VISION 2020 GAJAPATI DISTRICT by fjzhangweiqun

VIEWS: 326 PAGES: 75

									VISION 2020: GAJAPATI DISTRICT

1.     OVER VIEW

“Vision should describe a set of ideals and priorities, a picture of the future, a sense of what
makes the State special and unique, a core set of principles that the State stands for, and a
broad set of compelling criteria that will help define success”


Introduction

Planning is essentially future oriented. It is needed to anticipate the future challenges and get
equipped to meet those challenges with effective allocation and utilization of resources. Planning
should be attempted with a clear vision. Every country or state or citizen needs a vision
statement which stirs the imagination and motivates all segments of society to greater effort. A
good vision pushes the country or state or organization or citizen to higher standard of
excellence, challenging to try and achieve a level of performance and results that haven’t
achieved before. It is an essential step in building a political consensus on a broad development
strategy, which encompasses, inter-alia, the roles and responsibilities of different agents in the
economy, such as the government, the private corporate sector, the small and tiny sector,
people’s organizations, etc. The vision must be based on the objective assessment of facts and
realistic appraisal of possibilities. The vision represents the dream which inspires action. The
vision statement provided in this document contains the aspiration and dream of the people of the
district on how they visualize the Gajapati District by the year 2020.

The turn of this decade with sets tune for the beginning of a new millennium, is an appropriate
time for reflecting on the unfinished tasks and the future possibilities. In order to address these
issues, among others, the Planning Commission initiated District Plans for each district in the
state of Orissa for both perspective vision plan up to 2020 and annual planning processes.

SHARED VISION OF GAJAPATI DISTRICT

The Participatory Process

Development is often viewed in terms of quality of infrastructure like roads, transportation,
communication, and creation of other physical assets. Often it fails to capture the peoples
dimension in terms of quality of life. Being one of the most disadvantaged districts of the
country, Gajapati district has to confront challenging tasks in improving quality of the life of the
people.

These challenges include improving the literacy level, development of educational
infrastructure, provision of quality education, eradication of epidemics, reducing
malnutrition, developing the skills and employability of the youth , increasing employment
opportunities, provision of safe drinking water and sanitation, housing facilities and
reducing the population growth and development of infrastructure.
A vision is a statement of aspirations and intentions, and therefore, it is essential that we fully
recognise the need for determined effort to transform all these potentials into realities. A vision
statement is not a prediction. Nor it is a wish list of desirable but unattainable ends. It is a
statement of what we believe is possible for our district to achieve provided we are able to
effectively utilise all our resources. The envisioning exercise for the district is to consider
various parameters which determine national and the state’s development which are changing
over the years and will influence change in future as well. A powerful set of catalystic forces
accelerating social change process throughout the country will open up opportunities than
ever before. They include ever faster and cheaper communication that dissolve social and
geographical barrier, rise in educational levels, availability and accessibility to information,
greater inputs of technology and applications, increased social awareness among people and
efforts to make governance more transparent and accountable. These trends represent a
relative shift in the engines that drive development from production sector to service sector
and capital resources to human development resources.

In order to identify and prioritize the issues facing the district, consultative process at various
levels has been initiated. The consultation process revolved around the district’s strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities, current issues, concerns, problems, and the areas of intervention that
need to be focused to achieve desired results(Annexure II & III). The planning process starts with
evolving a vision for the district. The visioning exercise has been carried out through a series of
consultative process at various levels involving District administration, officers of various line
departments, PRIs, people’s representatives, NGOs and civil societies and the general public at
large.

Vision Mission Goal Workshop

Taking these factors in view, consultative processes with different stakeholders conducted for the
purpose of evolving a shared vision for the district. These processes provided opportunity to
reflect views and thoughts of stakeholders in visualizing future outlook of the district. This
vision document is a reflection of aspirations, expectations, and transformation processes of
people of the district. The effort was made to consolidate the expression of stakeholders and
incorporated in the vision document.

The consultative process started with a Vision Mission Goal Workshop. The objective of the
workshop was to understand the current situation of the district and to arrive at a shared vision
for the district. The workshop was attended by officers of district administration, officers of
various line departments, representatives of PRIs, people’s representatives, NGOs, and Civil
society organizations. The workshop undertook the situation analysis of the district followed.
The participants of the workshop have been divided into small groups consisting of 5-6 members
representing various sectors such as agriculture, industry, transport communication, energy and
environment, development of women and child, welfare of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled
Tribes, drinking water, etc. The group discussed at length the issues facing in each sectors. The
groups were also asked to find out the various reasons for the backwardness of the district and
also to suggest solution for overcoming the backwardness. On completion of the discussion in
their groups, the respective groups were asked to present their views on issues facing each sector.



District Administration, Gajapati        Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 2-
The group members were asked to come out with a vision for the district. The issues and
suggestions provided by the stakeholders has been assessed and considered while preparing a
vision document for the district. The draft vision document has been circulated among the
various line departments, PRIs, and people’s representative for feedback. The suggestions
provided various stakeholders have been incorporated for the finalization of the VISION for the
district.

Gajapati District Vision 2020

“By 2020, the people of Gajapati district will be better educated, healthier, more
prosperous, more secured with better quality of life, live with dignity and self esteem than
ever before.”


With improved health facilities contributing to reduction in fertility rates, falling maternal and
infant mortality and increased life expectancy will still spur an increase of 1.5 lakh people to the
district’s population by the year 2020. That means, there will be stability in rise of population
growth in the district, with under-15 years age group and will be almost constant to the current
rate of growth i.e. nearly 2% per annum. But there will be increase of population in the age
group beyond 60 years and it will be nearly double to what we have today. This will necessitate
the adoption of special measures to support this vulnerable group, which will include a high
percentage of illiterates and who are especially susceptible to both malnutrition and health-
related problems By 2020, Gajapati district will enable to be self sufficient in producing nutrient
food for its entire population. Even by the moderate rate of productivity growth, the district will
be able to meet the requirement of food demand in all major food categories and generate surplus
in food grains and dairy. Rising productivity and diversification could spur radical changes in
agriculture sector in the district.

In the district, people suffer with severe mal-nutrition and chronic under-nutrition, especially the
vulnerable groups of children, women, people with disability and the elderly among the lower
income groups. Eradication of this distress condition will require targeted approach including
improving purchase power among the low income groups through sufficient employment
opportunities and effective food security programmes of the state. Employment or livelihood
security is an essential element of the comprehensive food policy of the government.

By 2020, there will be substantial growth in labour force and people seeking employment. There
is need to generate huge employment in the district for this growing force. With decline of labour
force in agriculture, there is need to generate opportunities in non-farm sector. Keeping in view
of the opportunities created due to factors catalyzing change processes in the country over last
decade, there is potential in generating employment in private sector and service sector. With
comprehensive plan on investments in Capital assets, credit, technology, training, marketing and
management measures, there will be greater scope in generating employment in the above
sectors which have shown greater growth in past few years.

This vision document identified a number of employment potential sectors, including,
commercial agriculture (vegetables, fruits, commercial plantation – cashew, dairy, poultry,

District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 3-
meat), agri-business, retail and wholesale trade, housing and construction related, IT and IT
enabled services, transport, communications; education, health and financial services. While all
these sectors are already expanding, require strategies and initiatives to stimulate rapid
development. Initiating appropriate technologies and develop linkages on the value chain of
agriculture and related products can dramatically reduce wastage and spoilage of perishable
commodities and simultaneously broaden the range of marketable products. Expanding the
potential of employment opportunities in tourism with investments in tourism infrastructure,
modification of transport facilities and infrastructure, training of people, promoting incentives
etc will boost employment in this sector. Expansion of IT and IT enabled services will generate
thousands of jobs in the district. With increased education and health infrastructure and growth
of population, there will be increase of professionals required in education and health services.
With evoking National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) will provide
opportunity of rural labour force to ensure minimum working days of 100 days per year. This
will also infuse in developing and renovating rural infrastructure includes irrigation,
connectivity, afforestation initiatives, land development etc.

Increasing enrollment to cover the entire school age population needs improved access to
schools, increase the quality and relevance of school curriculum to equip children with academic
knowledge and additionally values and life knowledge and skills. Use of technology like
television, IT and communications in converting progressively the academic knowledge through
multimedia, web based formats and establish accredited standards including distance learning.
In Gajapati, there is significant improvement in health sector, includes reduction in IMR, MMR
and increased life expectancy, but still there is wide disparity among different social groups,
between urban and rural communities and falls short to the national/state averages. Outbreak of
communicable diseases and epidemics are quite rampant. In spite of eradicating polio, TB,
Malaria, HIV/AIDS and new trends of Hypertension and Diabetes remain major health problems.
Improved diagnostic services and treatment can reduce the prevalence of TB, Malaria,
Hypertension and other chronic diseases by 2020.

By 2020, the district will have Universal access and access to an adequate level of health care
without financial burden through health insurance, initiatives of emergency transportation,
screening, diagnosis, referral and access to drugs at door steps; ensuring that providers have the
competence, empathy and accountability for delivering quality care and health advise. Special
attention to vulnerable groups such as women, children, the disabled and the aged will be made.
By 2020, the urban population of Gajapati district will increase to 35% and thus necessary public
utilities and services will be created with partnerships with private and corporate sectors and
decentralization of municipal administration and governance. By 2020, concrete efforts are
made to strengthen the rural infrastructure relating to education, health care, transport, telecom,
power and water to reduce inequality, address disparities and meet the demand of rapid
expansion of population in urban areas.

Improving transport infrastructure will speed up the development process in the district. The rail
network connectivity in the district will boost economic and social development. A key
component of rural development is the provision of roads for connectivity, access being essential
for social and economic well-being. Families residing alongside roads benefit from better health
and greater educational opportunities compared to the families living in remote villages. Based


District Administration, Gajapati        Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 4-
on current plans, all villages with more than 500 inhabitants will be connected by all-weather
roads within the next decade. The vision for the district is that by 2020, the district will have
well-developed network of roads connecting all villages, connecting major town to all important
destinations in the state and a good railway connectivity to major lines with adequate capacity to
handle the growth in transport demand.
By 2020, Gajapati district with multifold growth in both fixed and mobile telephone services to
catalyze social and economic development through rapid flow of information. Mobile
telecommunications and the Internet will set the contours of technological progress over the next
two decades.

To meet the energy demand and reduce burden on conventional energy source, which are
depleting resource and also influence in climate change, by 2020, Gajapati district will initiate
efforts to increase biomass power production through organic fuel – Jatropa through community
participation and private sector partnerships.
While transforming the vision into action, apart from technology, the transition will accompany
political transformation which will have impact on governance. This transformation will foster
decentralization and devolution of power and resources to local bodies, including roles and
responsibilities in resource management, financial management, build accountability and
efficiency in programme delivery. This will boost direct participation of people in the
developmental process.

Thus, the vision for the district in 2020 is to be a place where people live with happiness,
dignity and self respect ; all of its population have access to quality education, health care,
sanitation, safe drinking water; the people of the district are 100 % literate, better
educated, healthier and more prosperous than that at any time during the past. Agriculture
would become more diversified and commercialized and would be less vulnerable to
agronomic and market risk. There will be more number of enterprises in farm and non-
farm sectors providing employment and income to a number of people of the district. The
people would be energetic, entrepreneurial, economically active, politically involved,
socially conscious and responsive citizen.

The next section of the document will throw light on the different contours of growth engines
identified by the stakeholders outlining priorities in respective sectors in realizing the vision for
the district.




District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                        CSREM       - 5-
     GROWTH ENGINES FOR VISION 2020 : GAJAPATI DISTRICT

     The document on Vision 2020 for the district of Gajapati clearly envisages that it is yet to realize
     the potential in terms of social, human and economic and the growth rate is far less than the state
     average. The state average itself is far too low in comparison with national averages in all
     contexts. All three sectors – agriculture, industry and services, recorded low growth rate. With
     the view of transformation of this scenario and usher to new era of prosperity, the vision
     document presents a vision of a multi-sectoral development, through concentration of the 25
     growth engines as indicated below.


          Agriculture& Allied Sector                   Industry                         Services

     1.     Agriculture                    1.    Micro Small and              1. Education
                                                 Medium Enterprises
     2.     Horticulture (Cashew, fruit                                       2. Health care
            and vegetable……..)             2.    Handicrafts
                                                                              3. Drinking water and
     3.     AH & Dairy                     3.    Mining                          sanitation

     4.     Fisheries                      4.   Construction (Housing,        4. Social welfare
                                                public buildings)
     5.     Poultry                                                           5. Information Technology
                                           5.    Infrastructure (roads,
     6.     Agro-industry (cashew                 railways,                   6. Transport
            processing units, fruit               telecommunications)
            processing )                                                      7.Small scale services
                                                                               (STD      Booths,   DTP
     7.     Forestry                                                           Centers, e-Seva, Internet
                                                                               kiosks ) groceries shops,
     8.     Minor irrigation                                                   retail marts)

9.   9.     Watershed development and                                         8. Tourism
            soil conservation
                                                                              9. Rural Development
                                                                                 and livelihood

                                                                              10. Governance




     District Administration, Gajapati          Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM        - 6-
Vision 2020, the targets set on different growth engines in the three sectors to be achieved by the
year 2020 are discussed in the following sections.

AGRICULTURE & ALLIED SECTOR

In the district, almost 90 percentage of               Table 1 AGRICULTURE IN THE DISTRICT
population live in rural areas and 87              Sl.                                 2006-07
percentage of workforce is engaged in No.                     Crops         Area      Yield     Production
                                                                           (000Ha (Kg/Ha         (000MT)
agriculture sector. A predominant proportion        1    Total cereals      61.42      1505        92.45
of population is tribes, constituting 50.8% of      2    Rice               38.56        ---       69.07
the population and another 7% belongs to            3    Total pulses       30.68       568        17.42
Scheduled Castes, who has small                     4
                                                         Total        food
                                                                            92.10      1193       109.87
landholdings. Nearly 90% of the                          grains
landholdings are marginal and small                 5    Total oil seeds    17.08       470         8.03
                                                    6    Total fibres        0.72       444         1.88
farmers. Thus resulting low productivity.                Total
Agriculture forms the major economic                7                       18.17     11434       207.76
                                                         vegetables
activity of the people in the district. The soil Source: Orissa Agricultural Statistics: 2006-07
type and climate is suitable for both
horticulture and agriculture crops. The major crops in the district consist of paddy (38560 Ha),
Pulses (30680 Ha), Oilseeds (17080 Ha), Sugarcane and Cotton. As on 2006-07 the total food
grain production in the district was 109870 MT. The cereals production consists of 92450 MT.
The total pulses produced in the district were 17420 MT. Paddy is one of the major cereal crops
in the district. The total area under paddy constitutes nearly 38560Ha with a production of 69070
MT (2006-07).

Agriculture and allied sector of the district provides a source of livelihood for a large share of the
population. It is likely that the economy of the district is largely agrarian in coming years also.
Agriculture will remain as the major source of living for the majority of population of the
district. In this respect the agriculture and allied sector has to be developed in order to meet the
increasing demand for food and livelihood opportunities. One of the major challenges in this
sector is ensuring the food security of the population. Food security is not confined to the
availability of the food alone. But it includes the accessibility to food to all section of the society.
Food availability must be supported with purchasing power of the people. Agriculture and allied
sector can play a very important role in improving purchasing power of the people. Therefore it
is essential that strategies for development of this sector must focus on generating higher income
and greater on-farm and of-farm employment opportunities. The sector has to positively respond
to the changing food habit of the population also. A major trend observed in the food habit is the
increase in the consumption of meat and meat products, inclusion of vegetable and fruit in the
consumption basket. The production and productivity of major crops has to be increased so as to
meet the increased demand.




District Administration, Gajapati           Gajapti Vision 2020                          CSREM        - 7-
The vision for the agriculture and allied sector in 2020 is an increase in production and
productivity of major crops with improved irrigation facilities, diversity in cropping
pattern and adoption of environment friendly productivity enhancing technology, a
diversified and commercialized farming activities which is less vulnerable to agronomic
condition and market risks and a vibrant livestock sector contributing to the income,
employment and food security of the population of the district.


Development Goals

Agriculture

   Diversifying the cropping pattern in the district, bringing additional land under cultivation of
    millets, maize, pulses and oilseeds
   Increased irrigation facilities and increasing cropping intensity in the district. Build and
    renovate chain tank system, lift irrigation and minor irrigation projects for continuity of
    irrigation facilities in the district and increasing the area under irrigation from the current
    level of 31% to 50% of total land under agriculture
   Increase rice production by 50%, from the current level of 69070 MT to 103,650 MT
    through efficient use of water and land management practices, Systems of Rice
    Intensification (SRI) method, increasing productivity and net /aggregate sown area under the
    crop in the district
   Bringing 50 % of the net sown area under irrigation. It means that out of 76,000 ha (Net
    sown Area) nearly 38,000 ha will be brought under irrigation.
   Bringing commercial attitudes and practices in farming, like promotion of SRI technology
    and sustainable models like Seed Village Programme at all villages
   Adoption of productivity enhancing and environment friendly technology through Krishi
    Vignan Kendra and establish Farm schools in the fields of innovative farmers to spread
    knowledge from farmer to farmers
   Crop insurance to all farmers growing commercial crops and paddy and protection to farmers
    from crop failures
   100 % reach of extension facilities to all farming community
   Coverage of additional 2000 ha under Seed village programe
   Coverage of additional 32000 ha under Acid soil management
   Increase in seed replacement ratio from the current level of 16% to 30%
   Coverage of additional 800 ha under System of Rice Intensification programme
   Formation of 3000 Farmers groups

District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 8-
   Increase in Organic and bio-fertilizer usage to ensure soil quality and productivlity.

