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A BHEL Presentation about latest trends in hydro turbine design.
Latest Trends in Hydro Turbine BHEL India’s Largest One of the Major Engineering & Power Plant Manufacturing Equipment Enterprise Manufacturers in of its kind the World A A Profit Making Consistent Company Dividend Paying since 1971-72 Company since 1976-77 WIDE DOMESTIC REACH • Registered Office & Corporate GOINDWAL HQ : New Delhi HARDWAR NEW DELHI RUDRAPUR • 14 Manufacturing plants JHANSI JAGDISHPUR VARANASI • 8 Service Centres BHOPAL CALCUTTA BARODA PATNA • 4 Power sector regional setups NAGPUR • 18 ROD offices HYDERABAD • Corporate Research & BANGALORE RANIPET Development Division : Hyd TIRUCHIRAPALLY • Over 100 Project construction CORPORATE OFFICE sites in India & Abroad MANUFACTURING LOCATIONS SERVICE CENTRES Generation in 2005-06 450000 400000 350000 78% 300000 250000 All India 200000 BHEL 150000 100000 50% 50000 73% 0 Coal Hydro Nuclear Generation (MU) WORLD HYDRO POTENTIAL & DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GENERATION % INSTALLED POTENTIAL GWh/YEAR UTILIS- CAPACITY GWh/YEAR ATION (MW) Hydro Power Potential and Development AFRICA 1,000,000 60,000 6 20,000 ASIA, RUSSIA, 3,600,000 730,000 20.2 210,000 TURKEY EUROPE 7,75,000 544,000 70.2 167,000 AUSTRALIA 105,000 42,000 40 13,000 NORTH & 1,000,000 750,000 75 155,000 CENTRAL AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA 1,600,000 565,000 35.3 104,000 WORLD TOTAL 8,100,000 2,691,000 33.2 669,000 Hydro Power Development in India 60000 •Hydro potential in the HYDRO POWER SCENE country- 1,50,000 MW 31910 •Capacity of pumped storage 31910MW schemes- 94,000 MW Present Installed Capacity (As on 31.03.06) (BHEL-16163MW) •Small Hydro capacity- 6000 MW 1400 Capacity addition planned during 17997MW XI plans till 2012 ( Tentative) 1947 2006 2012 (as per CEA Plan) Installed Capacity of Hydro Power ORDERING STATUS OF CAPACITY ADDITION PROPOSED DURING XI PLAN FROM HYDRO PROJECTS MW Proposed capacity addition 17997 A. Already ordered 6256 I. Ordered on BHEL 2780 II. Ordered on others 3476 B. Yet to be ordered 11741 Francis Turbine Pelton Turbine Kaplan Turbine Present Trends in Hydro Turbine High Efficiency Improved Efficiency This has been made possible because of •Availability of very fast and efficient computing tools Higher Rating Turbines facilitating better hydraulic and mechanical design. •Advance manufacturing technology- more accurate fabrication, precision machining, etc. As compared to past, present trend is to develop larger capacity turbines Prevention of Silt Damage •Flatter efficiency curves •Better materials •Improved mechanical design tools •Superior manufacturing technology, including manufacturing at site Prevention of silt damage •Silt content of Himalayan rivers very high •Excessive damage in turbine components •Adversely affects efficiency and other performance criteria •Turbine requires more frequent maintenance Runner before installation •High repair cost, spares cost and even higher cost of downtime •To combat silt erosion various coatings have been developed –Hard Chrome plating –Plasma nitriding –Boronising –HVOF Coating Silt eroded runner Eroded Francis Runner Eroded Francis Runner Eroded Liner Plates Beneath Guide vanes Eroded Guide Vanes Spears of Pelton Turbine before Installation Silt eroded spear Eroded Kaplan Runner Blade Eroded Pelton Runner Spears Performance of various coatings on Pelton Runner Spears HVOF Coated Plasma Nitrided Boronised Hard Chrome plated HVOF Coating on spear in progress Coated needles after an operation of 4192 hrs HVOFcoated plasma nitrided hard chrome plated boronised no erosion no erosion uniform wear out severe damage HVOF coating on needle in progress Uncoated needles after an operation of 4192hrs Coated needles Damage due to silt erosion on runner bucket 13 WC-Co- HVOF Spray No symptom of erosion FIELD PERFORMANCE OF COATED GUIDE VANES Cr 14 WC-Co- HVOF Spray No symptom