual modality.
                                                       differed on the degree to which they
Such training has recently been found to be
                                                       experienced clashes between career demands

and personal priorities. Young adults see their        socioemotional. For example, the
careers as important, but not all give careers         sociological viewpoint generally focuses on
priority over relationships and life-style. The        providing examples for observation and
concept of developmental task is still useful,         emulation. The framework offers an
although forms of priority tasks have changed          opportunity to both understand and enhance
over time and differ across individuals.               the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness
                                                       of programs using role models.
Jessie Lyons,
School of Behavioural Science,                         Dr Judith MacCallum
The University of Melbourne                            Centre for Learning Change and Development
Melbourne, Vic., 3010                                  School of Education
Tel: 61-3-8344-4453                                    Murdoch University
                                                       South St, Murdoch, WA.
Role models: Beyond a unitary concept                  Phone: (08) 9360 7847

MACCALLUM, J. (Murdoch University), &                  Caregiving relationships with subsequent
BELTMAN, S. (Curtin University of                      children following previous infant death
Technology).                                   MACLEAN, B. (Massey University).
This paper presents a theoretical framework
that underpins the different forms and                 This presentation reports findings from a
functions of role models. Many programs for            study that investigated the caregiving
young people use role models on the                    relationship between mothers who had lost a
assumption that they will have a positive              previous infant to SIDS, and their subsequent
influence on their development. The term               children aged 2-3 years. Twenty mothers of
role model can be considered in a number of            2-3-year-old subsequent children participated
different ways, from the widest sense of an            in an attachment-based clinical interview, the
individual simply "perceived as exemplary, or          Working Model of the Child Interview
worthy of imitation” as described by Yancey            (WMCI). Analysis of the verbatim transcripts
(1998) to the inspirer “through personal               of the interviews showed the majority to be
contact” and “as proposed by Ingall (1997).            characterised by ongoing fears for the child‟s
The theoretical framework takes account of             safety and a significant level of emotional
this range of interpretations and the differing        distancing from the child. When rated on a
nature of role model programs. It was                  formal scoring system for the WMCI 25%
developed through the analysis of information          were categorised to be “balanced” but with
provided by over 200 Australian programs               some degree of emotional distancing or strain,
using role models. The framework utilises              and 75% were classified as “non-balanced”
the degree of interaction between a role model         with 55% disengaged-suppressed, and 10%
and a young person as the organising concept           distorted. Transcripts were also examined for
and is conceived as a continuum where the              evidence of replacement pathology in the
degree of interaction varies from no personal          parent-child relationships. The findings did
interaction between a young person and a role          not support the classic picture of a
model to intense one-to-one interaction                replacement child whose identity was
between them. Four theoretical viewpoints              smothered by idealised images of the dead
are linked into this continuum in that each            sibling. Whilst confusion of the children‟s
focuses more on a particular point or points           identities did not occur, replacement
along the continuum: sociological, social              dynamics were evident in the mothers‟ need
cognitive, sociocultural and humanistic or             to have another child of the same sex, sharing
of names between the two children, and                  consistencies and inconsistencies between
replacement of the parenting role, rather than          these adults‟ views and judicial reasoning in
of the child per se. Mothers‟ concerns were             several important recent family court cases.
focussed primarily on their child‟s physical
vulnerability and need for protection at the            Dr Dianne McKillop
expense of sensitivity to the child‟s needs as a        School of Psychology
unique individual.                                      Edith Cowan University
                                                        Joondalup WA 6027
Contemporary community views on the                     Tel: 08 6304 5736
best outcomes for children of separating
parents                                                 Early numeracy development

MCKILLOP, D., & DRAKE, D. (Edith                        MAHER, M. (Auckland University of
Cowan University).                                      Technology)                         

Intimate relationships and parenthood are               For some 20 years we have known that there
major developmental tasks in adulthood.                 is stability of mathematics performance in
When relationships fail, decisions about                children, and that performance at age 15 can
where any children of the relationship should           often be accurately predicted from age seven.
live, as well as considerations of factors that         What happens before seven in the
influence those decisions, have important               development of numeracy concepts is
implications for children‟s development. The            therefore paramount. In New Zealand the
research presented here describes the                   Numeracy Project has been introduced in
normative views of a random sample of 123               many primary schools, an integral part of
members of the Western Australian public on             which is the Numeracy Project Assessment
residence and contact (formerly known as                (NumPA). The assessment tool identifies the
custody and access) decisions and on factors            strategy level and knowledge level of students
that may be important in determining what is            so that instruction can be specifically targeted.
in the „best interests of the child‟ in such            This paper explores data from the pilot study
cases. In this research, participants respond to        of a research project, the aim of which is to
four vignettes describing different marital             discover whether the methods used to
separation scenarios before offering a                  introduce numeracy concepts to three- to five-
judgment about residence and contact and                year-old children in early childhood centres
describing the reasoning they use to reach that         have a positive, neutral, or negative impact on
decision. Diverse family circumstances are              their numeracy knowledge and strategies as
represented in the scenarios and factors                assessed using NumPA. All the children in
expected to be influential in decision making           the project were aged 4:11-5:1 and were
are systematically varied (e.g., biological             interviewed using the NumPA before entering
versus social parenthood, gender) in a                  formal schooling and before having any
between-subjects research design. They also             formal mathematics instruction. Initial
rate the importance of a number of factors              findings suggest that the methods used and
(e.g., keeping siblings together, responsibility        the time allocated to the introduction of
for terminating the relationship) in the                numeracy concepts have a significant impact
abstract that might form part of decisions              on children‟s numeracy knowledge and
about the „best interests of the child‟. We             strategies at age five. Possible implications
discuss findings in relation to gender and              for Early Childhood Educators are discussed.
people‟s expectations about roles and
relationships in families, and in terms of              Marguerite Maher
School of Education Te Kura Mātauranga
Auckland University of Technology                       „You never know, they could be right‟.
