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					• Mr. Blakeslee needs someone t’look af’er him,
  dawgone it. He doesn’t be hankerin’ t’burden his
  dotters wif his presence in their homes so he
  decides t’”hire” Miss Love. On account o’ he only
  has one fine han’ he needs someone t’he’p him
  wif cookin’, cleaning’, an’ laundry. Th’ dotters
  don’t appreesheeate Miss Love takin’ their
  Mammy’s place. Th’ gals thunk that Miss Love
  only wanted Gran’pa’s money an’ thet she was
  invadin’ all of their mournin’ time on over Miss
  Mattie Lou.
   Not all people who speak a language speak it the same way. A language can be
   subdivided into any number of dialects which each vary in some way from the
   parent language. The term, accent, is often incorrectly used in its place, but an
   accent refers only to the way words are pronounced, while a dialect has its own
  grammar, vocabulary, syntax, and common expressions as well as pronunciation
 rules that make it unique from other dialects of the same language. Another term,
idiolect, refers to the manner of speaking of an individual person. No two people's
idiolects are exactly the same, but people who are part of the same group will have
    enough verbal elements in common to be said to be speaking the same dialect.
  Three things are needed for a new dialect to develop: a group of people living in
 close proximity to each other; this group living in isolation (either geographically
    or socially) from other groups; and the passage of time. Given enough time, a
dialect may evolve to the point that it becomes a different language from the one it
 started as. English began existence as a Germanic dialect called Anglo Saxon that
 was brought to England by invaders from Germany. The Anglo Saxon peoples in
  England were now geographically isolated from their cousins in Germany which
   allowed the dialects to evolve in different directions. Other invaders would also
     influence the development of English with their languages until the modern
 English we speak today has become so different from the modern German spoken
  in Germany that a speaker of one cannot understand a speaker of the other. Thus
English and German are considered to be two different, though related, languages.
       The other modern languages in this family are Dutch, Swedish, Danish,
                              Norwegian, and Icelandic.
• When two or more groups of people who speak different languages
  need to communicate with each other on a regular basis and do not
  want to actually learn each others' language (such as when the
  European merchants started trading with other peoples around the
  world), they may develop what is called a pidgin language. This is
  a simplified language that usually has as few words as possible in
  its vocabulary (taking some from both languages) and has been
  stripped of any fancier grammatical rules like the use of multiple
  verb conjugations and tenses - a kind of "Me Tarzan, you Jane"
  way of talking. A pidgin is nobody's native language and is used
  only in business settings. In fact, the word "pidgin" may be derived
  from the way Chinese merchants mispronounced the English word
  "business." However, in some cases, the children in one of these
  areas might grow up learning the pidgin as their first language.
  When this happens, the pidgin can grow in complexity into a
  creole language with a larger set of grammatical rules and a much
  larger vocabulary that share elements of all the languages that went
  into creating it.
• Contrary to what your teachers probably tried to tell you, there is no such thing as
  "correct English." Any manner of speaking that is following the rules of a dialect is
  equally "correct." Words like ain't are "real" words in some dialects and perfectly
  acceptable to use. However, people are judged by the way they speak, and dialects
  carry different levels of social prestige with them based on the prejudices within a
  society. Generally, the southern dialects of American English carry a lower prestige,
  at least among northerners who will assume that a person speaking a southern
  dialect is less intelligent and less educated than they are. Some educated southerners
  even feel this way and will "correct" their speech to meet northern standards. The
  New York City dialect carries the lowest prestige of all (Received Standard, a
  dialect of British English used by the BBC and the royal family, carries the highest
  prestige - even among Americans). For this reason, schools try to rid children of the
  local dialects they learned from their family and friends in favor of a more
  prestigious one. (Of course, some sentences like, "Me are a educated person," would
  be incorrect in every dialect.)
• American dialects come in many flavors. The map and list below show the major
  (and a few minor) geographic dialects and subdialects of English spoken in the
  United States. Many of these may be further subdivided into local subdialects that
  are not shown here. Obviously, the borders between dialect regions are not well
  defined lines, as a map like this would imply, but a gradual transition extending on
  both sides of the line. Also, as we enter the 21st century, many of the features
  described below have become much less prevalent than they were during the first
  half of the 20th century.
