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                       UMENDRE SHARMA
                      C.C.F. (Training)/Director
                           F.T.I., Kanpur

 L.R.BAIRWA                                 PANKAJ MISRA
Divisional Director                          Deputy Director
  F.T.I., Kanpur                              F.T.I., Kanpur

Dr. C.M.MISHRA                        Dr. RAM JEE SRIVASTAVA
    Sr. Scientist                               F.I.O.
  F.R.I., Kanpur                            F.R.I., Kanpur

                        Dr. H.P.Chaudhary
                      Professor & Head, Forestry
                      C.S.A.University, Kanpur

                      TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER                                    TITLE                                 PAGE
CHAPTER-1    Inaugural Session Address by Session Chair and Chief Guest
             Introduction of Government of India guidelines for National
             Afforestration Programme and Forest Development Agencies.

CHAPTER-3    Papers presented during the Workshop

             Critical Analysis of JFMCs role in preparation of Micro plans in
             FDAs and structural measures to enhance people‟s participation in
             one FDA each from Haryana, Rajasthan, U.P. and Uttranchal,
             Sri R.S.Shukla,IFS (Retd.), Sr. Consultant A.F.C., New Delhi
             Joint Forest Management in U.P.
             Sri S.K.Sharma, CCF(JFM), U.P., Lucknow
             Convergence Model in M.P.
             Sri A.S.Joshi, CCF (JFM/FDA), M.P., Bhopal.
             Strengthening of JFM in Chhattisgarh State
             CCF(JFM), Chhattisgarh, Raipur
             Review of JFM under World Bank aided U.P.Forestry Project.
             Sri Rajeev Kumar, C.F., Agra, U.P.
             Sharing of Information on Agro-forestry Markets in U.P.,
             Dr. Ashwani Kumar, CCF (R), Dr.C.M.Mishra, FRI, Kanpur, U.P.
             Jatropha Plantations under J.F.M.
       3.7 Dr.Ashwani Kumar, CCF (R), Dr. Ramjee Srivastava, F.R.I.,
             Kanpur, U.P.
             Possibilities of enhancing green cover in the areas other than
             reserve forests and needs strong joint attention of government
       3.8 PIAs and People.
             Dr. H.P.Choudhary, Sri P.K.Singh, Sri K.D.Upadhaya, CSA
             University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, U.P.

             Role of Training in implementation of National Afforestation

              Sri Umendra Sharma, CCF (Training), Forestry Training Institute,
              Kanpur, U.P.
              Role of Star Paper Mill in the development of wood based
      3.10 Industries and increasing green cover.
              Sri R.P.Tyagi, Star Paper Mills Ltd., Saharanpur, U.P.
              Decline of Dalbergia sissoo - Cause and Remedy
      3.11 Sri D.K.Chakrabarti, Sri O.P.Singh, Sri C.M.Ojha, N.D.University
              of Agriculture & Technology, Kumargunj, Faizabad (U.P.)
              WIMCO - Farmer interface in developing forestry.
      3.12 Sri R.C.Dhiman, G.M., WIMCO Seedling Ltd., Rudharpur
              V.F.C. Sherpur – A success story of J.F.M.
              Sri Charchil Kumar, C.E.O., F.D.A., Sangrur, Punjab.
              Fertilization and Irrigation of Forest Plantations
              Sri A.N.Chaturvedi, IFS (Retd.), Lucknow
              Restoration of Sodic Wastelands under Forest Ecosystems
              Sri Bajrang Singh and Sri K.P.Tripathi, NBRI, Lucknow
CHAPTER-4     Proceedings of Technical Sessions.
CHAPTER-5     Group Discussion and their suggestions and Recommendations.
          5.1 Group One
          5.2 Group Two
          5.3 Group Three
          5.4 Group Four

     A-      Workshop Schedule
     B-      List of Participants and Guests.

         Preserving the environment needs active participation of the local
people. In a state like UP where forest land is scarce social-forestry as well
as agro-forestry are the most effective environment friendly activity which
are suitable for combating the adverse effects of environmental degradation
caused by rapid development and industrialization. Any Effort, for planting
trees and thus greening the whole of India can be achieved with the help
from the local people who constitute the primary stake holders of thus
created green environment.
         Joint Forest Management is the democratic means for managing the
rich bio-diversity and natural resources. Forest Development Agencies are
formed at the district level for implementing the national afforestation
programmes under the principles of joint forest management. It is a
relatively new concept, so there is need for institutional sensitization,
attitudinal changes and experience-sharing at various level for implementing
the concept.
         The workshop was organized for achieving the goal of bringing the
forest   officers,   progressive   farmers,   representatives    of     industry,
academicians from universities and scientists from different states on the
same platform for deliberating on various aspects of forestry activities.
         I extend my best wishes to all the stake holders and those who are
engaged in the sacred task, for greening India. I hope that the compilation of
the proceedings of the workshop will help in achieving the desired goal.
                                                        VK Sharma,

                                                 Principal Secretary, Forest
                                                   Govt. of Uttar Pradesh


        The workshop on “National Afforestation Plan” and “Forest Development
Agencies” which was organized by “Centre for Training and Managemnt of Soil
/water and Forests(C..M.F) Forestry Training Institute, Kidwainagar Kanpur, (UP) on
Sept 6-7, 2005 at Lucknow was very useful in the present context for promotion of
Agroforestry and community participation. Afforestation and increase in tree cover is
urgently needed for environmental conservation. Agroforestry is also very important
for rural development. “Joint Forest Management” is the need of the hour.
        National Forest Policy envisages to encourage “Joint Forest Management”
for increasing productivity and sustainability. Planning Commission, Government of
India has also recommended to promote “Clean Development Mechanisms”. There
is a vast scope for export of wood and non-wood forest products including bamboo
and medicinal plant. We must encourage our farmers to have a greater share in the
benefits of increased export of these forest products.
        The response of participants has been very encouraging. The proceedings will
be of great use of different stakeholders. I congratulate the organizers for conducting
the seminar on such a relevant topic and for bringing out the proceedings in a concise

                                                         (M. M. Agrawal)
                                                         Vice Chancellor
                                                 Chandra Shekhar Azad University
                                                   of Agriculture and Technology

      Environmental conservation and afforestation has now become
serious concern for everybody. Last century has seen fast depletion of
forest resources in various parts of the world. Depletion of ozone layer
and the prospect of global warming is threatening our civilization. Efforts
have been started all over the world to compensate for this loss by taking
steps to control industrial pollution and by encouraging plantation
activities in developing countries. People‟s participation is very essential
for making any progress in these efforts.
      In Uttar Pradesh Forest DevelopmentAagencies have been formed
at every district level to encourage joint forest management in
implementing National Afforestation Programmes. Village Forest
Committees have been formed in most of the villages adjacent to forest
areas. Government, Industry, Scientific Community , Academic
Institutions and all other stake holders have to pool their resources in
order to achieve the national objective of bringing 33% of land area of
our country under forest and tree cover. With this background the
workshop     on   “National    Afforestation    Programme     and    Forest
Development Agencies” was organized in Lucknow. The enthusiasm and
sincerity shown by the participants of the workshop is commendable. I
hope the proceedings of the workshop will be useful to all the participants
and other stake holders.

                                           ( B. K. Patnaik)
                                Principal Chief Conservator of Forests
                                      Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow.


