Latest Trends in Hydro Turbines

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					                           Latest Trends
                                 in
                           Hydro Turbine




                                 BHEL
      India’s Largest                            One of the Major
      Engineering &                              Power Plant
      Manufacturing                              Equipment
      Enterprise                                 Manufacturers in
      of its kind                                the World

     A                                           A
     Profit Making                               Consistent
     Company                                     Dividend Paying
     since 1971-72                               Company since
                                                 1976-77




            WIDE DOMESTIC REACH

                                        • Registered Office & Corporate
             GOINDWAL
                                          HQ : New Delhi
               HARDWAR

NEW DELHI       RUDRAPUR                • 14 Manufacturing plants
    JHANSI       JAGDISHPUR
             VARANASI                   • 8 Service Centres
    BHOPAL                  CALCUTTA
       BARODA
                  PATNA                 • 4 Power sector regional setups
            NAGPUR
                                        • 18 ROD offices
              HYDERABAD                 • Corporate Research &
BANGALORE
               RANIPET
                                          Development Division : Hyd
              TIRUCHIRAPALLY            • Over 100 Project construction
                     CORPORATE OFFICE     sites in India & Abroad
                     MANUFACTURING
                     LOCATIONS
                     SERVICE CENTRES
                                                                                   Generation in 2005-06

                                                         450000
                                                         400000
                                                         350000                78%

                                                         300000
                                                         250000                                                            All India
                                                         200000                                                            BHEL
                                                         150000
                                                         100000                               50%
                                                          50000                                              73%
                                                              0
                                                                          Coal             Hydro          Nuclear

                                                          Generation (MU)




                                                                        WORLD HYDRO POTENTIAL &
                                                                             DEVELOPMENT
                                                                               ECONOMIC GENERATION %       INSTALLED
                                                                               POTENTIAL GWh/YEAR  UTILIS- CAPACITY
                                                                               GWh/YEAR            ATION (MW)

        Hydro Power Potential and
              Development                               AFRICA                 1,000,000      60,000           6           20,000
                                                        ASIA, RUSSIA,          3,600,000      730,000          20.2        210,000
                                                        TURKEY
                                                        EUROPE                 7,75,000       544,000          70.2        167,000
                                                        AUSTRALIA              105,000        42,000           40          13,000
                                                        NORTH &                1,000,000      750,000          75          155,000
                                                        CENTRAL
                                                        AMERICA
                                                        SOUTH AMERICA          1,600,000      565,000          35.3        104,000
                                                        WORLD TOTAL            8,100,000      2,691,000        33.2        669,000




Hydro Power Development in India


                 60000    •Hydro potential in the                                 HYDRO POWER SCENE
                          country- 1,50,000 MW

         31910            •Capacity of pumped storage                                                                 31910MW
                          schemes- 94,000 MW                     Present Installed Capacity
                                                                     (As on 31.03.06)                              (BHEL-16163MW)
                          •Small Hydro capacity- 6000
                          MW
1400                                                         Capacity addition planned during
                                                                                                                      17997MW
                                                                        XI plans till 2012                          ( Tentative)
1947      2006     2012
                                                                  (as per CEA Plan)
 Installed Capacity of
 Hydro Power
  ORDERING STATUS OF CAPACITY ADDITION PROPOSED
       DURING XI PLAN FROM HYDRO PROJECTS
                               MW


  Proposed capacity addition   17997


  A.    Already ordered        6256


  I.    Ordered on BHEL        2780


  II.   Ordered on others       3476


  B. Yet to be ordered         11741




        Francis Turbine                           Pelton Turbine




Kaplan Turbine



                                                        Present Trends in Hydro Turbine
                                                                High Efficiency



                Improved Efficiency




This has been made possible because of

 •Availability of very fast and efficient computing tools    Higher Rating Turbines
 facilitating better hydraulic and mechanical design.
 •Advance manufacturing technology- more accurate
 fabrication, precision machining, etc.