Horticulture

   Increased land coverage under horticulture crops from current 7582 ha to 15,000 ha by 2020,
    by bringing in barren and uncultivable land under plant coverage(cashew, mango, citrus ets)
    through micro irrigation practices
   Increased area under cultivation of Turmeric, ginger, and improve the productivity of rops by
    supplying quality seed and planting materials developed in Agriculture research stations and
    replacing the low productive seeds used by farmers
   Increase area under Tuber crops like Sweet potato, Tapioca, yarn etc and ensuring food
    security of the people in the district
   Attaining self sufficiency in production of quality planting materials of various Horticulture
    crops such as vegetables, fruit and Tuber crops etc by encouraging Private entrepreneurship
    for setting up of Nurseries through the programmes of National Horticulture Mission
   Increase area under Floriculture by encouraging cultivation of Marigold, Gladioli, Jasmine,
    Rose, Tube rose etc especially in Tribal sub-plan area
   Improved management of waste land and degraded and rain fed farming lands through
    watershed programmes, and improving livelihoods of marginalized/ small farmers and
    landless families by covering 20,000 ha by 2020
   Increase and sustainable use of waste lands and horticulture land for increased plantation of
    cashew, fruit bearing plants and underneath shade crops
   Agriculture extension services to farmers growing cashew and other fruit bearing plants
   Establishment of Cashew Research Station in Gajapati District to promote research and
    innovations in cashew value chain
   Diversification of crops by bringing more area under vegetables. Increase in cultivable area
    from existing 18,170 ha to at least 25% and doubling the current level of production of
    207,760 MT to 400,000 MT by 2020
   Incentives for farmers in growing vegetables and link them with retail stores in urban and
    semi-urban centres
   Promoting Farmer Markets in rural and urban centres for removing middle men in the
    vegetable trade and facilitate farmers to access direct marketing facility
   Build cold storage facilities in all major market centres especially in all blocks, for storage
    of vegetables for export

Animal Husbandry and Dairy

   Improving the productivity of livestock resources by provisioning better feed practices, by
    extending animal care services, and breeding facility
   Provision of AI service and upgrading at least 15000 indigenous cows/ buffaloes per year
    and increase the cross breed buffalo and cows from the existing level of 3.2% and 4.2 %
    respectively to 40% each by 2020.

District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                        CSREM     - 9-
   Provision of veterinary extension services at the door steps of farmers. Promote health camps
    and fodder supply camps and establish stock points for fodder for lean periods/ drought
    periods
   Supply of 500 dairy cows/ buffaloes per year to the farmers through various dairy
    development schemes
   Establishment of fodder seed farm in all blocks
   Triple the milk production from existing 12,010 MT to 40,000 MT.
   Establishment of cold storage facility at Guma, Rayagada, Nuagada and R. Udayagiri blocks
   Strengthening the existing network of milk collection networks connecting rural areas to milk
    chilling centres for direct access of market to rural producers and better price to milk
    products


Poultry/ Sheep/ Goat

   Doubling the of meat, egg production from 6.3 lakh MT of meat to 12.6 lakh MT, 103.26
    lakh eggs to 206.5 lakh egg production per annum
   Promote and encourage farmers to increase poultry farms and increase the number of poultry
    birds from existing 3.6 lakh to 10 lakh broilers by end of 2020 at the growth rate of 15% per
    annum
   As there is crisis in the poultry industry despite demand for meat and eggs, due to increased
    cost of inputs and recent outbreak of bird flu, the government to provide support either in
    provisioning of subsidies or incentives for exporting. Promote farmers to grow maize, jowar
    and other millets in degraded land and link them to poultry as feed, thus decrease burden on
    imports of feed.
   Increase infrastructural facilities like cold storages, cleaning, grading and packing of eggs
    for both internal and external markets
   Encourage farmers to undertake sheep/ goat/ pig farming on commercial basis and double the
    meat production from the current level of 631720 MT per year
   Establish cold storage facility in all major production centers for providing storage facility
    for meat and meat products


Fisheries

   Create and promote investment in infrastructure to support the development of fisheries and
    diversification of fish varieties, thus enhance production from the current level of 1400 MT
    per year to a tune of 5000 MT per year by 2020

   Disiltation and deweeding of tanks, biological and manual control methods to address
    infiltration of tanks and making them suitable for promoting inland fishing


District Administration, Gajapati        Gajapti Vision 2020                     CSREM       - 10-
   Renovation of all GP Tanks and construction of 300 additional Farm ponds for use of
    Pisiculture activities in the district

   Lease of 90% major tanks and water bodies for longer terms for commercial fishing for 5 to
    10 years

   Construction of captive nursery tank both in government and private sector for production
    and supply of fingerlings/yearlings to fish farmers and establish fish-seed hatcheries in the
    district

   Revival of all existing fish farmers development societies and establish linkages with banks
    and other micro financial institutions for accessing credit on par with agriculture

   Establishing extension services and disease diagnostic centres in major production centers

   Public awareness and education in promoting better breeds

   Establish hygienic market facilities including cold storages and promote retail sales of fish
    products

   Modern processing methods, like filleting, boneless meat, dry fish in pockets and develop
    linkages with retailed markets

   Promote the welfare of the district’s fish farmers through investments in housing, education,
    health and social security

   Capacity building of Fish farmers through training on Scientific Pisiculture practices

Agri-business

   Encourage farmers to use waste land to grow Neem , Karanj and Jatropa for production of
    planting materials for bio fuel production. Good quantity and quality raw material will help
    in enhancing biodiesel production
   Creation of employment opportunities through commercial agriculture enterprises and agro
    service centres
   Establishment of cashew processing units and value addition to cashew will generate more
    income and create employment in the district
   Develop necessary infrastructure for all horticulture and agri-related product on the basis of
    their value chain
   Promotion of organic products like turmeric, ginger, pine apple etc and link them with retail
    markets in urban towns and even export to other states
   Promotion of agro-processing centers for processing of Pine apple, Mango, Cashew apple etc
    with financial support to potential entrepreneurs




District Administration, Gajapati        Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM      - 11-
Forestry

   Increase the forest cover on forest land through planting of additional trees and promoting
    vegetation and undergrowth
   Planting of more trees outside forest land in rural and urban areas especially on community
    parks, along roads, canals, etc
   Updating land records and demarcation of forest area in the district
   Reducing shifting cultivation through provision of alternate employment opportunities to the
    tribes
   Initiate forest protection measures with wider community participation
   Promotion of collection and marketing of NTFPs for sustainable use of forest resources
   Increasing value addition of Forest Produce (including NTFPs and medicinal plants) and
    increasing the turnover from the forest sector overall and the share of income accruing to
    primary collectors
   Promotion of Vana Samrakshana Samitis(VSS) with active involvement of local community
    especially tribes
   Promotion of collective marketing of Non Timber Forest Based Products( NTFPs) and Minor
    Forest Produces( MFPs)
   Facilitate communities to develop and management of Common Property Resources like,
    Irrigation tanks, Ponds, streams, forest etc
   Sensitise tribal community to adopt soil and water conservation measures
   Empower the local community on sustainable management of forest resources through
    participatory forest management
   Strengthening Self-Help Groups, VSS and Community based Organisations s and make
    village level PFM institutions vibrant, articulate and better able to serve interests of the poor
    as well as negotiate with Panchayats, line departments and the market

Minor Irrigation

   Water conservation and water harvesting through digging of new tanks, ponds, percolation
    tanks, small check dams etc
   Flood control through drainage in water logged area, construction and repair of embankments
    etc
   Creation of additional irrigation facilities for 4200 ha of cultivable land through minor
    irrigation project and another 2200 ha through lift irrigation project
   Micro irrigation through a network of canals, tube wells and tanks
   Provision of irrigation facilities to land owned by scheduled caste/ scheduled tribe farmers
   Renovation of traditional water bodies by desilting of tanks, ponds, old canals, open wells etc



District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 12-
   Strengthening the Panipanchyats at village level and ensuring community participation in
    water conservation and water harvesting and equitable distribution of irrigation facilities with
    judicious cropping pattern

Watershed Development and Soil conservation

   Integrated watershed development (45) in the district with ridge to valley treatment
   Capacity building of the farmers on land use patterns and crop rotation including intensive
    agro-horticulture development.
   Promotion of organic farming, and production of bio-fertilizers
   Awareness creation on non-pesticide management and sustainable agriculture practices
   Establishment of agri-clinics
   Extension plantation and vegetative measures for soil conservation

INDUSTRY

Except a few agro-processing industries, there is no industry and industrial estate in this district.
However some activities
of cottage industries like            TABLE: INDUSTRIAL SCENARIO OF THE DISTRICT
Horn work, Jaikhadi bag, Category of Industry                            No. of Investme    Employ
Cane      and      Bamboo,                                               Units  nt      (in ment
Ganjappa       Card     and                                                     lakh)
Pattachitra         Mukha, Food and allied                                181      590.00    1350
Tibetan and Woolen Chemical and allied                                      4      16.25       25
Carpet, Broom work and Engineering and Metal                               29      110.50     220
Siali leaf plate making Electrical and Electronics                          6      20.00       46
find some place in the         Textiles                                    11      14.75       85
industrial sector of the       Paper and Paper Products                     4      11.50       30
                               Plastic and Rubber                           5      15.00       40
district.    The    current
                               Glass and Ceramic                            5      27.25       75
employment in industrial Repairing and Servicing                           80      250.00     550
sector is also very low, Miscellaneous Industries                          19      104.75     250
small scale and household T O T A L                                       344     1160.00    2671
industry         constitutes Source: District Industries Center Gajapati
2.31%,         construction
0.5%, and rural artisans at 0.77% of the population. In order to achieve gainful employment to
all, we have to assess the potential for various sector including agriculture, small scale industries,
and IT Tourism and services, for providing employment. One of the major challenges before the
district during the coming years is to expand the employment opportunities for the growing
unemployed and raising their living standard. With respect to this growth engine , the vision for
the district in 2020 is Dynamic and vibrant network of small and medium enterprises and
vocational trades flourished in the district generating diversified and sustainable
employment opportunities for all eligible people of the district. The current industrial base of
the district is very weak. In order to realize the vision of employment to all, it is important to
develop the industrial scenario of the district. One of the constraints facing the district is the lack
of entrepreneurial motivation among the people. There is high potential to develop employment
opportunities in the growth centers like construction works, developing rural infrastructure, small

District Administration, Gajapati          Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM        - 13-
scale industries and mining sectors etc. The development goals with respect to each of these
sectors are provided in the following sections.

Micro Small and Medium Enterprises

   Considering the agriculture base of the district, there is potential for setting up of micro and
    small enterprises in areas of food processing, fruit processing etc. Fruit processing also offers
    opportunities for packaging, distribution and marketing can generate off-farm job.

   Another potential is in animal husbandry related enterprises. The livestock economy of the
    district reveals that a large number of populations keep cattle, goat, sheep. Goat and sheep
    constitute another source of employment to the people.

   Modern agro and forest based industries need to be encouraged in the district
   Promotion of various MSMEs like cashew processing, dal processing, cane/bamboo or
    wooden furniture, terracotta, Dhokaria casting, Saora art painting, apiary, embroidery, paper
    machie palm leaf craft, patta chitta , soft toys etc.

   Singe window approach for facilitating registration, provision of BDS services, bank
    linkages etc for newly starting MSMEs

   Promotion of NTFP based enterprises. Major share of the district is covered by forest. In
    general the tribal livelihood is closely associated with forest and forest produces. The district
    has the potential for collection and marketing of Non Timber Forest Produces ( NTFPs) and
    Minor Forest Produces( MFPs)

   Promotion of Gajapati cashew cluster by setting up of common facilities center for quality
    control, grading packaging etc. Cashew processing is one of the important agro processing
    activities in the district. The development of this sector will provide employment and income
    to the people of the district

   Revival of Bagusala Pottery cluster through provision of financial assistance, setting up of
    common facility centers for design, training, packaging and marketing of Teracota products.

Handicraft

Gajapati is well known for its heritage of handicrafts. Providing good support to enhance
the potential of handicrafts will bring good value for district economy.

   Horn works, pottery, cane works, bamboo articles are given thrust through skill building of
    artisans and extending credit support, market linkage and




District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 14-
Construction

   Increase of population and urbanization will generate demand for more housing, drinking
    water, health facilities, schools and other public utilities. Thus there is high potential for both
    skilled labour and unskilled labour in construction industry

   Training youth in skills and technologies in construction industry and its allied works like
    plumbing, electrical works, etc. As these technologies are portable and are easily
    assimilated. The training relevant to these technologies is comparatively easy to impart and
    doesn’t need much of formal education

   Establish construction related training centres in ITI s or in Training on Technology and
    development Centres (TTDCs) to undertake work pertaining to technology demonstrations,
    upgradation, exchange, application and marketing. Evolve private partnership in imparting
    training on different trades in construction works.

Infrastructure

   The infrastructure industry includes improving conditions of road networks, railway
    networks, power, electrification, public works etc.
   There is high employment potential in this sector and thus needs investments to improve road
    networks connecting all habitations to district headquarters and all major towns with other
    districts and state capital. This would generate high labour market in construction of roads or
    repairs to existing roads.

   Construction of four lane NH road from Gunupur- Paralakhemundi-Mohana, the connectivity
    of rail network from Gunupur to main route at Palasa/Naugaon in Andhra Pradesh would
    lead to increased transportation from the district to main markets in Eastern India

   With increased productivity and diversification of agricultural products and export of agro-
    based products will require infrastructure like marketing yards, retail shops, storage and
    godown facilities and cold storages

Mining

   Mining activities should be upgraded to the status of manufacturing industry wherein mineral
    processing up to certain stages could be undertaken in the district itself. The only mining
    potential in the district is Granite

   As most of the granite deposits are located in densely populated tribal habitations, thus there
    is required to put in place the consideration of ecological balance and displacement of the
    tribal population while exploiting the mineral resources in the district




District Administration, Gajapati          Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM        - 15-
SERVICES

The service sector is of key importance to an economy aspiring to achieve rapid growth and
prosperity. The sector has been the key vehicle of growth and employment in the country and
even in the district. Achieving Vision 2020 calls for the creation of thousands of new jobs in the
district by 2020. With declining trend of employment in agriculture sector which is now
accounting nearly 80% of the workforce and is no longer can absorb further additions to
workforce. Industry doesn’t create a large proportion of jobs and currently a small proportion is
employed in industrial sector. Given the growth trend in neighbouring states and in the country
and even with growth stimulants it is only service sector which can provide additional job
opportunities and lead for economic development in the district. The factors for realizing this
vision in 2020 are, first, it is very less capital incentive than industry sector, secondly, the
increased access to Information , communication technologies provide ample opportunity for IT
related growth and use IT as platform for other development initiatives, thirdly, the focus on
increasing access to education and health facilities create greater potential, and fourthly,
government’s investments in developing necessary infrastructure like communication networks,
roads, etc which will spur growth in service business.
Vision: Effective reach of quality services to the people of the district ensuring good basic
amenities and creating new gainful employment with enriched human capital.

Literacy and Education

The current literacy level of the district is only                TABLE: LITERACY LEVEL
41.2 % which is very low compared the state            Literacy                          Percentage
average of 62%. Female literacy is only 28.42%.        Total Literates                   41.26
Thus reaching 100% education for all school            Literacy rate (Male)              54.71
aged children will be a challenging goal to attain Literacy rate (Female)                28.42
by 2020. This implies that there will be
                                                       Literacy rate (Urban)             71.11
tremendous pressure for providing quality Literacy rate ( Urban Male)                    81.16
education to this age group. The vision with Literacy rate ( Urban Female)               61.06
regard to literacy and education is attaining Rural                                      37.59
100% enrolment of all children in the 6-14 age Male                                      51.37
groups in schools at various levels and access to      Female                            24.50
quality education at primary, secondary levels         Literacy rate (SC)                21.74
                                                       Literacy rate (SC Male)           33.44
and university education to all those who
                                                       Literacy rate (SC Female)         10.14
aspire for higher education.             Improved Literacy rate (ST)                     15.8
infrastructure facilities like school building, Literacy rate (ST Male)                  25.66
additional class rooms, drinking water facility, Literacy rate ( ST Female)              6.75
latrines and play ground, greater motivation of Source: District Statistical Handbook:2005. Human
parents and children (with more than half of the Development Report, Orissa-2004
population being tribes), promotion of bilingual
primary education, training of teachers both in Oriya and Tribal language, use of teaching aids
and materials etc are pre-requisite for ensuring 100% literacy and retaining children in schools.
Thus the district administration has to address all the above issues and then set goals for 2020.


District Administration, Gajapati        Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM       - 16-
In realising the vision 2020, the education department envisions that by 2020:

   100 % enrollment in primary schools and provision of required infrastructure facilities in
    terms of class rooms, school building , play ground, and employing trained teachers in all
    schools
   100% continuity of schooling of all those enrolled in primary schools up to secondary
    education with major focus of education of girl children.
   100 % coverage of schools up to secondary level under mid-day meals schemes through
    additional resource mobilisation from government, parents, Panchayat raj institutions ,
    business persons etc
   Provision of toilets and safe drinking water facility to all schools in the district
   Coverage of pre-school centers and crèches in all habitations with at least 300 population
   Introduction of IT enabled education in schools
   Reduction in student teacher ratio of 1: 40 at the present level to 1: 20
   Setting up of Teachers Training Institutes, Institutes for advanced studies, finishing schools
    and coaching centers for Ntional competitive examinations like IITs, IIMs, BASRB ,
    Railway Recruitment Board, Engineering , Medicine etc..
   Achieve 100% success rate in secondary level examination
   Elimination of illiteracy through implementation of programmes of National Literacy
    Mission

Health and Family Welfare

Infant mortality, life expectancy, maternal mortality, nutrition and incidence of communicable
and non communicable diseases are useful indicators for judging the health of the district. There
exist wide disparities in accessibility to health care facilities among different income groups,
between rural and urban areas. Disparities are widespread among the tribal communities. Health
is directly related to per capita income, economic growth, levels of literacy and education, age at
marriage, birth rate , access to information regarding healthcare and nutrition, access to safe
drinking water, access to public and private hospitals, access to preventive health care and
medical care, health insurance, public hygiene, road safety environmental pollution etc. Diseases
like Tuberculosis, Typhoid, Measles, Diarrhoea, Malaria, Skin ailments etc cause major illness.
The existing public health system is unable to cop up with the situation. The public health system
is understaffed with many vacancies. Irregularity of work, inadequate infrastructure for both in
patient and out patient treatment, lack of monitoring and surveillance are some of the issues
facing the public health system. Childhood diahheria is another cause of illness. Community
action and public education is required to prevent this. It is possible to eradicate death due to
malaria by 2020. Childhood under malnutrition is another area of concern which needs
immediate attention. It can be addressed through targeting children of low birth weights and
employing low cost screening procedures at hospitals and clinics.