• Northern
  – New England
    Many of the Northern dialects can trace their roots to this dialect which
    was spread westward by the New England settlers as they migrated west.
    It carries a high prestige due to Boston's early economic and cultural
    importance and the presence of Harvard University. A famous speaker is
    Katherine Hepburn. They sometimes call doughnuts cymbals, simballs,
    and boil cakes.
      • New England, Eastern (1)
        This is one of the most distinctive of all the American dialects. R's are often
        dropped, but an extra R is added to words that end with a vowel. A is
        pronounced AH so that we get "Pahk the cah in Hahvahd yahd" and
        "Pepperidge Fahm remembuhs."
           – Boston Urban (2)
             Like many big cities, Boston has its own dialects that are governed more by social
             factors like class and ethnicity than by geographic location. Greater Boston Area
             is the most widely spoken and is very similar to Eastern New England. Brahmin
             is spoken by the upper aristocratic class like Mr. Howell on Gilligan's Island.
             Central City Area is what most of us think of as being the "Boston Accent." In
             the last few years, Saturday Night Live has featured this dialect among a group of
             rowdy teenagers who like to videotape themselves. Also think of Cliff on Cheers,
             the only character on this Boston-based show to actually speak a Boston dialect.
          – New England, Western (3)
            Less distinctive than Eastern, but more influential on the other Northern
            dialects.
    • Hudson Valley (4)
       New York was originally a Dutch colony, and that language influenced this
       dialect's development. Some original Hudson Valley words are stoop (small
       porch) and teeter-totter. They call doughnuts (which were invented by the Dutch)
       crullers and olycooks.
– New York City (5)
  Unlike Boston and other urban dialects, New York City stands by itself and bears little
  resemblence to the other dialects in this region. It is also the most disliked and
  parodied of any American dialect (even among New Yorkers), possibly because many
  Americans tend dislike large cities. When an R comes after a vowel, it is often
  dropped. IR becomes OI, but OI becomes IR, and TH becomes D as in "Dey sell tirlets
  on doity-doid street" and fugedaboudit (forget about it). This pronounciation is
  particularly associated with Brooklyn but exists to some extent throughout the city.
  The thickness of a speaker's dialect is directly related to their social class, but these
  features have been fading within all classes over recent decades. Famous speakers are
  Rosie Perez, Joe Pesci and Marisa Tomei in My Cousin Vinnie, Archie Bunker, Bugs
  Bunny, and (if you're old enough to remember) the Bowery Boys.
    • Bonac (6)
       Named for Accabonac Creek in eastern Long Island, this dialect is rapidly dying
       out due to the influx of people from other areas. Back when New York City
       belonged to the Dutch, this area was part of New England, and Bonac shows
       elements of both dialects.
– Inland Northern (7)
  Combines elements of Western New England and Upper Midwestern. Marry, merry,
  and Mary are pronounced the same. They call doughnuts friedcakes.
    • Upper Midwestern (9)
      Originally settled by people from New England and New York State who brought
      those dialects, this area was also influenced by Southerners coming up the
      Mississippi River as well as the speech patterns of the German and Scandinavian
      immigrants and the Canadian English dialects from over the border. It's sometimes
      referred to as a "Midwestern twang." They call jelly doughnuts bismarks.
    • Minnewegian (Minnesota / Norwegian), a subdialect spoken in the northernmost
      part of this region was spoofed in the movies Fargo and Drop Dead Gorgeous.
         – Chicago Urban (10)
           Influenced by the Midland and Southern dialects. Often spoken by the late John Belushi
           (Chicago's Second City comedy theater supplied many Saturday Night Live actors). SNL
           used to spoof it in the "Da Bears, Da Bulls" sketches. They call any sweet roll doughnuts.
