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PROJECT ON PRIVATE FORESTRY AND

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PROJECT ON PRIVATE FORESTRY AND Powered By Docstoc
					Ministry for Foreign Affairs        Ministry of Natural Resources
of Finland                          and Tourism of Tanzania
                                    of Finland




                PROJECT ON PRIVATE FORESTRY AND

                CARBON TRADING IN TANZANIA



                Project Document




                Final




                March 30, 2010
Project Fact Sheet
Project Title:         Project on Private Forestry and
                       Carbon Trading in Tanzania
Project No:

Sector:                Forestry

Sub-Sectors:
Geographical Cov-      Nation level
erage:                 Iringa and Mbeya regions: Kilolo, Mufindi, Njombe
                       Rural, Njombe Urban and Rungwe districts
Duration:              1 year

Project Financing:     Total

                       Government of Finland          Euros: 724,300
                                                      TSh: 1,303,740
                       Government of Tanzania         Euros:
                                                      TSh:
Competent Authori-     Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism of Tanza-
ties:                  nia
                       Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland
Institutional Frame-   Technical Committee, Project Management Team
work:

Overall Objective:     A reduction in poverty by ensuring that the forest sec-
                       tor contributes effectively and sustainably to improving
                       the lives of the poor, restoring the environment and
                       aiding the sustainable economic recovery and growth
                       of Tanzania
Project Purpose:       A more conducive framework for private forestry
                       through increased availability of information, public
                       private cooperation as well as increased capacity in
                       pilot villages involved in private forestry.
Project Components: 1. Enabling environment for private forestry develop-
                       ment.
                    2. Establishment of mechanisms for financing sustain-
                       able private forestry.
                    3. Promotion of small-scale forest industry.
                    4. Support to small-scale tree farming.
                    5. Preparation of document for long term support to
                       "Private forestry and carbon trading".
                  TABLE OF CONTENTS
                  1.    INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ................................................. 1
                  2.    PRESENT SITUATION............................................................................... 2
                        2.1  General and sectoral policies ............................................................ 2
                        2.2  Forest industries and trade ................................................................ 3
                        2.3  District and village land use planning .............................................. 4
                             2.3.1 District Framework Plans ................................................... 4
                             2.3.2 Village Land Use Plans ...................................................... 4
                        2.4  Private Forestry ................................................................................ 5
                             2.4.1 Land acquisition procedures for private forest investments 5
                             2.4.2 Industrial Plantations in Tanzania ...................................... 6
                             2.4.3 Small-scale private forestry in Iringa and Mbeya regions .. 8
                             2.4.4 Tree Growers Associations ................................................. 9
                             2.4.5 Service delivery to small-scale tree farmers and TGAs in
                                      Iringa and Mbeya regions ................................................. 10
                        2.5  Carbon trading in forestry in Tanzania........................................... 12
                             2.5.1 Reduced Emission from deforestation and forest
                                      degradation (REDD) ......................................................... 12
                             2.5.2 Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) ................................... 13
                        2.6  Problems to be addressed ............................................................... 13
                        2.7  Stakeholders and beneficiaries ....................................................... 14
                             2.7.1 Stakeholders ...................................................................... 14
                             2.7.2 Beneficiaries ..................................................................... 14
                  3.    DEFINITION OF THE INTERVENTION ................................................ 15
                        3.1  Overall objective and project purpose ............................................ 15
                        3.2  Project components and results ...................................................... 16
                             3.2.1 Component 1. Enabling environment for private forestry
                                      development. ..................................................................... 16
                             3.2.2 Component 2. Establishment of mechanisms for financing
                                      sustainable private forestry ............................................... 17
                             3.2.3 Component 3. Promotion of small-scale forest industry .. 18
                             3.2.4 Component 4. Support to small-scale tree farming .......... 19
                             3.2.5 Component 5. Preparation of document for long term
                                      support to "Private forestry and carbon trading". ............. 21
                  4.    ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .................................................................. 22
                  5.    COMPATIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY .......................................... 25
                        5.1 Compatibility with strategic goals for Finnish development
                            cooperation ..................................................................................... 25
                        5.2 Policy environment......................................................................... 26
                        5.3 Economic and financial feasibility ................................................. 27




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                                   iii
                        5.4       Institutional capacity ...................................................................... 27
                        5.5       Socio-cultural aspects ..................................................................... 27
                        5.6       Participation and ownership ........................................................... 28
                        5.7       Gender ............................................................................................ 28
                        5.8       Environment ................................................................................... 29
                        5.9       Appropriate technology .................................................................. 29
                  6.    IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................ 31
                        6.1  Approach ........................................................................................ 31
                             6.1.1 Integration with NFP and NFBKP review processes ....... 31
                             6.1.2 The project to provide information on feasibility of long
                                      term support on private forestry and carbon trading ........ 31
                             6.1.3 Ensuring a wider scope in long term support on private
                                      forestry and carbon trading ............................................... 32
                             6.1.4 Sustainable service delivery to tree growing farmers
                                      through partnerships and strengthening of TGAs ............. 32
                             6.1.5 Close cooperation with other interventions and donor
                                      partners ............................................................................. 34
                             6.1.6 The interventions in the pilot villages need to be linked
                                      with biodiversity information for proper consideration of
                                      environmental issues ......................................................... 34
                        6.2  Project organisation ........................................................................ 35
                             6.2.1 Lead organisations ............................................................ 35
                             6.2.2 Delegated responsibility for results through outsourcing . 36
                        6.3  Project management ....................................................................... 36
                             6.3.1 Competent authorities ....................................................... 36
                             6.3.2 Decision making arrangements......................................... 36
                             6.3.3 Inception phase ................................................................. 37
                        6.4  Tentative timetable ......................................................................... 38
                        6.5  Budget and financial management ................................................. 39
                             6.5.1 Budget ............................................................................... 39
                             6.5.2 Financial management ...................................................... 39
                  7.    MONITORING AND EVALUATION ...................................................... 40

                  LIST OF ANNEXES
                  ANNEX 1.                             LOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE PROJECT
                  ANNEX 2.                             JOB DESCRIPTIONS
                  ANNEX 3.                             PROJECT BUDGET
                  ANNEX 4.                             LIST OF REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
                  ANNEX 5.                             PERSONS MET
                  ANNEX 6.                             POTENTIAL SERVICE PROVIDERS




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                                           iv
                  LIST OF TABLES
                  Table 1.  Information on selected industrial plantations    7
                  Table 2.  TGAs formed during PPP consultancy                9
                  Table 3.  Project Assumptions                              22
                  Table 4.  Potential pilot model for service delivery       32
                  Table 5:  Technical Assistance input                       36
                  Table 6.  Timing of Technical Assistance inputs            36
                  Table 7.  Project budget (GoF contribution)                38


                  ACRONYMS
                  AFOLU   Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use
                  ARR     Afforestation and Revegetation
                  CBNRM   Community Based Natural Resource Management
                  CSO     Civil Society Organization
                  CTA     Chief technical Advisor
                  EAMCEF Eastern Arc Mountains Conservation Endowments Fund
                  EOM     End of Month
                  FAO     Food and Agriculture Organization
                  FBD     Forestry and Beekeeping Division
                  FCPF    Forestry Carbon Partnership Facility
                  FITI    Forest Industries Training Institute
                  FSC     Forest Stewardship Council
                  GDP     Gross Domestic Product
                  GoT     Government of Tanzania
                  GoF     Government of Finland
                  GR      Green Resources Ltd
                  HQ      Headquarters (of FBD)
                  IGAs    Income Generating Activities
                  IRA     Institute of Resource Assessment
                  LGDG    Local Government Development Grant
                  LGAs    Local Government Authorities
                  LUP     Land Use Plan
                  M&E     Monitoring and Evaluation
                  MJUMITA Mtandao wa Jamii wa Usimamizi wa Misitu Tanzania
                  MNRT    Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism
                  MPC     Mpingo Conservation Project
                  MSGS    Matching Sawlog Grant Scheme
                  NAFORMA National Forest Resource Monitoring and Assessment of Tanzania
                  NBKP    National Beekeeping Program
                  NBP     National Beekeeping Policy
                  NFBKP   National Forest and Beekeeping Programme




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                             v
                  NFP      National Forest Programme
                  NFPCUSP National Forest Programme Coordination Unit Support Project
                  NGO      Non-Governmental Organization
                  NIFP     Non Industrial Private Forestry
                  NLUPC    National Land Use Planning Commission
                  NOFIA    Northern Forest Industries Association
                  NORAD    Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation
                  PFM      Participatory Forest Management
                  PMO-RALG Prime Minister’s Office – Regional Administration and Local
                           Government
                  PD       Project Document
                  PPP      Public Private Partnership
                  PMT      Project Management Team
                  PSI      Private Sector Involvement
                  REDD     Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
                  SAFIA    Southern Forest Industries Association
                  SC       Steering Committee
                  SFM      Sustainable Forest management
                  SME      Small and Medium Enterprises
                  SPGS     Sawllog Production Grant Scheme
                  SUA      Sokoine University of Agriculture
                  TA       Technical Advisor
                  TAFIA    Tanzania Forest Industries Association
                  TAFORI   Tanzania Forestry Research Institute
                  TGA      Tree Growers Association
                  TFCG     Tanzania Forest Conservation Group
                  TFCMP    Tanzania Forest Conservation Management Programme
                  TFS      Tanzania Forest Service
                  TIC      Tanzania Investment Centre
                  TOR      Terms of Reference
                  TPSF     Tanzania Private Sector Foundation
                  TTSA     Tanzania Tree Seed Agency
                  VCS      Voluntary Carbon Standard
                  VLUP     Village Land Use Plan
                  UN       United Nations
                  URT      United Republic of Tanzania
                  WCST     Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                               vi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Project Document on “Private forestry and carbon trading in Tanzania”
represents a continuation of the Public Private Partnership (PPP) consultancy
conducted in 2009 and funded through the National Forestry and Beekeeping
Programme (NFBKP) by the Forestry and Beekeeping Division (FBD) in the
Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (MNRT). The project is part of the
larger Tanzanian-Finland forestry cooperation, the new phase of which is
currently under preparation. Therefore the lessons learnt will be directly fed to
the new forestry sector programme.

The policy environment for private forestry in Tanzania is favourable and
promotion of PPP in commercial forestry is in line with the NFP and NFBKP
programmes in Tanzania. A situation analysis has indicated a number of
challenges facing small-scale industry and small-scale private forestry. These
challenges are outlined as four main problem areas which this project is trying to
address:

    I. Weak dialogue between public and private actors as well as inadequate
       information on potential for forest sector opportunities.
   II. Inadequate financing for private forestry investment partly due to lack of
       access to new innovative financing schemes that exist internationally.
  III. Forest-based industry is characterised by small-scale sawmills with
       limited financing and low technology leading to poor quality products.
  IV. Inadequate capacity among tree farmers to capture opportunities in
      private forestry and alternative income generating activities (IGA) to
      enhance their livelihoods.


Overall objective and project purpose
The overall objective of the project is: A reduction in poverty by ensuring that
the forest sector contributes effectively and sustainably to improving the lives of
the poor, restoring the environment and aiding the sustainable economic
recovery and growth of Tanzania.

The project purpose is: A more conducive framework for private forestry
through increased availability of information, public private cooperation as well
as increased capacity in pilot villages involved in private forestry.

The project strategy is to focus on interventions at field level, but also to
continue and expand on stakeholder cooperation mechanisms at national and
regional level. Field level activities will be implemented in Iringa and Mbeya



Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                      vii
regions in Kilolo, Mufindi, Njombe Rural, Njombe Urban and Rungwe districts
in 11 villages, where Tree Grower Associations (TGA) are already established
and in 6 new villages surrounding Green Resources Ltd (GR) plantations.

Project components
The project intervention is structured into five Project Components as follows:

1. Enabling environment for private forestry development
Cooperation between private sector and government bodies will be stimulated
through the facilitation of mechanisms for dialogue between the actors,
providing information for the dialogue on forest sector opportunities as well as
challenges and strategies for promoting private forestry. The interventions need
to be streamlined and integrated with the review of the National Forest
Programme (NFP) and the NFBKP in the FBD in the MNRT for the dialogue
and information to fully feed into the preparation of an updated NFP and
NFBKP as well as for the sustainability and continuation of the interventions.

2. Establishment of mechanisms for financing sustainable private forestry
The scope will be on providing information on applicability and steps for im-
plementation to be utilized in the preparation of a long term support on private
forestry and carbon trading. The project will facilitate the integration of this in-
formation into the NFP and NFBKP review processes. Feasibility of similar
arrangements as the Saw Log Grant Scheme in Uganda for funding of private
forestry, particularly small-scale tree farmer, will be studied. Opportunities for
carbon trading in small-scale private plantation forestry in the pilot villages will
be explored. Domestically available financing for other sectors, e.g. agribusiness
will be assessed.

3. Promotion of small-scale forest industry
Project support interventions will focus on SME sawmillers in Southern High-
lands covering both capacity building and the facilitation of cooperation be-
tween industry associations (SAFIA), funding institutions (TPSF) and training
institutions (FITI) for sustainability and continuation of the interventions. The
FITI will be contracted to carry out capacity building assessment and training.
TPSF Matching Grants Programme will be engaged for possible co-funding.
The assessment will provide information further engagement with TPSF as well
as for the preparation on a long term support on private forestry and carbon trad-
ing.

4. Support to small-scale tree farming




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                      viii
The component will centre on building capacity among tree growing farmers
and their associations in pilot villages through developing service delivery
arrangements. Service delivery will focus around three areas, namely: i)
sustainable forestry as a business (including leadership and managerial skills),
ii) alternative IGAs and iii) institutional development of the TGAs.

Capacity among potential service providers will be assessed and models for
service delivery developed involving partnership between private sector, civil
society and local government. Implementation of the models will include
capacity building of the service providers. Functionality and sustainability of the
service delivery arrangements will be assessed to provide information to be used
for the design of a long term support project on private forestry and carbon
trading.

5. Preparation of document for long term support to "Private forestry and car-
bon trading".
Information provided from the various studies and experiences and lessons
learned from the implementation of project activities will be fed into the
preparation of a document to guide the implementation of a long term support
on private forestry and carbon trading.


Implementation
The overall responsibility for the implementation will be vested in the MNRT.
The FBD will be the responsible organisation for national and regional level
interventions. The District Councils will be the entry point as well as
coordinating institution providing some guidance and some monitoring for
activities carried out in the districts. Responsibility for the implementation will
depend on the outsourcing arrangements and will be guided and supervised
primarily by FBD/PMT. A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) will be
prepared between FBD, the District Councils and the project to clarify the role
of each in project implementation.

One long term Chief Technical Adviser (CTA) as well as a number of short term
national and international consultancy inputs will support the implementation of
project activities. A Technical Committee (TC) consisting of representatives
from MNRT and the Finnish Embassy with the CTA as secretary, will be
formed to take on the responsibility for support and monitoring of the project.
The Project Management Team will be in charge of the day-to-day operations.

The Government of Finland (GoF) has committed 724,300 euro (~ 1,30 billion
Tsh) for the project. The Government of Tanzania will contribute through inputs




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       ix
from FBD and Local Government both in kind (offices, personnel) and through
budgetary allocations from the NFBKP.

The GoF funds for project implementation will be under the responsibility of the
international consulting firm selected to coordinate this project. Funds will be
administered and accounted for under their internal management systems using
a dedicated bank account.




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                    x
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

     Forest and woodlands cover 38.5 million hectares (38%) of Tanzania’s total
     land area and the total area of forest plantations is estimated to be 160-200 000
     ha. The forest resources provide a vast array of goods and services that can be
     utilized to raise the living standards of the people, sources of government
     revenue and foreign exchange. Forests provide several economic and
     environmental services to the population. The combined annual value of forest
     goods and services is USD2.2 billion which is equivalent to 20.1% of Gross
     Domestic Product (GDP) based on 2006 prices (MNRT 2008).