      It was very encouraging to see eminent scientists, foresters,
representatives of Industries and universities participating in the
workshop on joint forest management and forest development agencies
with sincerity and purpose. Uttar Pradesh is one of the states which once
took the leadership in bringing forestry out of the traditional forests and
the Social Forestry in its present form evolved. Uttar Pradesh has, since
promoted agro-forestry for additional earnings for farmers. Agro Forestry
also strives for making the farmers self reliant for firewood and fodder
needs. The workshop also highlighted the importance for cooperation
among different stake holders in the forestry sector.
      Rural women suffer most from the reduction of forest cover. They
generally shoulder the responsibility of arranging for domestic
requirements for firewood. Such a gender sensitive issue warranted more
participation from women representatives.
      The participating scientists, foresters, industrialists, academicians
and farmers made certain valuable contributions for improvement in the
social forestry schemes. Every participant felt the need for joint forestry
management in some form or the other as a tool for a successful forestry
management process.
      I hope collections of such recommendations will be useful for
developing the modern concepts of joint forest management.

                                                 (S.K. Datta)
                                   Addl. Principal Chief Conservator of
                                         Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow.

      The workshop on “National Afforestation Programme” and “Forest
Development Agencies” was organized with a view to discuss various
aspects of „National Afforestation Programme”.
      The “National Afforestation and Ecodevelopment board, Ministry
of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India, New Delhi” sponsored the
workshop. The objective of the workshop was to find ways to improve
the working of “Forest Development Agencies” in order to make them
more purposeful for environmental-conservation and more beneficial for
farmers. Various aspects of the science of forestry and issues relating to
people‟s participation were discussed in the workshop. Forestry has to be
linked with the economic welfare of the rural people in order to increase
its popularity among farmers. There should be direct involvement of
villagers in preparing micro-plans for afforestation activities. Agro
forestry techniques have to be modified in order to suit to the aspirations,
economic needs and social customs of rural people. Marketing of agro-
forestry products has to be farmers-oriented instead of traders-oriented.
Farmers should have easy access to the knowledge and skills for value
addition to the wood and non-wood forest products. Cultivation of
medicinal plants is also an effective way to enhance the income of
farmers substantially.
      The esteemed participants of the workshop have discussed various
issues threadbare and have put in great efforts in thrashing out various
ideas to reach useful conclusions.
      This document of the proceedings will be of great help in achieving
the objectives of the workshop.
                                              (Umendra Sharma)
                                      Chief Conservator of forest/Director
                                            Forestry Training Institute


       “Center for Training and Management of Soil Water and Forest”
acknowledges the guidance, help and support provided by Shri V.K.Bahuguna, IFS,
I.G. Forest N.A.E.B., M.O.E.F., G.O.I, New Delhi and Shri Sanjay Kumar, IFS, DIG,
Forest N.A.E.B., M.O.E.F., G.O.I, New Delhi. Without active guidance from
N.A.E.B., the workshop would not have achieved its objective.
   We are also indebted to Shri V.K. Sharma, Principal Secretary Forest, Govt. of
   U.P., PCCF U.P. Shri B.K. Patnayak, MD UPFC Shri D.N.S. Suman, Addl. PCCF
   R&T U.P. Shri S.K. Dutta, CWLW U.P. Shri Mohammed. Ahsan for their
   cooperation and support in conducting the workshop.
   We also thank, Dr. H.P. Chaudhari, Professor & Head forestry C.S.A University
   Kanpur, Dr. C.M. Mishra, Senior Scientist F.R.I Kanpur and Dr. Ramji shrivastav,
   F.I.O., F.R.I, Kanpur for the help provided by them in editing this document.
       We express our deep gratitude and thanks to all the participants including
forest officers, scientists, academicians and representative of industry and NGOs
without whose cooperation the workshop could not have been organized.
       We also thank all the faculty members and supporting staff of forestry
Training Institute, Kanpur and staff of the office of the PCCF, Forest Headquarter
Lucknow for their sincere help and cooperation.

                                                             (Umendra Sharma)
                                                              Secretary C.M.F.
                                                          Forestry Training Institute


Address by Sri B.K.Patnaik, IFS, PCCF, U.P. -
       Sri B.K.Patnaik, PCCF, U.P., delivering his inaugural address, spoke about
changing Global Scenario of Forest Management and participation of stakeholders in
the process of management. As per guidelines issued under NAP, forest departments
have started switching over from protection forestry to participatory forestry. In the
context, the concept of Joint Forest Management has become more necessary and
relevant to the changing scenario.
       In the 10th Five Year Plan, it has been emphasized that JFMCs would be
constituted in all the Forest Fringe Villages. This is an ambitious plan benefiting the
poor people living near forest areas and also helping to achieve afforestation targets
through FDA-JFMCs mechanism. Sri Patnaik informed that in U.P., 58 FDAs have
been constituted against 70 districts with 1982 JFMCs. He stressed that merely
constituting FDAs-JFMCs should not be considered as a success, the real success lies
in achieving target of bringing 33% of total area under forest/tree cover. The
forest/tree cover is very less in Indo-Gangetic Plain with a very large population.
These areas should be taken up for afforestation on priority basis. He stressed that
sustainability is a very important issue for the success of FDAs/JFMCs, once the plan
ends. Sri Patnaik hoped that this Workshop would discuss various issues related to
sustainability of the FDAs/JFMCs and other issues like accounting etc. He also
wished that the workshop would come out with certain concrete solutions in this
direction. The other issues which can be discussed could be agro-forestry, wasteland
plantations, and role of FDAs in massive afforestation and providing seedlings etc.
This involves procedural changes, such as different accounting system etc. Voluntary
involvement of people is an essential element for the success of plan. The role of
NGOs too has to be defined in this perspective; Sri Patnaik welcomed and offered his
sincere thanks to all the participating delegates from various parts of the country
hoping their active participation for the success of the workshop.

Address by Sri Sanjai Kumar, IFS, DIG (Forests) MOEF, and GoI:
       Sri Sanjai Kumar while addressing the esteemed gathering at the workshop
told about the new mechanism being adopted by GoI for the National Afforestation
Programme. He told that NAP is a programme being monitored under the outcome
budget. He informed that although there are certain pitfalls in this programme, but

overall the success percentage of plantations taken up during the last 3 years, is found
to be satisfactory. MOEF (GoI) wishes to cover all districts under FDA-JFMCs
mechanism during the Xth Five Year Plan. GoI has also taken up “Greening India
Scheme" to provide quality planting material to people for private plantations.
       Sri Kumar urged the need to strengthen FDAs through linkages with
panchayats and other development departments/agencies for providing employment to
poor people living in forest fringe villages. He hoped that these micro-issues would be
discussed in the Workshop and this Workshop would come out with concrete
recommendations to help GoI in deciding future course of action. He also expressed
happiness about arrangement being made for the Workshop.

Address by Sri V.K.Sharma, IAS, Principal Secretary (Forests) U.P.
       Sri V.K.Sharma welcomed all the delegates participating in the workshop. He
emphasized that for the success of National Programme on Afforestation,
involvement of people is mandatory to achieve the target of 33% area under forest/
tree cover by the end of year 2012. In U.P., the land under forest is 16986 sq.kms
which is merely 6.48% of the total geographical area of the state. To achieve the
target of having 33% of area under forest cover or tree cover, we need about 85000 The land is available with the farmers and private institutions. Therefore, it
becomes necessary to involve people for achieving afforestation targets. He stressed
that forest officials have to play the role of a catalyst now. Success cannot be achieved
without bringing stakeholders into the main stream. He hoped that all these emerging
issues would be discussed in the Workshop and the discussions would be fruitful in
helping to define future strategy. He wished for the success of the workshop.
Vote of thanks:-
       Sri Umendra Sharma, IFS, CCF (Training) and Director/Secretary CMF (FTI),
Kanpur offered vote of thanks to all the delegates, Principal Secretary (Forests)U.P.,
PCCF, U.P., M.D., UPFC, DIG (Forests) MOEF (GoI) and all other officers who
helped in making arrangements in organizing this Workshop.