Private Bag 92006                                       Children‟s voices in the Family Court of
Auckland                                                WA
New Zealand                                             PIKE, LT., & MURPHY, PT. (Edith Cowan
Telephone: ++64 9 9179999x9657                          University)
Summarising children‟s wellbeing: The
LSAC outcome index                                      In November 2001 the Chief Judge of the
                                                        FCWA launched an innovative programme to
MISSION, S. (Australian Institute of Family             individually case manage Family Court cases
Studies).                                               where there were allegations of child abuse,
                                                        child sexual abuse, domestic violence or
LSAC is collecting a great deal of information          family violence where there were risk
on children‟s development, health and                   concerns for the children. The project,
wellbeing. For the purposes of                          Columbus, has been evaluated by the authors
communication, it is useful to provide a                and as part of the evaluation, feedback was
summary measure of child functioning, that              obtained from a number of children whose
can then be used in comparisons of different            parents had participated in the Columbus
groups (sociodemographic, geographical, etc.)           project. The evaluators also interviewed
and to track change over time. The LSAC                 children whose parents‟ cases had similar
team has developed an Outcome Index for                 characteristics but who could not be
both the infant and 4 year old cohort on the            accommodated in the pilot and thus
basis of Wave 1 data. This Index bears some             constituted a comparison group. This paper
similarities to the Vulnerability Index created         presents the similarities and contrasts from
from the Canadian NLSCY dataset, but                    the children‟s perspective of their parents
attempts to reflect children‟s strengths as well        court based decision making. The paper
as their weaknesses, and to improve upon the            concludes with an overview of current
Canadian scale in its psychometric properties.          initiatives in FCWA to increase the
Unlike sets of indicators that typically include        participation of children in Family Court
risk factors which are thought to be associated         matters.
with child functioning (for example, poverty,
single-parent household), the Outcome Index             Associate Professor Lisbeth T Pike
includes only direct measures of child                  School of Psychology
functioning. One of the strengths of LSAC is            Edith Cowan University
that it is collecting data about all aspects of         Joondalup, WA 6027
children‟s functioning. While these are                 Tel: 61-8-63045535
closely interconnected, they can be
considered to encompass the following                   Community resilience in relationship to
domains: health and physical development;               community wellness
social and emotional functioning; and
learning. Key measures of these domains of              POOLEY, J-A., COHEN, L., & PIKE, LT.
functioning are used to create domain scores,           (Edith Cowan University).
which are then combined to create the         
Outcome Index. Indices of positive as well as
negative functioning are being created.                 The concept of resilience has developed
This paper will describe the development of             primarily at the individual level where it has
the Outcome Index and illustrate some of the            been used to examine the impact of adverse
ways in which it can be used.                           conditions/ events/situations on the
development of children and adults.                    take these into consideration. Examples of
Resilience has been conceptualised as                  topics to be addressed include parent-child
promoting a positive, strength based, capacity         relationships, patterns of caregiving,
building focus, and as such, is important in           children‟s adaptation to changing family
the area of prevention where it could                  structures, and parenting in „non-traditional‟
potentially provide salient information for            households.