     The study by Kärkkäinen (2005) confirmed that the new forest legislation
     (Forest Act no. 14 of 2002) provides for an enabling environment for the private
     sector in Tanzania to play a significant role in the fight against advancing forest
     destruction by realising the considerable opportunities available to boost the
     national economy. There are, however, a number of obstacles that need to be
     addressed for the private sector to be able to capture these opportunities. As a
     continuation of the 2005 study, a PPP consultancy was funded in 2009 through
     the National Forest and Beekeeping Programme (NFBKP) by the FBD in the
     MNRT. The main objective of the PPP consultancy was to create an enabling
     business environment for the private sector so that investment in timber growing
     and processing would increase through mutually beneficial PPP arrangements.
     Particularly, institutional and contractual arrangements in forest management,
     utilization and marketing should enable smallholders, communities and other
     interested parties to seize economic benefits at local level. Among other
     achievements, the PPP consultancy facilitated organisation of two regional
     Private Sector fora as well as the establishment of 11 TGAs in Iringa and Mbeya
     regions.

     At the end of the PPP consultancy a Project Concept Note was produced
     proposing the continuation of some of the activities started under the PPP
     consultancy in a one year project. Activities would form the basis for a long
     term program on private forestry and carbon trading which is considered as a
     possible additional source of income for tree growers.




     Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       1
PRESENT SITUATION

General and sectoral policies
         A number of economic reforms and policy changes have taken place in
         Tanzania to bring about rapid development. The development and promotion of
         PPPs is one of the reforms which are in line with the Tanzania Policy
         framework for economic growth and poverty reduction as defined in the
         Tanzania Development Vision until 2025. This policy framework is further
         elaborated in some major policy documents which include the National Strategy
         for Growth and Reduction of Poverty; National Poverty Eradication Strategy;
         Tanzania Assistance Strategy; Rural development Assistance and National
         Forest Policy

         Other Tanzania policies impacting on development of private forestry in
         Tanzania include National Land Policy, Agricultural and Livestock Policy,
         Wildlife Policy, National Trade Policy, National Environmental Policy, National
         Beekeeping Policy and Strategic Framework and Local Government Reform
         Programme.

         These policies emphasise building a strong economic base for the nation and
         people using their own natural resources. The forestry sector in Tanzania is one
         of those key sectors contributing to the achievements of the national
         development objectives. The full potential of the sector, however, is not being
         realized due to the poor management, encroachment and deforestation of the
         existing natural forests and plantations and inadequate investment in the forest
         sector (URT 2009).

         In recognition of these shortcomings, the Government is gradually downsizing
         its role and functions and enhance the participation of Non Governmental
         Organisations (NGOs) and the private sector in the delivery of goods and
         services. Private woodlots are now becoming important sources of wood supply.
         Increases in the price of wood and wood products have also encouraged private
         sector involvement in tree farms and in wood processing. A study by Singunda
         (2009) has shown that 35% of family tree growers in Mufindi district are new
         (less than 8 years of engagement in tree planting), most of whom are being
         attracted by the growing demand for wood raw materials.




         Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                    2
Forest industries and trade
          The forest based industry in Tanzania is largely dominated by sawmilling,
          furniture marts and joinery. The number of mills has increased from about 140
          in 1998 to 367 registered in 2005 (Ngaga 1998 and FBD 2005). Most of these,
          however, are small-scale sawmills with a log input not exceeding 5,000 m3 and
          employing about 5 - 8 persons. The total installed capacity of the mills is
          2,662,185 m3 per year of which 2,203,703 m3 is softwoods and 458,482 m3 is
          hardwood representing 83% and 17% respectively (FBD 2005). The total
          utilization capacity of these mills is, however, less than 50% of the installed
          capacity. In addition, there are about 400+ small-scale wood machinery (locally
          fabricated circular saw or roller bench with rails), most of them found at Sao
          Hill forest plantation, also processing saw logs. There has been a significant
          increase in the installed capacity when compared to annual capacity of 750,000
          m3 in 2001.

          There is a sharp increase in the demand for wood products such as timber and
          poles for construction, electricity and communication in the local and
          international markets especially export to Middle East, Kenya, Burundi and
          neighbouring countries. For example, the reported sawn softwood timber
          exports have increased from 511 m3 in 2001 to 310,600 m3 in 2007. Also, poles
          export increased from 905 poles in 2004 to 31,200 in 2008. On the other hand,
          sawn timber import is also growing especially from Mozambique and Malawi.
          There is, however, very little information regarding movement of timber in the
          region, prices and demand in trading countries. This makes it difficult for
          individuals and big private companies to invest and tap into this market
          potential.

          It should be pointed out here that although the volume of sawn timber export has
          increased, most of it is consumed in the local markets, as the quality is low and
          the products cannot compete in the international markets. The quality control
          and value added processing are key questions to expand exports and compete
          with the imported quality products. A recent (2009) study by FBD has indicated
          that marketing and trade in forest products in Tanzania is affected many factors
          that include distance from production to the marketing sites; poor quality of
          forest products; export financing; lack of appropriate trade policy; trade barriers
          and cumbersome procedures and bureaucracy.

          Therefore, while the policy and regulations provide for a favourable
          environment for the private forestry sector, there are a number of challenges and
          critical issues to be addressed at primary production, processing and trade. One
          of the critical factors at primary production is the availability of suitable land.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       3
District and village land use planning
District Framework Plans
           District Framework Plans set the framework for all development activities in the
           district. They guide the land use planning process on village level (like VLUPs)
           including the integration of environmental and social concerns into the process.

          According to the Director General of the National Land Use Planning
          Commission (NLUPC) there are at the moment District Framework Plans
          available in around 40 districts in Tanzania, which is less than one third of the
          total number of districts in the country (personal communication with Director
          General, NLUPC). For example, in Iringa region, the districts of Njombe, Kilolo
          and Mufindi have District Framework Plans. The preparation is normally
          contracted out as consultancy assignments to e.g. universities or research
          institutions. The major bottlenecks for the district planning process are
          inadequate funding and lack of proper maps. The cost mentioned for preparation
          of a District Framework Plan is around 30 million Tanzania shillings (Director
          General, NLUPC).

          A fast continuation of the district and village land use planning is critical to
          correct the unavailability of information for appropriate and sustainable socio-
          economic and environmental investment in private forestry of various scales.

Village Land Use Plans
          In 1995 the NLUPC in collaboration with the United Nations Development
          Programme (UNDP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) carried
          out a research on land use and found a number of challenges, which are still
          valid:

             Land use conflicts are increasing especially between traditional pastoralists,
              crop producers, forests and woodland users and wildlife.

             There is limited progress in the implementation of land use plans at different
              levels (national, sub national, village) largely due to the lack of appropriate
              legislation in use for rural land use planning, top-down approach to land use
              planning, lack of institutional capacity, failure of the coordination
              mechanisms, lack of organizing philosophy and lack of comprehensive
              guidelines.

             Insecurity of land tenure: smallholder producers who own land under deemed
              rights were fairly secure in the past, but there is now growing insecurity of
              tenure because of growing population of human beings and livestock.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       4
             Forest and woodland clearing is at a speed of 2.5% per year, which is
              equivalent to the annual population growth rate of Tanzania.

          VLUPs direct the land use activities and give information on the land
          availability in a given area. Absence of VLUPs often leads to unsustainable use
          of land, conflicts among competing land users and absence of information on the
          land availability. The recent Presidential Decree stipulates that no investor shall
          acquire land in Tanzania before conducting a full land use planning exercise,
          shows the importance given to the VLUPs. Despite of their importance, most
          villages still lack adequate and updated VLUPs; it is estimated that around 10%
          of the more than 10,000 villages in the country have VLUPs.

          Village land use planning is conducted by district officials involving different
          departments such as agriculture, forestry, community development, village
          government and selected villagers through a participatory process. The main
          bottlenecks in the preparation of VLUPs are inadequate technical resources (e.g.
          GIS, maps), funds for field work as well as lack of skills. However, there are at
          the moment trained and established teams that can handle the exercise in a
          number of districts.



Private Forestry
          Private forestry refers to a management regime where forestry operations are run
          as private initiatives or by enterprises on private land or on communal land or
          state owned land through various leasehold arrangements. Private forestry may
          include both indigenous forests and plantations. Private forestry by private
          individuals (and their families) is commonly small-scale and is often referred to
          as Family Forestry or Non Industrial Private Forestry (NIPF).

          The total gross area of forest plantations in Tanzania is estimated to be 160-200
          000 ha, of which 80-100 000 ha is estimated to be village and farm plantations
          (TFCMP, 2008).

Land acquisition procedures for private forest investments
         Land categories
         In Tanzania there are three categories of land, namely Reserved land, Village
         land and General land. Reserved land is land that is reserved for nature
         conservation such as forestry nature reserves and wildlife reserves. Village land
         is any land that falls within the boundaries of a surveyed village and registered
         in accordance with the provision of section 22 of the Local Government
         (District Authorities) Act, 1982. In practise, General land refers to the part of
         village land that is not in use (vacant land).



          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       5
          Village land is divided into three categories, namely i) Customary land (land
          which is being occupied or used by an individual or family or group of persons
          under customary laws), ii) Communal land (land which is occupied and used or
          available for occupation and used on community and public basis) and iii)
          Vacant land (land which may be made available for communal or individual
          occupation and used through allocation by village council). During the VLUP
          process, these categories are identified, agreed upon and mapped.

          Land Acquisition
          A villager wanting to secure title for his/her customary land shall send a request
          to the village government and, consequently, the village government shall call
          for a general village meeting (village assembly) to verify the ownership of the
          land. The minutes of the meeting are signed by all villagers in attendance. The
          village council send minutes to the district council for verification and for
          conducting the actual survey. The district council shall issue an “offer note” and
          recommend for the commissioner of land to issue a title deed to the villager.

          If a villager or any other citizen wants to acquire additional land and title, the
          Village Council recommends to the village assembly as of what portion and size
          of land can be offered to the individual making a request. The minutes of the
          village assembly shall be signed by all villagers in attendance and referred to the
          district council for verification and actual survey. After survey the district
          council shall issue an offer and recommend to the commissioner of land to issue
          a title deed.

          Foreigners and foreign companies can acquire land in Tanzania through the
          Tanzania Investment Centre (TIC) which issues permits and certificates of
          investment in the country. Also, the foreign companies or individuals may
          identify land in the villages and their request shall be considered by the village
          council through the village assembly. Later on, they will have to liaise with TIC
          for the facilitation of the certificate of occupancy in the office of the
          Commissioner of Land.

          The conditions for a joint venture between a citizen and a foreigner are
          determined by shares. If the foreign investor is the majority share holder then
          the case shall be handled by TIC otherwise the case remains with the village
          government through village council.

Industrial Plantations in Tanzania
           The major part of the industrial forest plantations (83,000 ha) are owned and
           managed by the government through FBD of the MNRT. In addition to the state
           plantations, the private sector currently operates plantations including forest




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       6
industries such as Tanganyika Wattle Company in Njombe District, GR in
Mufindi district and Kilombero Valley Teak Company in Kilombero District.

The most important industrial plantation species are pine (Pinus patula, P.
elliottii and P. caribaea ssp.), cypress, eucalyptus and teak. Softwood
plantations cover about 70 000 ha or 85% of the gross plantation area (TFCMP,
2008).

Table 1. Information on selected industrial plantations
   Plantation              Age structure                            Species
     Owner
Central Government     83 000ha; all ages but very       Pinus patula, P. radiata and P.
                       uneven age class distribution     montrunai, Tectona grandis,
                                                         Cupressus lusitanica and
                                                         C.copresas, Eucalyptus,
                                                         Gravelia robusta, Podocarpus
                                                         sp
Tanganyika Wattle      14 500 ha; all ages               Acasia melanoxylon, Pinus
Company                                                  patula
Green Resources        7900 ha;10 years old down to      Pinus patula, Eucalyptus spp
Limited                recently planted                  and small areas of local and
                                                         exotic hardwoods.
Kilombero Valley       About 7500 ha;15 years old        Tectona grandis
Teak Company           down to recently planted


A massive plantation establishment would be needed to keep up with the
demand of raw material for the industry. There are ongoing interventions by
private sector investors to expand the area under industrial plantations (e.g.
Green Resources Ltd, New Forest Company). However, investments in
industrial plantations are hampered by limited attention to the current operating
environment (e.g. long and tedious land acquisition procedures), lack of
effective communication between the private sector representatives and GoT
authorities, as well as lack of data on available land for investments (i.e. reliable
data on most potential areas and opportunities to expand plantation areas in the
future).

The ongoing National Forest Monitoring and Assessment of Tanzania
(NAFORMA) will collect data and provide information and maps on forests and
land use on a national scale. It is, however, important to note that the sampling
intensity is not sufficient to be able to produce detailed and highly accurate
maps on lower management levels (district and villages). Furthermore, they are
not connected to demographic information and hence do no give insight into




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                             7
          future land use demand by villages. Therefore, they will not give sufficient
          information on land availability.

Small-scale private forestry in Iringa and Mbeya regions
          Private small-scale tree growing in Tanzania is most widely practised in
          Southern highlands. A study carried out in 2005 on potential for PPPs in non-
          industrial private and community forestry (NFP-CUSP, 2005) identifies Kilolo,
          Rungwe, Mufindi, Njombe and Namtumo districts in Iringa, Mbeya and
          Ruvuma regions as the ones active in private small-scale tree growing. Support
          to the establishment of the TGAs during the PPP consultancy in 2009 was a
          follow up to the study carried out in 2005 (NFPCUSP, 2005).

          In the intervention with farmers during the PPP consultancy the following key
          findings on tree farming practises in Iringa and Mbeya regions emerged:
             Tree farming is ranked as a second or third economic activity by most of the
              participant farmers. However, during the recent past, income generated from
              selling tree products has shown a considerable increase thereby motivating
              other farmers (people) to join tree farming as a financially attractive activity.
              Tree farming activities in most villages is carried out on the individual
              farmers’ initiatives and species grown for commercial purposes include pines,
              especially Pinus patula, cypress, eucalyptus, some grevillea and black wattle.

             Most farmers do not have prior technical knowledge on tree farming other
              than the informal knowledge either gained through experience or from friends
              and neighbours. Also, they lack the necessary knowledge on the need of
              proper land preparation and therefore, most farmers do not prepare the land
              adequately before undertaking field planting. The lack of knowledge is also
              noted in spacing adopted by the farmers and not following the various
              management schedules.

             The availability and use of quality seeds is one of the primary factors that
              influence the success of tree farming activities. The farmers in pilot areas
              mostly acquire seeds and seedlings from unreliable sources. Due to lack of
              information , only a few farmers get their seeds from recognized sources such
              as the Tanzania Tree Seed Agency (TTSA). They either opt to purchase their
              seedlings or set up and maintain small nurseries to meet their own needs and
              sell the surplus seedlings to their neighbours. Most farmers lack the necessary
              knowledge in nursery practices.

             Due to various reasons but especially due to lack of technical knowledge,
              poverty and pressure from sawmillers, trees are either sold or harvested while
              still young. Woodlots are at times sold with trees as young as 2-3 years old




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                         8
             and/ or harvested or sold as young as 5-8 years. On average most trees are
             harvested at the age of ten years.

         The PPP consultancy noted that the critical problems being faced by the farmers
         were invariably similar in all pilot villages. Meetings with TGAs in February
         2010 revealed the same problems, which include:
            Difficulties in accessing capital for equipment and inputs purchasing.
         • Incomplete or inadequate information
         • Inadequate or lack of technical knowledge/training
         • Inadequate supply of quality seeds
         • Serious fire hazards
         • Farmers are forced to sell immature trees for need of money
         • Inadequate marketing knowledge and reliable market outlets

Tree Growers Associations
         One of the PPP consultancy activities was to support the establishment of the
         TGA based on the recommendations from the 2005 study (NFPCUSP, 2005). As
         a result, 11 TGAs were formed during the PPP consultancy (see Table 2).