– North Midland (11)
  Created as the people in Pennsylvania migrated westward and influenced by
  Scotch-Irish, German, and English Quaker settlers. This and the South Midland
  dialect can actually be considered a separate Midland Dialect region that serves
  as a transition zone between the north and south. They call doughnuts belly
  sinkers, doorknobs, dunkers, and fatcakes.
    • Pennsylvania German-English (12)
      This was strongly influenced by Pennsylvania Dutch, a dialect of German spoken
      by people in this area (in this context, "Dutch" is actually a mispronunciation of the
      German word, "Deutsch," which means "German"). Its grammar allows sentences
      like "Smear your sister with jam on a slice of bread" and "Throw your father out the
      window his hat." They call doughnuts fasnacht, and they also invented dunking -
      from the German "dunken" (to dip).
• General Southern (purple and red)
  This dialect region matches the borders of the Confederate states that seceded during
  the "Confederate War" and is still a culturally distinct region of the United States.
  Since it was largely an agricultural area, people tended to move around less than
  they did in the north, and as a result, the subdialects are much less uniform than
  those of the General Northern regions and have much more clearly defined
  boundaries. Other languages that had an important influence on it are French (since
  the western region was originally French territory) and the African languages
  spoken by the people brought over as slaves. People tend to speak slower here than
  in the north creating the famous southern "drawl." I is pronounced AH, and OO is
  pronounced YOO, as in "Ah'm dyoo home at fahv o'clock." An OW in words like
  loud is pronounced with a slided double sound AOO (combining the vowel sounds
  in "hat" and "boot"). Some local words are: boogerman, funky (bad smelling), jump
  the broomstick (get married), kinfolks, mammy, muleheaded, overseer, tote, y'all.
    – South Midland (17)
      This area, dominated by the Appalachian Mountains and the Ozark Mountains, was
      originally settled by the Pennsylvania Dutch moving south from the North Midland areas
      and the Scotch-Irish moving west from Virginia. A TH at the end of words or syllables is
      sometimes pronounced F, and the word ARE is often left out of sentences as they are in
      Black English. An A is usually placed at the beginning of verb that ends with ING, and
      the G is dropped; an O at the end of a word becomes ER. ("They a-celebratin' his birfday
      by a-goin' to see 'Old Yeller' in the theatah"). A T is frequently added to words that end
      with an S sound. Some words are: bodacious, heap, right smart (large amount), set a
      spell, and smidgin. American English has retained more elements of the Elizabethan
      English spoken in the time of Shakespeare than modern British English has, and this
      region has retained the most. Some Elizabethan words that are now less common in
      England are: bub, cross-purposes, fall (autumn), flapjack, greenhorn, guess (suppose),
      homely, homespun, jeans, loophole, molasses, peek, ragamuffin, reckon, sorry (inferior),
      trash, well (healthy).
– Ozark (18)
  Made famous by the Beverly Hillbillies, this isolated area was settled by
  people from the southern Appalachian region and developed a particularly
  colorful manner of speaking.
– Southern Appalachian (19)
  Linguists are still studying the specific differences with South Midland, but
  most of the research has concentrated on the many archaic words that are
  still alive in its vocabulary rather than on its grammar and usage. A popular
  myth is that there are still a few remote regions here that speak an
  unchanged form of Elizabethan English, but it isn't true.
    • Smokey Mountain English (25)
      One such region that is notable for the many archaic features in its
      pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar is the Smoky Mountains, a small,
      thirty by sixty mile area located on the border between North Carolina and
      Tennessee (the size is exaggerated on the maps). However, while it has
      preserved a great many elements that once were - but no longer are - used in
      Britain, it has also developed a large number of unique features of its own.
      "They" is used in the place of "there"; subject-verb agreement can differ; and
      plural nouns may not end with an "s" ("They's ten mile from here to the
      school"). An "-est" can be placed at the end of a word instead of "most" at the
      beginning (workingest, completest). Irregular verbs may be treated as regular
      verbs and vice versa, or they may be treated as irregular in a different way
      from more general dialects (arrove, blowed, costed). Like many of the other
      dialects discussed on this page, the decrease in isolation caused by the
      increases in mobility and literacy has caused Smoky Mountain to be much less
      spoken today than it was at the beginning of the twentieth century. Some local
      words are withouten (unless) and whenevern (as soon as).