programme development. In turn, these
programs could be designed to reduce the               Associate Professor Jan Pryor
effects of negative experiences of adverse             Director, McKenzie Centre for the Study of
impacts by focusing on the strengths and               Families
capacities of individuals and communities.             Te Putahi Rangahau Whanau
Recently, within the media and the literature,         6 Wai-te-ata Road
the term community resilience has emerged.             Victoria University
Community resilience is grounded in the                P.O. Box 600
notion of human agency where communities               Wellington, New Zealand
can engage in intentional meaningful action            Phone 64 4 463 7428
which may enable and or inhibit the
individuals within it. This paper describes            The mental health of child refugees from
and discusses the link between individual and          the Middle-East and their parents: Refugee
community resilience with a view to                    status and immigration detention
understanding what makes for healthy
communities.                                           ROBINSON, JA., & FARHADI, S. (Flinders
Julie Anne Pooley                            
School of Psychology
Edith Cowan University                                 The aim of this study was to identify the level
Joondalup, WA 6027                                     and type of children‟s and parents‟ mental
Phone 08 6304 5591                                     health problems associated with child refugee
                                                       status and immigration detention, and the
Children in changing family structures                 factors that contribute to these problems. The
PRYOR, J. (Victoria University, New                    participants were 35 child refugees who had
Zealand).                                              experienced immigration detention, 35 child                                    refugees who had not experienced
                                                       immigration detention, and 35 Australian-
The discipline of child development has itself         born children of refugee parents. At least one
developed traditionally either a-contextually,         of the children‟s parents also participated. All
or in contexts that have been characterised by         parents were born in the Middle-East. The
being predominantly western. Neither in the            main outcome measures were parents‟ reports
past has it taken account of changes in                of children‟s internalising, externalising and
household structures during childhood. Yet             total problems (Child Behaviour Checklist),
changes in family structures, processes, and           parents‟ and children‟s ratings of six
functions are a strong feature of the contexts         dimensions of children‟s adjustment (verbal
in which children develop in the 21 st century.        analogue scales), and parents‟ self-reported
Changes in social structures, attitudes, and           anxiety, depression and total distress
beliefs are also rapid and profound. In this           (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25). Most child
address I will examine the impact of family            refugees and their parents showed resilience
and social change on children‟s development,           on measures of mental health, unless they had
and will suggest ways in which                         experienced immigration detention. Detention
developmental psychology might adapt to                was associated with reports of pervasive
mental health problems and lower levels of             (27.9%) of preschool-aged children sampled
adjustment in children. This was not an                exclusively attributed accidental or benign
artefact of the association between                    intent during ambiguous provocation
immigration detention and elevated anxiety             vignettes. These “Pollyanna Preschoolers”
among parents. Exposure to stressful events            are subsequently less aggressive and had
alone, or in combination with parental                 fewer internalising problems in the early
distress, accounted for all differences in             school years. The current talk will examine
children‟s outcomes associated with                    the socio-demographic, familial, and
immigration detention. In Summary, many                temperamental context of Pollyanna
detained refugees warrant follow-up for                Preschoolers status. Results from logistic
mental health problems. Practical, social,             regression models will be presented to
mental health and political interventions that         demonstrate the relevance of various
may be beneficial are outlined.                        predictors of Pollyanna Preschooler status.
                                                       The potential implications for supporting
Dr. Julie Robinson                                     resilience in vulnerable children will be
School of Psychology                                   critically examined.
Flinders University
GPO Box 2100                                           Kevin C. L. Runions, PhD.
Adelaide SA 5001                                       School of Psychology
Tel: 08 8201 2395                                      Edith Cowan University
                                                       Joondalup, Western Australia
Who are Pollyanna Preschoolers?                        Telephone:    +61 08 6304 5526
Developing a “benign attribution bias”
                                                       Neighbourhood income dynamics and the
RUNIONS, KCL. (Edith Cowan University).                stability of the Early Development Index:                                   Findings from Toronto

Research on children‟s social information              RUNIONS, KCL. (Edith Cowan University),
processing has demonstrated the role of                KEATING, DP. (University of Michigan,
attributions of hostile intent in children‟s           Ann Arbor), & JANUS, M. (McMaster
aggression and internalising (e.g., depression)        University, Hamilton, Canada).
problems. These differences arise at least by
the preschool years. However, research on
children‟s attribution of intent styles has not        The importance of socioeconomic (SES)
maintained a close link to research on                 conditions on children‟s developmental health
children‟s normative social cognitive                  has been well established in the past decade.
development. Little is known about the                 Developmental health is a major contributor
normative development of attributions of               to children‟s school readiness (defined as a set
intent compared with attributions of                   of socio-emotional and communication-
accidentality, and what factors contribute to          cognitive skills necessary for a child to take
attributions of hostile versus benign intent           advantage of the educational activities
when both attributions are plausible accounts          typically offered by schools). Children from
of ambiguous peer behaviours. The current              low SES backgrounds are less well prepared
study uses data from the U. S. National                for school than children from middle SES
Institute for Child Health and Human                   backgrounds who are less well prepared than
Development‟s Study of Early Child Care to             children from high SES backgrounds. These
examine antecedents and correlates of                  income gradients on children‟s school
children‟s attribution of intent styles. These         readiness have been well-established in
analyses found that a substantial subset               Canada, using the Early Development Index
(EDI). What is less well understood is                 in the spillover process. More specifically,
whether the EDI, as an index of children‟s             this model examines the impact of marital
developmental health, is stable over time for          conflict on parental self-definitional goals that
the same neighbourhood, and if not, what               maintain both overt and covert negative mood
factors influence change in community EDI              states. Literature examining the effects of
scores. The current study examines EDI                 mood on cognitive and social cognitive
scores collected in Toronto in 1999 and 2001,          information processing, and on creativity and
and examines these in relation to census data          innovation are reviewed. We argue that
on family income. Changes in EDI scores                covert negative moods have consequences on
were predicted by changes in income between            parent-child relationship through inhibiting
1996 and 2001. We also examined the                    cognitive and communicative flexibility. By
change in income of neighbourhoods showing             taking a fine-grained approach that
the greatest and the least improvement in EDI          acknowledges the complexity of intra-
scores over time. We found evidence of                 parental emotional and communicative
widening neighbourhood income gaps                     transactions, this explanatory framework not
between schools showing the most and those             only offers a unique perspective of the
showing the least improvement in scores.               spillover effect, but also connects some of the
Implications for the allocation of resources to        diverse theoretical proposals that have
support children‟s developmental health are            previously been offered to explain the link
considered.                                            between marital discord and child
                                                       psychopathology. Therapeutic implications
Kevin C. L. Runions, PhD.                              and future research directions are presented.