District Administration, Gajapati           Gajapti Vision 2020                        CSREM     - 17-
Considering the current low level of living standard, food security, educational levels, and access
to health care among all levels of
population, substantial progress has to be TABLE: MEDICAL FACILITIES IN THE DISTRICT
made for reducing the prevalence of No of Hospital s and clinics                             32
severe under nutrition among children        No of Primary Health Centers                    23
by 2020. In coming years nom                 Community health centers                         4
                                             No of Beds available in district Hospital       111
communicable diseases are also likely to
                                             No of Beds available in PHCs                    28
emerge as major public health problems.
                                             No of Beds available in CHCs                    64
The changing modern life styles also No of Beds available in AH                              56
likely to aggravate the problem. Increase No of people treated in District Hospital,
in the number of two wheelers, traffic 2005                                                37305
congestion, environmental pollution No of patients treated in PHCs                         10582
cause increasing number of injuries and No of patients treated in Ayurvedic Hospital       12262
deaths. All these necessitate grater No of patients treated in CHCs                        14547
emphasis on creation of awareness and Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005
among the public with regard to safety &Department of Health and Family Welfare
rules. It is estimated that there will be a
massive increase in population between
age group 15-64. Population in this age group is more literate, educated, and have access to more
information. They will have greater awareness and expectation about quality services of maternal
child health, contraceptive use, management of gynecological problems. A major focus of the
vision is providing quality health care facilities to all its population. In order to translate this
vision into action, considerable effort is required to create awareness among the public. This
should be coupled with the improvement in the infrastructure facilities at major hospitals and
clinics in the district.
Development Goals

With regard to health and family welfare, the following are the priorities of the district during the
next 10-15 years.

   Reduction in Infant Mortality Rate( IMR) from the current level of 55/1000 population to
    20/1000 population by 2020
   Reduction in Maternal Mortality Rate( MMR) from the current level of 335/100000 to 150/
    100000 by 2020 through 100% institutional delivery and proper ANC
   Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity due to Malaria, particularly PF cases and achieve API
    below 5 in all over the district
   Reduction in prevalence rate of cataract to 0.2% from the current level of 0.8% by 2020 and
    100% eye screening at school level
   Eradication of Polio, Diphtheria, Tetanus and Measles through reach of preventive measures
    to all sections of the population and all areas of the district
   Reducing Malnutrition especially among women, children and vulnerable sections of the
    society to a level of above Grade I
   Achieve 90% cure rate on New Smear Positive(NSP) TB cases registered

District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 18-
   Prevention of spreading of HIV/AIDS by awareness creation and establishing VCCT and
    PPTCT in all PHCs/CHCs for counseling and setting up of ART center at District hospital,
    Paralakhemundi
   Reducing the incidence of non-communicable diseases like cancer, diabetics, and
    cardiovascular diseases
   Reduction in mental retardation due to iodine deficiency and to achieve 95% of iodized salt
   Connect all PHCs/ CHCs and sub-centers to Indian Public Health Standard
   Ensuring community participation in health care delivery especially in remote and rural areas
    of the district through a network of SHGs, women groups, ICDS, Para medical staff and
    voluntary agencies and NGOs
   Increase in couple protection rate(CPR) through coverage of all eligible couples and bringing
    acceptance of two children norm; increase the number of vasectomies and other family
    planning methods ; delay in first pregnancy for a minimum period of two years after
    marriage
   50% reduction in population growth through increase in age at marriage, increase in female
    literacy rates, and reduction in fertility rate
   Create infrastructure facilities like additional beds, diagnostic laboratories and testing
    facilities, scanning and X-ray facilities at community health centers and primary health
    centers in the district
   Strengthen Primary Health Centers by providing drugs and equipments
   Strengthen Community Centers as first referral units

Drinking Water and sanitation

The data on availability of drinking water and sanitation reveals that nearly 121 villages are not
have access to safe drinking water. The district has nearly 1033 sanitary wells, and 2293 tube
wells. A large number of villages and households are still not accessed to sanitation and drinking
water facilities. People in villages are susceptible to various communicable and water borne
diseases like Typhoid, Diarrhea, cholera etc. due to lack of protective measures especially rainy
season. Most of the habitations are poorly managed as there are large number of garbage dumb
found in each residential areas which lead to breeding of flies and mosquitoes. There is no proper
drainage system because of which water is allowed to stagnant contamination which leads to
mosquito breeding, diarrhea, malaria, cholera and other communicable diseases. The available
water sources is used for multiple uses i.e., for washing cloths, bathing, cleaning of animals and
also for drinking. It is high time that people use safe drinking water and sanitation for protecting
them from numerable vulnerable diseases. Larine facility is also not available in most of the
habitation. The people use open spaces. One of the urgent requirements in most of habitation is
provision for latrine facilities and safe drinking water.
Access to safe drinking water and healthy environs contributing to health and happiness of
the people of the district



District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM       - 19-
Development goals

   Provision of safe drinking water facilities in all habitations of the district
   Coverage of 100% Urban households and 50% of Rural households with Tap water
    connection
   Provision of latrine facilities in all households in urban areas and at least 50 % of households
    in rural areas
   Encourage traditional cleaning practices with effective community involvement
   Repair and maintenance of all existing water sources including bore well and open wells with
    active community involvement

Social Welfare

   100% coverage of beneficiaries under all government schemes of women and child
    development department
   100% coverage of beneficiaries under social security programes such as National Family
    Benefit Scheme, Maternity Benefit Scheme and Nat     ional Old age Pension scheme
   Provision of Capacity building and skill up gradation training for one lakh SHG members


Information Technology and IT related Services

   IT and IT related services is the growing business in the country and has rich potential in
    generating employment in the district. For tapping this rich potential, the government needs
    to invest in developing broadband facilities, 100 % mobile and telephone connectivity
    facilities, 100 % coverage of electricity supply across the district, video conferencing
    facilities etc.

   Creating jobs for rural youth in establishing internet based information kiosks in urban, semi-
    urban and rural locations in the district. This not only provides self employment
    opportunities but also to establish much needed IT infrastructure in the district for e-
    governance to reach the people.

   State Wide Area Network (SWAN), a core e-Governance infrastructure under
    implementation to connect the State Headquarters with all district headquarters, Sub-Division
    headquarters, block Headquarters with a 2 mbps dedicated line. This would facilitate e-
    governance in the district.

   The administration can involve private sector for initiating e-seva centres across the state to
    make all services reaching to citizens and reduce their time and save opportunity costs.




District Administration, Gajapati           Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM     - 20-
Transport and communication

   Road connectivity to all the villages and coverage of 95% of the villages with pucca road
    connectivity ensures increased access of people to developmental initiatives like education,
    health care, markets, administration etc.

   Provision of telephone connectivity to 75 % of the villages through mobile and land line
    connections

   With increased infrastructure facilities will lead to increase in employment opportunities in
    transport sector like increased use of two wheelers, four wheelers and heavy vehicles that
    means more employment avenues.

   Provisioning short-term loans for investments in transportation facilities like cabs, autos,
    trucks will increase self employment and as well as boost trade

Small Scale Services

   There is high potential of developing self employment avenues by promoting small scale IT
    enabled services like establishing STD Booths, DTP centres, E-seva, Internet kiosks etc

   Small scale services like groceries, retail marts, mobile eateries etc are another areas of
    opportunities for the people of the district

   Provision of Micro finance to members of women SHGs and facilitating promotion of small
    scale services in the area of collective collection and marketing of Non Timber Forest
    Produces(NTFPs), Minor Forest Produces( MFPs) , value addition to NTFP products, rural
    business hubs, rural hats etc.

   Provision of Business Development Services and Marketing support to Microenterprises
    through provision of skill development training, and organizing of Gramashree melas.

Tourism

   Tourism industry is generating large scale employment. The labour to capital ratio in the
    tourism services is one of the highest, i.e., each million rupee investment creates jobs for all
    48 people compared to 45 in agriculture and 13 in manufacturing industry.

   There is greater potential of tourism in the district with destinations like Adarsh Krushi Farm
    near Paralakamundi, Brundaban Palace on the banks of Mahendrathanaya in Paralakamundi,
    Serango, the Kashmir of Gajapati, a resort located near Gumma, Gandahati waterfalls,
    Mahendragiri hills, Taptapani Hotsprings , Chandragiri a tibetian resettlement and famous for
    garments and dogs of various breeds, Jeerango and Harabangi.



District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM       - 21-
   Tourism will spur opportunities in other business avenues as well, like transportation,
    hospitality services, retail and mobile markets etc. It also helps in generating employment in
    small scale services like care hire, tourist guide services, hotels and eateries.

   Tourism will also boost sale of art forms and handicrafts like horn and bone crafts, jaikadi
    bags, etc and thus promote artisans

   For promoting tourism in the district, there is need to provide conveniences, information and
    security to tourists and develop ancillary services. There is scope for developing local tribal
    youth as tourist guides and establishes eco-friendly tourism and adventure sports like
    trekking etc.
Rural Development, Livelihood and Poverty Reduction

A large number of people in the district are living               TABLE: EMPLOYMNET
                                                                                                    Total
below poverty family. There are nearly 68763 BPL                 THROUGH NREGS-2007-08
families in the district (1997). Out of this, 11340        No of households issued job card        100312
families belong to Scheduled Caste and 37197
Scheduled Tribes. Majority of them are living in           No of households issued job card(SC)     9325
rural areas of the district. The incidence of poverty is   No of households issued job card(SC     57474
very prevalent among scheduled caste and Scheduled         No of household demanded job            52719
Tribes. Based on the survey conducted by Panchayat
                                                           Households provided employment          47640
Raj Department (1992) there are a total of
29,218(33.3% of rural families) destitute in the           No of women provided employment         41191
district. Apart from this 31,063 persons (35.43%) are      Cumulative number of households
                                                                                                    1508
                                                           completed 100 days work
very-very poor, 15,374 persons (17.53%) are very
                                                           Source: DRDA, Gajapati District
poor, and 4,585 persons (5.23 percent) are poor.

The challenge of reducing poverty remains in creating new options, which offer opportunities to
escape from the vicious cycle of poverty. The vision with regard to Rural development,
livelihood promotion and poverty reduction is poverty free Gajapati with strong and
sustainable livelihood base and enhanced quality of human resource with technical skill
sets for self-employment and Resource management. This has to be accompanied with
creation of employment both self employment and wage employment, development of
infrastructure like rural roads, provision of safe drinking water, connectivity, better access to
health care facilities, implementation of NREGS, etc. However, these initiatives will only
succeed if they are implemented through institutions that are not distorted by caste, gender and
other forms of social discrimination. The Panchayati Raj Institutions has to be strengthened to
ensure peoples involvement in implementation of rural development and poverty alleviation
programmes. Both the government agencies and NGOs need to make efforts to bring more
peoples involvement in planning and making the poverty alleviation programmes more effective.
There are many possible approaches to reducing poverty.

The poor require productive assets, new skills, and access to credit and markets. Provision of
livelihood option is one of the most important areas of possible intervention. Agriculture and
allied sector involving animal husbandry, fisheries, and non-farm sector activities etc provides
opportunities for livelihood promotion. Livelihood promotion helps to reduce the rural poverty

District Administration, Gajapati          Gajapti Vision 2020                         CSREM      - 22-
by improving the natural resource base of the district. It also helps in developing viable non-land
based activities in the district. The activities are being prioritized according to the needs of the
poor especially landless; women and scheduled castes scheduled Tribes.

Appropriate efforts should be made to reduce the incidence of poverty in the district through
effective utilization of resources and ensuring the benefits go to the real target population. Since
90% of the population is living in rural areas, the development of this sector is of prime
importance to the district. An integrated approach is required for the all round development of
the district. Again to reduce the higher concentration of rural poverty, adequate funds should be
allocated to rural development programs. Implementation of NREGS provides opportunities for
providing gainful employment to that employment card has been issued under the scheme. As on
2007-08 nearly 47640 households out of 1.4 lakh registered household, has been provided
employment under NREGS in the district. Provision of employment under NREGS is a useful
strategy to reduce the migration of workers in the district.

Development goals

   Provision of all weather road connectivity to all revenue villages in the district
   Maintenance and protection of all existing roads in pothole free condition
   Repair and Maintenance of all Government buildings at block and village levels and
    providing infrastructure facilities for PRIs
   Provision of housing facilities to all eligible people especially SC/ ST beneficiaries under
    IAY
   Bringing efficiency in implementation of Antyodaya Anna Yojana Programe, NREGS and
    other rural development programmes through enhanced participation of people and PRIs
   Distribution of Employment cards to all eligible employment seekers under NREGS and
    ensuring 100 days of gainful employment to all eligible job seekers
   Bringing convergence and synergy in implementation of various rural development
    programmes through effective co-ordination with other Government departments and PRIs
   Capacity building of Department staff, representatives of PRIs at all levels through training
    and exposure visits

Livelihood promotion

Major share of the district is covered by forest. Hence forests and trees can play an important
role in the livelihood security of the people especially tribal poor in the district. The district has
the presence of exploitable minor forest produce (MFPs) and Non-Timber Forest Produces
( NTFPs). Tribal population are traditionally engaged in collection and marketing of NTFPs and
MFPs. They collect medicinal plants, fruit, and herbs for supplementing their livelihood. In
addition to this Tribal women are traditionally engaged in NTFP based micro enterprises. These
include lack cultivation, bamboo products, basket weaving, brooms making, tamarind processing
etc. However, with growing commercialisation results in degradation of forest resources.

District Administration, Gajapati          Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 23-
Deforestation coupled with erosion of customary rights and access to forest resources, their food
security has also been adversely affected. This is leading to increased migration, dying of
traditional occupations and artisanship, and dismantling of local social institutions and culture.
The issue of sound forest management and conservation has become increasingly important for
the livelihood security of tribal population in the district.

The livelihood issues in tribal areas of the district essentially rest on the sustainable harvest of
forest products including NTFPs. Involvement of people especially tribes in forest protection and
management is essential to sustain and enrich forests and to ensure continuity of forest based
livelihood options. In the present socio-economic context, apart from production of NTFPs,
marketing is one of the means, in combination with processing and resource management, which
could cater to the needs of the forest dwellers substantially.

Development goals

   Ensuring more community participation especially tribes in Joint Forest Management
    activities in the district.
   Establishment of a market network information system for provision of timely information
    to the tribal communities with regard to the availability and sustainable use of NTFPs/ MFPs,
    market information such as demand, and price movement etc
   Interventions for collection and marketing of NTFPs
   Leasing of forest areas to the tribal community Organisations with the exclusive right to
    collection and marketing of NTFPs and MFPs on a sustainable basis.
   Opening up of collection centres by departmental agencies do away with distress sale of
    NTFPs and MFPs
   Granting of right to collection, marketing, and processing of NTFPs to bonafide users
    especially tribes
Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes

Tribal life and culture

Major population in the district is Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes. Scheduled Tribe
constitute nearly 48 % of the population and Scheduled Castes another 8.5 %. Out of the seven
Development blocks in the district, five of them namely, Guma, Rayagada, R. Udayagiri,
Mohana, and Nuagada are Tribal blocks coming under the operation of ITDA in the district.
Majority of Tribes in the district belong to Soara Tribes which constitute one of the oldest Tribes
in the country. Saora culture, traditions, language and rituals are different from that of other
Tribes. They are also known by the names such as sabara and sora. Soaras are of two kinds-
Laria and Oriya. Saoras build their house in hills and hill slopes. A typical Saora house is built
with mud walls and grass thatched. In general Saoras belong to two economic groups- who live
in plain and those lives in hills. Saoras in plains practice wet cultivation and earn wages through
daily labour. While those living in hill sides practice shifting cultivation. Saoras in plains provide
labour to the non-tribal land owners at the time of weeding, transplanting, harvesting and other

District Administration, Gajapati          Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 24-
agricultural operations and sell fire wood and leaf plates in the local markets. Women involve in
more works than that of men. Major part of the family income is earned by women. The Saoras
live in a world of spirits. Their culture is marked with elaborate ceremonialism and ritualism.
Numerous religious practices, magical spells and incantations, sorcery and witch crafts etc are
part of Saora culture. A typical Saora hut display a number of sketches drawn in the mud walls
of the hut. Family deity (Idai soom), Sun (Eoog soom) and Moon (Angei soom) etc are
commonly represented in these drawings. It is a custom that after marriage, the bride and groom
sit under these Ikons.

The drawing of designs on walls as representatives of deities and their worship is common
throughout Orissa including in Laxmipuja. The Saoras dance during the ceremonies and
marriages. Men, women and children crowd over each other in time of dance. The dance consists
of rhythmic forward and backward rocking tuned to musical beats. Musical instruments are
invariably played by men. The religious dances are rarely accompanied by songs except during
marriage ceremony. The dress of Saora is simple. The dress of lady consists of a waist cloth with
grey borders hardly reaching the knee. Only in chilly weather, the upper portion of the body is
covered. The man’s dress consists of a loin cloth. A few necklaces of glass, clay, Kaincha or
Gunja laced with threads or wire plastic or horn beads, wooden or metal ear rings, brass hair
pins, brass rings, little rings of alae of nose, metal bangles and anklets constitute the jewellery of
Saoras. Archery continues to be important for hunting, fishing, and self protection. The bow
string like bow of string instruments is made from tenders of salapa vine. Most of the fishing of
Saoras is still done with bow and arrow, this in turn depending on keen eyesight and sharp
reflexes. Craftsmanship, as the outsider understands it, is not exactly the field of excellence of
Saora. But, some traditional designs deserves mention (i)the oil extraction unit which is fitted to
a tree and oil is extracted by the sheer weight of man sitting on it.(ii) the distillery of portable
type.(iii)containers-cum- tumblers for drinks from dried gourd for salapa and from bamboo for
Mahuli.(iv) A brass tumbler for drinks made with extra finishing. This one, of course, like all
other brass items is made by non-tribals.

These ancient tribes believe in polygamy, shamanism and forest deities. Soura women wear large
balsa wood plugs in their pierced ears which touch their shoulders.

Tribal people of the district are known for their hard work. These Tribes practice shifting
cultivation. They sell rice, corn, millet and turmeric for their livelihood. They engage in different
occupation, but most are either into agriculture or collection of MFPs. Better settled tribes work
in mills and handicraft industries.