•   Southern (Cold Sassy Tree Southern)
•   As the northern dialects were originally dominated by Boston, the southern dialects were
    heavily influenced by Charleston, Richmond, and Savannah. They tend to drop Rs the way
    New Englanders do, but they don't add extra Rs. Some words are: big daddy (grandfather),
    big mamma (grandmother), Confederate War (Civil War), cooter (turtle), fixing to (going to),
    goober (peanut), hey (hello), mouth harp (harmonica), on account of (because).
     – Virginia Piedmont (20)
       When an R comes after a vowel, it becomes UH, and AW becomes the slided sound, AH-AW.
       Thus, four dogs becomes fo-uh dah-awgs. Some local words are: hoppergrass (grasshopper), old-
       field colt (illegitimate child), school breaks up (school lets out), weskit (vest).
     – Coastal Southern (21)
       Very closely resembles Virginia Piedmont but has preserved more elements from the colonial era
       dialect than any other region of the United States outside Eastern New England. Some local words
       are: catty-corner (diagonal), dope (soda, Coca-Cola), fussbox (fussy person), kernal (pit), savannah
       (grassland), Sunday child (illegitimate child). They call doughnuts cookies.
          • Ocracoke (26)
            Named for the island off the coast of North Carolina where it is spoken, this dialect is also called Hoi Toide
            (because of the way its speakers pronounce the long I sound in words like "high" and "tide") and Outer
            Banks English to include the coastal regions of North Carolina and Virginia where it is also sometimes
            heard. OW becomes a long A so that "town" becomes "tain". Unlike other Southerners who tend to drop
            their Rs, Hoi Toiders actually emphasize their Rs. Overall it tends to resemble the Scottish and Irish dialects
            and is another area that is often incorrectly believed to be speaking an unchanged form of Elizabethan
            English. Some local words are mommuck (to bother) and quamished (nauseous).
          • Gullah (22)
            Sometimes called Geechee, this creole language is spoken by some African Americans on the coastal areas
            and coastal islands of Georgia and South Carolina and was featured in the novel on which the musical, Porgy
            and Bess, was based. It combines English with several West African languages: Mende, Yoruba, Wolof,
            Kongo, Twi, Vai, Temne, Ibo, Ewe, Fula, Umbundu, Hausa, Bambara, Fante, and more. The name comes
            either from the Gola tribe in Liberia or the Ngola tribe in Angola. The grammar and pronunciation are too
            complicated to go into here, but some words are: bad mouth (curse), guba (peanut - from which we get the
            English word goober), gumbo (okra), juju (magic), juke (disorderly, wicked), peruse (to walk leisurely),
            samba (to dance), yam (sweet potato).
• Gullah: Sometimes called Geechee, this creole language
  originated with African American slaves on the coastal areas
  and coastal islands of Georgia and South Carolina. The dialect
  was used to communicate with both Europeans and members of
  African tribes other than their own. Gullah was strongly
  influenced by West African languages such as Vai, Mende,
  Twi, Ewe, Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, and Kikongo. The name and
  chorus of the Christian hymn "Kumbaya" is said to be Gullah
  for come by here. Other English words attributed to Gullah are
  juke (jukebox), goober (Southern term for peanut) and voodoo.
  In a 1930s study by Lorenzo Dow Turner, over 4,000 words
  from many different African languages were discovered in
  Gullah. Other words, such as yez for ears, are just phonetic
  spellings of English words as pronounced by the Gullahs, on the
  basis of influence from Southern & Western English dialects.
– Gulf Southern (23)
  This area was settled by English speakers moving west from Virginia, Georgia, and the
  Carolinas, as well as French speaking settlers spreading out from Louisiana, especially
  the Acadians (see "Cajuns" below). Some words are: armoire (wardrobe), bayou (small
  stream), bisque (rich soup), civit cat (skunk), flitters (pancakes), gallery (porch), hydrant
  (faucet), neutral ground (median strip), pecan patty (praline).