The scheme titled National Afforestation Programme (NAP) has been formulated by
merger of four 9lh Plan centrally sponsored afforestation schemes of the Ministry of
Environment & Forests, namely. Integrated Afforestation and Eco-Development
Projects Scheme (IAEPS), Area Oriented Fuel wood and Fodder Projects Scheme
(AOFFPS), Conservation and Development of Non-Timber Forest Produce including
Medicinal Plants Scheme (NTFP) and Association of Scheduled Tribes and Rural
Poor in Regeneration of Degraded Forests (ASTRP), with a view to reducing
multiplicity of schemes with similar objectives, ensuring uniformity in funding pattern and
implementation mechanism, avoiding delays in availability of funds to the field level
and institutionalizing peoples participation in project formulation and its

implementation. The Scheme will be operated by the National Afforestation and Eco-
Development Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests as a 100% Central Sector/
Centrally Sponsored Scheme (except for the AOFFP component as explained in Para
1.     Objectives of the Scheme
1.1    Short term objectives:-
Regeneration and eco-development of degraded forests and adjoining areas on a
watershed basis. Augmentation of the availability of fuel wood, fodder and grasses from
the regenerated areas.
Securing people's participation in planning and regeneration efforts to ensure
sustainability and equitable distribution of forest products from the regenerated lands,
and to promote the partnership concept in the management and administration of
forests and common property resources.
Promote agro forestry and development of Common Property Resources. Promotion of fuel
saving devices to encourage efficient use of fuel wood and to reduce the drudgery of
rural women involved in collection of
Wood, as also to improve the environment.
Conservation and improvement of non-timber forest produce such as bamboo, cane
and medicinal plants. Encourage production of non-timber products such as wax, honey,
fruits and nuts from the regenerated areas.
Raising coastal shelterbelts to mitigate the adverse impacts of cyclonic winds.
Develop water resources through plantation and water harvesting programme.
Development and extension of improved technologies such as clonal propagation and
use of root trainers for raising seedlings, mycorrhizal inoculation, etc.
Rehabilitation of special problem lands like saline/alkaline soils, ravines, desert areas,
coastal areas, and mined areas, Himalayas, Aravallis and Western Ghats.
Employment generation for the disadvantaged sections of society, particularly women,
scheduled castes/scheduled
Tribes and landless rural\labourers, inhabiting the forests and adjoining areas.
1.1.2 Long-term objectives:
Protection, Conservation of natural resources through active involvement of the people.
Checking land degradation, deforestation and loss of biodiversity. Ecological     restoration
and    environmental      conservation    and eco-development,

Evolving village level people's organization which can manage the natural resources in
and around villages in a sustainable manner,
Fulfilment of the broader objectives of productivity, equity, and sustainability for the
general good of the people. Improve quality of life and self-sustenance aspect of people
living in and around forest areas.
Capability endowment           and   skill   enhancement          for    improving employability of
the rural people.
2. Implementing Agencies: The scheme would be implemented by the following State
New projects during the 10th Plan period: The two-tier set up namely the Forest
Development         Agencies    (FDAs)       and        Joint   Forest   Management Committees
Maintenance of 9th Plan projects during 10th Plan period: State Forest Departments or
the FDAs as the case may be.
2.1 In the participatory mode, the scheme would be implemented by involving two-tier set
up namely the Forest Development Agencies (FDAs) and Joint Forest Management
Committees (JFMCs). This decentralized institutional structure would allow greater
participation of the community both in planning and implementation of the appropriate
afforestation programmes. This would ground the people-centered approach in
afforestation programmes and provide a firm and sustainable mechanism for devolution
of funds to JFMCs for afforestation and related activities. Organic unity in this
structural framework will promote efficiency, effectiveness, accountability through
decentralization and devolution of authority and responsibilities, both physical and
financial. Village will be reckoned as a unit of planning and implementation and all
the activities under the scheme will be conceptualized at the village level. The two-
tier approach apart from building capabilities at the grass-roots level would also
empower the local people to participate in the decision making process.
(a) PDA will be constituted at the territorial/ wildlife forest division level and shall
have the composition as given in Annexure 'A'. FDA will be a registered society under
the Societies1 Registration Act. The activities and the functions of the FDA are also
given in Annexure 'A'.
(b) At the grass-root level, the JFMCs will be the implementing agency in the proposed
structure; one JFMC will cater to a village. The composition and the functions of the

JFMCs are given in Annexure 'B'. The JFMCs will be registered with the respective
Territorial/ Wildlife Conservator of Forests.
2.2 FDAs will sign a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with JFMCs indicating the
mutual obligations, rights and role. The MoU should, inter alias, include the right of FDAs
to stop and withdraw funding from a JFMC if the performance of the JFMC is found to be
unsatisfactory along with the procedure to be adopted in such cases.
2.3 Maintenance cost of projects sanctioned under the Ninth Plan Afforestation schemes,
viz, Integrated Afforestation and Eco-development Project Scheme (IAEPS) including
Coastal Shelterbelt Plantations, Non Timber Forest Produce including Bamboo Plantations
and medicinal plants (NTFP) and Association of Scheduled Tribes and Rural Poor
(ASTRP) shall also be released in favour of the State Forest Departments from the
National Afforestation Programme (NAP) during the Tenth Plan period as 100%
Centrally Sponsored Scheme. However, in respect of AOFFPS projects, the maintenance
cost shall be released to the extent of 50% as in the 9th Plan (no new projects shall be
sanctioned under the constituent AOFFP scheme component during the 101'1 Plan period).
Funds under these shall be released to the State Forest Departments as per the terms and
conditions of the sanction of the project and not through the FDA mechanism.
2.4 Balance project cost in respect of Samanvit Gram Vanikaran Samriddhi Yojna (SGVSY)
projects adopting FDA approach sanctioned during the last two years of the Ninth plan
period (pilot phase) shall also be released from the National Afforestation Programme as
Central Sector Scheme during the Tenth Plan period as NAP projects.
3. Project Area
3.1 The watershed/catchments area approach will continue to be followed wherever
possible. However, clusters of compact blocks can also be taken up for treatment if the
local situation so demands.
3.2 Minimum area of compact block in the scheme is not prescribed, though projects
will as far as possible aim for compactness, and blocks of less than 20 ha will not normally
be taken for treatment. However, in exceptional circumstances, blocks with smaller size
may be considered.
3.3 Project areas should be selected in such a way that major part of the project
comprises degraded forests, pasture and community lands. In addition, lands such as
roadside, canal side and railway lines may also be included in the projects as
longitudinal/strip plantations of two rows or more.