District Administration, Gajapati          Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 25-
Issues of SCs and Tribal Communities

   Limited access and control over productive assets and resources
   Lack of critical infrastructure and communication facilities in Tribal areas
   Non-access to institutional credit and linkage with formal financial institutions
   Declining livelihood option as a result of forest depletions, degradation of natural resources
    and reduction of NTFP and MFP due to excessive exploitation by mainstream community
   Under-utilization of human capital and limited livelihood and resource management skills
   Weak institutional base to take up collective marketing of NTFPs
   Constraints in accessing existing government services (health, education &other) owing to
    difficult terrain and inaccessible habitations
   Vulnerability to malaria and other communicable/ non-communicable diseases and water
    born diseases
   Huge number of school dropouts and unemployed youth, vulnerable to anti-social and
    communal forces

Development Goals

   Awareness and sensitization on developmental issues and programmes targeted to Scheduled
    castes and Scheduled Tribes
   Comprehensive watershed development programme with organic farming techniques
    initiated to capitalize the resource base in sustainable manner
   Creation of critical infrastructure such as housing drinking water facilities, hospitals, schools
    etc in Tribal areas so as provide accessibility to Institutional services to Tribal communities.
   Promotion of sustainable livelihood options through productivity enhancement and
    marketing of MFPs/ NTFPs
   Strengthening road connectivity and mobile network to enable proper reach of services in
    Tribal areas
   Establishment of Ashram schools in Tribal areas to boost the education level of SC & ST
    children
   Capacity building and skill promotion for gainful employment and productive use of human
    capital through vocational training
   Bringing synergy in the efforts and on going programme of Tribal development ( OTELP
    etc…) to ensure accountability and increased out reach of the programmes
   Provision of ownership right to land and prevention of alienation of land of the Tribal people
    with proper legislative measures



District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 26-
Governance

   The participation of tribal communities in Grama Sabha’s is very weak and limited
   Ineffective deliberations in Grama sabhas and domination of few powerful in the villages
   Very less participation of women and youth in Grama sabhas
   There is restricted space of involvement in decision making process berating the fruits of
    development
   Limited knowledge on constitutional rights and provisions
   Lack of critical awareness about resource base and priorities causing in proper investments
    and chocking the effective reach of government programmer and schemes.
   Constrained capacity of service providers affecting, delivery of services effectively and
    efficiently.

Development Goals

   Capability building workshop for all PRI Elected representatives to upgrade their skills to
    better perform their responsibilities such as programme implementation, and skills for day to
    day performance of executive duties
   Capacity building of community on participatory planning and developing TOT on
    Panchayat Raj Act and system in all Panchayats
   Promotion of information centers like e-seva at block/ district level in order to facilitate
    payment of electricity/telephone bills, registration fees, chalan fees etc and bring efficiency
    and transparency in dealings with the public
   Facilitating community vision plans in all Panchayats
   Developing business plans for Panchayats to generate income on their own
   Establishing mechanism for social audit for effective fund utilization
   Special capacity building programme for service providers resulting quality and responsive
    services .
   Capability building training programmes for all staff/ officers in Government departments to
    upgrade their knowledge and skills to better perform their responsibilities and upgrading
    skills for day-to day performance of executive duties

Vision 2020 of Gajapati district Vis a Vis Millennium Development Goals

UNDP had adopted Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by the year 2015. Our
country has already adopted initiative to achieve the MDGs through its planning process. A
comparison of the MDGs with that of the country and vision 2020 of Gajapati district is provided
below.

District Administration, Gajapati        Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM        - 27-
                                 Developmental Goals of
   Millennium Development                                      Vision 2020 for Gajapati
                               India (Planning Commission
            Goals                                                       District
                                        documents)
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme  Reduction of poverty by 5  100 days employment
poverty and hunger               percentage points by 2007     every year at minimum
                                 and 15 percentage points by   wages for at least one able
Key Target                       2012                          bodied person in every
                                                               rural, urban poor and lower
 Reduce       by    half  the                                 middle class house hold.
   proportion of people living                                Double the flow of rural
   on less than one dollar per                                 credit
   day                                                        Strengthen            public
                                                               distribution system
 Reduce       by    half  the                                Provide Antyodaya cards
   proportion of people who                                    for all households at risk of
   suffer from hunger                                          hunger
                                                              Backward                 area
                                                               development programme

Goal 2: Achieve         universal  All children in school by  Provide         a     functional
primary education                   2003; all children to          Anganwadi        in    every
                                    complete 5 years of            settlement and ensure full
Key Target:                         schooling by 2007.             coverage for all the
                                                                   children
Ensure that all boys and girls                                    Construction of school
complete a full course of primary                                  building     and     position
schooling.                                                         trained teacher in all
                                                                   habitations
                                                                  100% girls in school aged
                                                                   groups in schools and
                                                                   complete           secondary
                                                                   education
Goal 3: Promote gender  Reduction of gender gaps  Reduction in gender gaps
equality and empower women            in literacy and wage rates   of literacy (Males 54.7%
                                      by at least 50% by 2007.     and female 28.4%)
Key Target:                                                       50% increase in ownership
                                                                   rights of assets like houses
Eliminate gender disparity in                                      and land
primary       and      secondary                                  Equal wages for similar
education, preferably by 2005,                                     work for both men and
and in all levels of education no                                  women in public works
later than 2015
Goal 4 : Reduce Child Reduction of infant                         Increase access to health
Mortality                         mortality rate to 45 per         services would reduce IMR
                                  1000 live births by              to 22 per 1000 live births

District Administration, Gajapati      Gajapti Vision 2020                    CSREM      - 28-
                                   Developmental Goals of
   Millennium Development                                             Vision 2020 for Gajapati
                                India (Planning Commission
            Goals                                                             District
                                          documents)
Key Target:                     2007 and to 1 by 2012.             Reduction    of   %    of
                                Under 5 Mortality rate              malnutrition in Grade II,
Reduce by two thirds the (U5MR) must be                             Grade III and Grade IV to
mortality rate among children reduced from 125                      almost to 5
Under five.                     deaths per thousand
                                live births in 1988-92            .
                                To 41 in 2015.
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Reduction of maternal                     Reduction of MMR to 1.5
Health                          mortality ratio to 2 per            per 1000 live births by
                                1000 live births by                 2020
Key Target:                     2007 and to 0.8 by
                                2012.
Reduce by three quarters the
maternal     mortality    Ratio
(MMR).
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS,                                          Ensure the availability of
malaria and other diseases                                         life-savings      drugs       at
                                                                   reasonable prices
Key Target:                                                       Ensure      availability      of
                                                                   health       services        for
Eliminate gender disparity in                                      addressing acute minor
primary       and      secondary                                   ailments, chronic diseases,
education, preferably by 2005,                                     child and mother morbidity
and in all levels of education no                                  and      mortality       cases,
later than 2015                                                    neonatal health care, care
                                                                   for elderly by 2020
Goal 7: Ensure                      Increase in forest and        Ownership rights of minor
Environmental sustainability        tree cover to 25% by           forest produce, including
                                    2007 and 33% by                Tendu Patta to those who
Key Targets:                        2012.                          live in forests.
                                    All villages to have          Eviction         of       tribal
Integrate the principles of         sustained access to            communities and their
sustainable development into        potable drinking water         forest dwelling from forest
country policies and programes ;    By 2007.                       areas will be discontinued.
reverse loss of environmental       Cleaning of major             Highest priority to the
Resources. Reduce by half the       polluted rivers by 2007        development and expansion
proportion of people without        and other notified             of physical infrastructure
sustainable access to safe          stretches by 2012              including roads, water
Drinking      water.     Achieve                                   supply, sewage treatment
significant improvement in lives                                   and sanitation.
of at least 100 million slum                                      Massive      expansion        of
dwellers, by 2020.                                                 social housing in towns and


District Administration, Gajapati        Gajapti Vision 2020                   CSREM       - 29-
                                       Developmental Goals of
   Millennium Development                                               Vision 2020 for Gajapati
                                     India (Planning Commission
            Goals                                                               District
                                              documents)
                                                                        cities & special attention to
                                                                        the needs of slum dwellers.
                                                                       Forced      eviction     and
                                                                        demolition of slums will be
                                                                        stopped. While undertaking
                                                                        urban renewal, care will be
                                                                        taken to see that the poor
                                                                        are provided housing near
                                                                        their place of occupation.
Goal 8: Develop a global
partnership for development

Key Target:

Address the special needs of the
least developed countries Deal
Comprehensively with debt
problems      of     developing
countries.

Action Plan and Strategies

The realization of the vision 2020 requires convergent actions of various Government
departments, Panchayat Raj Institutions, Peoples representatives, NGOs and Civil Service
Organisations coupled with people’s participation. The following section provides the Action
plans/ Strategies for achieving the Development Goals under Vision 2020.

    Sector/ Area                    Goals                          Action plan / Strategies
Agriculture                Increased productivity of   Diversifying the cropping pattern
                           food crops – especially     Increase irrigation facilities and cropping
                           rice by 50% i.e. from       intensity
                           69070 MT to 103,650         Bringing commercial attitudes and practices in
                           MT                          farming
                                                       Adoption of productivity enhancing and
                                                       environment friendly technology
Vegetables                 Increase in cultivable      Incentives for farmers in growing vegetables
                           area    from   existing     Link them with retail stores in urban and semi-
                           18,170 ha at least by       urban centres
                           25% and                     Promoting Farmer Markets in rural and urban
                           doubling the current        centres
                           level of production of      Build cold storage facilities in all urban
                           207,760 MT to 400,000       centres for storage of vegetables for export

District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                     CSREM       - 30-
    Sector/ Area                    Goals                          Action plan / Strategies
                           MT

Horticulture               Increase the land under      Increase and sustainable use of waste lands for
                           horticulture from current    horticulture crops like cashew and mango
                           level 7582 ha to 15,000      Improved management of degraded and rain
                           ha                           fed farming lands through watershed
                                                        programmes
                                                        Agriculture extension services to farmers
Animal    Husbandry        Triple      the      milk    Improving the productivity of livestock
and Dairy                  production from existing     resources through cross breeding
                           12,010 MT to 40,000          Establishment of cold storage facility for
                           MT                           livestock products involving milk and meat
                           Increase in cross breed      products
                           buffaloes and cattle from    Developing network of milk cold chains
                           existing negligible 3.2%     connecting rural areas to milk chilling centres
                           and 4.2% respectively to     Extensive disbursement of credit to livestock
                           at least 40% of livestock    producers through banks and Micro finance
                                                        institutions
                                                        Develop veterinary services for extension of
                                                        services at the door steps of farmers
Fishery                    Enhance       production     Create and promote investments in
                           from the current level of    infrastructure
                           1400 MT per year to a        Disiltation and deweeding of existing Tanks
                           tune of 5000 MT              Construction of captive nursery tank both in
                                                        government and private sector
                                                        Revival of fish farmers development societies
                                                        Establishing extension services and disease
                                                        diagnostic centres
                                                        Credit facility to Fish farmers
Poultry                    Doubling the of meat,        Promote and encourage farmers to establish
                           egg production from 6.3      poultry farms
                           lakh MT of meat to 12.6      Promote farmers to grow maize, jowar and
                           lakh MT, 103.26 lakh         other millets in degraded land and link them to
                           eggs to 206.5 lakh egg       poultry as feed, thus decrease burden on
                           production per annum         purchase of feed
                                                        Increase infrastructural facilities like cold
                                                        storages, grading and packing of eggs
Forestry                   Increase the forest cover     Planting of additional trees and increasing
                           on forest land                vegetation and undergrowth
                           Livelihood security to       Promotion of collection and marketing of
                           Tribals                      NTFPs on a sustainable basis
                           Value addition of Forest
                           Produce        (including
                           NTFPs and medicinal

District Administration, Gajapati           Gajapti Vision 2020                    CSREM       - 31-
    Sector/ Area                    Goals                          Action plan / Strategies
                           plants)
Minor Irrigation &         Bringing 50 % of the         Water conservation and water harvesting
Watershed                  Net sown area under          through digging of new tanks, ponds,
development                irrigation                   percolation tanks, small check dams
                           Flood control through        Micro irrigation through a network of canals,
                           drainage in water logged     tube wells and tanks
                           area, construction and       Renovation of traditional water bodies by
                           repair of embankments        desilting of tanks, ponds, old canals, open
                           etc                          wells etc
Connectivity               Road connectivity to all     Construction new roads and maintenance of
                           the      villages     and    existing road network
                           coverage of 95% of the       Community participation in Development
                           villages with pucca road     works
                                                        Increased fund allocation through Pradan
                                                        Manthri Grama Sadak Yojana
                                                        Rural Electrification under Rajiv Gandhi
                                                        Vaidyudikaran Yojana
Literacy            and    100 % enrollment in          Provision of required infrastructure facilities
Education                  primary schools              in terms of class rooms, school building , play
                                                        ground, and employing trained teachers in all
                                                        schools
                                                        Extension of Mid-day meal scheme to all
                                                        children up to secondary level
                                                        Provision of text books, note books and other
                                                        learning aids and scholarship to SC/ ST
                                                        children
                                                        Residential schools for SCs/ STs

                           100%       continuity of     Coverage of pre-school centers and crèches in
                           schooling of all those       all habitations with at least 300 population
                           enrolled in primary          Introduction of IT enabled education in
                           schools up to secondary      schools
                           education                    Appointment of new teachers Training of
                           Reduction in student         teachers
                           teacher ratio of 1: 42 at    Provision of text books and learning aids
                           the present level to
                           1: 20




Health and Family          Reduction in Infant          Awareness creation and education of mothers
welfare                    Mortality Rate( IMR)         and family members through health worker in

District Administration, Gajapati           Gajapti Vision 2020                    CSREM       - 32-
    Sector/ Area                    Goals                            Action plan / Strategies
                           from the current level of    collaboration with ICDS
                           55/1000 population to        Provision of vitamin and iron supplements to
                           20/1000 population           pregnant women and malnourished patients
                           Reduction in Maternal        Distribution of food supplements, minerals,
                           Mortality Rate( MMR)         vitamin, iron and folic acid etc to pregnant
                           from the current level of    woman and malnourished patients
                           335/100000 to 150/           Create infrastructure facilities at district
                           100000                       hospital and primary health centers to better
                                                        serve the public
                           50%      reduction     in    Ensuring community participation in health
                           population growth            care delivery
                                                        Create infrastructure facilities like additional
                                                        beds, diagnostic laboratories and testing
                                                        facilities, blood bank, scanning and X-ray
                                                        facilities at district level hospitals, community
                                                        health centers and primary health centers in
                                                        the district
                                                        Eradication of Polio, Diphtheria, Tetanus and
                                                        Measles through reach of preventive measures
                                                        to all sections of the population and all areas
                                                        of the district
Drinking water and         Provision of drinking         Creation of awareness on hygienic practices
sanitation                 water facilities (Tape        and sanitation
                           water) to 50 % of the         Encouragement of traditional cleaning
                           households in rural areas     practices and community participation
                           of the district               Provision of drainage facilities
                           Provision of latrine          Curative steps for better sanitation and
                           facilities      in     all    preventive measures for diseases
                           households in urban           Provision of latrine facilities
                           areas and at least 50 %       Provision of safe drinking water to all
                           of household in rural         habitation
                           areas                         Repairs and maintenance of existing water
                                                         sources including bore wells and open wells
Rural Development          Livelihood protection to     Ensuring more community participation
/Livelihood                scheduled caste and          especially tribes in Joint Forest Management
                           scheduled tribes             Activities in the district.
                           Ensuring food security        Establishment of a market network
                           to    poor     especially     information system for provision of timely
                           Scheduled Caste and           information to the tribal communities with
                           Scheduled Tribe               regard to the availability, sustainable use of
                           Poverty Irradiation           NTFPs/ MFPs, provision of market
                                                         information such as demand supply , price etc
                                                        Interventions for collection and marketing of
                                                        NTFPs


District Administration, Gajapati          Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 33-
    Sector/ Area                    Goals                           Action plan / Strategies
                                                         Leasing of forest areas to the tribal
                                                         community Organisations with the right to
                                                         collection and marketing of NTFPs and MFPs
                                                         on a sustainable basis.
                                                         Opening of Collection centres for NTFPS
                                                         Right to collection, marketing, and processing
                                                         of NTFPs should be bestowed to bonafide
                                                         users especially tribes

Governance                 Strengthening                Capability building workshops for     PRI
                           capabilities of PRIs         representative
                           representatives/  staff/     e-governance
                           officers of Government       Training programmes for staff/officers of
                           department                   government departments



Conclusion

The vision document provided in this document reflects the aspiration of the people of the
district. The consultative process conducted at various levels involving people’s representatives,
officials of district administration, representatives of NGOs and Voluntary Organisations, and
peoples at large provided insight into various issues facing different sectors of the district. It also
provided peoples aspirations for the future development of the district. The vision workshop
identified 25 growth engines in thr ee sectors involving Agriculture, Industry and Services.
These growth engines will be able to accelerate the development process of the district. The
achievement of development goals in respective growth engines will help to realising the visions
incorporated in this document.




District Administration, Gajapati           Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM        - 34-
                                                                                       Annexure I

                              PROFILE OF GAJAPATI DISTRICT

Gajapati district is located in southern part of
                                                                     District Information
Orissa. The district is relatively new and is formed                                          4325
                                                         Area in square km
in the year 1992 by subdividing the erstwhile
                                                                                               7
Ganjam District. The total geographical area of the      No of CD Blocks
district consists of 4325 sq.km. The district has a                                           129
                                                         No of GPs
total population of 518837. Out of this, 8.77 %
                                                                                              1460
belong to Scheduled Caste and 47.88% belong to           Total no. of inhabited villages

ST population. The decadal growth rate of the                                                 5.18
                                                         Population in lakh
population is found to be 14.02% with crude birth                                             64.16
                                                         Forest area as a% to total
rate of 32.4 %. The population in the district           geographical area
                                                                                              14.02
exhibits imbalance with a sex ratio of 1031. The sex     Decadal population growth
ratio in urban area is 988 while that of rural area is                                        10.18
                                                         Urban population in %
1036. The literacy level in the district is only 42%
                                                                                              89.82
compared to the state average of 62%. There exist        Rural population %
widespread variation in literacy level in urban areas                                         8.77
                                                         SC population in %
and rural areas. Disparities are also found in female
                                                                                              47.88
                                                         ST population in %
and male literacy rate. The female literacy rate is
only 28.1% while male literacy rate is 55.14%. The                                            32.4
                                                         Crude birth rate
district has two subdivisions, three tahasils, seven                                          53.18
                                                         Work participation rate
development blocks, 129 Grama Panchayats, one
                                                         Sex ratio                            1031
Municipality, and one NAC. A brief description on
the development profile of the district is provided in   Literacy rate                        41.73
the following paragraphs.