 As compared to past, present trend is to develop
 larger capacity turbines

                                                            Prevention of Silt Damage
 •Flatter efficiency curves
 •Better materials
 •Improved mechanical design tools
 •Superior manufacturing technology, including
 manufacturing at site
         Prevention of silt damage

•Silt content of Himalayan rivers very high
•Excessive damage in turbine components
•Adversely affects efficiency and other performance
criteria
•Turbine requires more frequent maintenance           Runner before installation
•High repair cost, spares cost and even higher
cost of downtime
•To combat silt erosion various coatings have
been developed
     –Hard Chrome plating
     –Plasma nitriding
     –Boronising
    –HVOF Coating
                                                          Silt eroded runner




   Eroded Francis Runner




                                                      Eroded Francis Runner




   Eroded Liner Plates Beneath Guide vanes
                                                        Eroded Guide Vanes
      Spears of Pelton Turbine before Installation
                                                                              Silt eroded spear




                                                                   Eroded Kaplan Runner Blade
                   Eroded Pelton Runner Spears




              Performance of various coatings on Pelton
              Runner Spears




HVOF Coated         Plasma Nitrided   Boronised     Hard Chrome
                                                        plated




                                                                  HVOF Coating on spear in progress
                                                                                                                                           Coated needles after an operation of 4192 hrs




                                                                                                                                          HVOFcoated         plasma nitrided      hard chrome plated         boronised
                                                                                                                                          no erosion           no erosion          uniform wear out         severe damage



                           HVOF coating on needle in progress


                                                                                                                                          Uncoated needles after an operation of 4192hrs




                                                     Coated needles                                                                           Damage due to silt erosion on runner bucket




                                                                                                                                    13      WC-Co- HVOF Spray               No symptom of erosion
                          FIELD PERFORMANCE OF COATED GUIDE VANES                                                                           Cr
                                                                                                                                    14      WC-Co- HVOF Spray               No symptom of erosion
                                  (BAIRASIUL PROJECT UNIT 3)                                                                                Cr
                                                                                                                                    15
                   GV     Coating     Coating         Remarks                                                                       16      AT-3        Plasma Spray        Old GV No.20. This GV was repaired
                   No.    material    process                                                                                                                               at site and installed thereafter. Eroded
                  1       AT-3        Plasma Spray    Eroded similar to uncoated GV                                                                                         similar to uncoated GV
                  2       AT-13       Plasma Spray    Eroded similar to uncoated GV                                                 17      Cr-Si       Plasma Spray        Old GV No.17 installed as it is.
                  3                                   Heavy deep erosion                                                                                                    Eroded similar to uncoated GV
                  4       AT-13       Plasma Spray    Eroded similar to uncoated GV                                                 18                                      Heavy deep erosion
                  5       AT-3        Plasma Spray    Eroded similar to uncoated GV                                                 19      AT-13       D-Gun Spray         Eroded similar to uncoated GV
                  6                                   Heavy deep erosion                                                            20      AT-13       D-Gun Spray         Eroded similar to uncoated GV
                  7       AT-3        Plasma Spray    Eroded similar to uncoated GV                                                 21                                      Eroded similar to uncoated GV
                  8       AT-13       Plasma Spray    Eroded similar to uncoated GV
                  9                                   Heavy deep erosion                                                            22      AT-3        D-Gun Spray         Eroded similar to uncoated GV
                  10      AT-13       Plasma Spray    Old GV No.15 Eroded similar to                                                23      AT-3        D-Gun Spray         Eroded similar to uncoated GV
                                                      uncoated GV                                                                   24                                      Heavy deep erosion
                  11      AT-13       Plasma Spray    Old GVNo.9. Eroded similar to
                                                      uncoated GV                                                                All these Guide Vanes (GVs) were inspected on 13- 8-2001 after an operation of 1534 hrs.
                  12                                  Heavy deep erosion                                                         NHPC has also tried earlier plasma nitriding GVs. from IPR, Gandhinagar, which eroded
                                                                                                                                 similar to uncoated GVs.