3.4 The project area should be confined to recorded forests and adjoining land areas including
village common lands, community lands, revenue wastelands, Jhum lands and private lands.
Appropriate agro-forestry models may be promoted on such Jhum and private lands.
These efforts can be supplemented by way of assistance from other sources like DRDA,
MPLAD etc. However, separate accounts shall be maintained for these activities.
4 Project Planning
4.1 Joint Forest Management (JFM): JFM will be a central and integral part of all projects.
The two-tier institution mechanism explained in Para 2.1 above requires that JFM
Committees exist and are functional in the proposed project area. In the initial phase of the
project, therefore, FDAs should strengthen the existing JFMCs and create new ones in
villages where these committees do not exist. FDA should make the effort to explain to
village communities, through JFMCs, the objectives and the scope of the project, mutual
obligations and their usufruct rights. The usufruct from the project areas would be shared
according to the provisions of the JFM notifications of the respective State
Governments. A broad training package that could be adapted as necessary is included in
Annexure "C".
4.2 Project Proposal:
4.2.1 The project planning process would commence with the development of a broad
conceptual framework indicating the extent of area to be covered, range of activities
envisaged and the financial outlay for the proposed project. The project proposal must
indicate the extent and quality of existing vegetal cover, area and locations proposed to be
covered, extent of consultation with the local population during project formulation,
mechanism of usufruct sharing and proposed involvement of people during implementation. It
should clearly state the objective in terms of area treated and benefits to be expected at the
end of the project period. The baseline data and criteria for evaluation should be part
of the project report on which basis a project will be sanctioned, though they could be
improved upon and finalized by the time of the first evaluation, after further consultation
with communities and the micro-planning process. Format for submission of the project
proposal, checklist of documents to be submitted and fund flow mechanism are given in
Annexure "D, E & F". The proposals formulated by the FDAs shall be forwarded to the
NAEB, MoEF through the respective Principal Chief Conservator of Forests. Proposals from
those States shall be considered which have communicated the acceptance of the
implementation of the Scheme as per the guidelines formulated by the NAEB, MoEF.
The States which have already communicated their acceptance for implementation

Samanvit Gram Vanikaran Samriddhi Yojna (SGVSY) adopting FDA approach in the pilot
phase during the Ninth Plan period need not convey the same afresh.
4.3 Micro Planning
4.3.1 After the project is approved by the NAEB, funds earmarked for micro planning would
be released to enable the FDAs to undertake the micro-planning exercise and to develop the
work programme under the project. The work programme based on micro-plans has lo be
drawn up by the FDAs prior to project implementation, in full consultation with JFMCs
and the local communities. A note on micro planning is placed at Annexure "G"
4.3.2     FDAs may seek the assistance of Regional Centres of the NAEB in the
Preparation of micro plans.
4.3.3 Micro plans vis-à-vis Working Plans: For forest areas included in the project, FDAs
would ensure that the micro plans are not in conflict with the existing and operational
working plans of these areas. As far as possible FDAs, through State Forest Departments,
would endeavour to minimize the differences, if any, between the micro plans and the
corresponding operational working plans.
5. Entry Point Activities
5.1 During the preparation of micro plans, the community would identify the Entry Point
Activities to be taken up during the project period. These would be included in the project
proposal of the FDA depending upon their technical suitability and financial feasibility. A
note on Entry Point activities is placed at Annexure "H".
6. Project Funding
6.1 Funding Pattern: The scheme would be implemented as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme/
Central Sector Scheme for the FDAs to which projects will be sanctioned directly by the
NAEB, with 100% central funding (except maintenance of AOFFP scheme projects
sanctioned during the 9ll! Plan, which would be governed by Para 2.3 of the guidelines).
6...2 Cost Norms:
                 (@ wage rate of Rs. 75.00/day. (See Para 6.2.2 for details)
                                                                            (Rupees per hectare)
SI. Model/ Intervention Plantation Soil &                      M&E,         Overhead       Entry      Total
No                      including   Moisture                   Micro-       (10% of
                                                                            s              Point
                        Maintenance Conservation               planning,    Plantation     Activities
                                    (15% of                    Fencing,     Cost)          (Fixed)
                                    Plantation                 Awareness
                                    Cost)                      raising
                                                               (10% of

1.   Aided Natural            9750           1460           975          975          4000     17160
     Regeneration (200
2.   Artificial               17100          2565           1710         1710         4000     27085
     Regeneration. (1100
     ** plants/hectare)
3.   Pasture Development/     11100          1665           1110         1110         4000     18985
     Silvipasture (400 **

4.   Bamboo plantation        9300           1395           930          930          4000     16555
     (625 **plants/ha.)
5.   Planting of canes        II 100         1665           1 110        II 10        4000     1X985
     (625 **plants/hectare)
6.   Mixed Plantations of     17100          2565           1710         1710         4000     27085
     trees having MFP and
     Medicinal value.
7.   Regeneration of          20400          3060           2040         2040         4000     31540
     perennial herbs and
     shrubs of medicinal
     value (2000 **

*    10% per cent is earmarked for concomitant monitoring and evaluation,
micro planning, fencing, and awareness rising.
** The number of plants per hectare is admissible to the costing indicated above.
The project proposal envisaging any change in the plantation density would be
eligible for a corresponding pro rala change in the cost norms This would also be
applicable for Coastal Shelterbelt Plantation projects, which are based on the
Management Intervention model The concerned FDA shall have to certify that due
regard has been given to the agro-climatic factors and the thrust areas of Bamboo
plantations and Medicinal plants while preparing the project.
6 2 1 I n case of jhumlands, 1100 plants per hectare under artificial regeneration would
be applicable.
6.2.2 The cost norms have been worked out at the wage rate of Rs. 75.00 per day.
Escalation in the cost will be allowed to State Governments only after ensuring that their
approved wage rate in the State exceeds the limit of Rs. 75.00 per day. The increase in
the cost norms would be proportionate to the increase in the wages. In case the wage rate is

less than Rs. 75.00 per day, the cost per hectare would be less (on pro rata basis) than the
rates proposed in the scheme.
6.2.3 These costs may be distributed as follows:-
Entry point activities etc. were not included in this model during the Ninth Plan.
(a) Plantation costs with maintenance for five years.
(b)Soil and Moisture Conservation Activities: to an extent of 15% of the plantation
components may be permitted. These activities will be carried out within the project area where
(c)The total expenditure on the following items together may not exceed 20% of the
plantation cost.
i) Overheads including staff/establishment/vehicles etc (not to exceed 10%).
ii) Concomitant monitoring and evaluation (not to exceed 2%). iii) Microplanning (not
to exceed 2%).
iv) Fencing (not to exceed 5%). For projects requiring higher allocation for fencing,
funds to the extent of 10% of plantation cost may be authorized by suitably reducing the
allocation under item (i) above.
v) Awareness Raising (not to exceed 1%).
(d) Implements would be purchased from within the overheads. Their cost is normally low
The watch and ward component over the 5 years after plantation would be allowed as part
of maintenance - personnel deployed for maintenance would also be made responsible for watch
and ward.
6.2.4 Savings under any items above could be used for the activities listed in items other
than (i) For example, savings for fencing and overheads, could be used for extension/entry point
6.3 Release of Funds
6.3 1 As stated in Para 4.3.1, funds earmarked for micro planning would be released
in one instalment to the FDAs after the project is approved by the NAEB
6.3.2 The first instalment of the funds to be released for implementation of the work
programme wi l l be subject to preparation of the work programme after the micro-
planning exercise, and its approval by the NAEB. Further release of funds to FDAs
would be linked to satisfactory implementation of the work programme and utilisation
of funds provided earlier. Full amount for Entry Point Activities shall be providing
while releasing the first instalment.