School of Psychology
Edith Cowan University                                 Social competence: An exploration of
Joondalup, Western Australia                           children‟s experiences within the home
Telephone:    +61 08 6304 5526                         environment
Marital conflict spill-over: Intra-parental            SHEAN, M., PIKE, LT., & MURPHY, PT.
processes affecting the parent-child                   (Edith Cowan University).
                                                       Social competence has been identified by the
RUNIONS, KCL. (Edith Cowan University),                EDI as an area of vulnerability for over 25%
& ROOT, C. (Centre for Addiction and                   of children in some areas of Perth, Western
Mental Health, Toronto, Canada).                       Australia (Hart, Brinkman, & Blackmore,                                   2003). This paper describes a study designed
                                                       to explore how children identified with high
Spillover of marital problems to parent-child          and low levels of social competence
relational difficulties has been shown to lead         experienced their home environment. Twenty
to maladjustment in children. However, the             primary school-aged children were assessed
processes underlying the phenomenon of                 for social competence on the Social Skills
spillover are little understood, and previous          Rating System (SSRS), (Gresham & Elliot,
conceptualisations have paid particular                1990). Semi-structured interviews were then
attention to either the parent-child dyad or to        conducted with the six highest and lowest
specific intra-child processes. Drawing from           scorers on the SSRS. Content analysis of
both experimental research on emotion and              these data revealed that boundaries, sense of
cognition and from the social psychological            belonging and emotional safety, key elements
literature, a new theoretical framework is             of the concept of Sense of Community
presented that models a set of intra-parental          (McMillan, 1996) were evident in children
processes hypothesised to play a critical role
who had high social competence scores. The             these factors would assist government,
implications for the role of the community in          industry and community stakeholders to more
developing social competence in children will          appropriately and adequately address the
be discussed.                                          developmental needs of the families.

When the dust settles, how do families                 Anne M. Sibbel
decide: Residential or FIFO?                           Edith Cowan University
                                                       School of Psychology
SIBBEL, AM., & KACZMAREK, EA. (Edith                   Joondalup WA 6027
Cowan University).                                     Tel: 08 6304 5529
                                                       The relationship between anxiety, working
Current debate within the Australian mining            memory and skill acquisition
industry and regional communities is focusing
on the impact of fly-in/fly-out (FIFO)                 SIMPSON, T. (Edith Cowan University).
employment on family well-being and          
community sustainability. To help inform this
debate the current study utilises a work               Performance on cognitive tasks has been
satisfaction survey, a series of focus groups          shown to be sensitive to various
(n=12) and individual interviews (n=15) with           environmental, task related and individual
residential and FIFO employees and their               factors. The ways in which an individual‟s
partners to explore how people choose one              emotions can adversely affect performance on
mining lifestyle over the other. Results               cognitive tasks has been widely researched.
indicate that employees and their families             Of particular interest in the current study is
make informed choices that are based both on           the consistent finding that individuals who are
employment satisfaction which includes                 experiencing anxiety during task learning
remuneration, working hours and                        show performance deficits on cognitive tasks
opportunities for training and advancement,            that involve working memory. These findings
and on the developmental needs of family               have been explained by suggestions that
members, including children‟s educational              anxious individuals have a tendency toward
needs, availability of family support, health          increased worry, demonstrated by more
services, and employment and career                    frequent on-task and off-task intrusive
opportunities for family members. The                  thoughts during task execution, thus placing
salience of these needs varies according to the        restrictive demands on working memory
family‟s position in the family life-cycle. At         processes. The current study further explores
certain stages one particular mining lifestyle         these findings by examining the relationship
option may be perceived as being more                  between anxiety and working memory within
suitable to meet the family‟s developmental            a skill acquisition framework. As skill
needs than at another time. It is concluded            acquisition theories indicate that working
that the debate would be better informed if            memory plays an important role in attentional
government, industry and community                     processes during the initial stages of learning,
stakeholders acknowledged and understood               it is suggested that highly anxious people may
the following; (a) life-cycle needs of mining          be at a disadvantage in skill acquisition (i.e.
families, (b) mining families make informed            during task practice and transfer of skill). One
lifestyle choices according to their needs at a        hundred university students participated in
particular time in the life-cycle, and (c)             this study examining the relationship between
having flexibility in lifestyle options, namely        state and trait anxiety, working memory,
residential and FIFO, contributes to the well-         cognitive interference and task performance.
being of these families. An appreciation of
Performance is measured by the speed and                were not able to remove the sticker from their
accuracy of responses on a cognitive task and           hair reliably during the test of DSR. The
includes parameters of initial learning, rate of        findings of this study suggest, as do our
improvement and variability of responses.               earlier findings, that DSR may develop
The results of this study provide insight into          sometime between 2.5 and 3 years of age. The
anxiety related performance deficits and                theoretical implications of our findings, in
whether any deficits are maintained in the              relation to a temporally extended sense of
transfer of acquired skill on a cognitive task.         self, are discussed.