         Table 2. TGAs formed during PPP consultancy
         Region      District         Village                         Founding
                                                                      members
         Iringa         Kilolo               Kidabaga                     39
                                             Lulanzi                      39
                        Mufindi              Nundwe                       36
                                             Vikula                       37
                        Njombe Urban         Kifanya                      43
                        Njombe Rural         Nyombo
                                             Matembwe                     42
                                             Ikuna                        23
         Mbeya          Rungwe               Isange                       42
                                             Kandete-Ndala                41
                                             Mwela-Lugombo                35


         The TGAs have experienced problems in the registration process and at the
         moment only one of the eleven associations is officially registered. The
         problems in the registration process are linked to the form of association to be
         registered and the authority for registration.




         Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                    9
          The activities in the TGAs are at the moment focused on coordination and
          cooperation on forestry activities. Some TGAs are also running nurseries and
          providing seedlings to the members. There is a clear interest among the other
          villagers to join , but the TGA executive councils have decided not to accept
          new members until the registration process is completed.

          The TGAs are at the moment in their infant stages and will need substantial
          support to develop and be able to deliver benefits to their members. They need
          to get on from the organizational establishment phase into service provision to
          members. There is a risk that if the members do not benefit from membership
          they will resign from the association and in the end the TGA will cease to exist.
          Furthermore, as tree grower’s own organization, the TGA should provide added
          value to its members in one form or another to justify its existence.

Service delivery to small-scale tree farmers and TGAs in Iringa and Mbeya regions
          There is a clearly identified need for improved service delivery to tree farmers
          on tree farming practises as well as on business planning and marketing.
          Furthermore, to avoid the cutting of immature trees and enhance poverty
          alleviation, there is a need to promote alternative IGAs.

          TGAs need support in their institutional development. The development of
          TGAs may in the long run imply that the association takes over a substantial
          part of the service delivery to the tree farmers meaning that the farmers are
          getting the services through their own organisation.

          Service delivery on commercially oriented forestry
          Commercially oriented forestry implies the orientation of forestry to making
          income rather that providing only conservation services. Key service providers
          on forestry technical issues are the government extension services under PMO-
          RALG, FBD, the forest industry (e.g. GR), NGOs and Tanzania Tree Seed
          Agency when it comes to nursery establishment and quality seeds. In the local
          government structures, there are forest officers at district, division and ward
          levels. However, not all positions are filled and governmental extension services
          generally have inadequate resources for efficient service delivery to the tree
          growing farmers. The FBD extension services, being organised in seven zones
          of the country, lack field level organisation. A general finding is that NGOs in
          the regions are not focusing on service delivery around commercially oriented
          forestry.

          GR is operating in Iringa region with 7,900 ha of plantations and a future annual
          planting program of around 3000 ha. The plantations received FSC certification
          in 2008. The company is interacting with the six villages surrounding the
          plantations, including the promotion of tree planting among farmers. Apart from



          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                    10
the being a requirement from the certification as well as its social responsibility
programme, this is obviously also a marketing strategy. Hence, when it comes to
service delivery on commercially oriented forestry the villages surrounding GR
plantations are provided this by the company. There is a movement towards
forming TGAs in these villages but it is outside the competence of GR service
delivery.

The Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG) is an NGO operating in
villages neighbouring forest reserves. TFCG supports Community Based
Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in village forests with both the aim to
promote sustainable utilization of indigenous woodlands and to reduce the
pressure on the neighbouring forest reserves. Lulanzi village is one of the pilot
villages for TGA formation, but it is also carrying out CBNRM activities in its
Village Land Forest Reserve (VLFR) as well as Joint Forest Management (JFM)
in the neighbouring forest reserve. TFCG is currently operating in Kilolo district
in a village neighbouring Lulanzi village and would be a potential service
provider also for the Lulanzi village.

Service delivery on IGA and institutional development
The key service providers on IGAs and institutional development are the
government extension services under PMO-RALG together with a variety of
NGOs. In the local government structures there are positions for officers for a
number of sectors (e.g. agriculture, land use, forestry, community development)
at district, division and ward levels. The challenge is, however, the same as in
the service delivery on forestry: not all positions are filled and there are
generally inadequate resources.

The PPP consultancy identified a number of institutions and organisations that
could be potential service providers to the farmers and the TGAs (Annex 1).
Below are described two potential service providers.

TechnoServe is an international NGO founded 1968 with operations in Africa,
Latin America, Asia and Eastern Europe. The NGO is focusing on enterprise
and business development particularly in agriculture, alternative energy and
tourism. In Tanzania its operations cover, among other areas, Mbeya and Iringa
regions. The district and some villages where the NGO is working are partly
overlapping with the areas of TGA establishment. The NGO supports the
development of enterprises in various agri-products including development of
business plans, formation of farmer groups and registration of their associations
as well as working along the value chain and development of marketing. It has
its own staff working on the core competence areas.




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                      11
          Heifer International Tanzania is an international NGO with operations in
          Tanzania since 1973, having an office in Mbeya region. The NGO was
          originally focusing on life stock through its “Passing on the Gift” principle, but
          has since widened its scope and is now involved in other activities e.g. fish
          farming, beekeeping and environmental conservation. Key priority areas of
          Heifer include institutional strengthening and enterprise development where
          Heifer has its own personnel. The approach used is to closely collaborate with
          GoT institutions including the utilization of GoT personnel particularly in
          activities where the NGO dos not have core competence. A core strategy of the
          NGO is to support the empowerment of carefully selected key persons in the
          villages (so called “motivators”). One of the applied approaches is “training of
          trainers” which is aimed to reduce the dependency of government extension
          staff and donor support by bringing the service delivery down to village level.



Carbon trading in forestry in Tanzania
Reduced Emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD)
         Tanzania has positioned itself as a key player on REDD in Africa. It is one of
         the three UN REDD quick start countries in Africa and the country has been
         included in the World Bank’s proposed Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
         (FCPF). Norway is the major donor with a total funding of USD 73 million over
         a five year period for the development of a national REDD programme in the
         country. In March 2009 the development of the national REDD strategy was
         initiated when Norway contracted the Institute of Resource Assessment (IRA) to
         facilitate the process over a period of 18 months. The National REDD initiative
         was launched in August 2009.

          There are also ongoing interventions to link REDD with PFM. In November
          2009 the 5 year project “Making REDD work for communities and forest
          conservation” was launched. This programme funded by NORAD and
          implemented by TFCG and MJUMITA and other NGOs is focusing on bringing
          carbon trading and financing to local communities practising conservation and
          SFM. The project will introduce participatory monitoring and assessment of
          forest status, establish baselines of deforestation rates, market carbon credits as
          well as test benefit sharing mechanisms. The project will focus on 50,000 ha of
          forests in Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forest biodiversity hotspots.

          Norway is as a part of this capacity building as well as its support to the REDD
          process at the moment looking into possibilities for local level partnerships in
          Mufindi and Kilolo districts and is also looking into coordination and
          cooperation with GoF funded interventions.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                      12
Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS)
          In July 2009 GR Ltd Mapanda/Uchindele Forests Project in Tanzania was
          validated under VCS as the first afforestation/reforestation project in the world
          registered under VCS. The project follows the agriculture, forestry and other
          land use (AFOLU) guidelines for afforestation and reforestation projects.
          According to the annual report of the company the project will reforest 10,814
          ha of degraded land in Southern Highlands.As earlier described, the company is
          actively promoting tree planting in the six villages surrounding its plantations
          and the farmers are now showing interest for this new opportunity for funding.
          Tree planting on farmland is not eligible for REDD but would be eligible for
          VCS under the ARR (Afforestation and Revegetation) category.



Problems to be addressed
         The situation analysis described in the previous pages can be summarised under
         four main problem areas which are described below.

              I. Weak dialogue between public and private actors as well as inadequate
                 information on potential for opportunities in forestry sector resulting in
                 underinvestment of the sector.

             II. Inadequate investment for private forestry partly due to lack of access to
                 new innovative financing schemes that exist internationally.

             III. Forest based industry is characterised by small-scale sawmills with
                  limited financing and low technology leading to poor quality products.

            IV. Inadequate capacity among tree farmers to capture opportunities that lie
                in private forestry and alternative IGAs to enhance their livelihoods. The
                capacity failure includes both lack of access to capital and inadequate
                knowledge on forest management, markets as well as development and
                management of alternative IGAs. One underlying cause is the lacking
                service delivery to tree growing farmers both when it comes to forestry,
                alternative IGAs and institutional development.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                    13
Stakeholders and beneficiaries
Stakeholders
          The stakeholders are the institutions and organisations involved in the
          management and implementation of the project. The main stakeholders are:
           FBD under Ministry for Natural Resources and Tourism.
           Ministry for Trade, Industry and Marketing.
           Local Government.
           Forest industry
           NGOs
           Training institutions (e.g. FITI)
           TGAs


Beneficiaries
          The main beneficiaries of the project interventions are:
           Small-scale farmers growing trees in the pilot villages.
           Functionaries of the TGAs, which may or may not be tree growing farmers.
           Sawmillers receiving training through project.
           Staff of NGOs, District Councils or private sector receiving training to
            strengthen their capacity to act as service providers.
           Local economy in general due to direct and indirect effects of tree growing




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                14
DEFINITION OF THE INTERVENTION

Overall objective and project purpose
          The project serves as a bridge between the PPP consultancy that ended in
          November 2009 and an envisaged long term support on private forestry and
          carbon trading.

         The overall objective of the project is:

         A reduction in poverty by ensuring that the forest sector contributes effectively
         and sustainably to improving the lives of the poor, restoring the environment
         and aiding the sustainable economic recovery and growth of Tanzania



         The project purpose is:

         A more conducive framework for private forestry through increased availability
         of information, public private cooperation as well as increased capacity in pilot
         villages involved in private forestry.



         The project interventions aim at enhancing the role of forestry in economic
         development with specific focus on private led forestry as a tool for poverty
         alleviation with due consideration for environmental sustainability. The project
         strategy is to focus on interventions at field level, but also to continue and
         expand on stakeholder cooperation mechanisms at national and regional levels
         and to ensure that appropriate information is available for the decision on long
         term support on private forestry and carbon trading as well as the preparation of
         a document to guide such a support. Considering the short duration of the
         project, attention must be paid to a workable exit strategy for all interventions to
         ensure their sustainability after the project.

         The strategy for field level support to tree growing farmers is to continue in pilot
         villages where interventions started during the PPP consultancy and expand into
         other villages where there are opportunities to gain experiences on alternative
         service delivery arrangements and carbon trading. Therefore, the field level
         activities will be implemented in Iringa and Mbeya regions in Kilolo, Mufindi,



         Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       15
          Njombe Rural, Njombe Urban and Rungwe districts in 11 villages where TGAs
          are already established and in 6 new villages surrounding GR plantations.



Project components and results
          The project will address the problems identified in section 2.6. The intervention
          is structured into five Project Components as described below. The components
          are further described in sections 3.2.1 - 3.2.5.

          The Project Components are:

          1.   Enabling environment for private forestry development.

          2.   Establishment of mechanisms for financing sustainable private forestry.

          3.   Promotion of small-scale forest industry.

          4.   Support to small-scale tree farming.

          5.   Preparation of document for long term support to "Private forestry and
               carbon trading".

Component 1. Enabling environment for private forestry development.
        Component 1 will stimulate the cooperation between private sector and
        government bodies through facilitation of mechanisms for dialogue between the
        actors, providing information for the dialogue on forest sector opportunities as
        well as challenges and strategies for promoting private forestry. The review of
        the National Forest Programme (NFP) and the NFBKP in the FBD in the MNRT
        will be ongoing simultaneously with the project. The interventions under this
        component therefore need to be streamlined and integrated into the review
        processes for the dialogue and information to fully feed into the preparation of
        an updated NFP and NFBKP as well as for the sustainability and continuation of
        the interventions.

          To facilitate the NFB and NFBKP processes as well as provide information for
          the private sector fora and the strategy development, an assessment of the
          institutional framework (policies, regulation, taxation etc.) for private forestry
          will be carried out by the project.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                     16
          Result 1.1 Mechanisms for stakeholder cooperation for promoting private
          forestry established
          The facilitation of the Region Sector fora started during the PPP consultancy
          will continue during the project. An initial analysis will be carried out to review
          possible bottlenecks for a continuation of the regional fora after the completion
          of the project. Two regional fora will be held during the project. The project will
          engage the MNRT and other relevant ministries in the establishment of a Private
          Sector Forum at Ministerial level. The objective of this forum will be to raise
          political awareness about the forest sector and its opportunities as well as
          engaging stakeholders in high level forestry debates. The establishment will
          have to reflect on how to link and possibly integrate with Tanzania Business
          Council.

          Result 1.2 Drafting of the National Strategy for Promotion of Commercial
          Forestry commenced
          The project will facilitate the preparation of a National Strategy for Promoting
          Commercial Forestry as part of the updating of the NFBKP. This strategy is
          especially linked to the subcomponents 1 and 4 of the NFBK programme. The
          strategy is to be prepared jointly with key stakeholders such as MNRT, Ministry
          of Industry, Trade and Marketing, Tanzania Private Sector Foundation, forest
          industry trade associations (SAFIA, NOFIA, TAFIA) as well as TGAs.

          Result 1.3 Information on timber market dynamics in the region available
          To get adequate information of the size and dynamics of the timber markets
          within Tanzania and between the country and its neighbours the project will
          facilitate a study involving Tanzania and its two most significant trade partners.
          Currently, there is lot of timber exported to Kenya and Burundi but also imports
          from Malawi and Mozambique. However, the volume of trade, potential future
          markets and timber prices in those countries is not known, nor how changes in
          trade policies of those countries could influence trade in Tanzania. It is therefore
          difficult to attract investor where there is inadequate market information.

Component 2. Establishment of mechanisms for financing sustainable private forestry
        Component 2 will focus on providing information on mechanisms for financing
        SFM. Financing opportunities available locally and internationally will be
        explored. The scope will be on providing information on applicability and steps
        for implementation to be utilized in the preparation of a long term support on
        private forestry and carbon trading. The project will facilitate the integration of
        this information into the NFP and NFBKP review processes.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       17
          Result 2.1 Information available on feasibility and mechanism for matching
          grant scheme to fund private forestry investment
          To stimulate tree planting and plantation establishment in Tanzania, the
          launching of a programme similar to the successful Saw log Production Grant
          Scheme in Uganda may be considered. A Matching Saw log Grant Scheme
          (MSGS) in Tanzania could operate on the similar basic principles as the SPGS,
          which is fully functional in Uganda after the completion of a five year
          programme. The focus in Uganda has been on larger commercial tree investors
          in mainly degraded state forest plantations. The scheme has, however, been
          recently expanded to small-scale farmers and communities.

          The project will facilitate a study on the feasibility of a MSGS in Tanzania and
          especially look into how such a grant scheme would be applicable to fund
          private forestry, particularly small-scale tree farmers. The study will also
          explore land availability and its impact on private forestry investments as well
          as alternative funding sources for such a scheme.

          Result 2.2 Area defined and action plan developed for carbon trading
          projects in small-scale private forestry
          Project field level interventions will be focusing on the 11 villages where the
          PPP consultancy facilitated the establishment of TGAs as well as on the 6 new
          villages in Mufindi district. The new villages are surrounding GR plantations
          (where the company’s carbon trading project is located) and are already engaged
          in small-scale private forestry with the support from GR. In the new villages the
          project will assess opportunities for carbon trading and if feasible prepare action
          plan for carbon trading implementation in small-scale private plantation
          forestry. Here the project will seek cooperation from the GR.

          Result 2.3 Domestic and internationally promoted private forestry funding
          options explored
          Domestically available financing for other sectors, e.g. agribusiness will be
          assessed to identify opportunities as well as bottlenecks for similar arrangements
          in private forestry. Internationally promoted forestry investment mechanisms
          will be explored.