6.3.3 80% of the funds released by the NAEB for the implementation of the work
programme would be transferred to the account of concerned JFMCs within 15 days of
their receipt at the FDA. When 50% of the funds released to a JFMCs has been utilised,
the balance 20% of the funds should be released.
6.3.4 FDAs would retain the "overhead" component for meeting their administrative
expenditure and release to JFMCs/ EDCs as per their requirement
6.3.5 If the performance of any JFMC/ EDC is not found to be satisfactory by the FDA,
the PDA may decide to take action as prescribed in the Memorandum of
Understanding to stop further funding to the JFMC/ EDC concerned. The FDA may also
prevent further expenditure of the funds already released. In such cases, the FDA may also
authorise the Forest Department to utilise the remaining funds for completing the works
after seeking prior approval of the NAEB.
7.Project duration and maintenance of plantations:
7.1 Projects under the scheme can be up to five years' duration. Planting will be permitted
up to the 4th    year of the project. Five years of maintenance will be permitted for all
plantations as per the proposal. The funds for maintenance will be released when due.
Advance work will be sanctioned up to the fourth year of the Tenth Plan. The sanction of
the project beyond Tenth Five-Year Plan will be subject to the Scheme continuing during
the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. In case the scheme is not continued during the Eleventh Plan,
the State Governments will have to meet the maintenance cost of such plantations beyond Tenth
Five-Year Plan at their own cost.
8.Improved Technologies and Treatment of Problem Lands:
8.1 Projects under the scheme may include suitable components of improved
technologies such as tissue culture and clonal seedlings, root-trainers. As these may need higher
level of investments and supervision, and also appropriate know-how at the field level, in such
cases, the cost norms may be enhanced appropriately, but not exceeding 25% of the
prescribed plantation cost norm specified under the scheme. Similarly for treating problem
lands such as alkaline/saline lands, ravines, etc., the above-mentioned enhanced cost norms
may also be permitted. A note on improved technologies is placed at Annexure "I".
9.Monitoring and evaluation:
9.1 The NAEB, apart from the monitoring and evaluation done by the State
Government, would also get evaluation of the projects done by independent
agencies/consultants. The first evaluation will be done within 12-24 months of sanction of the
project. This would, in particular, ascertain the adequacy of the people's participation,

functioning of JFMC/ FDCs, and the micro-planning exercise. The final evaluation will be
conducted in the fourth year of the project. In addition, the National and State level steering
committees would be constituted to monitor the implementation of projects under the scheme,
with the following composition.
9.2 The National and State level steering committees would be constituted to monitor
the implementation of projects under the scheme, with the following composition.
(I) National Level Steering Committee
(i) Chairperson - Secretary (E&F)
(ii) Members (Official):
(a) Additional Secretary (NAEB).
(b) Additional DG (Forests).
(c) Forest Secretaries (four State Governments) by rotation for a period of two years.
(d) PCCFs from four State Governments by rotation for a period of two years.
(e) Director General, ICFRE.
(f) Inspector General of Forests (NAEB).
(In the absence of the Chairperson, Addl. Secretary, NAEB will chair the meeting)
(iv) Members (Non Official)
Non-Official representatives from six FDAs (one each) by rotation for a period of two
years and to be nominated by the Member Secretary, National Level Steering Committee.
(v) Member-Secretary - Joint Secretary (NAEB).
(II) State Level Coordination Committee
(i) Chairperson - Chief Secretary
(ii) Members (Official)
(a) Secretary (Forests)
(b)Secretaries in-charge of Forests, Environment, Rural Development, Revenue,
Tribal Development, Irrigation, Panchayat, Public Health & Engineering, and
Education Departments.
(c) PCCF
(d) Chairpersons of six FDAs to be nominated by the PCCF.
(iii)Members (Non Official)
Six non-official representatives from six FDAs (one each) by rotation for a period of
two years and to be nominated by Member Secretary, State Level Coordination
(iv)Member-Secretary - Chief Conservator of Forests (in-charge).

10. Use of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems for planning and
subsequent project monitoring:
10.1 The feasibility of adopting the Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (1MSD)
approach devised by the National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad, which has been
adopted by several States for project formulation and prioritisation of target areas for the
Drought-Prone Area Programme (DPAP), may be examined for its potential application
for division/district level planning and to provide inputs for village level micro plans. IMSD is
being used for the preparation of thematic maps relating to present land use, soil condition,
availability of ground water, drainage pattern, etc using satellite remote sensing data, at the
district level, and to prepare a suggested approach to development on the basis of land
suitability analysis by overlay of the individual spatial datasets using GIS. The indicative
plan, which is prepared in consultation with the people, prescribes areas in the
division/district that would be suitable for different land use, e.g. for afforestation, fuel
wood/ fodder plantations, agriculture, horticulture, development of grasslands etc.
Species suitable for plantation in the area are also suggested as part of the indicative plan.
Village level micro plans can then be prepared on the basis of the district/division-level
indicative plan. A major feature of IMSD output is the suggestions for location of water
conservation and harvesting features, such as check dams, on the basis of drainage pattern of
the micro-watershed under consideration. Such maps along with relevant land use data have
already been prepared by the National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad for several
districts and watersheds in the country. FDAs may consider the possibility of adopting this
approach for planning purposes in the area under their jurisdiction. The expenditure
incurred in this regard may be met from the budget provided under the projects for "micro
planning" and/or "concomitant monitoring and evaluation"
11 The projects, depending upon site characteristics, would include activities such
as those illustrated in Annexure "H".
12 Component of grant, loan and subsidy:
12.1 There is no loan component. The Central financial assistance to be provided under
the scheme will be entirely in the form of grant to the implementing State Governments.
13.Number of posts:
13.1 No staff is to be provided specifically for the scheme.
14 Establishment of FDAs and JFMCs:

14.1 No establishment or any other administrative costs towards setting up and
functioning of FDAs and JFMCs will be permitted under the scheme, except as provided
under the overheads.


                      R.S.Shukla, IFS (Retd.) Senior Consultant
                  Agricultural Finance Corporation Ltd., New Delhi

                In consonance with the National Forest Policy 1988 which emphasized
the need of participatory approach of local adjoining villagers with special
participation of women, the Government of India, MOEF issued guidelines of Joint
Forest Management to all the States. Since then many deliberations, seminars,
experiences at National levels and International experiences coupled with many
international donor agencies experience the concept of J.F.M. was further evolved and
the last directions were issued by NAEB.
Based on these guidelines almost all State Governments made their own Guidelines,
Rules regulations & Acts Joint Forest Management to be implemented in that State.
Now Joint Forest Management is the basic principle of participatory approach in
forest management. Extending this concept further in afforestation programmes the
Nation Afforestation Programme adopted by J.F.M. and JFMCs as the core of
implementation of afforestation programmes.
1. The Ministry of Environment & Forest Government of India, New Delhi under the
National Afforestation Programme (NAP) issued the operational guidelines for the
Tenth Five Year Plan. Under these guidelines the basic directions are to have
participatory approach aiming at sustainable development of forest. It is a
decentralized people centered approach in afforestation programme, which will
provide a firm and sustainable mechanism for devolution of funds, transparency,
accountability, consensus approach of the stakeholders.
2. All the four centrally sponsored schemes afforestation scheme of ninth five year
plan where brought under the umbrella of NAP. These schemes where integrated
Afforestation and Eco-Development Projects Scheme (IAEPS), Area Oriented Fuel
wood and Fodder Projects Scheme (AOFFPS), Conservation and Development for
Non-Timber Forest Produce including Medicinal Plants Scheme (NTFP) and
Association of Scheduled Tribes and Rural Poor in Regeneration of Degraded Forests
(ASTRP), with a view to reducing multiplicity of schemes with similar objectives,
ensuring uniformity in funding pattern and implementation mechanism, avoiding
delays in availability of funds to the filed level and institutionalizing people‟s