Terry Simpson                                           Dr Helen Skouteris
School of Psychology                                    School of Psychological Science
Edith Cowan University                                  La Trobe University
Joondalup WA 6027                                       Victoria 3086
Tel: 08 6304 5541                                       Ph: 61 3 9479 2497

Training 2.5-year-olds to recognise their               ADHD across the lifespan
delayed self-image: Is this possible?
                                                        TANNOCK, R. (University of Toronto,
SKOUTERIS, H., & SEARL, K. (La Trobe                    Canada).
                                                        An intergenerational model of Attention-
While most children pass the mirror self-               Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is
recognition (MSR) task by 2 years of age, we            presented to show how ADHD inhibits the
have argued that delayed self-recognition               formation and attainment of educational,
(DSR) develops sometime between 2.5 and 3               health and social capital. First, lifespan
years of age. The DSR task requires that a              changes in the manifestation of the core
child reaches up to touch or remove a sticker           behavioural symptoms and critical features of
that has been placed covertly on his/her hair           ADHD are presented. Specific emphasis is
when shown a delayed representation, such as            given to the risk-triad of inattention, poor
a video or photograph, of his/her face. In              working memory and academic
previous research, we have shown that 3- but            underachievement. Next, adolescent and adult
not 2.5-year-old children pass the test of DSR,         outcomes of ADHD are examined in terms of:
only after first being familiarised with the            1) education and occupation; 2) unintentional
properties of delayed video feedback. That is,          injuries and driving behavior; and 3) smoking
3-year-old children appear to have an                   (including prenatal exposure to nicotine, early
appreciation of the continuity of self over             initiation of smoking in adolescence, and
time when given the appropriate training or             subsequent nicotine addiction). Finally, the
familiarisation with the delayed medium                 estimated societal costs associated with these
being used prior to the test of DSR. The                features are considered. These broader
overall aim of this study was to investigate            features, each of which constitute a major
whether 2.5-year-old children recognise                 public health issue and confer a substantial
themselves in delayed video representations             economic burden to society, are largely
when they are exposed to their delayed self             preventable or amenable to intervention, but
video-image for a week prior to the test of             they remain inadequately recognized by the
DSR in addition to being trained to                     educational and medical communities or by
understand the correspondence between the               policy makers.
delayed video image and current reality. Even
with this type of training, the 2.5-year-olds           Rosemary Tannock, PhD

Senior Scientist, Research Institute of The             Food intake and cognitive development in
Hospital for Sick Children & Associate                  preschool children
Professor of Psychiatry, University of
Toronto                                                 THEODORE, RF., THOMPSON, JMD.,
                                                        WALL, CR., WALDIE, KE., & MITCHELL,
An epidemiological study of late talking 24-            EA. (University of Auckland)
month-old children: Prevalence and            
                                                        Nutrition can influence cognitive
TAYLOR, CL., ZUBRICK, SR. (Centre for                   development in young children. In particular,
Developmental Health, Curtin University of              undernutrition and vitamin deficiencies of
Technology and the Telethon Institute of                iron and folate are related to lower scores of
Child Health Research), & RICE, ML.                     cognitive functioning. Little is known about
(University of Kansas).                                 the diet of New Zealand preschool children.                                   The aim of this study was to examine the
                                                        relationship between cognitive ability and diet
In the first two years, English-speaking                recorded by a semi-quantitative food-
toddlers achieve a significant milestone in             frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children
learning to talk. Around 24 months, children            were categorised into those meeting, and
start to combine words, a benchmark for                 those not meeting, the New Zealand Ministry
subsequent language acquisition. This                   of Health recommended guidelines for daily
benchmark varies widely in healthy children.            servings of fruit, vegetables, meat, dairy
Currently, we cannot explain why the onset of           products, breads and cereal. An interviewer-
language and rate of development varies so              administered FFQ measured food frequency
much at this early age and why some                     for the previous four weeks in children aged
otherwise healthy children are late to start to         3.5 years. Information was available for 549
talk. These children are referred to as „Late           New Zealand European children. Cognitive
Talkers‟, a condition that increases the risk           ability was measured using the Stanford-Binet
for later diagnosis of Specific Language                Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition. Increases
Impairment (SLI). This paper reports a study            in Total IQ were found for children eating the
of an epidemiologically ascertained sample of           recommended daily servings of bread and
1700 24-month-old children. Data on a wide              cereals compared with children not eating the
range of maternal, family and child                     recommended servings (p=0.04). There were
characteristics were available. Seventeen               no group differences in Total IQ for
percent of the children were Late Talkers.              vegetable, fruit, meat, or dairy product
Multivariate modelling found relatively few             consumption. Results suggest that meeting
predictors, most of which concerned child               food intake guidelines for breads and cereals
characteristics: Family history of late talking;        may contribute to general cognitive
gender; percentage expected birthweight and             functioning. Higher consumption of these
task persistence. Non predictors include                products may result in higher intakes of iron
mother‟s education; family SES and related              and folate, as many of these foods are
home variables. Implications for models of              fortified in New Zealand. Dietary analysis,
human development will be discussed.                    however, is needed to investigate the
                                                        association between nutrients and cognition in
Associate Professor Catherine L Taylor                  this group of children.
Centre for Developmental Health
Curtin University of Technology                         Reremoana Theodore
PO Box 855 West Perth WA 6872                           Department of Paediatrics
Tel: 08 9489 7740                                       The University of Auckland
Private Bag 92019                                      the personal qualities of reciprocating friends.