Customer’s Benefits by adopting HVOF coating (Courtesy Sulzer Hydro)
                                                                                        2’000’000
             92                                      Efficiency development
                                                                                        1’800’000
             91
                                                                                        1’600’000
                                                                   Efficiency
                                  Efficiency drop                     gain
                                                                                                    Production benefits (SFr.)




             90                                                                         1’400’000
                                  without coating
                                                                                        1’200’000
                                                                                                                                                       Cast Fabricated Francis Runner
             89
Efficiency




                       Power plant Pradella (Switz)                                     1’000’000
             88        Coated components
                       •Guide vanes                                                     800’000
                       •Facing rings
             87        •Labyrinths                                                      600’000
                       •Runners
                                                                                        400’000
             86
                                                                                        200’000
                                                      Production benefits for
             85                                        75MW turbine unit
                                                                                        0

                  0      5000        10000    15000      20000      25000       30000 Hrs.
CAST FABRICATED FRANCIS RUNNER
                                                  Runner Skirt before Assembly




Francis Runner Assembly During welding




        Fully Finished Runner                  Benefits of Cast- Fabricated Runner

                                         •Economical
                                         •Feasible to manufacture larger runners, even at site

                                         •Runner may be provided with suitable coating

                                         •Structurally superior, fewer casting defects
                                         •Accurate profile hence more efficient

                                         •Reduced delivery cycle
                                                Forged Pelton Runner



 Forged Pelton Runner




        Forged Disc                            Milling of Bucket Profile




Machining of Back Side of Bucket
                                           Benefits of Forged Pelton Runner


                                   •More sound structure, practically no defects,
                                   reduced failure incidents

                                   •Accurate profile- higher efficiency

                                   •Reduced manufacturing cycle
                                              ……Some Modern Trends
                                                  •Oil-free turbines
                                                   – Self Lubricated Guide Bearings
    A Few Innovative Designs                       – Electrically Operated Servomotors
           by BHEL                                 – Self Lubricated Kaplan turbine runner blade bearings
                                                   – Hydro Carbon Separators

                                                  •Use of bio-degradable oil

                                                  •Concrete spiral casing and draft tube




……Some Modern Trends
 •Split vane Francis runners to improve
 Cavitation Characteristics

 •Hydraulic Design of Runner to Reduce Silt
                                                       Our efforts to improve design and
 Damage                                                          delivery cycle

 •Improved Hydraulic Design to Reduce
 Hydraulic Thrust and Runaway Speeds

 •Improved Runner Profile for Larger Head
 Variations




                                               Input                Design Variables


                                               Design &
                                               drawing                 SOFTWARE
                                                Rules

          Design Automation                                            3D Models
                                              Program
                                                                Validation (Visual / FEA /
                                                                Kinematic analysis, etc.)    Reject
                                              Output
                                                                       2D drawings


                                                                       Validation            Reject


                                                            ACCEPT DESIGN / DRAWING
                            Drawings


                                                                                 Solid Modeling
                                                        Drawing
 For                      PLM
                                                          plot         and Finite Element Analysis of
CAM
                       SOFTWARE                                         Hydro Turbine Components
                                                          Document
                                                        transmission



                            GES,
                        Shipping List,
                         Docket, etc.




            GV Servomotor
                                                           Turbine
Pit Liner
                                                           Shaft

                                                           Guide
                                                           Bearing




Top Cover
                                                      Spiral Casing



Solid Model of High Head Francis Turbine – Cut View                           Top Cover segment




            Deflection pattern in Top Cover segment                     Stress pattern in Spiral- Stay Ring
Assy. of Top Cover, Spiral casing and Stay Ring         Assy. of Top Cover & Stay Ring




        PELTON TURBINE RUNNER                     Meshed Model of Pelton Turbine Runner




   Further Analysis to be Done

• Transient Dynamic Analysis

• Fatigue Life Calculation

• Fracture Mechanics Calculations

				
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Description: A BHEL Presentation about latest trends in hydro turbine design.