participation in project formulation and its implementation. The Scheme will be
operated by the National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board, Ministry of
Environment and Forest as a 100% Central Sector/Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
3. To fulfil the short term & long term objectives of the scheme the Implementing
Agencies of NAP schemes would be a two tier set up namely the Forest Development
Agencies (FDAs) and Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs). The NAEB
had issued detailed guidelines for Joint Forest Management in ninth plan period and
the initial guidelines of FTA at the end of ninth five-year plan. The experiences
gained in implementing these guidelines in the field, the rules and regulations framed
by State Government in Joint Forest Management culminated in the tenth five year
plan through NAP schemes where the principle of JFM implemented through JFMCs
was the guiding principle of participatory approach. The FDA was a mechanism of
removing the multiple schemes, combining them and a 100% centralized funding of
NAEB directly to the Conservators of Forests in the field to avoid delay in State
budgetary procedures, in release of funds.
4. Like Joint Forest Management the FDAs were to operate by making micro plans of
the selected villages. The project area, project planning had to be selected villages
where as the Chairman was from amongst the villagers and the secretary was a
Forester/Deputy Ranger Level Forest Department Official. The conservator was to
give funds received from NAEB to VFMCs directly who will operate the accounts
jointly and shall maintain the cash book, accounting system, auditing, and
transparency and shall publicize the approved works of VFMCs in the village under
FDA programmes. The VFMCs and the DFO and Conservator shall be responsible for
physical and financial matters of the FDA.

MOEF Guidelines of NAP for JFM, FDA etc.
5. The detailed guidelines the issued by Ministry under following headings-Project
Area, Project Planning, Project Proposal, Micro Planning, Entry Point Activities,
Project Funding, Funding pattern, Cost Norms, Release of Funds etc.
COST NORMS (@ wage rate of Rs.75.00/day.)                             (Rupees per

SI.   Model/ intervention          Plantation   Soil and   MSE,         Overheads Entry           Total
No.                                including    Moisture   Micro-       (10% of      Point
                                   Maintenance Conser-     planning,    Plantation   Activities
                                                vation     Fencing,     Cost)        (Fixed)
                                                (15% of    Aware-ness
                                                Plantation raising
                                                Cost)      (10% of
1.    Aided Natural                9750         1460       975          975          4000         17160
      (200** plants/ hectare)

2.    Artificial Regeneration      17100        2565       1710         1710         4000         27085
      * * p lants/hectare)
3.    Pasture Development/         11100        1665       1110         1110         4000         18985
      Silvipasture       (400* *
      plants/ hectare)

4.    Bamboo plantation            9300         1395       930          930          4000         16555
      (625* * plants/hectare)

5     Planting of canes            11100        1665       1110         1110         4000         18985
      (625* * p l ants/hectare)
6.    Mixed Plantations of         17100        2565       1710         1710         4000         27085
      trees    having MFP and
      medicinal value
      ( 1 1 0 0 * * p l ants/
7     Regeneration          of     20400        3060       2040         2040         4000         31540
      perennial        herbs and
      shrubs       of medicinal
      value (2000* * plants/

*       10% per cent is earmarked for concomitant monitoring and evaluation, micro-
planning, fencing and awareness raising.
**      The number of plants per hectare is admissible to the costing indicated above.
The project proposal envisaging any change in the plantation density would be
eligible for a corresponding pro rata change in the cost norms. This would also be
applicable for Coastal Shelterbelt Plantation Projects, which are based on the
Management Intervention model. The concerned FDA shall have to certify that due

regard has been given to the agro-climatic factors and the thrust areas of Bamboo
plantations and Medicinal plants while preparing the project.
It also included direction about project duration and maintenance of plantations,
Improved Technologies and Treatment of Problem Lands, Monitoring and evaluation
and the proportion of fund allotted for them.
6. It also laid down directions for the composition of National Level Steering
Committees, State Level Coordination Committee official and non official members
the member‟s secretary of which is Chief Conservator of Forest (in-charge).
7. All these operational guidelines of tenth five year plan were sent to all the States
for implementation. The Projects under FDA of various States were invited and after
scrutiny corrections and discussion funds were sanctioned and released under FDA to
the respective Conservators of Forests of the Divisions selected for this purpose.
8.Within this frame work of MoEF the respective State Governments issued their own
J.F.M. resolution, rules & regulations regarding the sharing of the forest produce,
micro-planning, draft MoU and other operational matters to be observed in that State.
9. The brief summary of divisions & villages selected is as under:
Haryana- Pinjore Morni Forest Division
Uttar Pradesh - Katarniyia Ghat Wild Life Forest Division
Uttaranchal -   Chakrata    Forest    Division   Kalsi    (three     ranges)   and   Soil
Conservation Division Kalsi (two ranges)
Rajasthan - Pali Forest Division

Salient Differences of U.P. JMF Rules 1997 substituted by UPJFM Rules-2002.
U.P. JFM Rules 1997 as well as 2002 were framed under section-28 of Indian forest
Act 1927. However it was realized that J.F.M. Rules 1997 had certain main draw
backs which were rectified in JFM rules-2002.
1- The V.F.C. was constituted under U.P. State Panchayat Raj Adhiniyam 1947-
Section-29 sub section (6). However under Panchayat Adhiniyam there is no mention
of procedure of constitution of V.F.Cs. The entire village may not be user or willing
the participated in the forest management. These fore concept of "Forest User Group"
and procedure to constitute JFMCs was evolved, and introduced in U.P. J.F.M. Rules-

2- In J.F.M. Rules 1997 the sharing of income was after deduction of
expenditure of the State Govt. In J.F.M. Rules 2002 the net income and
procedure to calculate the same has been elaborated. .
3-In JFM Rules 1997 there was a maximum ceiling of Rs. 50000 on the income
distribution which has been removed in cases of normal harvest of forest produce and
increased to Rs. 1 Lac. in case of extraction of forest produce consequent to natural
disasters in JFM Rules-2002.
4- In the JFM Rules 2002 the income to the VFC has to be distributed as under,
i.       amongst the member of VFC-25%
ii.      seed money for welfare activities of members of V.F.C.-25%
iii.   village forest management - 25%
iv.    community welfare works-25%
In JFM Rules 1997 there was no break up of head wise allocation of the income of
5- In JFM Rules 1997 there was no provision of recovery of Govt. dues from the JFM
areas. The new JFM Rules 2002 provide for recovery of the Govt. dues as arrears of
land revenue from the JFM areas.
The new U.P. JFM Rules 2002 has made categorical allocation of 25% income of
V.F.C. for forest development women, who shall ensure the silvicultural cultural
operations like Tendu culture, Bamboo culture thinning as well as soil and water
conservation works. Generally there is acute dearth of funds for silvicultural
operations. With this special provision there shall be increase in productivity of Tendu
leaves, Bamboos and grasses, which are like cash crops for the villagers. The new
Rules shall also bring attainability in the J.F.M programme and more confidence in
the participatory approach of Forest Management.
6- During the U.P. World Bank Forestry Project which ended in July 2003, U.P. had
529 V.F.Cs. and the forest area covered by these V.F.Cs. was 52923 h.a.
7-Due to reorganization of the State the forest area of reorganized State of U.P. was
grossly reduced; consequently there was very little forest produce to share with the
local villagers. The social forestry areas of the state were not allowed by the World
Bank to be induced in J.F.M. consequently the J.F.M. in reorganized State of UP.
8-The U.P. J.F.M. Rules - 2002 has certain provisions particularly percentage wise
break-up of sharing of the income of V.F.C. where 25% has been provided for forest

