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									     Open Access :
     A fad or a fact of life?
And what you can do about it!

           SLA-P&HT Division
          2005 Spring Meeting
               Las Vegas

             Michael Leach
               Harvard University
   Physics Research Library & Kummel Library
                  5 April 2005

          Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                     2005                      1
 Abstract: Don’t Bother Reading
Open Access, as a new publishing model, promises to deliver a number of
  advantages for readers and librarians, including little or no cost for libraries,
  free access to any interested reader, liberal copyright agreements and
  extensive permissions for authors. Some envision Open Access as the magic
  bullet that will solve the serials crisis of the past two decades. Certain
  challenges, though, have arisen already, including the potential high cost of
  article page charges, which can hinder adoption by research communities;
  the initiation of ―membership fees‖ paid by libraries in lieu of article
  charges; numerous long-term preservation and archiving issues; and an
  untried economic model. Other issues are just beginning to arise: ―fiscal
  aggregation‖ of article fees via libraries; implementation of LOCKSS (Lots Of
  Copies Keep Stuff Safe) models to enhance persistence of digital articles;
  the impact on collection development and technical services in libraries, not
  to mention reference and management issues; and integration with
  institutional and subject repositories. This presentation will address these
  challenges, focusing on the near-future impact of Open Access publishing
  on library and information center collections, budgets and services.

                            Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                       2005                                       2
           Our Agenda Today

   Some background material
   Some potential and actual effects of OA
    on the traditional roles of librarians &
    information professionals
   Interspersed are comments from all sides
    of the OA movement
   Plus a few predictions (Dangerous, I know!)
                  Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                             2005                 3
           What is Open Access?

   Opposite of current ―toll-pays‖ scholarly
    communication paradigm
       Currently: you want to read, then you pay
   Involves author payment vs. subscription
       Or, more correctly, cost support at the
        authors end, not the readers end

                     Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                2005                4
               Budapest Initiative
       ―To achieve open access to scholarly journal
        literature, we recommend two complementary
         I. Self-Archiving: First, scholars need the tools and
         II. Open-access Journals: Second, scholars need
          the means to launch a new generation of

       Libraries have a role in both strategies.
                        Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                   2005                           5
             Some OA Promises

   Access for all, especially for developing
   Increased use of current scholarship
    (increased impact factor)
   Solves serials crisis
   Good for democracies
       Especially patient/advocate groups

                    Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                               2005                6
               Green & Gold Roads

   Green Road: essentially two-fold
       Current subscription-based journals that allow
        authors to self-archive
       Via institutional repositories & OAI-PMH
            Or ―DSpace via Google‖
   Gold Road: true OA publishing
       Only about 5% of journal titles this way
                        Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                   2005                7
                 Current Reality

   Most claims have little substantial proof
       Very new; little research available
   Author pays model has some historical
       although not a true comparison
   While initially supported by LIS community
       There are now increasing #s of ―doubters‖

                     Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                2005                8
       Libraries & Open Access
1.   Collection Development
2.   Interlibrary Loan
3.   Reference
4.   Technical Services
5.   Systems
6.   Marketing & Public Relations
7.   Human Resources
8.   Management
                 Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                            2005                9
1. Collection Development & OA
   The Serials Crisis is Solved?
       Library collection budgets may disappear
       More likely a mixed publishing environment
   No need for selection/collection development for
    OA serials
   Selection becomes relevant with Institutional
       Whom will the library support?
       Licensing & negotiation important:
            Getting best deal (% of author discount)

                           Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                      2005                10
    1. Collection Development & OA
        Changing Fiscal Model
   Institutional Memberships
       Are these not simply subscriptions?!
       Consortial agreements possible
   Based on Institution’s ―Author Output‖
       Fluctuating costs year to year
       Budgeting may be difficult
            New models needed (BioMedCentral)
       Penalized for success
            More your authors accept, the more you pay

                        Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                   2005                   11
    1. Collection Development & OA
        Fiscal Aggregator Model
   Handle Payments Like Interlibrary Loan
       Author gets discount via library
   Provide Marketing & Public Relations
   Integration with Institutional Repository
       Library-publisher interaction
   Metadata Acquisition (at creator stage)