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HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF THE DISTRICT

Prior to 1992, Gajapati region was the part of Ganjam district. The region witnessed many ups
and down during the past. The Gajapati kings ruled Orissa for more than seven centuries.
During the regime of these kings, the boundaries of Orissa extended from the Ganga in the North
to Udoyagiri in Nellore district in the South. In the later half of the 15th century, Kolahomee, one
of the sons of Kapilendra Deo, the Gajapati king of Orissa, came to this part of Paralakhemundi
(then in Ganjam district) and founded the Raj family of Paralakhemundi. Paralakhemundi was an
ancient Zamindari lying in the western corner of the Southern portion of the Ganjam district. It
was bounded in the West by the district of Vizagpatnam and on the North by the Jaipur state and
the eastern ghats. The region witnessed rise of resistance against the tortuous rule of British
Government. It culminated the creation of a separate province of Orissa in 1936. The region of
Gajapati and Paralakhemundi under the regime of the Rajas of Paralakhemundi had made a
remarkable contribution the history, culture, literature, art, economy of the Orissa state. Gajapati
district has been named after Maharaja Sri Krushna Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deb, the former
Raja of Paralakhemundi Estate. Sri Krushna Chandra was instrumental for the formation of a
separate Orissa province in 1936 and became the 1st Prime Minister of Orissa State. Krushna
Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo, Maharaja of Paralakhemundi was the direct descendant of the
historic dynasty of the Gajapati. In 1992, Paralakhemundi, Kasinagar and Ramagiri Udayagiri
areas were separated from Ganjam district and organised as Gajapati district. Ganjam district

District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM       - 36-
bound this district on the East, Rayagada district on the West, Ganjam and Phulbani districts on
the North.

LOCATION

This district is lying between 180.46’ North and 190.39’ North latitude and 830.48’ East and
840.08’ East longitude. The area is abutting the state boundary i.e. Andhra Pradesh towards
South. Ganjam district bound this district on the East, Rayagada district on the West, Ganjam
and Kandhmal district on the North. The highest mountain of this district, Mahendragiri, lies at
an Altitude of 4,923 feet above the Mean Sea Level. The Paralakhemundi town lies between 180-
46’-41” North latitude and 840-5’-52” East longitude and at an altitude of 479 feet (or) 145
meters above the Mean Sea Level.

TOPOGRAPHY

Major part of the district is hilly terrain. The hilly areas are mostly inhabited by Tribals. The
highest mountain of the district Mahendragiri lies at an altitude of 4,923 feet above the sea level.
The soil quality is of alluvial, brown, laterites, clay loam, sandy loam and red. This district
comes under “NORTH EASTERN GHAT AGRO CLIMATIC ZONE” with light textured brown
forest soil which is highly acidic in nature with medium percentage of Nitrogen, Phosphorous
and Potash. Due to typical characteristic of the agro-climatic zone, the terrain has rolling
topography, rugged hills, and perennial streams. Due to steep and rugged terrain and non
availability of water, the land available for cultivation is very less. The farmers mostly practice
shifting cultivation which sometimes is the main cause of land sliding and damage of life and
property. Gosani, Gumma, Kasinagar, Rayagada and R.Udayagiri blocks have almost 90%
laterites soil. Brown forest soil is found in Nuagada and Mohana blocks. Gosani, Kasinagar
blocks comes under plain lands where as the tribal blocks consists of hill and table land in the
North-East part of the district.

CLIMATE

The climate of the district is sub-tropical with extreme variation in temperature and rain fall. The
temperature varies from 16 to 48 degree Celsius. The lowest temperature has been experienced
in the month of November -December and the highest temperature occurs during May-June.

RAINFALL

The district receives annual rainfall in between 1500 mm to 2080 mm. The average annual
rainfall is 1403.30mm with nearly 71 rainy days in a year. The maximum precipitation is
received between July -September. During February and May the rain fall is almost erratic. The
data regarding the average rainfall in the district during the year 1993 to 2007 is provided in the
following table.




District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM       - 37-
Figure 1: Rain fall in the district from 1994 to 2007
                                         Rainfall in mm.


  2,500.00

  2,000.00

  1,500.00
                                                                                  Rainfall in mm.
  1,000.00

    500.00

       0.00
            94

            95

            96

            97

            98

            99

            00

            01

            02

            03

            04

            05

            06

            07
         19

         19

         19

         19

         19

         19

         20

         20

         20

         20

         20

         20

         20

         20
Table 1: Details of rainfall in the district

Year                Rainfall in mm.            Year                    Rainfall
1994                1,415.43                   2001                    1,281.54
1995                2,080.42                   2002                    707.15
1996                893.36                     2003                    1,618.77
1997                1,338.42                   2004                    1,280.94
1998                1,246.91                   2005                    1,452.42
1999                1,048.12                   2006                    1,704.50
2000                1,164.34                   2007                    1206.31

Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005

WATER RESOURCES

There are three major rivers namely Vasandhara, Mahendranayana and Badanadi, flowing
through the district. Water from these three major rivers form the sources of irrigation. The river
Vansadhara originates from Lanjigarh area of Kalahandi district and passes through Kashinagar
block and flows southwards along the borderline of Gajapati district. The river Mahendratanaya
is originating from the Mahendragiri range and flows in the westward direction through
Rayagada block and then to southward direction through Gosani block. The river Badanadi
flows through western part of Mohona block.




District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM           - 38-
 FOREST RESOURCES

 The total forest area of the district is 2,301.98 sq. km. Out of which 437.52 sq. km is reserve
 forest. Timber, bamboo, hill broom, Patala garuda, soap nut, B. kaliakhali, marsinga leaf, dhatuki
 flowers, kochila seeds, genduli gum, siali leaves and kathalai etc forms the major forest products
 of the district.

 MINERAL RESOURCES

 The granite decorative stones found in some part of Parlakhemundi are the mineral resources
 available in the district.

 LAND USE PATTERN

 Table given below provides the details of land utilization in the district. Out of the total
 geographical area of 432500 ha, the land available for agriculture is nearly 77335 ha. The forest
 land constitutes 68785 ha and barren and uncultivable waste 119718 ha. Cultivable waste
 constitutes nearly 3619 ha. The land utilization data of the district reveals a net sown area of
 76125 ha and 46322 ha as area sown more than once. It observed some positive trends in the
 land use pattern in the district during the few years. The net sown area of the district increased
 from 65075 in 2002 to 46322 ha in 2007. Similarly the area sown more than once also increased
 from 30327 ha in 2002 to 46322 ha in 2008.

 Table 2: Land use pattern in the district

 Heads of classification( ha)          2002        2003         2004     2005       2006      2007
Total Geographical Area (Ha)         432500      432500       432500   432500     432500    432500
Forests ( Ha)                         68785       68785        68785    68785      68785     68785
Land put in non agricultural
                                     10815        10815        10815   10815       11514     11514
use( Ha)
Barren and uncultivable land(
                                     110609      110609       110609   110609     119718    119718
Ha)
Permanent pastures and other
                                      8336         8336         8336    8336       11990     11990
gazing land
Land under miscellaneous
tree corps not include in net         2002         2002         2002    2002       7582      7582
sown area( Ha)
Cultivable waste( Ha)                 2716         2716         2716    2716       3619      3619
Fallow and other than
                                     10515        10515        10515   10515       5327      5327
cultivable land( Ha)
Current fallow                       12260        12260         3661    1258        680       430
Net sown area                        65075        64865        73709   75352       75875     76125
Area sown more than once             30327        41180        40730   43852       46128     46322


 District Administration, Gajapati            Gajapti Vision 2020                 CSREM       - 39-
 Source: District Agriculture Office

 Table 2(b) Land utilisation pattern in different Blocks of Gajapati district (Area in Ha)

Type of land     Guma    Kashinagar    Mohana     Nuagada     Paralakhemundi   R. Udayagiri    Rayagada
Forest land      9868       583         18555      22235            536           14012          2996
Mis. Trees
                 3346       1807        256         443             1388            386           956
and crops
Permanent
                 1610        288        4855       2366              528            1635          708
Pasture
Cultivable
                  687        17         1162        238              797            369           349
waste
Non      Agri-
                 1316       1577        3503        838             1958            1123         1199
Land
Barren land      14457      4795       40763       12974            1544            20265        24920
Current
                 1063       1084        3133       1526              664            1169         2221
fallows
Net      sown
                 8282       8422       17642       5410             12735           7202         7275
area

 The details of the land holdings of the district reveal nearly 62362 operational holding. It
 consists of 41565 marginal farmers, 14156 small farmers, 1067 medium farmers and large 53
 large farmers. Table given below provides the details of operational holding of the land in the
 district.

 Table 3: Size of land holdings in the district

    Size of the holding               Acres                  2005            2006              2007
 Marginal farmers                       0-1                 41565           41565             41565
 Small farmers                          1-2                 14156           14156             14156
 Semi-medium                            2-4                  5521            5521              5521
 Medium                                4-10                  1067            1067              1067
 Large                             10 and above               53              53                53
           Total                         --                 62362           62362             62362
 Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005

 DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS

 Population

 The district has a total population of 518,837 which constitutes 1.41 % of the total population of
 the state. Nearly 90 percent of the population lives in rural areas. Scheduled Tribe population
 accounts for 50.5 % of the total population and the Scheduled Caste population is nearly 7.5 %.
 The sex ratio in the district is 1.031 and the density of population of 120. The population
 growth of the district is found to be 14.5 %.




 District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                        CSREM       - 40-
Table 4: Demographic details of the district


                   Particulars                       Population            % to total population
 Population (as per 2001 census)                      518,837                       ---
 Male                                                 2,55,423                     49.2
 Female                                               2,63,414                     50.8
 Population (URBAN)                                      52,888                    10.2
 Male                                                    26,528                     5.1
 Female                                                  26,360                     5.1
 Population (RURAL)                                   4,65,949                     89.8
 Male                                                 2,28,760                     44.1
 Female                                               2,37,189                     45.7
 Population (S.T)                                     2, 63,476                    50.8
 Population (S.C)                                      38,928                       7.5
 Other population(General )                           2,16,433                     41.7
 Population growth rate                                                           14.10
 Sex ratio                                                                        1.031
 Density of Population                             120 Per Sq. Km.
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005

Table 5(a): Distribution of population in rural and urban areas of the district

                                    Geographical
S.No.          Block/Urban                             Male       Female       Total      Sex Ratio
                                     area sq/km
1         Gumma                        1048.94        31484       33801        65285      931.4517
2         Kasinagar                     477.99        24022       24603        48625       976.385
3         Mohana                         655.1        56964       58089       115053      980.6332
4         Nuagada                       439.69        22761       24147        46908      942.6016
5         Gosani                        494.17        33986       34822        68808      975.9922
6         R.Udayagiri                   466.59        27356       27153        54509      1007.476
7         Rayagada                     961.51         31308       33423       64731       936.7202
                                           Urban Area
1        Kasinagar                       10.36       4780          5002        9782       955.6178
2        Parlakhemundi (M)                3.63      21748         21243       42991       1023.773
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005




District Administration, Gajapati       Gajapti Vision 2020                        CSREM       - 41-
Table (5b) Distribution of SC/ ST population in different areas of the district (In No)

                                    SC Population                        ST Population
        Area
                           Male        Female     Total         Male        Female         Total
Guma                       1304         1370       2674         23223        25322         48545
Kashinagar                 3874         4028       7902          7798         8063         15861
Mohana                     2521         2568       5089         32139        33105         65244
Nuagada                     142          150        292         17453        18512         35965
Parlakemundi               5277         5618      10895          4266         4290          8556
R. Udayagiri                975          975       1950         18628        18660         37288
Rayagada                    766          790       1556         24272        26175         50447
ULB-Kashinagar              950         1077       2027            38           41           79
Paralakhemundi(M)          3164         3379       6543           862          629          1491

Work Participation

The district has a total workforce of 276,000. The total workforce constitutes nearly 54 % of the
total population of the district. Nearly 87 % of the workforce is engaged in agriculture sector.
Industrial workers constitute a very small proportion of 2.31 percent. Out of the total work force
50.2 percent are cultivators, 35.39 percent are agricultural labourers, and nearly 8.73 percent in
trade, commerce, mining and other than household activities. Only 5.6 % of the work force is
engaged in services sector.

Table 6: Occupational classification of total workers in the district: 2006-07

Types of workers                                              Number of workers
Total Workers                                                      275534
Marginal workers                                                    95542
Main workers                                                       179992
Cultivators                                                         76595
Agricultural labourers                                              55101
Industrial workers                                                   3719
Other workers                                                       44577
Work participation Rate (WPR)                                       53.18
Work Participation Rate( Rural)                                     55.32
WPR ( Urban)                                                        34.31
WPR( Female)                                                         49.8
WPR ( Male)                                                          56.6
Source: Orissa Agricultural Statistics: 2006-07, Human Development Report, Orissa: 2004




District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM      - 42-
Literacy and Education

The literacy level in the district is very low. The present literacy rate of the district is 41.73
%.There exist wide variations in literacy level among various population categories. The female
literacy is only 28.2% where as male literacy is 54.71%. Wide variation is visible in the literacy
rates in urban and rural areas also. The urban literacy is nearly 71.11 % while rural literacy is
only 37.59%. The literacy rate of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were 21.74% and
15.88 per cent respectively. Table given below provides the details of literacy in the district.

Table 7: Literacy level of the district

           Literacy                          Population                      Percentage
Total Literates                               1,75,850                         41.26
Literacy rate (Male)                           1,13,924                         54.71
Literacy rate (Female)
                                                61,926                          28.42
Literacy rate (Uraban)                        33,198                       71.11
Literacy rate ( Urban Male)                   18,937                       81.16
Literacy rate ( Urban Female)                 14,261                       61.06
Rural                                        1,42,652                      37.59
Male                                          94,987                       51.37
Female                                        47,665                       24.50
Literacy rate (SC)                              --                         21.74
Literacy rate (SC Male)                          -                         33.44
Literacy rate (SC Female)                        -                         10.14
Literacy rate (ST)                               -                          15.8
Literacy rate (ST Male)                          -                         25.66
Literacy rate ( ST Female)                       -                          6.75
Source: District Statistical Handbook: 2005. Human Development Report, Orissa-2004

The education facilities available in the district consist of 895 primary schools, 126 middle
schools, 59 Secondary schools and 17 Colleges. As on 2005, a total of 47171 students were
enrolled in various educational institutions. The enrollment in primary school was 28469 and the
students admitted in middle schools and secondary schools were 12569 and 5523 respectively. A
total of 610 students enrolled in colleges. The availability of teachers and number of student’s
enrolment in various educational institutions as on 2005 are given in the following table.




District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                    CSREM       - 43-
Table 8: Educational facilities and students enrollment in various educational institutions

                                    Primary       Middle Schools     Secondary       Colleges
Number of Schools                     822               244              74               11
Number of students                   28469             12569            5523              610
Number of Teachers               1430                   1003            467               152
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005

Table 9: Number of Schools and colleges in different Blocks and Urban areas of Gajapati
district for 2004-05

                                     Number of           Number of   Number of
                                                                                  Number of
 Sl.no.         Name of block          primary            middle     secondary
                                                                                   colleges
                                        schools           schools      schools
   1      Gumma                           112               30            9           1
   2      Khasinagar                       60               29            5           -
   3      Mohana                          164               49           22           2
   4      Nuagads                          94               24            4           -
   5      Gosani                           96               41            8           2
   6      R.Udayagiri                     132               26            8           2
   7      Rayagada                        135               40           10           1
   8      Kashinagar (NAC)                  9                1            2           1
   9      Parlakhenundi(M)                 20                4            6           2
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005



Table 10: Number of Students in primary Schools in different Blocks and Urban areas of
Gajapati district for 2004-05

                                                          Number of students
SL.NO.       Name of block
                                   Boys             Girls      Total         SC          ST
   1      Gumma                  2771             2555       5326        218         4147
   2      Khasinagar             1839             1674       3513        738         1152
   3      Mohana                 7380             6133       13513       2431        8222
   4      Nuagads                2107             2127       4234        20          3475
   5      Gosani                 3340             3260       6600        1244        1377
   6      R.Udayagiri            2590             2320       4910        139         4027
   7      Rayagada               3310             3274       6584        184         5650
   8      Kashinagar (NAC) 670                    610        1280        281         35
   9      Parlakhenundi(M) 1389                   1350       2739        907         384
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005

District Administration, Gajapati             Gajapti Vision 2020                 CSREM         - 44-
Table 11: Number of Students in middle Schools in different Blocks and Urban areas of
Gajapati district for 2004-05

                                                         Number of students
SL.NO.       Name of block
                                   Boys            Girls      Total          SC              ST
   1      Gumma                    1903            1130       3033           295            2069
   2      Khasinagar               1959            1742       3701           847             952
   3      Mohana                   3133            2031       5164          1205            1799
   4      Nuagada                  1981            1177       3158           131            1965
   5      Gosani                   3188            3168       6356          1240             942
   6      R.Udayagiri              2103             383       2486           215            1883
   7      Rayagada                 1994            1712       3706           327            2904
   8      Kashinagar (NAC)           60              37         97            33               3
   9      Parlakhenundi(M)          194             259        453            94              52
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005

Table 12: Number of Students in secondary Schools in different Blocks and Urban areas of
Gajapati district for 2004-05

                                                         Number of students
SL.NO.       Name of block
                                   Boys            Girls      Total           SC             ST
   1      Gumma                     931             463       1394             24            763
   2      Khasinagar                448             119        567             99            175
   3      Mohana                   1701            1042       2743            688           1467
   4      Nuagada                   552             210        762              4            443
   5      Gosani                    931             636       1587            240            132
   6      R.Udayagiri              1289             502       1791             52           1083
   7      Rayagada                 1534             705       2239            171           1158
   8      Kashinagar (NAC)          381             245        626            123             26
   9      Parlakhenundi(M)         1316            1132       2448            309            276
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005

Table 13: Number of Students in colleges in different Blocks and Urban areas of Gajapati
district for 2004-05

                                                         Number of students
SL.NO.       Name of block
                                    Boys           Girls      Total           SC            ST
   1       Gumma                      45            19          64             8             19
   2       Khasinagar                ----           --          --             --            --
   3       Mohana                   295             82         377            36            166
   4       Nuagads                    --            --          --             --            --
   5       Gosani                   282             69         351            35             35

District Administration, Gajapati           Gajapti Vision 2020                     CSREM      - 45-
                                                       Number of students
SL.NO.       Name of block
                                   Boys        Girls        Total           SC            ST
   6      R.Udayagiri               133         36           169              6            81
   7      Rayagada                   85         16           101              7            50
   8      Kashinagar (NAC)          315         64           379             51            41
   9      Parlakhenundi(M)         1145        830          1975            121           218
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005