development works. After the expiry of U.P. World Sank Forestry Project, the
sustainability and expansion has become difficult.
Accounting Rules of the Uttar Pradesh Village Forests Joint & Management
Operation of Accounts
17. (1) the funds referred to in rule 16 shall be deposited in the name of the
Concerned Joint Forest Management Committee in a Nationalized Bank, Schedule
Bank, Co-operative Bank or Post Office and shall be operated jointly by the Chairman
and Member-Secretary of the Joint Forest Management Committee.
(2) All withdrawals from the Account shall be made with the prior approval of the
Joint Forest Management Committee and details of the amount withdrawn and the
expenditure incurred shall be placed before the Forest User Group in its next meeting.
(3) The procedure for incurring expenditure and its accounting shall be in accordance
with the orders issues by the Government form time to time.
Accounts and Audit
18. (1) The Joint Forest Management Committee shall maintain proper accounts and
other relevant records and prepare an annual statement of accounts in accordance with
the direction of the Government.
(2) The accounts of the Joint Forest Management Committee shall be audited by the
Director, Local Fund Audit Department, and Uttar Pradesh time to time.

Apportionment of income
19. (1} the share of Joint Forest Management Committee shall be as under:
(a) In case of Timber, Bamboos and Tendu Patta, fifty percent of the net income. For
calculation of the net income from the areas of Joint Forest Management, the
following methods shall be adopted-
(i) The actual expenditure incurred as a result of extraction .removal, collection,
storage, marketing and other admissible taxes shall be calculated in consultation with
Managing Director, Uttar Pradesh Forest Corporation and Principal Chief Conservator
of Forests, (Monitoring & Working Plans), Uttar Pradesh Forest Department.
(ii) A fixed percentage of above shall be the overhead expenses.
(iii) Total expenses shall be the total sum of the (i) & (ii) above.
From the sale proceeds, the total expenses as mentioned in (iii) above shall be
deducted and the balance amount shall be treated as net income. Fifty percent of the

net income shall be credited in the account of the respective Joint Forest Management
Committee. The rest fifty percent amount shall be treated as royalty, payable to
Provided that, the income out of large scale felling of trees affected by calamities such
as fire, mass drying, uprooting, insect damage etc., only ten percent of the value of net
amount, subject of maximum of Rs. 1 Lac, shall be apportioned to Joint Forest
Management Committee.
In case of natural calamities also, calculation of net income shall be done as per 19 (D
(a)-Provided that, in case of Bamboo areas, if Uttar Pradesh Forest Corporation is
unable to work for any reason, Joint Forest Management Committee shall be entitled
to extract, remove, collect, store and market the produce on their cost and shall pay
the royalty as fixed by the Principal Chief Conservation of Forest, (Monitoring &
Working Plans), Uttar Pradesh Forest Department as per the guidelines set by the
Govt. of (Uttar Pradesh from time to time.
The income from sale proceeds shall be credited in the accounts of Joint Forest
Management Committee.
(b) In case of Non Timber Forest Produce other than Tendu Pattas, a token amount
shall be fixed by the Principal Chief Conservator of Forest, (Monitoring & Working
Plans), Uttar Pradesh Forest Department from time to time as royalty, payable to the
Government by the Joint Forest Management Committee and the rest amount shall be
credited in the account of Joint Forest Management Committee.
(c) (i) The Joint Forest Management Committee shall be entitled to collect, store,
process and market the Non Timber Forest produce other than medicinal plants and
Tendu Patta. The net income from the sale proceeds shall be credited in the accounts
of Joint Forest Management Committee.
(ii) The medicinal plants shall be collected, stored and processed by the Joint Forest
Management Committee under the supervision of Uttar Pradesh Forest Corporation of
payment for collection, storage and processing, as the case may be, shall be made to
the Joint Forest Management Committee by the Uttar Pradesh Forest Corporation at a
rate mutually agreed upon by the Principal Chief Conservator of Forest, (Monitoring
& Working Plans), Uttar Pradesh Forest Department and Managing Director, Uttar
Pradesh Forest Corporation.
The medicinal plants shall be marketed by the Uttar Pradesh Forest Corporation.

After deduction of the amount paid to the Joint Forest Management Committee for
collection, storage, processing charges and marketing, the net income form sale
proceeds shall be credited in the accounts of Joint Forest Management Committee.
Provided that, if Uttar Pradesh Forest Corporation is unable to market medicinal
plants for any reason, Joint Forest Management Committee shall be entitled to market
it. The income from sale proceeds shall be credited into the accounts of Joint Forest
Management Committee.
(2) The amount credited in the Joint Forest Management Committee as per sub-rule
(1) (a) of rule 19, shall be spent as under:
(a) One fourth of the amount shall be distributed to the members of the Forest User
(b) One fourth of the amount shall be used as seed money by the Joint Forest
Management Committee.
(c) Minimum one fourth of the amount shall be spent for the management of the
village forest.
The remaining amount may be spent on community works.
(3) The income to be shared as per rule 19 (1) (a), shall be intimated by the Divisional
Forest Officer of the division. The share of the Joint Forest Management Committee
shall be credited in the accounts of Joint Forest Management Committee.
Recovery of dues
20. Any amount payable to the Government by the Joint Forest Management
Committee, villagers, right holders or any person under these Rules shall be
recoverable as arrears of land revenue.
                    Extraction of Forest produce and Income - sharing
                      Timber, Bans,     Bans            NTFP             Medicinal

Extraction :       Tendu leaves
                   Van Nigam            Van Nigam       JFMC             Plants
Marketing & Sale : Van Nigam            Van Nigam       JFMC             Van Nigam
Special Circumstances
If Van Nigam is unable to extract , JFMC is allowed to do extraction
Bans. Medicinal Plants
If Van Nigam is unable to Market, JFMC is allowed to do Marketing
Net Income = Sale Price - (Production cost + Overhead)
                                       Government                JFMC

Timber, Tendu Leaves, Bans              50% of Net Income          50% of Net Income
NTFP                                    Fixed Royalty              Rest Income
Medicinal Plants                        Fixed Royalty              Rest Income
Bans                                    Fixed Royalty              Rest Income
Large scale felling due to calamities   90% of Net Income          10% of Net Income with
                                                                   ceiling of Rs. 1 Lakh