                     Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                2005                12
Publisher          Publisher/Society
Article &
                       Document                $$                  Server

    Repository        Metadata
                       Markup      Library               $$

      Author                     Authoring Tools
       Could                                    Web/PC-Based
      Markup                                   Development Tools
         &                                       Produced by
      Deposit                                     Libraries &


                     Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                2005                                          13
     1. Collection Development & OA
         Integration with Other
         Digital Projects/Objects
   Institutional Repositories
       Tracking article versions
       Supplemental material at institution
            (e.g. datasets, learning objects)
   Preprint servers (for certain fields)

                         Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                    2005                14
Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
           2005                15
1. Collection Development & OA
   With Distributed IRs
       LOCKSS-like models
            What gets duplicated & by whom
       Consortia
            Support for small research-generating institutions
             that can not afford to build their own IR
       Ephemeral vs. Persistent Objects
       Basically, creating the policies to determine
        what goes into the local IR
                         Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                    2005                          16
    1. Collection Development & OA
                Other issues
   Tools vs. Content
       Enhanced search/IR (information retrieval)
       Content integration
       Ontological support

                     Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                2005                 17
         2. Interlibrary Loan & OA

   Should OA become dominant publishing
    model, ILL will decrease
   ILL will not disappear, though
       Older materials still needed
       Not everything will be OA
            E.g. review literature, other value-added materials

                         Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                    2005                       18
                  3. Reference & OA
   Information Literacy becomes critical
       Evaluation skills important
   In-person reference requests likely to continue
       Patron finds ―everything on Internet‖
            This may become a reality (or close to)
   Status of virtual reference unsure
       Will depend on a number of variables
            E.g. availability, cost, marketing, etc.
   Need to familiarize oneself with OA resources to
    field potential questions

                             Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                        2005                19
        4. Technical Services & OA
   Is there a need to catalog OA journals?
       Many are already catalogued
       Is this a wasted effort?
   As with other e-journals:
       Binding disappears
       Check-in & claims disappear
   Invoice creation, payment & reporting
    disappears, unless $$ aggregator
                    Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                               2005                20
        4. Technical Services & OA
   With Fiscal Aggregator Model:
       Metadata Specialists Needed
            E.g. developing schemas
       Metadata Cataloguers Needed
          Work within certain schemas
          Work with certain digital objects

          Unless we get digital objects bundled with
           metadata from the OA publishers
                 E.g. BioMed Central model

                            Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                       2005                21
                  5. Systems &OA
   Do we add OA journals to library portals?
   Mirroring vs. LOCKSS vs. …
   Archive/Persistence support & policy
   Joint efforts within consortia for archiving
       To spread the cost around
       Share technical expertise
   IT support as OA technology changes
       e.g. new formats
   Version Control !!!!!!!!!
                           Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                      2005                22
6. Marketing/Public Relations & OA
   What is role of library in institution?
       Training, Literacy, Preservation -- increased
       Cataloguing Morphed, Collection Development
        Morphed—institutional repositories
       ILL, Reference – decreased emphasis
       Physical Space – Changes likely
       Relationship to other units in institution
            Course support, teaching, etc.

                         Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                    2005                23
        7. Human Resources & OA

   Professional Development
       New skill sets required
       Ever changing with technology
   Reduction in library staff likely
   Facilitating change in the organization is
    likely to be an integral part of institution

                    Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                               2005                24
           8. Management & OA
   Potentially large shifts in budget:
       Collections to digital preservation
       Fluctuations with Institutional Memberships
   Management of change is critical
   Proactive
       Ongoing evaluation of environment
   Increased need for user needs studies,
    marketing and public relations
                     Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                2005                  25
            Where Will These Fit?
   Knowledge Management
       Knowledge capture of new publishing processes
   Data Mining
       Patterns that lead to success
   Competitive Intelligence in Academia
       Analysis of digital object creation by groups
   Scholarly Communication Research
       Comparison of post- & pre-peer pubs

                       Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                                  2005                  26

   Some problems will remain
   Some issues identified, others emerging
   Initially for libraries: dual support
   Potential for the long term: radical change
    in libraries
   Likely outcome: mixed models for a long
                 Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                            2005                27
    Thank You

     Michael Leach

     Open Access, SLA-P&HT, April
                2005                28

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