Component 3. Promotion of small-scale forest industry
        Component 3 will focus in interventions on SME sawmillers in Southern
        Highlands. This includes funding of capacity building as well as facilitation of
        cooperation between industry associations, funding institutions and training
        institutions for sustainability and continuation of the interventions.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                      18
          Result 3.1 Capacity among SME sawmills on production and
          entrepreneurship improved
          The project will facilitate the connection of forest industry associations (SAFIA
          and NOFIA) with Tanzania Private Sector Foundation (TPSF). The FITI will be
          contracted to carry out capacity building assessment on SME sawmillers on a
          selected area in Southern Highlands. Based on the assessment the project will
          facilitate the preparation of a capacity building programme and application to
          TPSF Matching Grants Programme for possible cofunding. The project has a
          budget for training, but the funding from TPSF will determine the total budget
          and hence the comprehensiveness of the training to be carried out during the
          project.

          The capacity building assessment will include analysis of both skills and
          equipment and will apply a long term perspective. Hence, the assessment will
          provide information for SAFIA to engage further with the TPSF as well as for
          the preparation on a long term support on private forestry and carbon trading.

Component 4. Support to small-scale tree farming
        Component 4 will centre around building capacity among tree growing farmers
        and their associations in pilot villages through developing service delivery
        arrangements as well as delivering services in form of awareness raising and
        training. The service delivery will focus around three areas, namely: i)
        sustainable forestry as a business (including leadership and managerial skills),
        ii) alternative IGAs, iii) institutional development of the TGAs. The awareness
        raising and training will include on-farm training, TGA meetings as well as
        organising work shops in training centres in the districts.

          While planning the interventions, attention will have to paid to the challenge
          posed by the short duration of the project compared to the time that both
          development of farmer’s skills as well as TGAs as institutions will demand.

          Result 4.1 Replicable models for service delivery to small-scale tree farmers
          piloted
          Potential service providers in the pilot areas include Local Government, civil
          society organisations and private sector. After the assessment of TGAs’ training
          needs, the capacity among potential service providers will be assessed based on
          the work done during the PPP consultancy and models for service delivery
          developed involving partnership between private sector, civil society and local
          government. The composition of the models will depend on the capacity and
          resources among the institutions. The implementation of the models will include
          capacity building of the service providers.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                    19
The project will apply outsourcing arrangements for the service delivery through
proper and transparent arrangements including Terms of Reference, budget and
monitoring mechanisms. Towards the end of the project an assessment will be
carried out to determine the functionality and sustainability of the service
delivery arrangements including improvement requirements. The assessment
results will determine how the modality will be used in the long term support
project.

Result 4.2 Land use plans developed in pilot villages
Only one of the pilot villages has a VLUP. Mufindi, Kilolo and Njombe District
Councils report to have the capacity to develop land use plans. Potential service
providers among civil society institutions are WWF and Concern (especially on
map production).

The project will support the development of 5 LUPs in the pilot villages. The
institutional arrangements (service providers, schedules, budget, payment and
monitoring mechanisms) for support to land use planning will be determined
during the inception phase of the project.

Result 4.3 Tree Growers Associations established and their institutional
capacity improved
In the beginning of the project the status of the registration among the 11
established TGAs will be assessed and immediate action if necessary
undertaken. The ongoing setting up of the action plans and work plans for the
TGAs will be finalized and implementation commenced. The awareness and
establishment process for TGAs in the new pilot villages will commence as soon
as the service provider arrangements are determined. Institutional development
of the TGAs will focus on leadership and governance issues as well as
organisational and financial management procedures.

Communication and learning between TGAs will be facilitated through the
organisation of district and/or region TGA workshops as well as exchange visits
between TGAs. The work shops will at the same time function as initial
discussion fora for the establishment of TGA apex bodies as well as the
potential for establishment and operation of TGA website and newsletter.
Furthermore, the project will explore possibilities to utilize websites and
newsletter of other organizations for the facilitation of communication and
linkages between TGAs as well as TGAs and other stakeholders.

Result 4.4 Increased capacity among farmers on sustainable commercial
forestry as well as on implementing IGAs
The service delivery to the tree growing farmers will focus on sustainable
forestry as a business and activities that will provide alternative sources of



Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                    20
         income to reduce the pressure to harvest immature trees as well as provide
         income while the trees are growing. Capacity building assessment among the
         farmers as well as business opportunity mapping will form the basis for the
         service delivery interventions.

         It is proposed that the NFBKP will continue the analysis on input requirements
         for small-scale tree growing started during the PPP consultancy. Information
         from the analysis will provide valuable information on factors with impact on
         profitability of small-scale forestry to be used in training tree growing farmers.

Component 5. Preparation of document for long term support to "Private forestry and
        carbon trading".
        Information provided from the various studies and experiences and lessons
        learned from the implementation of project activities will be fed into the
        preparation of a document to guide the implementation of a long term support
        on private forestry and carbon trading. The project document will be prepared
        through a consultative process involving stakeholders.




         Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                     21
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS

     The overall logic of the project rests on a number of assumptions, which effect
     the achievement of outputs at the overall objective, purpose and component
     levels. The primary assumptions are presented in Table 3 below and in the Log
     frame in Annex 1.

     Table 3. Project Assumptions
     Objectives and Components                                          Assumptions
                                                 Tanzania’s positive economic growth trends are maintained
     Overall Objective                           The GoT continues to creating favourable environment for
     A reduction in poverty through
                                                  private sector development.
     ensuring that the forest sector and
                                                 GoT allocates sufficient resources for forestry development
     particularly private forestry
                                                 Private sector sees viable business opportunities in forest
     contributes effectively and
                                                  sector and continues to invest in forestry
     sustainably to improving the lives of
                                                 Small-scale farmers continue to engage in forestry activities
     the poor, restoring the environment
                                                 Carbon trading will continue and grow as a financing
     and aiding the economic recovery
                                                  mechanism for SFM.
     and growth of Tanzania
                                                 Natural disasters (famine, flooding, drought) do not occur
     Project Purpose
     A more conducive framework for            GoT political commitment to private sector development and
     private forestry more conducive            dialogue.
                                               Private sector committed to dialogue with GoT institutions
     through increased availability of
                                               Information made available will be used to promote private
     information, public private                investment in forestry
     cooperation as well as increased          Institutional changes within MNRT does not disrupt project
     capacity in pilot villages involved in     implementation.
     private forestry.

                                                 GoT political commitment to private sector development and
                                                  dialogue.
                                                 Private sector committed to dialogue with GoT institutions
     Component 1                                 Region Private Sector Forum will be used as a platform for
     Enabling environment for private             removing bottlenecks
     forestry development                        NFP and NFBKP review process commenced as planned
                                                 The NFP and NFBKP review process utilize the dialogue and
                                                  information provided through the project interventions
                                                 Data availability and willingness among institutions to release
                                                  the data




     Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                       22
                                         Data available and willingness among institutions to release
Component 2                               the data
Establishment of mechanisms for          Small-scale tree growers are willing to participate in carbon
financing sustainable private             trading
forestry                                 Private sector willing to collaborate on carbon trading
                                         Carbon trading mechanisms available for small-scale tree
                                          growers
                                         Skilled service providers available
Component 3                              SME sawmiller are willing to participate, learn and apply the
Promotion of small-scale forest
                                          knowledge
industry
                                         No additional market distortion affecting the operating
                                          environment of the SME sawmillers

                                         Skilled service providers available and willing to participate
                                          in service delivery arrangements
                                         Local Government, private sector and NGOs willing to
                                          collaborate in service delivery arrangements.
Component 4                              The demand and price for timber and poles at villages
Support to small-scale tree               continue at sufficient level to provide incentives for farmers
farming                                   for tree growing
                                         Village Government willing to carry out LUP
                                         Tree growing farmers are willing to establish TGAs
                                         Strong leadership can be found in the villages for the TGAs
                                         Tree growing farmers are willing to participate, learn and
                                          apply the knowledge

Component 5
Preparation of document for long
                                         Project will be tasked to prepare the project document
term support to "Private forestry
and carbon trading"



Main risks
A number of risks have been identified that have potential significant impact
upon the pace and scope of the project implementation. These are as follows:
   Inadequate commitment by GoT institutions to promote private sector growth
    leading to e.g. slow progress in organising of Private Sector Forums and
    preparation of National Strategy for Promoting Commercial Forestry.
   Sharing of information and collaboration fail due to lack of trust among the
    different institutions involved.
   Forest Sector reform process stalled leading to delays in TFS inauguration and
    in the review of NFP and NFBKP.
   Weakness in TGAs leadership can cause the association to break away.
   Changes in regulations governing trade, for example, imposing arbitrary taxes
    may discourage private forestry investments.




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                     23
   Inadequate human resource capacity and poorly remunerated civil servants
    may slow down their momentum in participating in the implementation of
    field activities.
   The initial assessment of interest and capability of civil society and private
    sector organisations to deliver services to farmers may prove to be too
    optimistic. .
   As individual farmers expand tree growing on their farms, it is likely that there
    could be some biodiversity and environmental amenity losses in those farm
    areas.




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                        24
COMPATIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY

Compatibility with strategic goals for Finnish development cooperation
        The main goal of the Finnish development policy is to eradicate poverty and to
        promote sustainable development in accordance with the UN Millennium
        Development Goals. The currents Development Policy Programme (2007)
        addresses environment and sustainable development as objectives that need to
        be adhered to consistently in the implementation of Finnish development policy.
        The Finnish Development Policy Guidelines for Forest Sector supports the
        operationalization of Finland’s Development Policy Programme.

          The forest sector has been one of the engines behind the economic development
          in Finland and here private smallholder forestry has been played a significant
          part. One of the strengths in Finnish smallholder forestry is its strong
          organisations with the Forest Management Association on local level. Therefore,
          support to TGAs in Tanzania is directly in line with the aim of the Forest Sector
          guidelines to “focus on fields with Finland has expertise”.

          The forest sector policy guidelines five themes for development cooperation of
          which the first three are relevant for the project.
          1.   “Support for national forest programmes”. The support to private sector
               forums as well as the strategy development will stimulate stakeholder
               cooperation, provide information and may even act as forums for the actual
               review of the NFP and NFBKP in Tanzania.
          2.   “Strengthening the importance of the forest sector in combating climate
               change and adapting to it”. Carbon trading is one of the focus areas of the
               project.
          3.   “To integrate forest sector development into rural development, national
               land allocation processes and agriculture policy”. The project’s approach is
               “forestry as business” and integration of forestry with other IGAs. The
               project will facilitate land use planning in the villages.

          This project is part of the larger Tanzanian-Finland forestry cooperation, the
          new phase of which is currently under preparation. The aim is to work with all
          stakeholder groups, including the government, private sector and civil society.
          The lessons learnt will be directly fed to the new forestry sector programme.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                    25
Policy environment
          The policy environment for private forestry in Tanzania is favourable since the
          legal framework for promotion of private and community-based ownership of
          forests and trees is established through the forest policy of 1988 and the forest
          Act No. 14 of 2002. In order to implement the forest policy, the government
          developed a National Forest Programme (NFP) and NFBKP with a number of
          activities geared towards a sustainable management of forest resources. The
          NFP for 2001-2010 is based on four implementation sub programmes namely;
          forest resource conservation and management; institutional and human resource
          development; legal and regulatory framework, which among other things
          include development of guidelines to facilitate operations of the private sector;
          and forest based industries and sustainable livelihoods which is intended to
          enhance forest industry development by promoting private sector investment
          (URT 2001). Therefore promotion of PPPs in commercial forestry is in line with
          the NFP and NFBKP programmes in Tanzania.

          However, for the past 10 years, forest based industries and trade have received
          little attention and financing. The Tanzania Forest Conservation and
          Management Project (TFCMP) under FBD through World Bank support has
          tried to promote Private Sector Involvement (PSI) in forestry and has registered
          little achievement. Nevertheless, the environment for the private sector
          involvement has improved. The establishment of the Tanzania Private Sector
          Foundation (TPSF) in 1998 has provided a window through the recently
          established Tanzania Business Council a platform for dialogue between the
          government and the private sector. The private sector in forestry, through TPSF
          can improve advocacy and lobbying with and therefore engage the government
          and all parties to address challenges limiting fast growth in private forestry. For
          example, engaging with the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Marketing which
          has formulated a strategy to promote exports of products from Tanzania.

          FBD of MNRT is one of the department earmarked for transformation into an
          Executive Agency, called the Tanzania Forest Service (TFS). The TFS will be
          semi-autonomous and its main functions of TFS are to ensure sustainable
          supply of various forest and bee products and services, stable ecosystem and
          maintaining biological diversity by (i) Establishing and managing central
          government natural forest and bee reserves; (ii) Establishing and managing
          central government forest plantations and apiaries; (iii) Managing forest and bee
          resources in general land; (iv) Enforcing National Forest and Beekeeping
          legislations and (v) Providing forest and Beekeeping extension services. It is
          expected that the institutional reforms will speed up decision making, increase
          efficiency and implementation of activities and therefore create a more
          favourable environment for private forestry.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                      26
Economic and financial feasibility
        Tree growing is an activity that takes long time before tangible benefits can be
        realized by the tree growers. Smallholder forest farmers are in most cases cash
        constrained and thus tend to harvest trees while immature. The bridging phase
        will seek to address this by working in collaboration with other actors and
        service providers to provide; training on IGAs, training on entrepreneurship and
        training on tree management. The project will also explore available innovative
        options for financing tree growers.

          Similarly, the project will offer capacity building to service providers where
          necessary in order to enhance their efficiency and effectiveness. These will
          include capacity building to private sector, NGOs and Local Government
          officials who will be supporting the TGAs. The private sector and NGOs will
          be linked with the District authorities to ensure the sustenance of project
          activities after the project period. Land use plans will be undertaken since they
          form a basis for sustainable environment and development in the tree growing
          areas.



Institutional capacity
           The project will be working through service providers to build capacity of
           TGAs. The arrangement brings another challenge of capacity of service
           providers themselves since some lack competencies in some aspects. In order
           for the project actors to meet theirs obligations, a capacity assessment will be
           done to identify capacity gaps and institutions with competence will be sought
           to support the capacity building of the service providers. The interventions in the
           villages will be adapted to the capacity of the receivers.

          Inadequate capacity among Government institutions to support TGAs in IGAs
          land use planning and training on tree management will be addressed through
          working in close collaboration with service providers and training to be
          provided by the competent contractors. Service providers will work in close
          collaboration with staff from District Councils in different models of
          arrangement in this way share knowledge and build the capacity of the
          institutions.



Socio-cultural aspects
          The main thrust of this project is at village level promoting free growing by
          individual/family farms and therefore contributes to bring cohesion amongst
          family members. Formation of TGAs within the village promotes social



          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       27
          interactions to address common issues of forestry and at the same time provides
          a forum to share ideas. Family farms are under customary land tenure and
          therefore the project must be sure not to create conditions which can trigger land
          use conflicts. The approach to support TGAs which are formed by family tree
          growers is compatible with the culture of project beneficiaries and contributes to
          promote gender aspects because women are members of the family.



Participation and ownership
          Participation and ownership are of specific importance to any project to ensure
          that activities are carried out sustainability and successfully. The project support
          interventions will be implemented both directly through FBD and District
          Councils and through outsourcing by NGOs and the private sector. The
          outsourcing arrangements will also include District Councils in areas of
          competence. The project activities will be integrated into FBD and feeding into
          NFP and NFBKP review processes. District Councils will be entry points to the
          project at local level while TGA-based activities will be undertaken by the TGA
          members themselves. In this way the project will ensure participation and
          ownership of the project by FBD and relevant District Councils.

          The project will facilitate establishment and strengthening of TGAs. The TGAs
          are formed by tree growing families and are the once driving the project
          implementation while other actors are playing a supporting role. This
          arrangement ensures that tree growing farmers participate and own project
          activities and hence foster continuation beyond project period.