Table 14: Number of teachers in primary Schools in different Blocks and Urban areas of
Gajapati district for 2004-05

                                          Male                      Female
SL.NO.       Name of block                                                           TOTAL
                                  Trained    Untrained        Trained   untrained
   1      Gumma                     130         30              57         22             239
   2      Khasinagar                 62          9              55          6             132
   3      Mohana                    105         57              11         10             183
   4      Nuagada                    89          3              31         33             156
   5      Gosani                    164         31              95         25             315
   6      R.Udayagiri                28         45              46         18             137
   7      Rayagada                   97         38              13         14             162
   8      Kashinagar (NAC)           18          --             19          1              38
   9      Parlakhenundi(M)           26          1              40          1              68
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005

Table 15: Number of teachers in middle Schools in different Blocks and Urban areas of
Gajapati district for 2004-05

                                          Male                      Female
SL.NO.       Name of block                                                           TOTAL
                                  Trained Untrainted          Trained   untrained
   1             Gumma               60        27               18          3             108
   2      Khasinagar                 75         5               38          9             127
   3      Mohana                    117        73               23         13             226
   4      Nuagada                    36        21                8          2              67
   5      Gosani                    127         6               77         11             221
   6      R.Udayagiri                48        18               14         14              94
   7      Rayagada                   78        21                6         13             118
   8      Kashinagar (NAC)            1         1                2          --              4
   9      Parlakhenundi(M)           17        --               21          --             38
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005




District Administration, Gajapati       Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM     - 46-
Table 16: Number of teachers in secondary Schools in different Blocks and Urban areas of
Gajapati district for 2004-05

                                          Male                      Female
SL.NO.       Name of block                                                           TOTAL
                                  Trained Untrained           Trained   untrained
   1      Gumma                      37        1                11          1           50
   2      Khasinagar                 18        1                 2          --          21
   3      Mohana                    106        1                24          1          132
   4      Nuagada                    23        --                1          --           2
   5      Gosani                     38        --               13          --          51
   6      R.Udayagiri                47        1                 4          --          52
   7      Rayagada                   39        1                13          --          53
   8      Kashinagar (NAC)           13        --                7          1           21
   9      Parlakhenundi(M)           27        --               36          --          63
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005

Table 17: Number of lecturers in colleges in different Blocks and Urban areas of Gajapati
district for 2004-05

SL.NO.      Name of block                 Men                      Women             TOTAL
1         Gumma                  7                        1                         8
2         Khasinagar             --                       --                        --
3         Mohana                 22                       --                        22
4         Nuagada                --                       --                        --
5         Gosani                 16                       2                         18
6         R.Udayagiri            9                        3                         12
7         Rayagada               7                        1                         8
8         Kashinagar (NAC) 9                              3                         12
9         Parlakhenundi(M) 46                             26                        72
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005

The district has the presence of one Engineering college namely Jagannath Institute of
Technology and Management operating in the district since 1992. Located in Paralakhemundi,
the engineering institute provides technical education in various branches of Engineering and
Technology. The institute has a total students enrollment of nearly 1400 in various branches of
study.

The Centurion School of Rural Enterprise Management, a sister concern of the JITM is also
operating in the district. CSREM offers a two year full time PGDM program since 2006
onwards. CSREM is a recognized Enterprise Development Institute with equity contribution
from Government of India, Government of Orissa and CSREM Trust.




District Administration, Gajapati       Gajapti Vision 2020                    CSREM      - 47-
AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED SECTOR

Agriculture

Agriculture forms the major economic activity of the people in the district. The soil type and
climate is suitable for both horticulture and agriculture crops. The major crops in the district
consist of paddy (38560 Ha), millets, pulses (30680 Ha), oilseeds (17080 Ha), sugarcane and
cotton. As on 2006-07 the total food grain production in the district was 109870 MT. The cereals
production consists of 92450 MT. The total pulses produced in the district were 17420 MT. The
details of the area, yield, production of major crops in the district is provided in the following
table.

Table 18: Area, yield and production of different crops of Gajapati district for 2006-07
(Area in 000 ha.Yield in Kg/ha and Production in 000 MTs)

                                                                          2006-07
          Sl.No.                    Crops
                                                        Area               Yield     Production
    1                Total cereals                   61.42            1505          92.45
    2                Rice                            38.56            ---           69.07
    3                Total pulses                    30.68            568           17.42
    4                Total food grains               92.10            1193          109.87
    5                Total oil seeds                 17.08            470           8.03
    6                Total fibres                    0.72             444           1.88
    7                Total vegetables                18.17            11434         207.76
    8                Total           condiments      3.00             1370          4.11
                     &spices
Source: Orissa Agricultural Statistics: 2006-07

Paddy is one of the major cereal crops in the district. The total area under paddy constitute nearly
38560Ha with a production of 69070 MT. Table given below provides the details of area under
paddy cultivation in the district.

Table 19: Paddy cultivation in the district
                            Cultivated Area (Ha)                          Paddy Area ( Ha)
   Block
                   High    Medium        Low            Total      High   Medium    Low      High
Guma               8984     1478            1398        11860      104      1478     1398    2980

Kashinagar         6613     3199            3438        13250      704      3199     3438    7341

Mohana             10040    1069            611         11720      997      1069     611     2677

Nuagada            5649      538            433         6620       471      538      433     1442

Plkmundi           3173     5213            4574        12960      619      5213     4574    10406



District Administration, Gajapati            Gajapti Vision 2020                     CSREM        - 48-
                           Cultivated Area (Ha)                        Paddy Area ( Ha)
    Block
                 High     Medium        Low         Total      High    Medium    Low        High
Rayagada         7490       1551       10009        10050      429       1551    10009      2989

R. Udayagiri     7865       1215        1015        1095        52       1215    1015       2282

Total           49814      14263       12478        76555      3376     14263    12478      30117
%                65.07      18.63       16.30        100       11.21    47.36    41.43       100
Source : District Agriculture Office, Gajapati

Table 20 –A : Area, Yield and Production of Major crops in Gajapati district
(A=Area in 000 ha, Y =Yield in Kg. /ha, P=Productionin’000 MTs)

 Sl.                     Principal                                     2006-07
 NO.                      Crops                        A                    Y                P
   1        Paddy                                    38.56                2673             69.07
   2        Wheat                                     0.04                1800              0.07
   3        Maize                                     8.60                1412             12.14
   4        Ragi                                     10.18                 870              8.86
   5        Jowar                                     2.08                 600              1.25
   6        Bazaar                                    0.72                 610              0.44
   7        Small millets                             1.24                 500              0.62
   8        Mung                                      6.75                 541              3.65
   9        Biri                                     10.69                 546              5.84
  10        Kulthi                                    4.36                 400              1.74
  11        Cowpea                                    3.15                 568              1.79
  12        Arhar                                     4.35                 800              3.48
  13        Gram                                      0.07                 555              0.04
  14        Fielopea                                  0.37                 725              0.27
  15        Other pulses                              0.94                 650              0.61
  16        Ground nuts                               1.63                1294              2.11
  17        Sesamum                                   7.57                 244              1.85
  18        Caster                                    0.84                 595              0.50
  19        Sunflower                                 0.89                 685              0.61
  20        Niger                                     4.85                 487              2.36
  21        Mustard                                   1.30                 465              0.60
  22        Mesta                                     0.22                 760              0.93
  23        Sunhemp                                   0.04                 520              0.12
  24        Cotton                                    0.46                 306              0.83
  25        Sweet potato                              2.43                8313             20.20
  26        Onion                                     0.28                8464              2.37
  27        Other vegetables                         15.46               11978            185.18
  28        Chilies                                   1.81                 851              1.54

District Administration, Gajapati        Gajapti Vision 2020                     CSREM         - 49-
  Sl.                 Principal                                            2006-07
 NO.                    Crops                              A                    Y                 P
  29     Coriander                                        0.09                 778               0.07
  30     Garlic                                           0.07                3000               0.21
  31     Turmeric                                         0.59                2373               1.40
  32     Ginger                                           0.44                2023               0.89
  33     Sugar cane                                       0.42               82368              34.59
Source: Orissa Agricultural Statistics: 2006-07


Irrigation Facilities

Agriculture is mainly rain fed. The details of the irrigated area in the district are provided in the
following table.

Table 21: Irrigated area potential created up to 2006-07

Sl.no.              Particulars                     Kharif(000Ha)                    Rabi (000Ha)
   1               Minor(flow)                           21.250                         2.350
   2                Minor(lift)                          05.326                         3.120
   3               Other sources                         06.570                         2.730
                 Total                                   33.146                         8.200
Source: District Statistical Hand Book: 2005

Table 22 (a): Crop wise irrigated area during 2006 (Figures in 000Ha)

SL.NO.     Name of the crop                                       Kharif                  Rabi
   1       Paddy                                                  19.75                   0.60
   2       Maize                                                   0.59                   0.16
   3       wheat                                                    --                    0.04
   3       Ragi                                                    1.09                   1.12
   4       Total pulses                                             --                    0.25
   5       Total oilseeds                                          0.08                    2.19
   6     Total fibres                                              0.03                     --
   7     Total vegetable                                           1.64                    1.85
   8     Total spices                                              0.06                    1.48
   9     Sugar cane                                                 --                     0.42
                      Total                                       23.24                    8.11
Source: Orissa Agriculture Statistics: 2006-07

Table 22(b) Block wise Irrigation potential in the district (Area in Ha)


District Administration, Gajapati           Gajapti Vision 2020                         CSREM       - 50-
Type         Season     Guma        Kasinagar     Mohana     Nuagada     Parkmudi     Rayagada    R. Udayagiri
            Kharif   1733             4053           952        442         7685        694            764
   MI
             Rabi      64              250            70          0         1226         76             20
            Kharif    114             1155           217          0         1516        512             40
     Lift    Rabi      49              934            39          0         117         183             13
            Kharif     10               63            80        105         131          43             92
    Well
             Rabi      16               26            40         44          92          26             34
            Kharif     54              194           137         56          19          28             77
   WHS
             Rabi      67               10            29         20           5          35              5
            Kharif    312              463           189        188         750         263            188
   Others
             Rabi     292              173           162        507         508         408            375
            Kharif   2222             5928          1575        770        10101       1541           1161
    Total
             Rabi      47             1393           340        571         2949        728            447
      %     Kharif   18.74            77.74         13.44      11.63       77.94       15.33          11.50
 Irrigation  Rabi    4.11             10.51          2.90       8.63       22.75        7.24           4.43
Source: DAO Gajapati

Table 23: Productivity of major crops in the district

                                                              Productivity in kg/ha
Sl. No.               Crops
                                                 Gajapati           Orissa                India
  1      Paddy                                    2673               2324                 3115
  2      Wheat                                    1800               1415                 2713
  3      Cereals                                  1505               1520                   ---
  4      Maize                                    1412               1602                 1783
  5      Pulses                                    568                444                  594
  6      Food grains                              1193               1213                 1707
  7      Oilseeds
Source: Orissa Agricultural Statistics: 2006-07

Table 24: Key indicators for agriculture in the district

 Sl No                   Area in 000 ha                                Gajapati             Orissa
    1       Geographical area (000Ha)                                    433                   1557
    2       Cultivated area                                              76                    6180
    3       Net area sown                                                76                    5654
    4       Gross cropped area                                          142.25             8960.35
    5       Kharif cropped area                                         84.65              6135.87
    6       Rabi cropped area                                           46.84              2487.62
    7       Cropping intensity                                           186                   158
    8       Net irrigated area                                          23.24                  2001

District Administration, Gajapati               Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM        - 51-
 Sl No                     Area in 000 ha                          Gajapati           Orissa
    9       Gross irrigated area                                     31.35             31.49
   10       Kharif paddy coverage                                    37.96            4135.72
   11       Fruit                                                     9.76            336.86
   12       Total cropped area                                       131.49           8623.49
   13       Fertiliser consumption kg/ha                              40                   47
Source: Orissa Agricultural Statistics: 2006-07


Livestock Resources

The major livestock resources of the district consist of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, and poultry
etc. Data on livestock resources reveal that the district has 239997 cattle, 24967 buffaloes, 10492
sheep, 122391 goats, 17039 piggery and 359781 poultry. A large share of the cattle and buffaloes
population is indigenous. The Cross breed cattle and buffalo constitute only 4.5% and 3.2 %
respectively. Table given below provides the details of the livestock resources in the district.

Table 25: Livestock resources in the district

Livestock resources                Indigenous         Cross Breed             Total
Cattle Population                    229101               10896              239997
Buffaloes                             24168                 801               24967
Sheep                                  NA                   NA                10492
Goat                                   NA                   NA               122391
Piggery                                NA                   NA                17039
Poultry                                NA                   Na               359781
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005, www.gajapati.nic.in, Department of Animal
Husbandry

Table 26: Block wise distribution of Cattle population

                                                            Cattle
  Name of the
                                    Indigenous                      Cross Breed
    Block                                                                                       Total
                       Male          Female       Total        Male   Female    Total
Parlakhemundi
(Gosani)              11203          11615        22818        2694          3021   5715        28533

Kasinagar             10976          11537        22513        1231          1067   2298        24811
Gumma                 16631           5098        21729         110            68    178        21907
R.Udayagiri           17600          11844        29444         116           244    360        29804


District Administration, Gajapati            Gajapti Vision 2020                    CSREM       - 52-
                                                   Cattle
  Name of the
                                Indigenous                    Cross Breed
    Block                                                                            Total
                     Male         Female     Total    Male        Female    Total
Mohana               42982         37500     80482      279         733     1012    81494
Rayagada             19714          7699     27413      179         110      289    27702
Nuagada              14029          7267     21296       12          47       59    21355
   TOTAL            133135         92560    225695     4621        5290     9911    235606
Source: District statistical   Hand Book: 2005, www.gajapati.nic.in, Department of Animal
Husbandry

Table 27: Cattle population in Municipal areas

                                                           Cattle
  Name of the
                             Indigenous                             Cross Breed
Municipalty/NAC                                                                           Total
                        Male   Female   Total            Male        Female     Total
Pkd,Municipalaty         357         1033       1390      146          457       603      1993
Kasinagar NAC            420         1594       2016      176          206       382      2398
    TOTAL              777      2627    3406     322         663         985      4391
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005, www.gajapati.nic.in, Department of Animal
Husbandry

Table 28: Distribution of Buffaloes population in various Blocks

                                                         Buffalo
 Name of the
                                     Indigoes                     Cross breed
   Block                                                                                  Total
                      Male          Female       Total       Male Female      Total
Parlakhemundi         1543           2693        4236         29    211        240        4476
(Gosani)
Kasinagar           2361        2788       5149     345        163       508               5657
Gumma               2651         735       3386      0           0         0               3386
R.Udayagiri          696         534       1230      2           0         2               1232
Mohana              3275        3726       7001      0           0         0               7001
Rayagada            1016         414       1430      5          28        33               1461
Nuagada             1196         137       1333      0           0         0               1333
TOTAL              12738       11027      23765     381        402       783              24546
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005, www.gajapati.nic.in, Department of          Animal
Husbandry




District Administration, Gajapati           Gajapti Vision 2020                   CSREM     - 53-
Table 28 (b): Distribution of Buffaloes population in the municipal areas

                                                          Buffaloes
  Name of the
                                    Indigoes                      Cross breed
Municipality/NAC                                                                          Total
                          Male       Female      Total       Male   Female    Total
Pkd,Municipality           79         141         220             0     0       0         220

Kasinagar NAC              147        36          183            14     4       18        201
TOTAL                    226      177      403      14           4        18      421
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005, www.gajapati.nic.in, Department of Animal
Husbandry

Table 29: Distribution of Sheep and Goat in rural municipal areas of the district

                                    Sheep                                     Goat
 Name of the Block
                            Male   Female            Total       Mal       Female       Total
Gosani                       990    3131              4121      2509         8528       11037
Kasinagar                    684     881              1565      2447         4023        6470
Gumma                        323    1097              1420      3310         8097       11407
R.Udayagiri                  883    1188              2071      5073         9570       14643
Mohana                        49     150               199     13495        26077       39572
Rayagada                     385     489               874     10422        14254       24676
Nuagada                       60      85               145      5265         8840       14105
TOTAL                       3374    7021             10395     42521        79389      121910
Municipality, Pkd             25      19                44       161          162         323
NAC,Kasinagar                 27      26                53        57          101         158
TOTAL                         52      45                97       218          263         481
G.TOTAL                     3426    7066             10492     42739        79652      122391
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005,        www.gajapati.nic.in, Department of Animal
Husbandry


Table 30: Distribution of Piggery and Poultry in the district

                                                           Pig
      Name of the Block                                                              Poultry
                                       Male             Female        Total
Pkd (Gosani)                            492              1034         1526           69395
Kasinagar                               731               940         1671           45306
Gumma                                   270               563          833           51416
R.Udayagiri                             128               314          442           27677
Mohana                                 2428              2437         4865           78127
Rayagada                                933              1179         2112           38131
Nuagada                                1846              2135         3981           45327

District Administration, Gajapati           Gajapti Vision 2020                CSREM           - 54-
                                                 Pig
       Name of the Block                                                     Poultry
                                   Male       Female          Total
TOTAL                              6828        8602           15430          355379
Municipality, Pkd                   477         328             805           2048
NAC,Kasinagar                       448         356             804           2354
TOTAL                               925         684            1609           4402
G.TOTAL                            7753        9286           17039          359781
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005, www.gajapati.nic.in, Department of Animal
Husbandry

                        Table 31: Milk, meat and egg production in the district (2004)

                                                                      Quantity in MT
Total Milk production                                                     12010
Meat Production
                                                                           631720
Sheep                                                                     124901
Goat                                                                      444631
Pig                                                                        62188
Egg production                                                     103.26( Lakh numbers)

Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005

INDUSTRIAL SCENARIO

The industrial scenario of the district constitutes nearly 344 registered small scale and micro
industrial units. The total investment in these units consists of nearly 116 million rupees. These
units provide employment opportunities to 2761 people in the district. A large number of units
are in the food and allied sector. The cashew processing is one of the major small industrial units
present in the district. There are no major industrial units in the public or private sector. However
some activities of cottage industries like Horn work, Jaikhadi bag, Cane and Bamboo work,
Ganjappa Card and Pattachitra Mukha, Broom work and Siali leaf plate making and Tibetan
Woolen Carpet contributes some place in the cottage industries of the district.