of erosion (BAIRASIUL PROJECT UNIT 3) Cr 15 GV Coating Coating Remarks 16 AT-3 Plasma Spray Old GV No.20. This GV was repaired No. material process at site and installed thereafter. Eroded 1 AT-3 Plasma Spray Eroded similar to uncoated GV similar to uncoated GV 2 AT-13 Plasma Spray Eroded similar to uncoated GV 17 Cr-Si Plasma Spray Old GV No.17 installed as it is. 3 Heavy deep erosion Eroded similar to uncoated GV 4 AT-13 Plasma Spray Eroded similar to uncoated GV 18 Heavy deep erosion 5 AT-3 Plasma Spray Eroded similar to uncoated GV 19 AT-13 D-Gun Spray Eroded similar to uncoated GV 6 Heavy deep erosion 20 AT-13 D-Gun Spray Eroded similar to uncoated GV 7 AT-3 Plasma Spray Eroded similar to uncoated GV 21 Eroded similar to uncoated GV 8 AT-13 Plasma Spray Eroded similar to uncoated GV 9 Heavy deep erosion 22 AT-3 D-Gun Spray Eroded similar to uncoated GV 10 AT-13 Plasma Spray Old GV No.15 Eroded similar to 23 AT-3 D-Gun Spray Eroded similar to uncoated GV uncoated GV 24 Heavy deep erosion 11 AT-13 Plasma Spray Old GVNo.9. Eroded similar to uncoated GV All these Guide Vanes (GVs) were inspected on 13- 8-2001 after an operation of 1534 hrs. 12 Heavy deep erosion NHPC has also tried earlier plasma nitriding GVs. from IPR, Gandhinagar, which eroded similar to uncoated GVs. Customer’s Benefits by adopting HVOF coating (Courtesy Sulzer Hydro) 2’000’000 92 Efficiency development 1’800’000 91 1’600’000 Efficiency Efficiency drop gain Production benefits (SFr.) 90 1’400’000 without coating 1’200’000 Cast Fabricated Francis Runner 89 Efficiency Power plant Pradella (Switz) 1’000’000 88 Coated components •Guide vanes 800’000 •Facing rings 87 •Labyrinths 600’000 •Runners 400’000 86 200’000 Production benefits for 85 75MW turbine unit 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 Hrs. CAST FABRICATED FRANCIS RUNNER Runner Skirt before Assembly Francis Runner Assembly During welding Fully Finished Runner Benefits of Cast- Fabricated Runner •Economical •Feasible to manufacture larger runners, even at site •Runner may be provided with suitable coating •Structurally superior, fewer casting defects •Accurate profile hence more efficient •Reduced delivery cycle Forged Pelton Runner Forged Pelton Runner Forged Disc Milling of Bucket Profile Machining of Back Side of Bucket Benefits of Forged Pelton Runner •More sound structure, practically no defects, reduced failure incidents •Accurate profile- higher efficiency •Reduced manufacturing cycle ……Some Modern Trends •Oil-free turbines – Self Lubricated Guide Bearings A Few Innovative Designs – Electrically Operated Servomotors by BHEL – Self Lubricated Kaplan turbine runner blade bearings – Hydro Carbon Separators •Use of bio-degradable oil •Concrete spiral casing and draft tube ……Some Modern Trends •Split vane Francis runners to improve Cavitation Characteristics •Hydraulic Design of Runner to Reduce Silt Our efforts to improve design and Damage delivery cycle •Improved Hydraulic Design to Reduce Hydraulic Thrust and Runaway Speeds •Improved Runner Profile for Larger Head Variations Input Design Variables Design & drawing SOFTWARE Rules Design Automation 3D Models Program Validation (Visual / FEA / Kinematic analysis, etc.) Reject Output 2D drawings Validation Reject ACCEPT DESIGN / DRAWING Drawings Solid Modeling Drawing For PLM plot and Finite Element Analysis of CAM SOFTWARE Hydro Turbine Components Document transmission GES, Shipping List, Docket, etc. GV Servomotor Turbine Pit Liner Shaft Guide Bearing Top Cover Spiral Casing Solid Model of High Head Francis Turbine – Cut View Top Cover segment Deflection pattern in Top Cover segment Stress pattern in Spiral- Stay Ring Assy. of Top Cover, Spiral casing and Stay Ring Assy. of Top Cover & Stay Ring PELTON TURBINE RUNNER Meshed Model of Pelton Turbine Runner Further Analysis to be Done • Transient Dynamic Analysis • Fatigue Life Calculation • Fracture Mechanics Calculations
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