Gender
          The project considers gender mainstreaming as an important ingredient for
          making concerns of women and men an integral part of the design,
          implementation, monitoring and evaluation of outputs of activities and results.
          In this way the project ensures that women and men have an equal chance of
          accessing project services. The bridging phase project shall lay down gender
          balance foundation through use of guidelines provided for formation and
          composition of members in committees and leadership of associations.
          Preparation and implementation of the project document that take into
          consideration gender concerns in the following ways:
             Ensure participation of women owning productive resources that include trees
              and other IGAs.
             Ensure women´s access to land, participation in land-use planning and
              ownership of their trees.



          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       28
             Ensure gender balance in leadership of TGAs.
             Ensure that service providers are themselves gender sensitive
             Equal ratio (women: men) in training and study tour to producer associations
              that are successful in tree growing and gender mainstreaming.
             Regional forums have womens’ representation.


Environment
        There is a general concern that planting of monoculture species like pines and
        eucalyptus is likely to lead into problems of loss of biodiversity, invasive
        species, pests and diseases. The project has taken this into consideration by
        putting more emphasis in development of VLUPs in the 11 villages and
        involvement of biodiversity institutions and NGOs like the Wildlife
        Conservation Society of Tanzania (WCST) to ensure that environmental
        considerations are taken care. In addition, tree growing will contribute to
        mitigate climate change through carbon sequestration, increase availability of
        fuel wood and therefore reduce pressure on natural forests and in that way
        contribute to biodiversity conservation. In other areas, planting will not take
        place in hilly and steep slopes and thereby reduce soil erosion and contribute to
        natural resource conservation.



Appropriate technology
        As pointed out earlier, tree growing farmers do not have the required technical
        knowledge on tree planting and they are not aware of the consequences of not
        using the appropriate technologies. The project will address this problem by
        facilitating TGAs link with TTSA to access quality seeds and appropriate
        nursery techniques. Also, the project will facilitate farmers to access simple
        forest management guidelines (e.g. “Woodlot Management Guidelines for
        Smallholder Farmers” prepared through the UNEP/UNDP CC DARE
        Programme) to guide in tree planting, weeding and other tending operations to
        get good quality products.

          TGAs will be linked with research institutions such as Tanzania Forest Research
          Institute (TAFORI), SUA and TTSA to benefit from on-farm research findings
          to improve their tree planting and management. Modern appropriate technology
          and knowhow in the tree growing value chain will be provided also by the
          private sector actors, such as GR.

          Sawmillers will be exposed to logging operations, saw doctoring, sawmilling
          operations and management and therefore upgrade their technology to efficient




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                     29
level in order to reduce losses that are currently incurring and improve product
quality for both domestic and export market.




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                   30
IMPLEMENTATION

Approach
Integration with NFP and NFBKP review processes
           The FBD (TFS after its inauguration) is the body within the MNRT responsible
           for management of forest resources. The operations of the FBD are guided by
           the NFP and the NFBKP. Any support interventions in forestry needs to be
           integrated and in line with these programmes. The substance of the project is in
           line with the Development Programme 4 “Forest-based Industry and Sustainable
           Livelihoods” of the NFBKP.

          The forums and stakeholder meetings organised during project implementation
          need to be closely linked to the NFP and NFBKP review processes so as to both
          serve as possible forums for the review as well as providing information for the
          review processes. The preparation of a National Strategy for Promoting
          Commercial Forestry is in fact a part of the NFBP review process.

The project to provide information on feasibility of long term support on private forestry
          and carbon trading
          The project will form the basis for the formulation of a long term support project
          on private forestry and carbon trading, but at the same time being an assessment
          of the feasibility of such a long term support. During the project various
          arrangements involving cooperation, partnerships and outsourcing (e.g. capacity
          building of sawmillers, service delivery to tree growing farmers, Private Sector
          Forums) will be implemented for carrying out project interventions. Apart from
          activities being carried out through these arrangements, they will also provide
          essential information on the capacity and readiness to deliver by local
          government, civil society institutions and private sector (e.g. functionality,
          capacity building needs as well as the overall feasibility of such arrangements).

          Various studies (e.g. saw log grant scheme) will provide information on the
          feasibility of different support arrangements for facilitating private forestry
          development. The activities need to be scheduled in such a manner that the
          information, experiences and lessons learned is available to be fed into the
          project document preparation.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                     31
Ensuring a wider scope in long term support on private forestry and carbon trading
          The project has, due to its timeframe, a narrow focus for its interventions. At the
          same time the project will form the basis for a longer term project on private
          forestry and carbon trading. During implementation attention will have to be
          paid to ensuring that information on private forestry and carbon trading will be
          available for project formulation on a wider range than what is provided directly
          from the project interventions.

          Important issues to consider in “widening the scope” include the following:
             The project field work activities are focusing on a selected number of villages
              in Mbeya and Iringa regions. There is already information available on other
              districts (e.g. Makete) in the same regions, where tree farming in widely
              practised and there is potential to scale up private forestry support
              interventions.

             The project applies a narrow definition for private forestry. The preparation of
              a long term project needs to consider widening the definition to include also
              community forestry and aspects such as commercialization of CBNRM. There
              are already ongoing interventions by the Mpingo Conservation Project (MPC)
              in Kilwa District in Lindi region and Kilombero Valley Teak Company in
              Kilombero district in Morogoro region on sustainable commercial utilization
              of miombo woodland tree species. MCP was awarded the first certificate for
              community managed forests in Africa by Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) in
              2008. Including CBNRM in the definition of private forestry will also open up
              opportunities for support interventions on REDD.

             The project is focusing on primary production. Scaling up implies that
              interventions will have to be considered along the forest value chain including
              primary processing industry, trading etc.

             The project is focusing on small-scale private forestry. Weather this is the
              scope for the long term support project or promotion of larger investment in
              forestry is to be included need to be considered.

Sustainable service delivery to tree growing farmers through partnerships and
          strengthening of TGAs
          The approach to improved service delivery to tree growing farmers will be to
          assess the location, core competences, resources and costs among potential
          service providers. Based on the assessment, models for service delivery will be
          developed. Since potential service providers do not have core competence in all
          substance areas needed (forestry, IGAs and institutional development) the
          models will build on and emphasise partnerships between service delivery
          institutions. The model implementation will include training, where institutions



          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       32
with core competence will train other service providers. This will build capacity
of service providing institutions as well as enhancing the partnership approach.

The service delivery models are likely to include out sourcing arrangements
when this provides the most cost efficient alternative to provide an adequate
level of professional service delivery within the available time of the project.
The outsourcing may include arrangements where the whole “package”
(forestry, IGAs and institutional development) is outsourced to one institution
and this institution brings in other where it lacks core competence. Table 4
below shows one potential model for service delivery.

Table 4. Potential pilot model for service delivery
  Service delivery by private sector and civil society
  Location:
   Mufindi District

  Service delivery:
   Forestry: Forest industry (Green Resources Ltd)
   IGAs: Civil society (e.g. TechnoServe, Heifer International)
   TGA development: Civil society (e.g. TechnoServe, Heifer International)

  Implementation Framework:
   Forest industry acts as service provider as a part of its social responsibility pro-
    gramme and wood procurement marketing strategy.
   Civil society institutions contracted through outsourcing arrangements.
   Local government serves as an entry point to the district level and can also be
    contracted through outsourcing arrangements.
   FBD/PMT provides guidance, monitors and reports to district council. (later on
    these functions will be overtaken by the district level organization of TGAs and
    local government only supervises those functions which are stipulated in law,
    distribution of law based financial remunerations etc)
  Costs:
   Outsourcing arrangements for civil society, private sector and local government




Heifer International and TechnoServe are international NGOs operating in
Iringa and Mbeya regions with core competence on IGA and institutional
development. The core competence of TFCG is in forestry and REDD. Due to
inadequate institutional set up (number of TGAs, lack of title deeds among tree
growing farmers), GR does not see the opportunity to enter into contractual
partnerships with the tree growing farmers and/or their TGAs within the lifetime
of the project. However, the company holds core competence in forestry and is a
highly potential service provider for the villages in Mufindi district.




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                 33
          One way to decrease the dependency on government and civil society service
          delivery is the Trainer of Trainers approach, where key farmers are trained and
          they in turn train others. Adapting this approach and connecting the key farmers
          to the TGAs, implies that the service would come through the TGA, promote the
          role of the TGAs and facilitate the development of the institution. A crucial
          issue in the strengthening of the TGAs will be the training of the key persons
          and development of management mechanisms that are transparent and enhance
          good governance.

          An assessment of the service delivery models will be conducted towards the end
          of the project to determine the functionality and sustainability of the
          arrangements, including ways to improve the models. It will provide essential
          information for the long term support on private forestry and carbon trading.

Close cooperation with other interventions and donor partners
          A programme is being prepared for Norwegian funding on district level climate
          change partnerships. This programme will be implemented initially in Mufindi
          and Kilolo districts with possible emphasis on district level land-use and
          environmental management planning. Coordination and cooperation between
          the two programmes will be necessary and useful.

          Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG) is implementing REDD related
          activities in Kilolo district through the “Making REDD work for communities
          and forest conservation” project. Close cooperation with TFCG will provide
          experiences and insight on REDD for the preparation of the long term private
          forestry and carbon trading project.

          If the studies show the feasibility of a Matching Sawlog Grant Scheme, other
          donors, such as Norway, will be invited to join the fund.

The interventions in the pilot villages need to be linked with biodiversity information for
          proper consideration of environmental issues
          The district and village land use planning including environmental planning is
          currently inadequate. To improve the situation, the project will fund land use
          planning in 5 of the villages where field level interventions are implemented. To
          ensure that biodiversity aspects are duly considered in the land use planning, the
          project will facilitate the connection between the institutions with biodiversity
          data (WCST in Mbeya region, Bird atlas Tanzania) and the land use planning
          section in the Local Government. The aim is to ensure that biodiversity
          information is fed into the planning process for the pilot villages and districts as
          well as facilitating establishment of cooperation between the institutions.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       34
Project organisation
Lead organisations
          The overall responsibility for the implementation of the project will be vested in
          the MNRT. The project interventions addresses issues at both nation/region and
          field level and the project will be organised to adhere to this. The FBD will be
          the responsible organisation for nation and region level interventions (e.g.
          Private Sector fora, preparation of a National Strategy for Promoting
          Commercial Forestry). The possible inauguration of Tanzania Forest Service
          (TFS) will imply that the responsibilities as host organisation are taken over by
          TFS.

          The District Councils will be the entry point as well as coordinating institution
          providing some guidance and some monitoring for activities carried out in the
          districts. For this it is proposed that each pilot district will assign an officer as
          Focal Point for Private Forestry. However, the responsibility for the
          implementation will depend on the outsourcing arrangements and will be guided
          and supervised primarily by FBD/PMT. FBD will ensure that staffing is
          assigned for smooth implementation of project support activities. A
          Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) will be prepared between FBD, the
          District Councils and the project to clarify the role of each in project
          implementation.

          A project office will be established at FBD HQ in Dar es Salaam. The field
          activities in Iringa and Mbeya regions bring about the need for office space also
          in the regions. During the inception phase office arrangements in the regions
          will be determined, either in form of office(s) in the pilot districts or at the
          region head quarters in Iringa.

          A finance manager/administrator will be employed with project funds and will
          be located in the project office in FBD HQ in Dar Es Salaam, working in close
          cooperation with the FBD financial management.

          FBD and Local Government will provide the offices as well as furniture while
          the project will provide necessary computers and printers as well as stationery.
          The project will purchase one vehicle for project implementation, while the PPP
          consultancy vehicle at FBD will be assigned full time to the project. The costs
          for the vehicles (fuel, service, tyres) will be funded by the project, while the all
          costs for the drivers (salary, per diem etc) will be the responsibility of FBD. The
          project will facilitate the District Council’s participation in field activities
          through provision of funds for per diem and fuel. The amount of funding to the
          pilot districts will be determined and indicated in the detailed budget to be
          prepared during the inception phase.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                        35
Delegated responsibility for results through outsourcing
          The service delivery models are likely to include outsourcing arrangements. The
          outsourcing may include arrangements where the whole “package” (forestry,
          IGAs and institutional development) is outsourced to one institution and this
          institution brings in others where it lacks core competence through
          “subcontracting” arrangements. Outsourcing institutions will be selected based
          on the assessment done during the PPP consultancy and the verification to be
          conducted during the inception phase. The project will develop proper and
          transparent arrangements for the outsourcing including Terms of Reference,
          budget and monitoring mechanisms.



Project management
Competent authorities
         The Competent Authorities are the MNRT for the Republic of Tanzania and
         Ministry for Foreign Affairs for the Government of Finland.

Decision making arrangements
          A Technical Committee (TC) will be formed to take on the responsibility for
          support and monitoring of the project and for ensuring appropriate coordination
          and cooperation between and among the different institutions involved. The TC
          will meet on a quarterly basis and is charged with the effective operation of the
          project. This implies approving; i) project work plans and budgets, ii) project
          progress reports (inception report, quarterly progress reports and project
          completion report) and iii) short term consultancies.

          The TC will consist of representatives from MNRT and the Finnish Embassy,
          while the CTA will act as secretary for the committee.

          The Project is serviced by the Project Management Team (PMT) in its day-to-
          day operations. The PMT will consist of persons assigned from FBD, Chief
          Technical Adviser and the District Councils (as observers, if local government is
          also implementing the activities as outsourced actors) where the project is
          operating. The FBD and the district council members in the PMT will at the
          same time be persons in respective institutions with main responsibility for
          project implementation and integration into institution planning and operation.

          One long term Chief Technical Adviser (CTA) as well as a number of short term
          national and international consultancy inputs will support the implementation of
          project activities and are listed in Table 5 below. The study on region timber
          markets & demand projections will involve one national consultants from
          Tanzania and two from selected neighbouring countries. The inputs from the



          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                    36
          Consultancy on Private Forestry and TGAs will be split into three parts, one in
          the beginning, one in the middle and one part towards the end of the project.

          Table 5: Technical Assistance input
          Chief Technical Adviser (CTA)                                  1 international, 10 ½ months
          Consultancy on Private Forestry and TGAs                       1 international, 3 months
                                                                         1 national, 1 month
          Consultancy on Carbon Trading
                                                                         1 international, ½ month
          Study on region timber markets & demand                        3 nationals á 1 month.
          projections                                                    1 international, 2 months
                                                                         1 national, 2 months
          Feasibility study on Saw Log Grant Scheme
                                                                         1 international, 2 months
          Preparation of project document                                1 national, 2 months
                                                                         1 international, 1 ½ months
          Study on domestically and internationally                      1 national, ½ month
          available micro and other financing
          opportunities to small-scale private forestry

          The job descriptions for the CTA and the Consultancy on Private Forestry are
          presented in Annex 2. The timing of the Technical Assistance inputs is shown in
          Table 6 below.

          Table 6. Timing of Technical Assistance inputs

                                                       1Q           2Q            3Q           4Q
                                                        1   2   3    4    5   6    7   8   9   10   11   12

             Chief Technical Adviser
             Consultancy on Private forestry & TGA's
             Consultancy on Carbon Trading
             Study on region timber markets
             Feasibility study on MSLGS
             Preparation of PDs
             Study on finanicing opportunities




Inception phase
          The project will start with an eight weeks inception period. During this period
          all preparatory arrangements will be carried out including detailed work
          planning and budgeting, setting up project offices and preparation of TORs for
          short term consultants. Considering the short time frame of the project and
          hence the need for efficient fielding of the short term consultancy assignment
          possible interim arrangements for decision making on the consultancies will also
          be looked into. An inception report will be produced and presented to the
          Steering Committee.