Table 32: Small Scale and Micro Industrial Units in the district (2001)

                                                                   Investment
Sl. No.         Category of Industry           No. of Units                          Employment
                                                                    (in lakh)
   1       Food and allied                          181              590.00               1350
   2       Chemical and allied                        4               16.25                 25
   3       Engineering and Metal                     29              110.50                220
   4       Electrical and Electronics                 6               20.00                 46
   5       Textiles                                  11               14.75                 85
   6       Paper and Paper Products                   4               11.50                 30
   7       Plastic and Rubber                         5               15.00                 40

District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM        - 55-
                                                                                   Investment
Sl. No.         Category of Industry                     No. of Units                                    Employment
                                                                                    (in lakh)
    8     Glass and Ceramic                                          5                 27.25                           75
    9     Repairing and Servicing                                   80                250.00                          550
   10     Miscellaneous Industries                                  19                104.75                          250
                TOTAL                                              344               1160.00                         2671
Source: District Industries Center

HOUSING FACILITIES, DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION

The data on availability of drinking water and sanitation reveals that nearly 121 villages are not
have access to safe drinking water. The district has nearly 1033 sanitary wells, and 2293 tube
wells. Table given below provides the details of accessibility to safe drinking water and
sanitation in the district. Still a large number of villages and households are still not accessed to
sanitation and drinking water facilities.

Table 33: Accessibility to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities in the district

                                                                    Name of the Blocks
                                            Kashinagar




                                                                                            R.Udyagiri


                                                                                                          Rayagada
                                                                         Nuagada
                                                          Mohana
                                    Gumma




Sl.

                                                                                   Gosani
No         Particular                                                                                                  Total


      No/of        Villages
      /Hamlets having no
 1 source of safe                20     8     24                         24         2                     29            121
                                                                                            14
      drinking        water
      facilities
      No. of working
 2                              324   321    729                         124       407      190          198            2293
      Tube wells
      No. of       Villages
 3                              117    83    402                         44        122      150           69            987
      covered
      No. of working
 4                              165    20    144                         258       27       171          248            1033
      sanitary wells
      No. of villages
 5                               83    11     74                         107       12       88           126            501
      covered
      No. of piped water
 6                                1     3      4                         --         9        2            1                 20
      projects
      No. of villages
 7                                1     4      4                         --        17        2            1                 29
      covered
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005




District Administration, Gajapati                   Gajapti Vision 2020                                  CSREM              - 56-
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

The district has a total road length of 5895 kilometers. This consists of state high way (250 km),
district roads (105 km), forest roads (107 km), village and Grama Panchayat roads (5033 km).
Paralakhemundi town is situated on the axis of State Highway No.17 connecting Berhampur at
one end and Gunupur and Rayagada on the other. Berhampur is situated at 120 KM from this
place and other urban nuclei like Gunupur and Rayagada are distanced at 60 & 120 KMs
respectively. respectively. The nearest National Highway (N.H–5) junction is at around 40 KMs.
from this place. There is a narrow gauge railway line (called Naupada-Gunupur Rail line)
running through this town. The work of conversion to broad gauge is going on. The state
highway is of 151 km. long with 66 km. long major district road, 4253 km. of grama Panchayats
road and 440 km of village road till 1998-99. The district is having one head post office, 18
numbers of sub-post offices, and 130 branch offices with a total numbers of 146 post offices. It is
having 50 km. of narrow gauge single lined railway line with seven railway stations.

Table 34: Length of Different Categories of Roads in Gajapati District (In km)

Sl.No.    Categories Of Road                      2001-02           2002-03            2003-04
1         State Highway                             250                 -                250
2         Major District Roads                       66                --                 66
3         Other District Roads                       39                --                 39
4         Forest Roads                              107                --                107
5         Gram Panchayat Roads                     4253              4253               4253
6         Classified Village Roads                   37                38                 --
7         P.S.Roads                                3014               301                301
8         Village Roads                             441               441                479
9         Urban Roads                               144                --                Na

Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005




District Administration, Gajapati        Gajapti Vision 2020                      CSREM       - 57-
Table 35: Newly Registered vehicles: Transport Category

                                            Transport particulars
                        Multiaxled/Articulated
              I                                    --    --    --          --      --           --
                               vehicles
             II            Trucks & lorries        --    02    02          02     04            06
             III      Light Motor Vehiclles(Goods)
                      A       Four wheelers        11    22    20          16     38            58
                      B      Three wheelers        08    05    04          08     13            17
                         Total III                 19    27    24          24     51            75
         IV                    busses
                      A      Stage carriages       03    05    03          06     11            14
                      B     Contract carriages     --    --    --          --     --            --
                              Private service
                      C                            01    --    02          --      --           --
                                  vehicles
                      D       Other busses         --    --    --          --     --            --
                         Total IV                  04    05    05          06     11            14
         V            Taxis
                      a) Motor Cabs                 3    12     1           5      17        18
                      b) Mzxi Cabs                 26    20    14          69      89       103
                      c) Other Taxis                -     -     -           -       -         -
                          Total V                  29    32    15          74     106       121
                      Light Motor Vehicles
         VI
                      (Passengers)
                      a) Three Seaters             18     7    11       26         33        44
                      b) Four to six Seaters        -     -     -        -          -         -
                         Total VII                 18    07    11       26         33        44
         VII          Motor Cycles on Hire          -     -     -        -          -         -
                 Total Transport (I to VII)        70    73    57      132        205       263




Table 35: Number of Post Offices in the district

                             2002        2003           2004        2005        2006       2007
Head Offices                 1           1              1           1           1          1
Sub Offices                  18          18             18          18          18         18
Branches                     130         130            130         130         130        130
Total                        148         148            148         148         148        148
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005




District Administration, Gajapati            Gajapti Vision 2020                        CSREM        - 58-
Table 36: Number of Telephone Exchanges

                               2002       2003        2004      2005        2006          2007
No. of Exchanges                15         15          15        15          15            15
No. of Telephone
                               3674      4306         4724      5106        5300          4987
Connections
Public Call Offices             120       140         230       300         350            450
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005

HEALTH AND MEDICAL FACILITIES

The health facilities in the district consist of district hospital (1), Ayurvedic Hospital and
dispensaries (2), primary health centers (20) and one TB Center. The district hospital has the
facilities for out patient and in patient treatments. Along with modern medicine, there are also
facilities for Ayurvedic and Homeopathic treatment. The table given below provides information
with regard to the medical facilities in the district.

Table 37: Hospitals and Clinics in the district

No. of Hospital               2002      2003       2004       2005       2006       2007
District Hospital               1         1          1          1          1           1
No. of PHCs                     3         3          3          3          3           3
AH & Dispensaries               2         2          2          2          2           2
District. TB Center             1         1          1          1          1           1
Grant        in     Aid-
                                0         0          0          0          0           0
Institutions
Leprosy                         1         1          1          1          1           1
Community         Health
                                4         4          4          4          4           4
Centers
PHC (N) & MHU                  20        20         20         20         20          20
Total                          32        32         32         32         32          32
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005, Department of Health and Family Welfare

Table 38: Number of Beds available in Medical Institutions

 No. of Hospital                2002      2003        2004      2005       2006        2007
 District Hospital                  111   111         111       111         111           111
 No. of PhDs                        28     28          28        28         28            28
 AH & Dispensaries                  56     56          56        56         56            56
 District. TB Center                 0      0           0        0           0             0
 Leprosy                             0      0           0        0           0             0


District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                     CSREM         - 59-
 No. of Hospital                2002           2003         2004           2005         2006      2007
 Community       Health
                                    64          64            64            64           64           64
 Centers
 PHC (N) & MHU                      0            0            0             0            0            0
 Total                          259       259        259        259        259        259
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005, Department of Health and Family Welfare


Table 39: Number of Patients Treated in various hospitals and clinics

Hospital                    Male         Female Children           Total     Male Female Children Total
District Hospital           34001         30071  23412             87484     14088 13658  9559    37305
No. of PhDs                 16521        14403        11439        42363        4021    3915      2646             10582
AH & Dispensaries           19127        16674        13243        49044        4659    4536      3067             12262
District. TB Center            0           0            0            0              0     0           0              0
Grant        in     Aid-
                               0           0            0            0              0     0           0              0
institutions
Leprosy                        0           0            0            0              0     0           0              0
Community   Health
                            22692        19783        15712        58187        5527    5382      3638             14547
Centers
PHC (N) & MHU               45323        39513        31379        116215           0     0           0              0
Total                       137664       120444       95185        353293 28295         27491     18910            74696

Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005, Department of Health and Family Welfare

Table 40: Number of Doctors in Medical Institutions

No. of Hospital                                                                 2007
District Hospital                                                               12
No. of PhDs                                                                     4
AH & Dispensaries                                                               3
District. TB Center                                                             1
Grant in Aid-Institutions                                                       0
Leprosy                                                                         1
Community Health Centers                                                        7
PHC (N) & MHU                                                                   18
Total                                                                           46
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005, Department of Health and Family Welfare

District Administration, Gajapati              Gajapti Vision 2020                            CSREM        - 60-
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND BANKS

The district has the presence of branches of commercial banks namely, Andhra Bank, Union
Bank of India, State Bank of India and ICICI Bank. The banks play a pivotal role in the
development of the district through deposit mobilization and extending credit support to
production and investment sectors. Andhra bank which is the lead bank in the district is
instrumental in preparation of district credit plan for the district and facilitating the credit support
to the productive sectors of the economy.

Apart from this, the district has also the presence of NABARD district office. NABARD have a
portfolio of credit for the development of agriculture, rural development, minor irrigation, rural
infrastructure development, and rural entrepreneurship development. NABARD provides
refinance facilities to commercial banks and co-operative banks for facilitating credit flow to
agriculture, small scale sector, and rural non-farm sector. It also extent credit support to
government for development of infrastructure under the scheme rural infrastructure development
fund. NABARD is actively involved in promotion of self-help groups and linking self-help
groups under the SHG- Bank Linkage Programme.                 Under the Rural Entrepreneurship
Development Programme, NABARD provides financial support to NGOs, Community Based
Organizations, for enhancing the skills of potential entrepreneurs and setting up of Micro Small
and Medium Enterprises.

Table 41: Financial institutions in the district

Particulars                                          2002               2003                2004
A: Public Sector Banks                                18                 17                  17
Deposits (Rs. Lakh)                                 10343              10955               11800
Credit (Rs. Lakh)                                    2786               3226                4600
CD Ratio                                            26.94              29.45               38.98
B Regional Rural Banks                                10                 10                  10
Deposits (Rs. Lakh)                                  2476               2782                3300
Credit (Rs. Lakh)                                    1111               1389                1700
CD Ratio                                            44.87              49.93               51.52
All Commercial Banks                                  28                 27                  27
Deposits (Rs. Lakh)                                 12819              13737               15200
Credit (Rs. Lakh)                                    3897               4615                6300
CD Ratio                                            30.40              33.60               41.45

Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005

Co-operatives

The co-operative sector of the district consists of 50 Primary Agricultural Credit Societies,
District Central co-operatives (1), Diary co-operatives, Handloom and Weavers co-operatives
and other non-agricultural credit societies. Primary Agricultural Credit Societies have a total
membership of57854 and working capital of Rs 1415 lakh. The PACS extended credit to the tune

District Administration, Gajapati          Gajapti Vision 2020                        CSREM        - 61-
       of Rs. 1388 lakh. There are 52 branches of Central co-operative banks functioning in various
       parts of the district.

       Table 42: Primary Agricultural Credit Co-operatives in the district


                                                                     Name of the Blocks
Particular                                                                                                                                                     Total
              Gamma            Kasinagar               Mohana Nuagada Gosani R.Udayagiri Rayagada                                                             Rs. Lakh
  No. Of
                   3                17                          2                 1             25                         1               1                                 50
 societies
Membership        8494             8636                   6360                   6943          13213                  4519                9689                      57854
 Working
                 158.41            564.55                43.57                   43.24         431.77                83.75                89.73                    1415.02
  capital
  Loans
                 172.53            607.35                       --               25.60         503.91                29.03                49.80                    1388.22
 advanced
Loans over
                 43.42             22.30                20376                    27.38         201.58                36.50                22.88                     374.82
   due
  Loans
                  8.22             302.74                20.53                   24.15         585.91                52.15                60.26                    1053.96
outstanding
       Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005

       Table 43: Details of district Central Co-operative Banks in the district.

                                                      Name` of the Blocks



                                                                                                                                               Kasinagar



                                                                                                                                                                     TOTAL
                                         Kashinagar




                                                                                                                               Pkd(m)
                                                                                                  R.udyagiri


                                                                                                                Rayagada
                                                                       Nuagada
                                                       Mohana
                           Gumma




                                                                                      Gosani




   Particulars



No of branches             3          17               2                1             25          1              1                1                 1                        52
No. of members            8658       9672             6274            6960         14569        3526           10027           271             800                  60757
Working capital          146.26 641.20 30.49 45.18 1040.62 97.49                                               95.76           3.74          8.91                  2109.65
Loans advanced           132.36 527.66                 --             8.18        401.88        10.62          56.42           0.76                --              1137.88
Loans over due            71.91      28.74            12.30 27.37                 123.10        37.56          14.50           0.80          9.19                   325.47
Loans outstanding        107.81 386.33 12.30 29.75                                627.06        49.47          70.87           0.80          9.19                  1293.58

       Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005



       District Administration, Gajapati                              Gajapti Vision 2020                                               CSREM              - 62-
NGOs AND CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS

Nearly 20 registered NGOs are operating in the district. These NGOs play a very important role
in the socio-economic development of the district. The areas of intervention of these NGOs
involve Tribal empowerment, enterprise promotion, capacity building community health,
education, microfinance and women empowerment. A brief description of some of the major
NGOs operating in the district is provided in the following lines.

Gajapati Vikas Manch

Gajapati Vikas Manch (GVM) is a forum of 13 NGOs operating in the district. It is basically
involved advocacy issues and raising the voice of the public on various developmental issues of
the district. GVM gets support from all member NGOs. The institution is mainly involved in
advocacy issues related to forest land rights for the tribals in the district. The organization has
been successful in transferring land through patta right to some 30 households in the district. The
beneficiaries had mostly been saora tribes who are actively practicing agriculture without patta
right to the land.

SWWS

Society for Welfare of Weaker Sections (SWWS) is one of the leading NGOs in the District for
rendering quality services to the tribal community with special focus on Natural Resource
Management, Livelihood enhancement and Health. It is also thrusting on Local Self Governance
through social mobilization and sensitization and capacity building of tribal community.

PREM

PREM is one of the oldest NGOs in the state having their operations in 10 districts of Odisha as
a good presence in the district, instrumental in bringing quality of life of the tribal community
with a special trust on education. They have other sectoral focus like Local Governance, Health
and livelihood enhancement.


Gram Vikas

Gram Vikas has its presence in the district rendering services in the remote areas enhancing a
socio-economic conditions of the tribal community.


Jan Kalyan Pratisthan, Paralakhemundi

Jana Kalyan Pratisthan is in operation in the district since 1990s. At present it is working in three
blocks namely, R. Udaya Giri, Gosani and Guma. JKP is organizing various programmes with
primary focus on agriculture and Horticulture. Besides they have also programmes related to
environment, education, community health, SHG Facilitation etc. JKP had been successful in

District Administration, Gajapati         Gajapti Vision 2020                       CSREM       - 63-
popularizing the concpt of alternate cash crops in the Mangrajpur area. Currently JKP is involved
in improving the quality of mango cultivation in the Gosani Block.

Center for Community Development

CCD is working in five blocks of the district and is a registered society under Societies
Registration Act. The operational area of the society involves Gosani, Rayagada, Kashinagar,
Guma and Nuagada. The activities of the society involves in the areas of Natural Resource
Management, Women Empowerment, Capacity Building, Education Community Health etc.
CCD is a member of various regional and national valountary organizations network like
Gajapati Vikas Manch, VANI, SANHATHI, Orissa Voluntary Health Association etc. CCD also
represent in Government bodies like District Grievance Cell, District Vigilance Committee,
District Council for Child Welfare etc. CCD has been successful in promotion of Self Help
Groups and SHG federations in the district, organizing programmes for women empowerment in
its operational areas in the district.

SHGs and SHG Federations

The district has witnessed the growth of SHG movement, thanks to the initiative taken by
NABARD, Banks and NGOs operating in the district. SHGs were also promoted under the
Mission Shakthi Programme of Employment Mission of Orissa State. SHG federations are also
organized under various NGOs. SHGs play a very important role in mobilizing savings and
extension of credit facilities to the weaker sections of the society and BPL families in the district.

DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION

The administrative set up of the district consists of a set of institutions involving PRIs, Notified
Area Councils, Municipality,         District Rural Development Agency, Integrated Tribal
Development Agency and various line departments such as District Agriculture Office, District
Horticulture Office, A brief description of the responsibilities and mandate of the various
administrative units are provided in the following lines.

Panchayati Raj Institutions

The Panachayat Raj Institutions in the district consist of three tier Panchayati Raj system
involving village Panchayats, Block Panchayats and Zilla Parishad. The urban local bodies
consist of two Notified Area Councils and one Municipality (Paralakhemundi). The PRIs acts as
institutions of local governments with powers of planning implementation of development plan
for local area development. The district has 129 Grama Panchayats, 7 Block Panchayats and One
Zilla Parishad with elected representative at each level. The administrative set up at village
Panchayats consist Surpanch as head of the village Panchayats with Ward members. In Urban
areas there exist two Notified Area Councils and One Municipality. The institutions of local
governments play very important role in preparation and implementation of plans for socio-
economic development of the district.




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District Rural Development Agency

District Rural Development agency is functioning in the district since 1993. DRDA is involved
in implementation of centrally sponsored rural development programmes such as Swarna Jayanti
Grams Sworazgar Yojana, Sampoorna Grammen Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Grama Sadak Yojana,
Indira Awas Yojana etc. These schemes are being implemented through PRIs and line
departments with close monitoring of DRDA. DRDA is headed by the Project Director and is
assisted by Additional PD (Admn), Additional PD (Trng) and other support staff.

