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Pre- Conference NARRATIVE WORKSH Powered By Docstoc
					          narrative, discourse, and
Michael Bamberg

         • “NOT”
                  •   Narrative Psychology
                  •   Discursive Psychology
                  •   Relational Psychology
                  •   Dialogic “Science”
         • Promises of turns to Discourse & Narrative
         • Methodological implications
                  • what counts as “data”
                  • how to analyze those data
         • Problems
                                                                APA 2006
                                         Division 24: Theory & Philosophy
       Turn to narrative & discourse
• Taking issue with three dilemmas (aporias/illusions?)
    – the identity dilemma
        • How can we construct ourselves as same in the face of constant
    – the uniqueness dilemma
        • How can we construct ourselves as (radically) different (same)
          from others in the face of commonality/sameness (difference)?
    – the construction dilemma (who‟s in charge?)
        • How can we construct ourselves in light of being constantly (or
          “always-already”) constructed?
            – world-to-person direction of fit
            – person-to-world direction of fit
• Integration + Differentiation
<development as perspective>
             the depiction of ambiguity
• „lenses‟ and „dialectics‟
   – figure & ground <<effort for meaning>>
   – “what makes the vase makes the two faces”

   – what/who is “behind” taking a particular perspective?
             the construction business
• Viewing the person as actively + agentively
• Taking the personal, local, subjective perspective
• Taking the communal, social and historical as
  “built into” the local, contextual practices
• Viewing identity as constantly (re-)constructed
  (and open to change)
• With communicative (discursive) practices as the
  sites where these constructions take place - where
  a sense of self and a sense of „the other‟ emerge -
  where a sense of constancy + change can co-exist
• Two traditions
   – A more cognitive/conceptual orientation
      • as interested in the discursive devices (formal properties)
          – as resources or as products? {„Discourse Processes‟}
   – A more constructionist/process oriented perspective
      • as interested in the production of formal devices and
        repertoires - how these devices are made use of ((their
        contextual and emergent properties)) {„Discourse Studies‟;
        „Discourse & Society‟}
• Both with different research agenda
             Discourse - perspective II
                narrative as a „special kind of discourse‟

• discourse - talk - interaction
• as “real” as possible
• “real” - mundane, everyday, situated
  (contextual), local, communal practices
• that‟s where notions (“illusions”?) of selves,
  continuity, differences (+ sameness +
  uniquiness) come together (emerge)
• with ‘talk’ as the central site
            The centrality of discourse
• Talk/Discourse:
   – grammar/syntax; lexicon; pronunciation; intonation
     (contours) (prosody); segmentation (pauses, silences);
     gaze; gestures; bodies
• discourse “über alles” - „not everything is discourse‟
• phenomena analyzed (in concert) in the service of
  ‘doing talk’ in order to do interactive, relational,
  conversational, dialogic business --- within which
  these impressions of sameness, continuity + difference,
  otherness emerge - as interactional accomplishments
• A radically empirical program
                      “the narrative perspective”

• Choice between two perspectives
   – A more cognitive/conceptual orientation
      • as interested in lives and experiences of people
          – as resources or as products?
   – A more constructionist/process oriented perspective
      • as interested in the production of lives and experiences - and
        sense of self as a process
• Both with different research agenda
                      Narrative - perspective I
• Stories and a „sense of self‟ (identity/subjectivity)
   – In stories people come to express (re-present) their
     experience/life and through that their sense of
     continuity + change (the unity of character, time + place -
     formed into a coherent whole)
       • consisting of <partly> pre-formed <socially available> plot lines
         with individually experienced events woven into them
   – In stories people form/construct their sense of
     continuity (stories as facilitators to form representations
     of self as coherent) - a more constructivist view
   Both pay little attention to the situated, interactive, local
     dimensions of „discourse‟
• Narrative as a ‘discourse genre’ (perspective II)
       • stories as accomplishing interactive business
      Narrative as discursive practices -
                                         perspective II
• stories as interactive (dialogical) accounting
• language forms and discursive devices used to
  accomplish interactive accounting
   – interviews (clinical or biographic): no exception!
• no direct link from the use of particular
  language/discourse to the mind/inner self
• all interpretation has to go through an analysis of
  the devices used to accomplish local, interactive
• dealing more with the non-interview-elicited