     • Louisiana (24)
       There's a lot going on down here. Many people in southern Louisiana will speak two or three of
       the dialects below. Cajun French (the Cajuns were originally French settlers in Acadia,
       Canada - now called Nova Scotia - who were kicked out when the British took over; in 1765,
       they arrived in New Orleans which was still French territory) carries the highest prestige of the
       French dialects here and has preserved a number of elements from the older French of the
       1600s. It has also borrowed some words from the Spanish who once controlled this area. There
       are many local variations of it, but they would all be mutually understandable with each other
       as well as - with some effort - the standard French in France. Cajun English borrows
       vocabulary and grammar from French and gives us the famous pronunciations "un-YON"
       (onion) and "I ga-RON-tee" as well as the phrase "Let de good times role!", but movies about
       cajuns usually get the rest wrong. A famous authentic speaker is humorist Justin Wilson, who
       had a cooking show on PBS, with his catch phrase, "How y'all are? I'm glad for you to see me."
       New Orleans is pronounced with one syllable: "Nawlns." There is another dialect of English
       spoken in New Orleans that is informally, and some would say pejoratively, called Yat (from
       the greeting, "Where y'at"), that resembles the New York City (particularly Brooklyn) dialect.
       Provincial French was the upper class dialect of the pre-Cajun French settlers and closely
       resembles Standard French but isn't widely spoken anymore since this group no longer exists as
       a separate social class. Louisiana French Creole blends French with the languages of the West
       Africans who were brought here as slaves. It is quite different from both the Louisiana and
       standard dialects of French but is very similar to the other creoles that developed between
       African and French on various Caribbean Islands. Married couples may speak Creole to each
       other, Cajun French with other people, and English to their children.
•   Southern Pronunciation
    The Southern dialect is a non-Rhotic one, like that of New York or New
    England, dropping the /r/ sound after vowels. So in the South far becomes
    /fah/ and river becomes /rivuh/. This dropping of the Rs is much less common
    in the South Midlands, where the Rs tend to be pronounced. And the Midlands
    even goes a step further and adds an /r/ sound in words like wash, pronounced
    /warsh/, and the nation’s capital is pronounced /warshington/. And in the
    Appalachians, words that end in a long O are likely to have an /r/ added to the
    end. Hence hollow is pronounced /holler/ and meadow is /meder/.
•   Another consonant change occurs in one particular word, greasy. In the South,
    the /s/ sound is pronounced as a /z/, /greazy/. Strangely, the root noun grease is
    still pronounced with the /s/. This pronunciation of greasy extends well into
    the North, but it is centered in the South.
•   Southern speech also clips the /g/ sound from the suffix –ing. This is hardly
    unique to the South, but it is characteristic of the dialect.
•   The other pronunciation differences are chiefly in the vowel sounds. In the
    South, the long I sound becomes /ah/. Tire is pronounced /tahr/ and hide
    becomes /hahd/.
•   Also, the short E is pronounced as a short I. So, pen and pin are pronounced
    alike. This has given rise to the word inkpen, which Southerners use for the
    sake of clarity. Also, both these short vowels are lengthened or drawn out in
    Southern dialect. Pen is not pronounced simply as /pin/, but rather as /piy-un/.
    The drawing out also occurs with the short O. Hence dog is /daw-ug/.
• Phonology
• Few generalizations can be made about Southern
  pronunciation as a whole, as there is great
  variation between regions in the South (see the
  different southern American English dialects
  section below for more information) and between
  older and younger people. Upheavals such as the
  Great Depression, the Dust Bowl and World War
  II caused mass migrations throughout the United
  States. Southern American English as we know it
  today began to take its current shape only after
  WWII.