Integrated Tribal Development Agency

ITDA is a government body formed especially for the welfare of the Tribal population in the
district. The geographical area of ITDA , Parlakhemundi extends over an area of 3574.41 Sq.
Km covering 5 Blocks namely Gumma, Rayagada, Nuagada, R.Udayagiri and Mohana of
Gajapati District. It serves a total population of 288468 in the district. Of this, 196068 belong to
ST, 12589 SC and 79811 OC. Among tribals, the Saora community constitutes the largest group
in this ITDA area and Lanjia Saora is considered most primitive in this area. ITDA is involved in
implementation of various programmes of Tribal development introduced from time to time. The
broad activities of ITDA involve the following:

       Construction of irrigation structures
       Construction of wells for drinking water in water scarce tribal villages
       Construction/ extension/repair of educational institutions belonging to SC/ST areas and
        providing drinking water facilities to these institutions
       Providing 50 % financial assistance in the form of subsidy to eligible ST families under
        bank loan schemes

ITDA is headed by the Project Administrator and is supported by one special officer, one
Assistant Engineer, and two Junior Engineers and other support staff.

District Agriculture Office

The District Agriculture Office is working with the mandate of increasing the production and
productivity of major crops in the district, increase the soil fertility and promotion of scientific
agriculture practices, disease control and provision of HYV seeds to the farmers in the district.
The department is actively involved in increasing the cultivation areas of major crops like paddy,
vegetables, oilseeds, etc. It provides services like field demonstration of crops, training to
farmers on modern cultivation practices, provision of equipments at subsidized rates, supply of
fertilizers etc. The District Agriculture Office is headed by the District agriculture Officer and
assisted by Junior Agriculture Officers and Village Level workers.




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District Horticulture Office

The district has tremendous potential for Horticulture crops. The major crops consist of mango
trees and cashew nuts plantations. Nearly 40% of the land in the district is suitable for
Horticulture crops. The District Horticulture Office is involved in distribution of planning
materials for various crops under different schemes. The Horticulture Department is involved in
identification of progressive farmers in the district, motivating the farmers to cultivate crops and
increasing the area under cultivation of major horticulture crops in the district. The department is
headed by the Director and being assisted by Deputy Director, District Horticulturist, Junior
Horticulture Officers and Block level officers.




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                                                                                        Annexure II

SWOT ANALYSIS AND LISTING OF CRITICAL GAPS

SWOT analysis was made for the district before proposing plans, programmes and projects for
implementation under various schemes. The following are the major areas of strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the district.

Strengths

       Gajapati district is richly endowed with natural resource base in terms of perennial rivers/
        streams/ forest resources, human resources and other physical resources which can be
        utilized for the sustainable development of the region
       The district receives relatively good rainfall (around 14000mm) and have favourable
        climate for taking up a variety of activities under agriculture and allied sector
       Soil type and quality is most suitable for agriculture and Horticulture crops. The hilly
        terrains are most suitable for cashew, mango, teak wood and other plantation. The plain
        areas are suitable for paddy, maize, sugarcane, cotton, oilseed , vegetable and fruit
        cultivation
       Availability of ground water at shallow depth and good natural recharge that provides
        scope for using available water resource. There is enormous potential for deep and
        swallow tube wells along the banks of major rivers. This can be used for provision of
        irrigation and drinking water. The district has the presence of good number of water
        bodies and ponds.
        Availability of good number of cattle resources which has been used for farming
        operation and milk and meat production in the district. There is increasing demand for
        pork, mutton, and chicken in the district. Chilling facility is available to support diary
        development. OMFED is involved in collection of milk directly from the farmers through
        its network of diary co-operatives in the district. The livestock and dairy sector provides
        employment and income to a large number of populations in the district
       The district has the presence of abundant forest resources. Nearly 40 % of the district is
        covered by forest. The forest is rich in flora and fauna and bio-diversity. The tribal life is
        much dependant on forest. There exist opportunities for collection and marketing of
        NTFP in the district. There are numbers of indigenously grown medicinal plants in the
        district. The scope for cultivation of medicinal plants is also vast.
       The district has been identified as one of the horticulture production hub in the country
        considering its potential for horticulture crops. The major crops include cashew, mango,
        vegetable and fruit
       The people of the district are hard working, optimistic and enthusiastic and energetic.




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Weaknesses

       Substantial portion of the District is vulnerable to be affected by flood and drought which
        results massive displacement of people and damage to crops and property
       Low literacy and education level of the people
       The road condition is bad and is impediment to movement of goods and people which is
        necessary for accelerating growth and development
       Inadequate infrastructure facilities like all weather roads, hospitals and clinics, quality
        primary schools, safe drinking water etc hampers the development in the district
       There are only limited exploitable mineral resources for taking up mineral based
        industrial activity
       Inadequate credit flow to agriculture and other productive sector of the district hampers
        the growth potential in productive sectors
       Non availability of quality planting materials and seed which hinders production
        productivity of major crops in the district
       Inadequate reach of irrigation facilities. Infrastructure available for irrigation is very
        weak. The existing infrastructure is also found to be ineffective due to frequent failure,
        untimely completion of projects, lack of proper maintenance, poor power supply etc
       Lack of general awareness among the people with regard to productive use of the
        available natural resources such as ponds, tanks, reservoirs etc
       Inadequate marketing support agricultural, sericulture and live stock products
       The weavers and artisans have not acquired skills for producing better quality products
        and the looms/machines are not fully available
       Inadequate nurseries and agro clinics in the District to meet the need of seedling and
        saplings and other support facilities agriculture/horticulture and plantation crops
       Frequent disruption of road links during monsoon season in various parts of the district
       Limited electrification of village and frequent power failures is weakness in the District

Opportunities

   Potential for agriculture/ horticulture and plantation crops. The district has been identified as
    one among the potential horticultural production hub in the country
   Existing livestock resources provides opportunities in animal husbandry and dairy sector for
    additional employment and income generation. Tremendous opportunities for development
    of animal husbandry and dairy based economic activities
   Organic production potential, especially in the case of vegetable, fruit and spices etc




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   Introduction of high yielding paddy varieties in the traditional paddy growing areas and
    expansion of area under rabi crops, and crop of paddy, vegetables and other horticultural
    crops are feasible in the district with increased irrigation facility
   Ginger and turmeric can be grown in many parts of the district. This opportunities can be
    exploited if the farmers are property motivated
   There is ample opportunity for cultivation of medicinal plants and semi- processing of the
    produces
   Opportunities for exploitation and marketing of NTFPs and forest based products
   High level of social capital due to the presence of NGOs voluntary agencies and women self
    help groups
   Opportunities for development of tourism. The district has the presence of couple of beautiful
    water falls ( eg Kandahathi water fall), perennial streams, and scenic picturesque surrounded
    by mountains, historical places, temples and palaces which can be properly developed in to
    an attractive tourist spot in the district.
   Availability of huge land area classified as cultivable waste, which can be used for
    Horticulture and Plantation such as Cashew, Mangoe, Jack fruit, Teakwood etc.

Threats

   The district is regularly affected by various natural calamities like drought, and flood.
    Though the district is endowed with natural resources like water, forest and land, frequent
    flood and drought hinder the development process of the region. The unprecedented flood of
    1990, super cyclone of 1999, drought of 2001 and recent flood of 2003 are some of the bitter
    experiences faced people in the district.
   High incidence of poverty in the district is another serious concern facing the district. As per
    1997 BPL survey there are 68763 families who are Below Poverty Line (BPL). The people
    living in interior areas of the district are more vulnerable to disease, ill health, and other
    threats. The high incidence of poverty has been caused by multiple factors like vulnerability,
    voicelessness, assetlessness, powerlessness etc.
   There are a number of tribal pockets which are inaccessible due to mountainous terrain of the
    district
   High level of unemployment and subsequent migration of the people in search of
    employment opportunities
   Illiteracy and lack of awareness among the people is another area of concern. The literacy
    rate in the district is only 42%. The female literacy is only 28% and it varies among various
    occupation categories. The prevalence of high illiteracy coupled with lack of awareness
    among the people hinders the participation of people in the development process.
   Frequent power failure and disconnection of electricity could be a threat for lift irrigation and
    provision of drinking water supply
   Many part of the district is affected by Nexal activities.

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CRITICAL GAPS

The District has remained backward even after 60 years of independence. There are many difficulties or
gaps which must be solved to bring development in the District. Some of the critical gaps that need
immediate attention furnished below.

       Inadequate infrastructure facilities and lack of critical infrastructure to give fillip to the   overall
        development of the district.

       Limited awareness on rights and choices made the community fail to define properly their
        attitudes, values and behaviour in relation to their own real needs and interests.

       Untapped human capital and productive potential of youth and women.

       Constrained capacity of the community to engage in gainful employment

       Limited access to Primary Health care & education services for women and girls due to
        infrastructure gaps and difficult terrain.

       Vulnerability because of limited understanding on the consequences of diseases such as
        Malaria, HIV/AIDS and respiratory diseases

       The Panchayat Raj Institutions lagging in delivering services effectively to the community.

       Lack of inputs and technical knowledge for productive use of resources

       Degraded natural resources caused erosion of livelihood base of the community and limited
        knowledge on Natural Resource Management

       Limited marketing and productivity enhancement of NTFP and weak institutional arrangements
        for the community to market their produce by themselves

       Inadequate institutional finance to the farmers to purchase inputs for crop intensification and
        crop diversification.

       Non existence of processing facilities for agriculture produces and live-stock products

       Lack of common facility center for value addition and marketing of MFP

       Absence of infrastructure for tourism development

       Non availability of uninterrupted & stable power supply

       Few sensitive areas with Naxal infiltration.

                                                                                                Annexure III

Key Issues in various sectors of the district

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The participatory process conducted at various stages of the development of the vision document
provided insights on various issues facing the development sectors in the district. The following
provides summary of the points come out during discussion at various stages.

     Sector                          Key Issues                                Priorities
  Agriculture           Undulated          topography      and          Diversifying            the
                         fragmented landholding                           cropping pattern of the
                        Shifting       cultivation  involving            district bringing more
                         repeated tillage which leads to soil             land under cultivation of
                         erosion                                          fruit, vegetables and
                        Knowledge and skill gap on                       pulses crops
                         integrated                    Nutrient          Prevention       of    soil
                         Management(INM) and Integrated                   degradation            and
                         Pest Management( IPM)                            improving fertility of the
                        Weather         aberration    resulting          soil
                         drought and flood                               Increasing the irrigation
                        Distress sale of produce due to                  facilities and increasing
                         unorganized market                               the cropping intensity
                        Labour scarcity at critical stage of            Promotion of System of
                         crop due to mass migration of local              Rice Intensification(SRI)
                         people to other states/sectors                  Promotion of Integrated
                        Inadequate infrastructure facilities             Nutrient      Management
                         for post harvest operation                       and      Integrated    Pest
                        Inadequate use of High Yielding                  Management
                         Varieties/ Hybrid seeds and low                 Rain water harvesting and
                         seed replacement ratio                           bringing more rain fed
                          Imbalanced use of nutrients,                   areas in to Integrated
                             organic manures and excess                   Watershed Management
                             application of Nitrogenous                   and practicing dry land
                             fertilizer                                   farming practices

  Animal                    Non availability of green fodder      Improving the breed quality
  Husbandry                  to milk animals as per                Disease control
  and Dairying               requirement                           Increasing Milk Production
                            Difficulties in milk marketing in     Increase meat Production
                             Blocks like Gumma. Rayagada,          Poultry Development
                             Nuagada and R.Udayagiri due           Animal Health Care
                             to absence of organizational          Fodder Development
                             support                               Extension and Training
                            Non availability of good quality      Processing, value addition and
                             cows      for    supplying     to     Marketing of Livestock Products
                             beneficiaries                         Infrastructure development ,
                            Inadequate       knowledge of         Establishment of AI centers,
                             farmers       in     care    and      Mobile Veterinary units


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      Sector                       Key Issues                              Priorities
                            management of animals
                           Insufficient staff for imparting
                            training & awareness among
                            farmers for dairy development
                           Difficulty for selling the milk
                            and low price realization due to
                            lack of marketing support

  Fisheries                G.P tanks are not leased out to           Leasing of at least 90 %
                            Fish farmers for long term basis           of the GP Tanks to fish
                                                                       farmers on a long term
                            Lack of captive Nursery tank              basis up to 5-10 years
                            both in Govt. and Private sector          Construction of captive
                            for production and supply of               nursery tanks in G P
                            fingerlings/yearlings to fish              level, MIPS/ Reservoir
                            farmers                                    for production           of
                           Lack of fresh water fish-seed              fingerlings / Yearlings
                            Hatchery in Private sector in             Relaxation       of    user
                            Gajapati district                          charges, margin money
                           Poor Economic- status of                   and rate of interest on
                            villagers does not permitting              loan for Pisiculture.
                            them to remit user charges for            Utilisation of 90 % of the
                            money for availing institutional           water area for scientific
                            finance for construction of new            Pisiculture in the Gajapati
                            tank                                       district
                           Insufficient Extension staff in           Enhancement of fish
                            Government         sector    for           production from         the
                            providing training, awareness              present level of 1400
                            and Orientation for fish-                  MTS /year to a tune of
                            production.                                5000MTS/year
                        
                           Undulated topography and steep      Watershed development
                            slopes causing soil erosion         Maintenance on village ponds,
                           Loss of vegetative cover and        tanks and other water bodies
                            degradation of forest               Livelihood promotion activities
                           Limited scope for assured           in watershed areas
                            irrigation facilities in TSP
                            blocks
                           Dying wisdom of traditional
                            conservation methods
                           Mono-cropping and change in
                            the cropping pattern
                           Depletion of rich resources of
                            Mahendra range

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      Sector                       Key Issues                              Priorities
                        Scanty and erratic rainfall
  Health       and High incidence of Malnutrition            Reducing Malnutrition especially
  Family           Incidence          of      Communicable   among women, children and
  Welfare          diseases/infectious diseases              vulnerable sections of the
                   Incidence       of     Non-communicable   society.
                   diseases                                  Eradication of Polio, Diphtheria,
                   Poor health of women and children         Tetanus and Measles through
                   Lack of Emergency Preparedness            preventive measures
                   Lack of adequate infrastructure           Eliminate leprosy
                   facilities at district hospital, PHCs, andReduce mortality rate due to
                   CHCs                                      malaria
                   Lack of adequate staff including          Reducing the incidence of non-
                   Doctors in Hospitals and Clinics          communicable diseases like
                    Inadequate reach of Health services in   cancer,     diabetics,     cataract,
                    remote areas of the district             mental and oral diseases, etc and
                                                             provision of emergency medical
                                                             care to all section s of the
                                                             population
                                                             Create infrastructure facilities at
                                                             district hospital and primary
                                                             health centers to better serve the
                                                             public
                                                             Ensuring                community
                                                             participation in health care
                                                             delivery especially in remote and
                                                             rural areas of the district through
                                                             a network of SHGs, women
                                                             groups, ICDS, Para medical staff
                                                             and voluntary agencies and
                                                             NGOs
  Social                   Inaccessibility to many parts of Special focus on pregnant
  welfare                   the district due to lack of road women and nursing mothers
                            connectivity
                           Lack of awareness on health, Special focus on infants, nursing
                            hygiene and sanitation among mothers, widows, destitute, old
                            villagers                        aged, HIV Positive persons, and
                           High level of poverty            differently abled

  Drinking                 Poor maintenance of available            Creation of awareness on
  water supply              water sources                             hygienic practices and
  and sanitation           People have to travel long                sanitation
                            distance for fetching water              Encouragement         of
                           Bore wells are not placed in              traditional     cleaning
                            adequate sites                            practices and community


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      Sector                       Key Issues                               Priorities
                           Lack of awareness on use and              participation
                            maintenance of bore wells               Provision of drainage
                            especially in tribal areas                facilities
                           People are susceptible to many          Curative steps for better
                            water born diseases due to lack           sanitation and preventive
                            of hygienic practices                     measures for diseases
                           Lack of latrine and toiletry            Provision       of     latrine
                           Lack of knowledge about                   facilities
                            personal hegemony                       Provision of safe drinking
                           Inadequate access to safe                 water to all habitation
                            drinking water.                         Repairs and maintenance
                                                                      of existing water sources
                                                                      including bore wells and
                                                                      open wells
  Literacy and             Inadequate            infrastructure    Ensuring 100% literacy
  Education                 facilities like school building,        Provision of adequate
                            class room facilities, drinking           educational infrastructure
                            water, sanitation etc.                    by opening up of NPS
                           Inadequate access to education            and NUPS
                            facilities in remote areas of the       100% Enrollment in
                            district due to difficulties in           primary schools
                            opening of NPS and NUPS,                Prevention of drop outs at
                            NRBC etc                                  all levels of education
                           Drop outs and never enrolled            Ensure high performance
                            children                                  in examination
                           Inadequacy of trained teachers          Introduction        of      IT
                            in at all levels of schools               enabled education in
                           Enrollment of more number of              schools
                            girls child in schools especially       Ensure quality of
                            from tribal community                      teaching at all levels
                                                                    Supply of text books,
                                                                        and teaching/ learning
                                                                       aids
                                                                    Reduction in student
                                                                        teacher ratio of 1: 42
                                                                        at the present level
                                                                          to1: 20
  Connectivity             Poor condition of existing roads      To provide all weather pucca
                           In accessibility to many parts of      road to all revenue villages
                            the district due to lack of proper    To maintain the existing
                            road connectivity                      roads     in    pothole free
                           Inadequate         reach        of     condition
                            Telecommunication facilities in
                            rural areas

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      Sector                        Key Issues                                  Priorities
  Rural                    Inadequate fund availability to           Poverty reduction
  Development               undertake             development         Provision of infrastructure in
  and                       activities                                 rural areas
  Livelihood               High incidence of poverty level           Additional         employment
                           High      level    of     illiteracy       generation in rural areas
                            hindering      participation      of       (SGSY/NREGS)
                            people in the development                 Drinking water
                            process                                   Connectivity
                                                                      Rural electrification
  Governance                                                          Sensitise village communities
                           The participation of tribal                on         functions      and
                            communities in Grama Sabha’s               responsibilities of PRIs
                            is very weak and limited.                 Increasing             peoples
                           Ineffective deliberations in               participation in development
                            Grama sabhas and domination                process
                            of few powerful in the villages.          Social audit of development
                           Very less participation of                 works in the district
                            women and youth.                          Capacity building of PRI
                           There is restricted space of               representatives
                            involvement in decision making
                            process berefting the fruits of
                            development.
                           Limited       knowledge        on
                            constitutional     rights    and
                            provisions.
                           Lack of awareness about
                            resource base and priorities
                            causing improper investments
                            and chocking the effective reach
                            of government programmes and
                            schemes




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