          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                          37
Tentative timetable
                          Meeting, workshop, Forum or other event
                          Deliverable                                                                                 1Q           2Q           3Q           4Q
                          Working period                                                                               1   2   3    4   5   6    7   8   9   10   11   12
          Project Management
          Inception phase
                 Establishment of project offices, detailed work plan & budget, development of TORs
                 Preparation of MOU between FBD, DCs and project
          Programme management organisation
                 Reporting: Inception report, QPR and Completion report
                 Technical Commitee meetings

          Component 1. Enabling environment for private forestry development
          Result 1.1 Mechanisms for stakeholder cooperation for promoting private forestry established
                Assessment of institutional framework for private forestry
                Region Private Sector Forums
                National Private Sector Forum
          Result 1.2 National Strategy for Promotion of Commercial Forestry commenced
                Formation of task force and commencing the strategy development
          Result 1.3 Information on timber market dynamics in the region available
                Carry out study and reporting

          Component 2. Establishment of mechanisms for financing sustainable private forestry
                                                                                                                     .
          Result 2.1 Information available on feasibility and mechanism for grant scheme to fund private forestry dev.
                Carry out study and reporting
                                                                                                                     .
          Result 2.2 Area defined and action plan developed for carbon trading projects in small scale private forestry
                Carry out awaress raising in pilot villages
                Establish management and collaboration arrangemenet
                Assess monitoring mechanism, funding arrangements, prepare action plan
          Result 2.3 National and internationally promoted private forestry financing options explored
                Identfy and analyze national and international financing opportunities including microfinance

          Component 3. Promotion of small-scale forest industry
          Result 3.1 Capacity among SME saw-mills on production and entrepreneur-ship improved
                Establishment of outsourcing arrangments with FITI
                Capacity building needs assessment among selected saw millers
                Funds application to TPSF
                Training of saw millers

          Component 4. Support to small-scale tree farming
          Result 4.1 Replicable models for service delivery to small scale tree farmers piloted
                Assessment of institutions, selection and contracting, dev of outsoursing arrangements
                Devellopment of service delivery models
                Training of service providers
          Result 4.2 Landuse plans developed in pilot villages
                Analyze and set institutional arrangement for LUP
                Facilitate LUP process in 5 villages
          Result 4.3 Tree Growers Associations established and their capacity to function as institutions im-proved
                Support TGA registration process
                Training needs assessment
                Capacity building of TGAs
          Result 4.4 Increased capacity among farmers on SFM and implementing IGAs
                Capacity building assessment and business opportunity mapping
                Training and development forestry and IGAs

          Component 5. Preparation of PD on "Private forestry and carbon trading"
          Result 5.1 Project document for Long Term support programme available
                Preparation of programme document


         Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                                                                         38
Budget and financial management
Budget
         The budget Government of Finland (GoF) for the project is 724,300 euro (~ 1,30
         billion Tsh) including Government of Finland (GoF) contributions only. The
         Government of Tanzania will contribute through inputs from FBD and Local
         Government both in kind (offices, personnel) and through budgetary allocations
         from the NFBKP. A summary of the budget (GoF contribution) presented in
         Table 7 below. A more detailed budget is in Annex 3.

          Table 7. Project budget (GoF contribution)
                                                                                              No    Unit    Unit cost   Total (EUR)
               1 TOTAL TA RELATED COSTS                                                                                     425 900

               2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT (vehicle, office equipment, DC per diem etc)                                             73 400

               3 COMPONENTS
                 Component 1. Enabling environment for private forestry development                                          22 000
                 Transport costs (vehicle running costs etc)                                                                  5 000
                 Work shops and meetings (e.g. Private Sector Forums, Strategy development)                                  15 000
                 Other costs                                                                                                  2 000

                 Component 2. Mechanisms for financing sustainable private forestry                                          12 000
                 Transport costs (vehicle running costs etc)                                                                  5 000
                 Work shops and meetings                                                                                      5 000
                 Other costs                                                                                                  2 000

                 Component 3. Promotion of small scale forest industry                                                       23 000
                 Transport costs (vehicle running costs etc)                                                                  5 000
                 Capacity building of SME sawmillers (FITI contracted)                                                       15 000
                 Other costs                                                                                                  3 000

                 Component 4. Support to small scale tree farming                                                           124 000
                 Outsourcing of service delivery                                                                             70 000
                 Capacity building of service providers                                                                       5 000
                 Development of LUPS                                                          5,0   Plans    5 000           25 000
                 Transport costs (vehicle running costs, DC transport costs etc)                                             15 000
                 Capacity building and awareness events and work shops                                                        5 000
                 Other costs                                                                                                  4 000

                 Component 5. Preparation of PD on "Private forestry and carbon trading"                                     24 000
                 Transport costs (vehicle running costs etc)                                                                  5 000
                 Work shops and meetings                                                                                     15 000
                 Other costs                                                                                                  4 000
                 CONTINGENCY                                                                                                 20 000

                 TOTAL BUDGET                                                                                             724 300



Financial management
          The GoF funds for project implementation (TA costs, project management,
          component operational funds) will be under the responsibility of the
          international consulting firm selected to coordinate this project. Funds will be
          administered and accounted for under their internal management systems using
          a dedicated bank account. A Finance Manager will be employed for the financial
          management and stationed in FBD HQ in Dar es Salaam. The job description for
          the Finance Manager is presented in Annex 2.

          Systems for monitoring of outsourcing arrangements will be developed,
          including mechanisms for proper follow up of the use of funds by the service
          providers.



          Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                                  39
MONITORING AND EVALUATION

     Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) of the implementation of project activities
     will be guided by the log frame and its indicators to measure outputs and targets
     from each result area. Considering the short time frame for this project, M&E is
     designed to include measurable targets after every 3 to 6 months of
     implementation.

     Mechanisms for monitoring of the outsourced activities will be developed as a
     part of the outsourcing arrangement including requirement on periodic planning
     and reporting with measurable indicators to monitor the work by the
     organisation carrying out the activities.

     Quarterly project reports will be the main mechanism for monitoring of project
     progress. The reporting will be based on the comparison of achievements versus
     planning of activities and results areas, making reference to the project
     document. The service providers implementing the outsourcing will be required
     to provide quarterly progress reports which will feed into the project quarterly
     report.

     Progress monitoring will be executed by the project implementing teams
     (service providers) and will be coordinated and consolidated by the Chief
     Technical Advisor and the Consultancy on Private Forestry and TGA who will
     provide the backstopping. Frequent field visits by the project implementation
     team shall also feed into the monitoring mechanism. The project is organized in
     such a way that there is a close link between FBD through the staff attached to
     the project, Technical Assistance and Finnish Embassy.

     Financial auditing will be based on books of accounts kept by the project
     administration and all other paying stations involved in the accounting of the
     project financial transactions.

     A completion report willl be written by the end of the project. It will, among
     other things, summarize outputs of the result areas, effects of the project on its
     direct beneficiaries and the environment, challenges and lessons learnt for the
     purpose of incorporating them in the design of the long term project.




     Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                     40
ANNEX 1. LOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE PROJECT
                              Objectively verifiable indicators of                                           Source and means of
           Intervention Logic                                                                                                            Assumptions
                              achievement                                                                    verification
                                                                                                                                            Tanzania’s economic growth
                                                                                                                                             trends are maintained
                                                                                                                                            The GoT continue creating
                                                                                                                                             favourable environment for
                                                                                                                                             private sector to grow.
                                                                                                                                            GoT allocate sufficient
                 A reduction in poverty by                                                                                                   resources for forestry
                 ensuring that the forest sector                                                                                             development
                 contributes effectively and         Rise in living standards and increased income of                                      Private sector sees viable
Overall          sustainably to improving the         rural households from forest products and services                                     business opportunities in
                                                                                                                GoT economic reports
Objective        lives of the poor, restoring the    Contribution of forestry sector as captured in                                         forest sector and continue to
                 environment and aiding the           national accounts increased from xx to yy by EOP                                       invest in forestry
                 sustainable economic recovery                                                                                              Small-scale farmers continue
                 and growth of Tanzania                                                                                                      to engage in forestry activities
                                                                                                                                            Carbon trading will continue
                                                                                                                                             and grow as a financing
                                                                                                                                             mechanism for
                                                                                                                                            Natural disasters (famine,
                                                                                                                                             flooding, drought) do not
                                                                                                                                             occur
                                                                                                                                            GoT political commitment to
                 A more conducive framework                                                                                                  private sector development
                 for private forestry more           Private sector forums held and concrete plans for                                      and dialogue.
                 conducive through increased          their continuation                                                                    Private sector committed to
                                                                                                              MNRT and FBD reports          dialogue
Project          availability of information,        NFP and NFBKP review ongoing with clear
                                                                                                              NFP and NFBKP documents      Availability of information
Purpose          public private cooperation as        indication on bigger emphasis on private forestry
                                                                                                                                             will be useful and promote
                 well as increased capacity in       TGAs in pilot villages established with regular
                                                                                                                                             private investment in forestry
                 pilot villages involved in           meetings and annual plans directing their activities                                  Institutional changes within
                 private forestry.                                                                                                           MNRT (TFS) does not disrupt
                                                                                                                                             the project




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                                                                41
Component 1. Enabling environment for private forestry development
                Intervention Logic                 Objectively verifiable indicators of                  Source and means of              Assumptions
                                                   achievement                                           verification
                                                                                                                                             GoT political commitment to
                                                      TORs for Private Sector Forum on Nation level                                          private sector development
                                                       developed by EOM 2                                                                     and dialogue.
                                                      Nation level Private Sector Forum held by EOM 7                                       Private sector committed to
                                                                                                          Proceedings of the Forums
                                                       with significant woman participation                                                   dialogue
                Mechanisms for stakeholder                                                                Project quarterly progress
                                                      TORs for Region Private Sector Forums developed                                       Region Private Sector Forum
Result 1.1      cooperation for promoting
                                                       by EOM 2
                                                                                                           reports                            will be used as a platform for
                private forestry established                                                              Minutes/proceedings of the         removing bottlenecks,
                                                      Region Private Sector Forums meeting 1 held by
                                                       EOM 4 with significant of woman participation       meetings                           advocacy and lobbying
                                                      Region Private Sector Forums meeting 2 held by                                        Institutional changes within
                                                       EOM 10 with significant of woman participation                                         MNRT (TFS) does not disrupt
                                                                                                                                              the project
                                                                                                                                             GoT political commitment to
                                                                                                                                              private sector development
                Drafting of National Strategy                                                                                                 and dialogue.
                                                      At least 2 meetings of key stakeholders are          Minutes/proceedings of the      Private sector committed to
Result 1.2      for Promotion of Commercial
                                                       conducted to develop the strategy by EOM 11           meetings                         dialogue with GoT
                Forestry commenced
                                                                                                                                             NFP and NFBKP review
                                                                                                                                              process commenced as
                                                                                                                                              planned
                                                      TORs for study developed by EOM 2                                                     Data available and
                Information on timber market
Result 1.3                                            Consultant hired by EOM 3                            Study report                     willingness among
                dynamics in the region available
                                                      Study conducted by EOM 6                                                               institutions to release the data




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                                                                 42
Component 2. Establishment of mechanisms for financing sustainable private forestry
                Intervention Logic                Objectively verifiable indicators of                      Source and means of               Assumptions
                                                  achievement                                               verification
                Information available on             TORs for study on saw log grant scheme developed                                           Data available and
                feasibility and mechanism for         by EOM 2
Result 2.1                                                                                                     Study report                      willingness among
                matching grant scheme to fund        Consultant hired by EOM 5
                                                                                                                                                  institutions to release the data
                private forestry investment          Report available by EOM 8
                                                     Coordination mechanisms established with
                                                      NORAD by EOM 2
                                                                                                                                               Small-scale tree growers are
                                                     Awareness raising activities conducted in pilot
                                                      villages by EOM 8 with 20 % woman participation                                           willing to participate in
                                                                                                             Project progress reports
                Area defined and action plan         Village management mechanisms and collaboration                                           carbon trading
                                                                                                             Service provider reports
                developed for carbon trading          arrangement with private sector & District Councils                                      Private sector willing to
Result 2.2                                                                                                   MOU with Norwegian
                projects in small-scale private       established by EOM 8                                                                      collaborate on carbon trading
                                                                                                              Embassy on coordination on
                forestry                             Monitoring and assessment mechanism reviewed                                             Carbon trading mechanisms
                                                      for suitability by EOM 8                                carbon trading support
                                                                                                                                                available for small-scale tree
                                                     Action plan for carbon trading development in pilot                                       growers
                                                      villages including collaboration arrangements
                                                      available by EOM 8
                                                                                                               Assessment report available      Data available and
                Domestic and internationally         Assessment report on opportunities for national and                                         willingness among financial
Result 2.3      promoted private forestry             international financing towards private forestry
                                                                                                                                                  institutions to release the
                funding options explored              investments available by EOM 8
                                                                                                                                                  data/information

Component 3. Promotion of small-scale forest industry
                Intervention Logic                Objectively verifiable indicators of                      Source and means of               Assumptions
                                                  achievement                                               verification
                                                   Capacity building needs assessment report                                                  Skilled service providers
                                                                                                             Capacity building needs
                Capacity among SME saw mills        available by EOM 3                                                                          available
                                                                                                              assessment report
Result 3.1      on production and                  Application for SME sawmills capacity building                                             SME sawmiller are willing to
                                                                                                             Capacity building report
                entrepreneurship improved           project submitted to TPSF by EOM 4                                                          participate, learn and apply
                                                   Capacity building report available by EOM 12
                                                                                                              available
                                                                                                                                                the knowledge




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                                                                     43
Component 4. Support to small-scale tree farming
                Intervention Logic                Objectively verifiable indicators of                       Source and means of                Assumptions
                                                  achievement                                                verification
                                                                                                                                                   Skilled service providers
                                                   Service provider assessment report refined and
                                                    completed including capacity needs assessment                                                   available and willing to
                                                    available by EOM 2                                                                              participate in service delivery
                                                   At least 2 models for service delivery in pilot           Service provider assessment          arrangements
                Replicable models for service
                                                    villages developed based on well defined                   report including capacity           Local Government willing to
Result 4.1      delivery to small-scale tree
                                                    procedures for separating different functions by           needs assessment                     collaborate in service delivery
                farmers piloted
                                                    EOM 2                                                     Project progress reports             arrangements
                                                   At least 2 service providers selected and contracted                                           Private sector willing to
                                                    by EOM 3                                                                                        participate in service delivery
                                                   Service providers trained by EOM 3
                                                                                                                                                    arrangements
                                                                                                                                                   Local Government and NGOs
                                                   Institutional framework for land use planning in                                                have capacity to provide
                Land use plans developed in         pilot villages agreed upon by EOM 2                         District and village council
Result 4.2      pilot villages                     5 Village land use plans in 5 pilot villages available       records
                                                                                                                                                    services
                                                                                                                                                   Village Government willing
                                                    by EOM 12
                                                                                                                                                    to carry out LUP
                                                     All 10 “old” TGAs registered by EOM 3
                                                     New 6 TGAs registered by EOM 6
                                                     Annual work plans available in all TGAs by EOM                                             Tree growing farmers are
                Tree Growers Associations             10                                                                                          willing to establish TGAs
                                                     Full council meetings held and report available in        TGA records and reports
Result 4.3      established and their                                                                                                            Strong leadership can be
                                                      all TGAs by EOM 11                                        Project progress reports
                institutional capacity improved                                                                                                   found in the villages for the
                                                     TGA accounts and financial management
                                                      procedures established by EOM 9 in 6 pilot                                                  TGAs
                                                      villages.
                                                     2 district/region TGA work shops held by EOM 10
                Increased capacity among             Capacity building plan developed by SP by EOM 4         Capacity building report            Tree growing farmers are
                farmers on sustainable               Capacity building conducted by EOM 6
Result 4.4      commercial forestry as well as       At least 4 IGAs identified and introduced/practiced
                                                                                                               available                            willing to participate, learn
                                                                                                              Project progress reports             and apply the knowledge
                on implementing IGAs                  in 4 villages with TGAs



Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                                                                       44
Component 5. Preparation of document for long term support to "Private forestry and carbon trading"
                Intervention Logic               Objectively verifiable indicators of                  Source and means of            Assumptions
                                                 achievement                                           verification
                                                  TORs for consultancy to support in PD formulation
                Project document for long term     developed by EOM 5                                     Project progress reports      Project will be tasked to
Result 5.1      support project available         Consultant hired by EOM 7                              Project document               prepare the project document
                                                  PD draft report available by EOM 11




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                                                           45
ANNEX 2. JOB DESCRIPTIONS

Chief Technical Adviser

                         M. SC in forest management, forest economics, natural
Education:               resources management or other discipline
                         Fluency in both spoken and written English.
Language:                Knowledge in Swahili considered as an additional asset
                          Experience from working in developing countries, preferably in Africa
                          At least 10 years experience relevant to the assignment
                          Experience in development on forestry related policies and strategies
Experience                 including application of consultative processes
                          Experience in development of private forestry (industrial / small-scale,
                           production / processing)
                          Experience in establishment of forest financing mechanisms
                          Well developed policy and institutional analysis skills.
                          Ability to work and communicate in an international environment and in
                           communities of diverse cultures.
                          Ability to work in a multisector team.
Skills:                   Developed skills in capacity building and skills transfer.
                          Understanding of outsourcing and service provision models in forestry
                          Good computer and report writing skills.
                          Well developed interpersonal skills.
Responsibilities:         Overall responsibilities for management of international technical
                           assistance provided by the MFA and ensuring that these are used efficiently
                           and effectively.
                          Preparation of project work plans, budgets and reports
                          Prepare TOR for studies, participate in evaluation of proposals and
                           supervise contracts.
                          Facilitate integration of project interventions into: i) FBD and Local
                           Government operations, ii) NFP and NFBKP review processes and iii)
                           other policies
                          Facilitate the organisation of Region and Nation Private Sector fora
                           (including TORs) as well as the starting up National Strategy for Promotion
                           of Commercial Forestry
                          Support on identification and analysis of national and international private
                           forestry financing options
                          Participate in development of action plan for carbon trading in villages
                          Coordination with stakeholders
                          Establish cooperation arrangements with FITI, assist FITI in funds
                           application, monitor capacity building
                          Assess potential service providers, develop service delivery models, select
                           service providers as well as develop TORs and contractual arrangements
                          Assist in monitoring the service delivery to small-scale tree farmers and
                           TGAs
                          Assist in engaging institutions in LUP, monitor LUP process
                          Ensure the timely preparation of the Project Document for long term project
                           on forestry and carbon trading
Duty station &            Dar es Salaam with frequent visits to Mbeya and Iringa regions
                          10 ½ months
duration:



Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                 46
Consultancy on Private Forestry and TGAs

                         Masters degree in forest management, forest economics, natural
Education:               resources management or other discipline
                         Fluency in both spoken and written English.
Language:                Knowledge in Swahili considered as an additional asset
                          Experience from working in developing countries, preferably in Africa
                          At least 10 years experience relevant to the assignment
                          Experience in development of private forestry both on industrial basis and
Experience                 small-scale.
                          Experience in establishment and development of forestry related
                           associations and development of service delivery mechanisms to small-
                           scale private forestry.
                          Ability to work and communicate in an international environment and in
                           communities of diverse cultures.
                          Ability to work in a multisector team.
                          Developed skills in capacity building and skills transfer.
Skills:                   Good track record in setting up TGAs; i.e. institutional, financial and
                           managerial mechanisms.
                          Good computer and report writing skills.
                          Well developed interpersonal skills.
Responsibilities:         Assess potential service providers, develop service delivery models, select
                           service providers as well as develop TORs and contractual arrangements.
                          Plan and implement training of service providers involved in the service
                           delivery models on TGA institutional development (institutional, financial
                           and managerial systems) as well as small-scale private forestry value chain
                           (“from seeds to markets” approach).
                          Provide know-how and guidance during field operations to local
                           counterparts at regional and village levels, as well as of outsourced service
                           providers in all aspects related to small-scale private forestry value chain.
                          Provide know-how and guidance during field operations to local
                           counterparts at regional and village levels, as well as of outsourced service
                           providers in setting up well functioning TGAs.
                          Supervision and follow-up of project supported field level operations
                           through local counterparts to assure their timely accomplishment
                          Assess and document the functionality and sustainability of the service
                           delivery arrangements including improvement requirements.
                          Support the establishment of cooperation arrangements with FITI, SME
                           sawmiller capacity needs assessment as well as monitor the implementation
                           of sawmiller capacity building.
                          Analyze institutional arrangement for LUP, engage institutions in LUP
                           planning process in pilot villages as well as monitor implementation
                          Facilitate integration of project interventions and Local Government
                           operations.
                          Support in the preparation of Project Document for long term project on
                           forestry and carbon trading
Duty station &            Iringa and Mbeya regions
                          3 months
duration:




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                   47
Project Finance Manager

Overall responsibilities:
 Responsible to the Project CTA

   Carry out accounting of project funds; maintain Project’s books for manage-
    ment, reconcile bank and cash registers with accounts database and statements,
    and prepare financial statements. Assist CTA in preparation of financial re-
    ports.
   Taking care of the property and equipment of the project


Specific duties and responsibilities:
 Responsible for financial management.

   Preparing and updating Analysis book, Bank book, Cash book, Income / ex-
    penditure books as well as Debit and Credit books.
   Prepare cash flow plans and ensure that bank and cash registers are up to date
   Ensure that bank and cash registers are reconciled with the accounts data base
   Check monthly bank reconciliation statements
   Follow-up pending invoices to local authorities and other organizations and
    suppliers and make sure they are paid in time.
   Preparation of payment vouchers and processing of payments.
   Check payment and receipt vouchers for good accounting practice and proper
    coding
   Responsible for monthly accounts submission to Home Office, in cooperation
    with the CTA, and data entry in the Computer
   Maintenance of petty cash.
   Assist Project internal and external auditors when needed and carry out inter-
    nal control operations
   Any other duties that may be assigned by the Team Leader from time to time.




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                       48
ANNEX 3. PROJECT BUDGET

                                                                                     No       Unit   Total (EUR)
     1 Fees and TA related costs                                                                         425 900
       Long Term Adviser
       Int. - Team Leader                                                            10,5 Months        147 000
       SUB TOTAL                                                                     10,5               147 000
       Short term international
       Consultancy on Private Forestry and TGA's                                      3,0   Months       39 000
       Consultancy on Carbon Trading                                                  0,5   Months        6 500
       Study on region timber markets & demand projections                            2,0   Months       26 000
       Feasibility study on Matching Saw Log Grant Scheme                             2,0   Months       26 000
       Preparation of programme document                                              1,5   Months       19 500
       SUB TOTAL                                                                      9,0               117 000
       Short term national
       Consultancy on Carbon Trading                                                  1,0   Months         5 000
       Study on region timber markets & demand projections                            3,0   Months        15 000
       Feasibility study on Matching Saw Log Grant Scheme                             2,0   Months        10 000
       Preparation of programme document                                              2,0   Months        10 000
       Study on domestically and internationally available financing opportunities    0,5   Months         2 500
       SUBTOTAL                                                                       8,5                 42 500
       Home office coordination                                                      12,0                  6 000

       TA reimbursables
       Accommodation, long term                                                      12,0   Months       27 600
       International travel, long term                                                1,0   Trips         1 500
       International travel , short term                                              7,0   Trips        10 500
       Regional travel, short term                                                    3,0   Trips         3 000
       Freight and relocation services                                                1,0                 4 000
       Local travel & accommodation, short term                                                          58 000
       Local travel, long term                                                                            8 000
       Other costs (Visa etc)                                                                               800
       SUB TOTAL                                                                                        113 400

     2 Project management                                                                                 73 400
       Vehicles including insurance                                                   1,0                 34 000
       Employment of finance manager                                                 12,0 Months          14 400
       Office equipment (computers, printers etc)                                                          5 000
       Programme office procurement & running costs                                                        5 000
       Communication (internet and phones)                                                                 3 000
       Programme meetings & work shops (SC, SVB etc)                                  6,0                  5 000
       Allovances for Local Government                                                                     5 000
       Other un-specified costs                                                                            2 000

     3 Components
       Component 1. Enabling environment for private forestry development                                 22 000
       Transport costs (vehicle running costs etc)                                                         5 000
       Work shops and meetings (e.g. Private Sector Forums, Strategy development)                         15 000
       Other costs                                                                                         2 000

       Component 2. Mechanisms for financing sustainable private forestry                                 12 000
       Transport costs (vehicle running costs etc)                                                         5 000
       Work shops and meetings                                                                             5 000
       Other costs                                                                                         2 000

       Component 3. Promotion of small-scale forest industry                                              23 000
       Transport costs (vehicle running costs etc)                                                         5 000
       Capacity building of SME sawmillers (FITI contracted)                                              15 000
       Other costs                                                                                         3 000

       Component 4. Support to small-scale tree farming                                                  124 000
       Outsourcing of service delivery                                                                    70 000
       Capacity building of service providers                                                              5 000
       Development of LUPS                                                            5,0    Plans        25 000
       Transport costs (vehicle running costs, DC transport costs etc)                                    15 000
       Capacity building and awareness events and work shops                                               5 000
       Other costs                                                                                         4 000

       Component 5. Preparation of PD on "Private forestry and carbon trading"                            24 000
       Transport costs (vehicle running costs etc)                                                         5 000
       Work shops and meetings                                                                            15 000
       Other costs                                                                                         4 000
       TOTAL COMPONENTS                                                                                  205 000
       CONTINGENCY                                                                                        20 000


       TOTAL BUDGET                                                                                    724 300



Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                         49
ANNEX 4. LIST OF REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

PPP Consultancy Documents
MNRT, 2009. Key Findings from the Follow-up Tour to Pilot Tree Growers’
Associations, Lessons Learnt and a Way Forward, Back to Office Report.

Simula A – L. and Kaduvage B., 2009. Establishing Eleven Pilot Tree Growers’
Associations and Creating Partnerships with Timber Users and Service
Providers.

Simula A – L., Mlowe E. and Msemo S., 2009. Regional Action Plans for
Commercial Forestry in Southern Highlands and Northern Tanzania under the
NFBKP. Private Sector Forum (PSF) Meetings with Stakeholders in Mafinga
and Moshi on May 22nd and 26th 2009. MNRT.

MNRT Documents
MNRT, 2001. National Forest Programme in Tanzania 2001 – 2010.

MNRT, 2001. National Beekeeping Programme 2001 – 2010.

MNRT, 2002. Forest Act, 2002. Act No. 14 of 2002, United Republic of
Tanzania. .

MNRT, FBD, 2005. Evaluation of Sawmills and Other primary Wood Industries
in Tanzania.

MNRT, 2005. National Forest Programme Coordination Unit Support Project
(NFPCUSP), Identification of Potential Pilot Areas, Parties and Instruments for
PPPs in Non-Industrial Private and Community Forestry in Tanzania.

MNRT 2008. Tanzania Forest Sector Outlook Study: 2008-2018.

MNRT, 2008, Tanzania Forest Conservation and Management Project
(TFCMP), Provision of Consultancy Services for Implementation of Private
Sector Involvement Activities. Part I; Socio-Economic Survey, Final Report.

MNRT, 2009. Final Draft National Forest Policy.

MNRT, FBD, 2009. Elaboration for and Designing of Systems for Log sales and
Tracking Forest Products Exports and Forest Royalty Setting.

MNRT. Developing a Commercial Forestry Industry in Eastern Africa, Country
Report for Tanzania.




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                  50
Government of Finland Documents
MFA. Guidelines for Programme Design, Monitoring and Evaluation.

MFA, 2008. Appraisal of Draft Programme Document, Support to NFBKP
Implementation Phase II, 2008/09-2010/11, Final Report.

MFA, 2009. Concept Note for a Bridging Phase: From PPP Consultancy to a
Programme on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading.

Other Documents
Fimbo Gamaliel Mgongo, Land Law Reforms in Tanzania.

Green Resources, 2010. A forestry CDM/VCS case study from Tanzania.

Green Resources, 2010. Annual Report 2008, Company Report 2009.

Jacovelli P. A, 2009. Uganda’s Sawlog Production Grant Scheme: A Success
Story From Africa. International Forestry Review Vol.11(1), 2009.

Kärkkäinen J – P., 2005. Enabling Environment for Forestry and Forest
Industries in Tanzania, the Private Sector View.

Ministry of Industry, Trade and Marketing, 2009. Strategy to Promote Exports
from Tanzania.

Ministry Of Lands, Housing And Human Settlements Development
(MLHHSD), 2007. The National Land Bank for Investment Project. Appraisal
of Prime Issues. Draft Final Report.

National Forest Monitoring and Assessment of Tanzania (NAFORMA), 2009.
Progress Report.

Ngaga, Y. M. 1998. Analysis of Production and Trade in Forest Products of
Tanzania. Doctor Scientiarum thesis, Report No.1. Department of Forest
Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway.

Malimbwi R. E., Zahabu E., Katani J., Mugasha W. and Mwembe U., 2010.
Woodlot Management Guidelines for Smallholder Farmers.

Singunda, T. W. 2009. Economic Contribution of Private Woodlots to the
Economy of Mufindi District, Tanzania. MSc Dissertation, Faculty of Forestry
and Nature Conservation, Sokoine University agriculture.




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                  51
Tanzania Forestry Research Institute, 2007. Tree Products Market Chain and
Trade Arrangements in Arusha and Kilimanjaro Regions, Tanzania. Research
Progress Report.