Auckland                                               The most common form of victimisation for
New Zealand                                            both girls and boys involved verbal bullying.
Tel: Int+ 64 9 3737599 Ext 86432                       Boys experienced more physical victimisation
                                                       whereas there were no gender differences on
Long-term research program for LSAC                    relational bullying. Internalising and
                                                       externalising behaviour predicted overall
WADA, M. (Department of Family and                     peer-nominated victimisation scores, whereas
Community Services).                                   neuroticism and social acceptance predicted
                                                       overall self-nominated victimisation.
This paper will provide an overview of the             Externalising behaviour predicted all three
long-term research program for the                     types of victimisation with social acceptance
Longitudinal Study of Australian Children              and self-efficacy for assertion also
(LSAC). The paper will be based on the                 contributing to relational victimisation. Social
outcomes of a workshop held in mid-October             acceptance and global self-worth also
2004 and subsequent consultations conducted            contributed to verbal victimisation. Number
by FCS with policy makers from the                     of reciprocated friendships was not related to
Commonwealth and State/Territory                       victimisation whereas the quality of
departments, members of the LSAC                       reciprocated friendships moderated the
Consortium and other leading Australian                relationship between personal vulnerabilities
academics in the area of children‟s                    and victimisation. Specifically, the friendship
development and wellbeing. The experience              groups‟ scores on internalising and
of many past large-scale studies is that they          victimisation moderated the relationship
have never been fully exploited to address all         between the individual‟s externalising and
the questions that could be asked of the data.         peer-nominated victimisation scores. The
By developing a research program early in the          friendship groups‟ victimisation score also
life of LSAC, we hope to ensure that                   moderated the relationship between the
opportunities to use the data are thoroughly           individual‟s internalising behaviour and
explored prior to the release of the first wave        victimisation. Friends‟ self-efficacy for
of data in April 2005.                                 assertion and friends‟ self-reported
                                                       victimisation scores moderated the
Vulnerability to victimisation in early                relationship between self-reported
adolescents: predictors and protective                 victimisation scores and the personal
effects of peer relationships                          vulnerability factors of social acceptance and
                                                       neuroticism, respectively. Findings suggest
WARD, L., & COLLINS, J. (University of                 that there are factors within the social context
Adelaide)                                              and friendship groups of young adolescents                              that reduce their personal risk for
This study investigates vulnerability to
bullying in 67 adolescents aged 12 to 14               Lynn Ward
years. Peer nominated and self-report                  Department of Psychology
questionnaires were used to assess three types         University of Adelaide
of victimisation: verbal, physical and                 Adelaide, 5005
relational, and to assess personal factors             Phone: (08) 8303 3182
related to victimisation status. The
moderating effect of peer friendships on
victimisation status is considered by assessing
the number of reciprocated friendships and
Adolescent racial prejudice development:               Sydney, NSW, 2006,
the role of friendship quality and inter-              Ph:   02 9351 3246
racial contact
                                                       The role of parenting and child
WHITE, FA., DIAZ, H., MAN, J., RASIAH,                 temperament in the development of
J., SWIFT, E., WILKINSON, A., &                        prosocial and empathic behaviour in
WOOTTON, B. (The University of Sydney).                preschool children: A follow-up study
                                                       WILBY, A., DISSANAYAKE, C. (La Trobe
At present a major gap exists in the literature        University), & PRIOR, MR. (University of
concerning the acquisition and maintenance             Melbourne).
of racial prejudice attitudes amongst        
adolescents. In addition, despite current world
events implying that people of Arabic decent           This paper examines the across-time (ages 3
are targets of prejudice, there has been               to 4) association between child temperament,
minimal Australian research to confirm this            maternal child-rearing practices and preschool
notion. To address these gaps, the present             children‟s empathic and prosocial behaviour.