• Traditionally, SAE differed from other varieties of American
  English in some of its lexical, grammatical, and phonological
  features, but many of the lexical differences, which were rooted in
  an agrarian economy and a traditional society, have begun to
  disappear. For instance, most younger Southerners are as likely to
  use green beans as snapbeans and are more likely to use dragon fly
  than either snake doctor or mosquito hawk. Just as these book terms
  have replaced the older folk terms with the advent of universal
  education, a significant part of the regional vocabulary associated
  with farm life has become obsolete as the artifacts to which they
  refer have disappeared. Few Southerners under 50 know what a
  singletree is (it is the bar of wood on a wagon to which the traces
  are attached) or have heard the term dogtrot used for a type of
  house (usually a two room house with an open hall down the
  middle). Many of the distinctive grammatical and phonological
  features of SAE still persist, however.
• Some of the grammatical differences between SAE and
  other varieties are well known. For example, most
  Americans immediately recognize you-all and yall as
  distinctively Southern second person pronouns, and
  many would know that fixin to, as in "I'm fixin to eat
  breakfast," is Southern as well. The latter represents a
  modification of the English auxiliary system that
  enables Southerners to encode an aspectual distinction
  grammatically that must be encoded lexically
  elsewhere: “I'm fixin to eat breakfast” means that I
  intend to eat breakfast in the next little while.
• Other grammatical features are less widely known but are no less
  important. SAE also modifies the English auxiliary system by
  allowing for the use of more than one modal in a verb phrase. For
  instance, for most Southerners “I might could leave work early
  today” is a grammatically acceptable sentence. It translates
  roughly as “I might be able to leave work early,” but might could
  conveys a greater sense of tentativeness than might be able does.
  The use of multiple modals provides Southerners with a
  politeness strategy not available in other regional dialects.
  Although no generally agreed upon list of acceptable multiple
  modals exists, the first modal in the sequence must be might or
  may, while the second is usually could, can, would, will,should,
  or oughta. In addition, SAE allows at least one triple modal
  option (might shouldoughta) and permits useta to precede a
  modal as well (e.g., “I useta could do that”).
• The most widely recognized phonological features of SAE are the
  merger of the vowels in words like pen and pin or ten and tin (the
  vowel in both words has the sound of the second member of the
  pair) and the loss of the offglide of the /ai/ diphthong in words like
  hide (so that it sounds like hahd). SAE is also characterized by a
  series of vowel rotations that William Labov (1993) has called the
  “Southern Shift.” Describing the shift would require an extensive
  technical phonetic descriptions of SAE vowels, but people can hear
  its most important feature simply by listening to Bill Clinton’s
  pronunciation of the vowel in way or stayed. The beginning of the
  vowel (which is a diphthong in SAE) will sound something like the
  vowel in father. Vowel differences such as these are hard to
  describe in non-technical terms, but they are what makes people
  immediately recognizable as speakers of SAE -- long before a
  might could, fixin to, or yall crops up in their speech.
• Shared Features
• The following features are also associated with SAE:
• /z/ becomes [d] before /n/, for example [wʌdnt] wasn't, [bɪdnɪs] business, but
                                               ̩
  hasn't is sometimes still pronounced [hæzənt] because there already exists a
  word hadn't pronounced [hædənt].
    – /z/ → [d] | before /n/
• Many nouns are stressed on the first syllable that would be stressed on the
  second syllable in other accents. These include police, cement, Detroit,
  Thanksgiving, insurance, behind, display, recycle, and TV.
• The Southern Drawl, or the diphthongization or triphthongization of the
  traditional short front vowels as in the words pat, pet, and pit: these develop
  a glide up from their original starting position to [j], and then in some cases
  back down to schwa.
    – /æ/ → [æjə]
    – /ɛ/ → [ɛjə]
    – /ɪ/ → [ɪjə]
•   The Southern (Vowel) Shift, a chain shift of vowels which is described by Labov as:
     – As a result of the "drawl" described above, [ɪ] moves to become a high front vowel, and [ɛ]
       to become a mid front vowel. In a parallel shift, the nuclei of [i] and [e] relax and become
       less front.