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                   52
ANNEX 5. PERSONS MET

 Name                            Designation                      Institution
 Abdallah Said Shah              Head                             IUCN (T)
 Accaro Louis                    Programme Director               TPSF
 Amwene Chanai                   Forest Officer                   Kilolo District Council
 Boyo Deusdedit                  NFBKP- C                         FBD
 Buchuma Hillarius               Land Use Planning                Njombe Rural
 Butuyuyu Joseph                 Mbeya Reg. NR Advisor            Mbeya Region – Regional Secretariat
 Chamshama S.                    Registrar                        FITI
 Chihongo Alex                   SRO Utilization                  TAFORI
 Chiroga Marcellina M.           DEAN of Faculty                  UDBS - UDSM
 Cuthbert                        Member                           NOFIA
 Dalsgaard Soren                 CTA                              FAO (T)
 Doyle Jeremy                    Consultant                       IDLS
 Furaha Lugoe                    Head NRC                         ESRF
 Futeh Alfred                    Deputy Country Director          HEIFER International
 Grant Christopher               Agronomy Manager                 Alliance One
 Hadija Ramadhan                 ADUT                             FBD
 Haili Heikki                    Minister Counsellor, Dep. Head   Finnish Embassy
 Hamis Liana                     Corporate Affairs Manager        Alliance One
 Hussein Ibrahim                 FOP                              FBD
 Hussein Msuya                   Ag. BOP                          FBD
 Isango J. A.                    Researcher                       TAFORI
 James Vincent M.                Ag. Regional Admin. Secretary    Iringa region - Regional Secretariat
 Jorgensen Ivar                  Counsellor                       Embassy of Norway
 Kabura J.F.                     Harvesting & Cont Ed.            FITI
 Kajembe Prof. G.                Univ. Professor                  SUA
 Kalonge Frank J.                Secretary                        NOFIA
 Kamugenyi Luteganya             Environ Conser (DEIA)            NEMC
 Kiboga Mbwana
 Kilahama Felician               Director FBD                     MNRT – FBD
 Kilon                                                            MIPA
 Kim Howel                       Prof. Zoologist                  UDSM
 Kinyunyu Lameck                 TNRO                             Njombe Urban
 Kitila Gibson                   Program Officer                  HEIFER International
 Lako Lukimbililo                for DCDO- NGO Sector             Njombe Rural
 Leen Verstraelen                Counselor Dev coop               Belgian Embasy
 Leon Anne Claire                1st Secretary                    EU
 Libenanga Paul                  DEMD                             Njombe Rural
 Lyimo O.                        Sect Head Saw doctoring          FITI
 Madoffe Prof. Seif              Univ. Professor                  SUA
 Mäkelä Merja                    Councillor Natural Resources     Finnish Embassy
 Malimbwi Prof. R. E.            Univ. Professor                  SUA
 Mango Gerald K.                 Director General                 NLUPC
 Maponde Ezamo S.                Principal                        MITM (Policy Section)
 Maseto Ebo
 Masota Abel                     FORA                             FBD
 Mbilinyi Eunice                 Southern Zone Forestry Officer   MNRT – FBD




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                         53
 Name                            Designation                          Institution
 Mbukwa Saili M.                 Managing Director                    MIPA
 Mbwambo L.                      Utilizations Research                TAFORI
 Mchallo Ignace A. J.            Director (EIA)                       NEMC
 Mchome Joseph S.                Forest officer                       Kilolo District Council
 Melamari Lota                                                        WCST
 Meshack Charles                 Executive Director                   TFCG
 Mfutakamba Athuman. R.          Kilolo District Commissioner         Kilolo District
 Mgoo Juma. S.                   Ag. ADFD                             FBD
 Mhando M.L.                     Production Research                  TAFORI
 Miller – Wise Hillary           Country Director                     Techno Serve (T)
 Minja Godlisten A.              Finance Manager                      SAO HILL Industries Ltd
 Mkupete Mohamed                 DED                                  Njombe Rural
 Mmari D.                        Section Head Wood work               FITI
 Mmasi Primi L.                  Senior Trade Officer                 MITM (Trade integration
 Mnandi C.                       Academic Officer                     FITI
 Mnangwone Isaya                 Principal                            FTI
 Mpangala Grace                  DCDO                                 Njombe Urban
 Msanga Heriel P.                Chief Executive                      TTSA
 Mshana Joachim                  Forest Officer                       Njombe Rural
 Munisi Stanley                  Regional Natural Resources Officer   Iringa region - Regional Secretariat
 Mwaikambo K.A.                  Finance and Admin                    TAFORI
 Mwalongo Oygen                  Program Manager                      SHIPO
 Mwamakunge Geofrey              AFO                                  Njombe Urban
 Mwita Godfrey N.                Forest Officer                       Kilolo District Council
 Mzava Nasoro                    Southern Zone Forestry Officer       MNRT – FBD
 Ndemela Idelfonce L.            Principle Land Officer               TIC
 Ndunguru Bosco                  DED Kilolo                           Kilolo District Council
 Ngibuini Mwaniki                Development Director                 Green Resources
 Ngowi Norbert                   Regional Wetland Facilitators        Iringa region - Regional Secretariat
 Ngullo Belsin S.                District Forest Officer              Njombe Rural
 Nzunda Bahati                   Program Manager                      HEIFER International
 Otieno J. E                     Assist Coordinator                   FBD MAFOMA
 Peter Christian                 FR NRM Specialist                    World Bank
 Pilla Juliana R.                District Forest officer              Kilolo District Council
 Rutatina Fidelis                Managing Director                    Novel Tanzania Ltd
 Sabas Evarest                   Ag. Director                         TAFORI
 Sabuni Francis.                 Executive Director                   E A M CE F
 Sekiete E.                      Principal                            FITI
 Senya Fortunate                 FOC                                  FBD
 Sumari Sangito                  Managing Director                    Green Resources
 Sunil Subah                     Consultant                           Embassy of Norway
 Swai Beatha O.                  RAS Mbeya                            Mbeya Region – Regional Secretariat
 Toivonen Juhani                 Ambassador                           Finnish Embassy
 Uronu Ludovick                  Technical Unit Manager               TTSA
 Van den Top Jan                 Project Advisor                      SHIPO
 Van Zyl Louis                   Technical Manager                    Kilombero Valley Teak Company
 Wambura J.G.                    Tutor , Principal Electric           FITI




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                             54
 Zahabu Dr. E.                   Lecturer                              SUA

 Meeting on 4th of February with representatives of four TGAs in Njombe Rural and Njombe Urban District
 Ngumbudzi Kenan                Small Holder Treee Grower            Ikuna Village
 Lutengawabo Makao              Small Holder Treee Grower            Ikuna Village
 Chagubuto Roda                 Small Holder Treee Grower            Ikuna Village
 Nyambulapi Ella                Small Holder Treee Grower            Ikuna Village
 Kahwili Kevin                  Small Holder Treee Grower            Kifanya Villlage
 Njochanko Moses                Small Holder Treee Grower            Kifanya Villlage
 Lwekera Filoteus               Small Holder Treee Grower            Kifanya Villlage
 Mkalawa Aprona                 Small Holder Treee Grower            Kifanya Villlage
 Mpogole Maria                  Small Holder Treee Grower            Matembwe Village
 Lyungu Francis                 Small Holder Treee Grower            Matembwe Village
 Lyanzile Dorah                 Small Holder Treee Grower            Matembwe Village
 Mfugale Laurent                Small Holder Treee Grower            Matembwe Village
 Mligula Baud                   Small Holder Treee Grower            Nyombo Village
 Mfikwa Leonard                 Small Holder Treee Grower            Nyombo Village
 Mwani Bertha                   Small Holder Treee Grower            Nyombo Village
 Nyahi Victoria                 Small Holder Treee Grower            Nyombo Village

 Meeting on 5th of February with representatives of Lulanzi village TGA in Kilolo District
 Kihongoso Luka                  Small holder Tree grower             Lulanzi Village
 Nyalusi Oscar                   Small holder Tree grower             Lulanzi Village
 Matinya Losina                  Small holder Tree grower             Lulanzi Village
 Motto Leneth                    Small holder Tree grower             Lulanzi Village
 Chevala Mikolina                Small holder Tree grower             Lulanzi Village
 Kivamba Abey                    Small holder Tree grower             Lulanzi Village
 Kibwene Marcus                  Small holder Tree grower             Lulanzi Village
 Kikoti Amon                     Small holder Tree grower             Lulanzi Village
 Dege Welico                     Small holder Tree grower             Lulanzi Village
 Mgaya Angelina                  Small holder Tree grower             Lulanzi Village
 Nyamoga Galossy                 Small holder Tree grower             Lulanzi Village

 Stakeholder Workshop 16th February 2010 Dar es Salaam
 NAME                         DESIGNATION
 Rahima Njaidi                Executive Director Mjumita
 Edward M. Mlowe              FBD
 Stephen E.Msemo              FBD Assistant Coordinator NFBKP
 Amina Akida                  FBD Forest officer – TFS Agency
 Mwaniki Ngibuini             Green Resources LTD
 Neil Baker                   Tanzania Bird Atlas Project
 Joseph Mchome                Kilolo District Council
 Steve Ball                   International Coordinator Mpingo Conservation Project
 Marry Liwa                   TWLEA
 Anyelwisye . N. Mahenge      Menawood Briquetting Co. Ltd
 Matekeleza Chang`a           Forest Farmer & Sawmill
 Oscar .M. Kaduma             SAFIA General Secretary
 Upendo S. Minja              TCCIA




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                        55
 NAME                            DESIGNATION
 Abdallah S. Shah                IUCN - HQ
 Merja Makela                    Councelor, Finnish Embassy
 Jasper Makala                   Mpingo conservation Project- National Coordinator

 Debriefing 22th February 2010 at Finnish Embassy Dar es Salaam,
 NAME                           DESIGNATION
 Haili Heikki                   Minister Counsellor, Deputy Head of Mission, Finnish Embassy
 Mäkelä Merja                   Councillor Natural Resources, Embassy
 Kaarakka Vesa                  Forestry Adviser, MFA Finland
 Hyppönen Marjaana              Intern, Finnish Embassy
 Mgoo Juma                      FBD, Ag. Assistant Director Forestry
 Kagya                          FBD, Ag Director of Forestry
 Mboyo Deusdedit                FBD, NFBKP Coordinator
 Mlowe Edward S.                FBD,
 Msemo Stephen E.               FBD Assistant Coordinator NFBKP




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                     56
ANNEX 6. POTENTIAL SERVICE PROVIDERS (according to PPP consultancy, 2009)

S/N     Name of service provider    Contact person & contact     Legal status & activi-      Remarks & per-
                                           addresses                      ties               ceived ranking
Kilolo/ Iringa
 1.    Enterprise Works            Mr. Erasto Lameck             NGO, hitherto funded      Closing-up activities
                                   Tel: 0754 507 734             by USAID                  soon. Transferring
                                   E-mail:                        Rural Development       services to some other
                                   elameck2001@yahoo.com           services                institution
                                                                  Backstopping ser-
                                                                   vices
    2   TTSA                       Mr. M. Shellimoh              Tree Seed Agency,         Potential trainer of
                                   Zonal Manager                 operating under FBD       tree farmers in seed
                                   Tel: 0784 941 775             auspices                  supply and nursery
                                                                                           activities
    3   Kikundi cha Hifadhi ya     E. Mwenzegule                 NGO status                Potential seedlings
        Mazingira-1997-Kilolo      P.O. Box 2324 Kilolo                                    supplier has raised 300
                                   Tel: 0786 404 797                                       000 seedlings for
                                                                                           2009/10 tree planting
                                                                                           season
    4   Shalom Plants & Nurser-    Isaya Kivike                  CBO status
        ies                                                      Raises:
                                                                  ornamental plants
                                                                  forest tree seedlings
                                                                    including pines, cy-
                                                                    press & grevillea
    5   CARITAS                                                  RC church group
    6   KKKT                                                     Lutheran church group
    7   Preserve Nature Group                                    No contact was made
                                                                 at office
Mufindi/ Iringa
1    GREEN RESOURCES               Sangito Sumari                Limited Company :          Potential Seedlings
     Lt                            P.O. Box 108, Mafinga          Tree planters              suppliers
                                   Tel: 0757 406 755              Timber industry          Backstopping Ser-
                                   E-mail:                         operators                  vice providers
                                   sangito.sumari@greenresourc                             (for more details see
                                   es.no                                                   the forthcoming PPP
                                                                                           report)
2       INCOMET 2001               M.G.Sisya                     NGO/ Limited Com-         Potential backstopping
                                   P.O. Box 243, Mafinga         pany Status               service providers
                                   Tel: 0754 683 536              Agricultural Devel-
                                   E-mail: msizya@yahoo.com        opment activities
                                                                  Rural Development
                                                                   activities
3       Mufindi                    Steven Aidan                  NGO Status
        Environmental Trust -      P.O. Box 215, Mafinga          Rural socio & infra-
        MUET                       Tel: 0784 754 818               structure
                                   0784 772 213                   Development activi-
                                   E-mail:                         ties
                                   muet2007@yahoo.com             Tree planting and
                                                                   agro-forestry activi-
                                                                   ties
4       Ludilo Enviromental        Mr. Matekeleza Chang’a        NGO Status                Potential seedlings
        Foundation                 Tel: 0786 362461               Forest owner: with      supplier to tree farm-




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                          57
S/N   Name of service provider    Contact person & contact    Legal status & activi-       Remarks & per-
                                         addresses                      ties                ceived ranking
                                                                2 680 ha of wood-       ers
                                                                lots, the oldest         Raises up to
                                                                planted 20 years ago      300 000 seedlings
                                                               Has applied for           of pines and euca-
                                                                15 000 ha of land         lypts annually
                                                                from the District au-
                                                                thorities for tree
                                                                planting
5     Mufindi Paper Mill Ltd-    Mr. Makupa                   Limited Company :         Potential seedlings
      MPM                        Tel. 0754 453 381             The sole Pulp and       supplier to TGAs in
                                                                Paper Mill in Tan-      the district
                                                                zania, located at       (For more details see
                                                                Mgololo area in         the forthcoming PPP
                                                                Mufindi District        report)
Njombe Urban & Njombe Rural Districts
1    Southern                Mr. Mwalongo Ogen                 NGO status              Potential service pro-
     Highlands               P.O. Box 227 Njombe               Well-established        vider in
     Participatory Organisa- Tel: 0754 525 882                  with vehicles, big       enterpreneural train-
     tion- SHIPO             026 2782 989                       conference hall for       ing & income
                             E-mail: info@shipo-tz.org          training and office      generating activities
                             Web site: www.shipo-tz.org         space.                   extension services
                                                               Has social and rural     backstopping ser-
                                                                infrastructure ser-       vices
                                 Partners in Europe             vices capacity pro-
                                                                vision                  Dealing with construc-
                                                               Qualified manpower      tion of deep wells,
                                                                in civil engineering,
                                                                                        dispensaries, schools,
                                                                agriculture, com-
                                                                munity development      beekeeping, fruit
                                                                and health services     growing,HIV/AIDS ,
                                                                                        orphans and environ-
                                                                                        mental protection. Big
                                                                                        capacity in training
                                                                                        groups in good gov-
                                                                                        ernance
2     MIAMI GARDEN TREE          Emilio Mayemba               NGO status                 Potential seedlings
      GROWERS ASSOCIA-           P.O. Box 104, Njombe          has capacity to raise      supplier to TGAs in
      TION                       Tel: 0784 808 690              up to 200 000 seed-        both districts; how-
                                                                lings annually; now        ever no guarantee of
                                                                180 000 seedlings          quality seeds use,
                                                                from last season’s         but collected locally
                                                                stock, overgrown         Is a registered group
                                                                                           with an office in
                                                                                           Kibena
3     Umoja wa Waoteshaji        Patrick Mgala                 NGO status              Potential seedlings
      Miti Njombe -                                            Has capacity to         supplier to TGAs in
      UWAMINJO                                                  raise up to 900 000     both Districts. Not
                                                                seedlings annually.     visited, quality of
                                                                Each member in a        seedlings??
                                                                group raises seed-
                                                                lings individually.
4     NJODINGO                   No contacts made at office   Apex NGO status           May be capable of
                                                               Umbrella organiza-      providing manage-
                                                                tion for NGOs in        ment training to TGAs
                                                                Njombe districts




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                      58
S/N   Name of service provider    Contact person & contact         Legal status & activi-       Remarks & per-
                                         addresses                          ties                 ceived ranking
                                                                                             interim leaders
5     Anglican Church            Sisters: Asnath & Pepetua         FBO status:
                                 Tel: 0784 852 408                  Community for St.
                                 0783 545 880                        Marry Msima Sa-
                                 P.O. Box 150, Njombe                yuni
                                                                    Raises tree seed-
                                                                     lings at a nursery in
                                                                     Nyombo village
6     Enterprise Works                                                                       See item 1 under
                                                                                             Kilolo district above
Rungwe/ Mbeya
1    i) Mission for Ignorance    E. Kilon                          NGO status                Potential scheme
     and Poverty Alleviation-    P.O. Box 539, Mbeya                Poverty reduction       Executing Agency
     (MIPA)                      Tel: 0757 611 333                   activities
                                 0754 806 610                       Nature Conserva-
                                 E-mail: mipahq@hotmail.com          tion activities
                                                                    Income generating
                                                                     activities
2     Heifer International       Bahati Nzunda                     NGO status                Potential scheme
      Tanzania                   P.O. Box 33814, Mbeya              Socio-economic          Executing Agency
                                 Tel: 07754 624 761                  Development sup-
                                 E-mail:                             port services
                                 bahati.nzunda@heifertz.org         Communities
                                 Web site: www.heifertz.org         Capacity building
                                                                    Training
                                                                    Exchange pro-
                                                                     grammes
3     Wildlife Conservation      Did not have the opportunity      NGO status                FBD Zonal office in
      Society-(WCS)              to visit their offices in Mbeya                             Mbeya can facilitate to
                                                                                             have the necessary
                                                                                             information on the
                                                                                             organization




Project on Private Forestry and Carbon Trading in Tanzania                                                           59

				
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