study examines the role of friendship quality          In the current investigation mother-directed
and inter-racial contact on adolescent racial          empathy, comforting and prosocial behaviour
prejudice development towards Asian and                was observed in 86, 3 year olds (T1) and in
Arabic Australians. Here participants, which           75, 4 year olds at follow-up 12 to 18 months
included 159 school-aged adolescent                    later (T2). At both ages mothers also reported
friendship dyads and 159 university-aged               on their children‟s empathic and prosocial
adolescent friendship dyads, were                      responsiveness. Findings revealed that for the
administered questionnaires measuring subtle           observed behaviours, temperament exerted a
and blatant racial prejudice; friendship               longitudinal influence. Children reported to
quality; and inter-racial contact. As predicted        be more cooperative and manageable at age 3
the findings revealed that university-aged             were observed to be more prosocial towards
adolescents reported significantly lower levels        mothers at age 4 but unexpectedly, children
of both subtle and blatant prejudice towards           reported to be less cooperative and
Asian and Arabic Australians than school-              manageable at age 3 were observed to be
aged adolescents. Also the specific amount of          more empathic and comforting towards their
contact with outgoup (Asian and Arabic)                mothers at age 4. Maternal childrearing, but
members was related to lower levels of subtle          not temperament, predicted maternal reports
and blatant prejudice towards Asian, but not           of empathy and comforting across time. In
Arabic Australians. Importantly, contact with          particular low maternal use of authoritarian
racial outgroups was related to lower levels of        parenting at age 3 was an important predictor
prejudice. Interestingly no association was            of reports of empathy and comforting at age
found between friendship quality and                   4. Contrary to expectations, parenting was
similarity of prejudice levels between close           unimportant in predicting observed behaviour
friends. Overall, these findings indicate that         from age 3 to 4. However, regular contact
future prejudice-reduction programs would be           with other children significantly predicted
better directed if their focus were on inter-          observed empathy and comforting across
racial cooperative contact, particularly               time. This study highlights the importance of
amongst school-aged adolescents.                       obtaining observed measures as well as
                                                       maternal reports of prosocial and empathic
Dr Fiona A.White                                       behaviour at these ages. The relative
School of Psychology, A17                              contribution of child temperament and
The University of Sydney                               parenting practices in predicting empathy and
prosocial behaviour is considered, as well as           for females. Similarly, with regard to
the individual pathways that might best                 rumination and co-rumination, the direction
characterise the development of these                   for males was chiefly from co-rumination to
behaviours.                                             rumination, and the reverse was found for
Alison Wilby
Specialist Children‟s Services                          Holly Wilkins, M.Sc. student
Department of Human Services                            School of Psychology
28 Warrandyte Road,                                     Victoria University of Wellington
Ringwood. VIC 3134                                      P.O. Box 600
Tel: 03 9845 8056                                       Wellington, New Zealand
                                                        Tel: 64-04-463-5401
The complex relationships among stress,
rumination, co-rumination, and depression               Phonological recoding in reading English
in adolescents                                          by Japanese ESL learners

WILKINS, H., FLORIO, K., & JOSE, PE                     YAMADA, M. (Hokkaido Pharmaceutical
(Victoria University of Wellington).                    University), ABE, J. (University of                            Hokkaido), & FLETCHER-FLINN, CM.
                                                        (University of Auckland).
Since gender differences in rumination and    
depression are postulated to begin during
adolescence, and since very little research has         Conventional theories of reading assume that
investigated this time period, the current study        phonological recoding is carried out using
focused on adolescent respondents. A three-             letter-sound correspondences, which are
time-point longitudinal study of 496 New                usually acquired through phonics instruction.
Zealand adolescents, aged 13-16 years, was              Reading acquisition means becoming adept at
conducted over a 6-month period of time in              this knowledge and skilful with these units.
order to investigate the causal relations               This study examined the phonological
among self-reported stress, rumination, co-             recoding of 24 Japanese university students
rumination, and depression. Stress was                  learning English as second language (ESL).
measured by having individuals report the               Japanese learners typically are not given
intensity of each of 50 everyday life events            phonics instruction. Therefore, they lack
that had occurred in the previous 3 months.             explicit knowledge of English letter-sound
The rumination measure was taken from                   correspondences. The students were asked to
Nolen-Hoeksema‟s research with adults, and              read three sets of 20 nonwords varying in
the co-rumination measure was taken from                regularity and consistency. The results
Rose. Depression was measured with the                  showed high accuracy with few regularisation
Children‟s Depression Inventory. Using                  errors, contrasting with what would be
structural equation modelling, we found                 predicted by conventional theories. However,
evidence for a bi-directional relationship              the pattern of responses is compatible with
between rumination and co-rumination,                   recent studies of English speaking children
between rumination and depression, and                  and adults who have not received phonics
between stress and depression. Gender                   instruction. Knowledge Sources theory
differences were found in these general                 provides an explanation for both sets of
patterns, however, for example, we obtained             results. Japanese ESL learners, similar to
results suggesting that the causal direction            their English counterparts, are able to induce
between stress and depression is from                   sublexical relationships from their reading
depression to stress for males and the reverse
experience and use a lexicalised form of                breadth, it will be a unique opportunity to
phonological recoding.                                  shed light on many critical issues concerning
                                                        children‟s development in the current social,
Megumi Yamada                                           economic and political context. This
School of Pharmacy                                      presentation will cover the information from
Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University                      the first release of data. A description of the
Katsuraoka 7-1                                          responding sample will be presented, as well
Otaru, Japan                                            as general demographic information and
Tel: +81 134 62 1925                                    findings on more specific key areas of interest
                                                        including health, education, child care, social
Overview of measurement in Growing Up                   and economic participation and barriers to
in Australia                                            participation, family income, parenting,
                                                        family functioning and non-resident parents.
ZUBRICK, S. (TVW Telethon Institute for
Child Health Research in Western Australia,
and LSAC Consortium Advisory Group).