     – The diphthong /aɪ/ becomes monophthongized to [aː]. Some speakers exhibit this feature at
       the ends of words and before voiced consonants but Canadian-style raising before voiceless
       consonants, so that ride is [raːd] and wide is [waːd], but right is [rəɪt] and white is [wəɪt];
       others monophthongize /aɪ/ in all contexts. The [aː]-sound tends toward an [/æː/]-sound
       throughout most of the region, so that word pairs like rod (SAE [raːd], normally pronounced
       without any noticeable rounding) and ride (SAE [ræːd]) are never confused.
     – /aɪ/ → [aː]
     – The back vowels /u/ in boon and /o/ in code shift considerably forward.
     – The open back unrounded vowel /ɑr/ card shifts upward towards /ɔ/ board, which in turn
       moves up towards the old location of in boon. This particular shift probably does not occur
       for speakers with the cot-caught merger.
•   The distinction between /ɝr/ and /ʌr/ in furry and hurry is preserved.
•   In some regions of the south, there is a merger of [ɔr] and [ɑr], making cord and card,
    for and far, form and farm etc. homonyms.
•   The distinction between /ɪr/ and /iːr/ in mirror and nearer, Sirius and serious etc. is not
    preserved.
•   /i/ is replaced with /ɛ/ at the end of a word, so that furry is pronounced as /fɝrɛ/
    ("furreh")
•   The distinction between /ʊr/ and /ɔr/ in pour and poor, moor and more is not preserved.
•   The l's in the words walk and talk are occasionally pronounced, causing the words talk
    and walk to be pronounced /wɑlk/ and /tɑlk/ by some southerners.
•   Word use
•   Word use tendencies from the Harvard Dialect Survey:
     –   Likely influenced by the dominance of Coca-Cola in the Deep South, a carbonated beverage in general is referred to as coke, or
         cocola, even if referring to non-colas. Soda is sparingly used.
     –   The push-cart at the grocery store as a buggy (or less often, jitney or trolley).
•   Use of the term "mosquito hawk" or "snake doctor" for a dragonfly or a crane fly (Diptera Tipulidae).
•   Use of "over yonder" in place of "over there" or "in or at that indicated place," especially when being used to refer to a
    particularly different spot, such as in "the house over yonder." Additionally, "yonder" tends to refer to a third, larger
    degree of distance beyond both "here" and "there," indicating that something is a long way away, and to a lesser extent,
    in an open expanse, as in the church hymn "When the Roll Is Called Up Yonder." (The term "yonder" is still widely
    used in British English.)
•   Use of the phrase "chill bumps" instead of "goose bumps"
•   Use of the verb "reckon" to mean "perceive" or "think". For example "I reckon there's a chance of rain" or "I reckon I
    want to go fishin'". The term "reckon" is also still widely used in British English.
•   Use of "to love on someone or something" in place of "to show affection to" or "be affectionate with someone or
    something." For example: "He was lovin' on his new kitten."
•   The use of singular nouns as if they were plural as in, "Pass me those molasses." or "Did you get your license?....Yes, I
    got them."
•   Use of the word "mash" in the place of "press" or "push". Example: "Would you mash that elevator button for me?"
•   Use of the word "carry" in the place of "drive". Example: "Would you carry me in your car to the store?"
•   The use of the word "cut" rather than "turn" on/off lights in a house or car, as in, "cut the lights on for me"
•   Use of the word "young'un" instead of "child" or "kid".
•   Use of the word "tote" instead of "carry". Example: "Tote that bucket over to me."
•   Use of archaic "hit" for "it."
•   Use of the verb "to tump over," meaning "to tip over so that the contents spill out."
•   Use of the verb "to chuck" or "to chunk" for "to throw."
•   Use of the word "proud" to mean "happy" or "pleased" as in, "I was real proud to meet y'all."
•   In parts of Southern Kentucky and East Tennessee, "I don't care to do that" carries the connotation that the speaker is
    willing to do something for another person (despite the seeming contradictory meaning, which may stem from the idea
    of "It does not cause me care [or worry] to do that for you.") For example, if Person A said, "I need a ride to the post
    office," Person B's response of "I don't care to take you" indicates a willingness to do so.

				
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