This paper will overview the measurement                Symposia Abstracts
content in the study. Measurement is
organised within domains of socio-                      Symposium: “Growing Up in Australia”,
demographics, child functioning, health, child          the longitudinal study of Australian
care, education and family functioning. The             children (LSAC)
measurement is designed to address the broad
research questions of LSAC: How well are                Growing Up in Australia, the Longitudinal
Australian children doing on a number of key            Study of Australian Children (LSAC), is a
developmental outcomes? What are the                    broad, multi-disciplinary study that has been
pathway markers, early indicators, or                   developed to examine the impact of
constellations of behaviours that are related to        Australia‟s unique social, economic and
different child outcomes? How are child                 cultural environment on the next generation,
outcomes interlinked with their wider                   particularly in regard to issues of policy
circumstances and environment? In what                  relevance. Growing Up in Australia will
ways do features of children‟s environment              identify the developmental pathways that
(for example, families, communities and                 Australian children follow and the factors
institutions) impact on child outcomes?                 (both risk and resilience) that predict the
                                                        course of these pathways. The study utilises a
Growing Up in Australia, the Longitudinal               multiple cohort cross-sequential design of
Study of Australian Children - Early data               about 5,000 infants and 5,000 children aged
                                                        4-5 years old. During 2004 these children
ZUBRICK, S. (TVW Telethon Institute for                 were selected and recruited to form a
Child Health Research in Western Australia,             nationally representative sample. Data were
and LSAC Consortium Advisory Group).                    collected about these children and their
                                                        families through interviews with parents and,
The wealth of data collected in LSAC                    where appropriate, through self-complete
includes information on multiple aspects of             questionnaires given to the child‟s parents,
children‟s development (social, emotional,              teachers and carers. Parents were also asked
intellectual and physical) and their social             to complete time use diaries documenting the
environment (home, child care, pre-school               children‟s everyday activities. Follow-up
and school). Given its large scale,                     data collection will occur every two years
longitudinal structure and considerable                 until 2010.
The study is being funded by the Australian            Enhancing Resilience in Children outlines
Government Department of Family and                    findings from research designed to identify
Community Services (FaCS) as part of the               indicators of children‟s resilience and the
Australian Government‟s Stronger Families              factors that children identified as important in
and Communities Strategy.                              developing resilience. The third paper titled
                                                       Social Competence: An exploration of
Symposium: Healthy communities. What                   children’s experiences within the home
have we learned from talking to children?              environment, presented by Mandie Shean
PIKE, LT., COHEN, L., POOLEY, J-A. &                   highlights the role of sense of community
SHEAN, M. (Edith Cowan University).                    within the home in the development of social                                      competence in primary school-aged children.

In the early 2000s the administration of the           Symposium: Seldom seen and rarely
Education Development Index (EDI) in                   heard: Children‟s voices in post-divorce
schools in the north metropolitan suburbs of           decision-making
Perth, WA demonstrated that it is possible to
“map” the wellbeing of a community by                  PIKE, LT., MURPHY, PT., CAMPBELL,
examining the performance of preschool                 AD., (Edith Cowan University) &
children living in that community on a range           HAY, A. (Monash University).
of measures. This appraisal of early         
childhood development in different
communities, reinforced the relationship               When parental relationships end, decisions
between child development and community                need to be made regarding residency and
wellbeing. While the connection between                contact arrangements for the children
community wellbeing and community                      involved in that relationship. While the
resilience has long been recognised as                 majority of parents negotiate these
important for the promotion of mental health           arrangements without recourse to the legal
in individuals, whether this applies to a small        system, a significant number of parents will
community (family), a larger community                 seek some form of judicial involvement to
(school) or a geographical community                   assist them with this decision-making. In
(suburb), the mechanisms by which this                 either case, data gathered from parents and
translates for children in terms of their needs        children indicates that consideration of
and development is less well understood.               children‟s views is not likely to be part of the
This symposium is designed to explore some             decision making process. While the existing
of these mechanisms and encourage                      family law practice claims that it operates “in
discussion as to how they might be promoted            the best interests of the child” and most
in the community, school and home. The first           parents, whether they have chosen the legal
paper, presented by Julie Ann Pooley and               option or not would support this premise,
titled Community resilience in relationship to         children are rarely encouraged by either
community wellness will provide a theoretical          parents or the legal system to express their
background to the symposium by discussing              views or to be an active participant in the
the concepts of community resilience and               post-divorce decision making process.
community wellness. The paper highlights               Arguably, this is unfair given that they will be
the importance of community resilience for             directly affected by the outcomes of
individual resilience in order to explore              negotiated or legally imposed residency and
inhibiting and enabling community processes            contact arrangements for the rest of their
which mirror risk and protective factors in            lives. This symposium will present findings
individuals. The second paper presented by             from three separate studies that invited
Lynne Cohen titled A School Approach to                children to voice their opinions about their
involvement in the determination of the post-
divorce arrangements. The first paper by
Alan Campbell titled Children and decision-
making: an impossible dream? provides
insights from children aged 7-17 years and
their perceptions about their level of
involvement in family decision making.
Alison Hay‟s paper titled Speaking Out:
Children’s experiences of residency and
contact disputes in the Family Court of
Western Australia when child abuse is alleged
presents findings from her study which
examined this very sensitive and under
researched area from the children‟s
perspective. The final paper by Lisbeth Pike
and Paul Murphy titled ‘You never know, they
could be right’. Children’s voices in the
Family Court of WA will outline children‟s
reflections and experiences of their parents‟
involvement in „Columbus‟, a Family Court
of WA initiative designed to expedite cases
where there were allegations of violence or
abuse. The symposium will provide an
opportunity to discuss fundamental issues
such as the appropriate age, time and place for
the child‟s input and ways that this might be
facilitated if it is to be accommodated.


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