                              Salient points of observations
1. The general awareness of villagers about micro plan was inadequate.
2. Entry point activities not started as yet as funds have not been released by Gol.
3. No joint account, No joint cash book. No VDF, No MoU-all these need to be
introduced immediately in all FDA forest divisions of the State.
4- The sustainability aspect of projects needs to be strengthened as per local
productivity of NTFP- grasses, fruit trees, fuel wood and fodder.
5. The second instalment of funds from GoI needs to be released immediately.
6. Agro-forestry improvements and better modem nursery techniques part of
FDA guidelines should be used in the State extensively.
7. Bhabhar grass production and sale from foot hills of Shiwalik should be made
more profitable by removing bottlenecks
                                    Uttar Pradesh
1. The present D.F.O. was holding additional charge of Katarniaghat Wild Life
Division and one more division. This is causing administrative difficulties.
2. In Eco-development Project there is no sharing of the produce, where as in J.F.M.
there is sharing of the produce. Therefore in wild life and Eco-Development areas
sharing of produce should be introduced to gain co-operation of villagers.
3.   There is no joint account, no joint cash book and no MoU, these need to be
introduced immediately.
4. The instance of village Kakraha which produces 20 trucks of Parwal and 2 Truck
loads of Ginger is ideal to bring about marketing facilities in the micro-plan of such
specialized villages.
5.   Compensation for crop damages should be included in micro-plans of villages
wild life forest division.
6. The provision of U.P. Village Forest Joint Management Rules - 2002 need to be

1. There is excellent co-operation, interaction understanding of J.F.M., V.F.C, FDA
and micro-plans prepared for the villages of Chakrata Forest Divisions, Chakrata &
Soil Conservation Division- Kafsi.
2. The guidelines of MOEF on J.F.M. & FDA have been followed in constitution of
executive committees of V.F.C., registration of societies, lady members, Sc & ST
members etc,
3. The guidelines of Joint Account, Joint Cash book, MoU between VFC and Forest
Department have been followed.
4. The guidelines with respect to components of FDA like NTFP, silvi-pasture etc.
have been followed. In territorial ranges of Soil Conservation Division-Kalsi, Sal
Natural regeneration should be preferred instead of under planting of NTFP.
5.   The minimums wage rates in Uttaranchal are on the lower side. That needs
upward revision.
6. The Scheduled Tribal Area of Chakrata Forest Division of Jaunsaries should have
more income generating schemes like Oak Silk Worm rearing, sewing machines,
Pressure Cooker and community welfare schemes of empowerment of ladies.
1. There is excellent co-operation, interaction understanding of J.F.M., V.F.C, FDA
and micro-plans prepared for the villages of Chakrata Forest Divisions, Chakrata &
Soil Conservation Division- Kalsi.
2.The guidelines of MOEF on J.F.M. & FDA have been followed in constitution of
executive committees of VFC, registration of societies, lady members, SC & ST
members etc.
3.   A 7 member ladies „upsamities‟ are additional democratic bodies to empower
women in decision-making process.
4. With a view to have more grass production, the need to reduce number of plants,
in pasture development scheme needs to be reduced from 400 to 200 plants/ha.
5.   Fund saved from point number implementation is used for providing funds for
three irrigations in drought prone areas like Pali.
6. Water harvesting structures like small dams on suitable sites should be created.
7. Reduction in number of stray cattle is needed in many areas.
8. Reduction in number migratory cattle is also needed.

9. Special produce like "Mehandi" intercropping should be encouraged in suitable
areas to improve the local economy & seek the co-operation of local residents.
                                Comparative analysis of four States:
S.N.               Activities            Haryana      Uttar Pradesh       Uttaranchal     Rajasthan

  1    Micro plan of all villages are      Yes               Yes             Yes              Yes
  2    Peoples participation in          Adequate          Excellent       Excellent       Excellent
       preparation of Micro plans
  3    JFM guidelines followed in        Adequate          Excellent       Excellent       Excellent
       making Micro-plans

  4    FDA guidelines                   Need to be      Need to be           Yes              Yes
       i) Joint Account                   started           started
       ii) Joint Cash book              Need to be      Need to be           Yes              Yes
                                          started           started
       iii) Approved plan of             Adequate          Adequate        Excellent       Excellent
       operation publicized
       iv) MoU                           Needs to Needs to be done           Yes              Yes
                                         be done
       v) VDF                            Needs to       Needs to be          Yes         Yes, excellent
                                         be started         started
       vi) World food programme /           Not         Needs to be        Excellent      Needs to be
       food for work                     possible       introduced                        introduced

       vii) Records of meetings            Yes               Yes           Excellent       Excellent

       viii) Formation of VFCs             Yes               Yes           Excellent       Excellent

       ix) Ladies member                   Yes               Yes           Excellent    Excellent with 7
                                                                                          members of
       x) Sharing of produce             adequate          adequate        Excellent       Excellent
       xi) Protection(social fencing)      Yes               Yes             Yes           UpsamitJ
       xii) Entry Point Activities       Yet to be    Yet to be started      Yes           Funds not
                                          started                                       released by GoI

                                        Summary & Conclusion
The study is based on field observations, interaction with VFC members forest
department officials & villagers. The guidelines of NAP for working on JFM
principles in all centrally sponsored schemes of afforestation including FDA has been

able to establish excellent cooperation of villagers in Uttaranchal and Rajasthan. The
guidelines have been followed in preparation of micro plans, procedure of accounting,
constitution of VFCs, SC, ST, OBC and lady members in VFCs.
             In Haryana the micro plans have beer, prepared as per guidelines of NAP.
However there is need to have joint account, joint cashbook, operated by the
Chairman and Member Secretary jointly. The entry point activities have been delayed
due to late release of funds by GOI. The response and co-operation of villagers is
excellent in villages located in upper reaches and foothills of Shiwalik. In plain areas
the modem Agro forestry and nursery techniques need to be introduced as per
guidelines of NAP.
             In Uttar Pradesh the micro plans have been prepared as per guidelines of
NAP. However there is need to have joint Account, joint cashbook and MoU to be
operated by Chairman & Member Secretary of VFC. The provisions of The U.P.
Village Forest Joint Management Rules - 2002 are excellent model for sharing of the
produce, however it needs implementation in Uttar Pradesh. In wild life areas the
sharing of the forest produce, specialized marketing strategy of special agricultural
cash crops of the respective villages, has to be evolved. Health camps & vegetable
seed distribution have been appreciated by villagers. However compensation for
damage to their agricultural crops by wild animals has to be paid and rationalized.
                Over all the guidelines of MAP have been followed in preparation of
micro plans of FDA villages in all the four states. There have been certain short
comings in implementation and accounting in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The U.P.
Village Forest Joint Management Rules - 2002 has good model of sharing the income
of V.F.C. The performance of Uttaranchal & Rajasthan is excellent in all spheres. The
lady's "Up Samiti" of 7 women members is V.F.C. villages of Rajasthan is a correct
step in women empowerment and enhancing the role of women in decision making.
1. The micro plans should not be stereotype, it should be village specific and
recognize the special forest and agricultural produce of the village and provide from
its mode of collection, distribution, storage and marketing to increase the income or

2. V.F.C. should interact closely with other GoI. departments and their works in their
area and as a registered body take a lead in guiding in project formation, financing
and implementation at suitable levels.
3.The guidelines of NAP with respect to Joint Account of funds released, village
development funds created, cash book, minutes of the V.F.C. meetings held, decisions
of V.F.C., agreed annual programme for works have to be signed and maintained &
displayed by the Chairman & Member Secretary at all stages.
4. The agreed programme of works and quarterly progress of expenditure should be
pasted at two three prominent places in the village, so that every member of V.F.C.
knows, trusts and develops confidence in working of V.F.C.
5.The U.P- Village Forests Joint Management Rules-2002 are worth being considered
by MOEF, as a good model of sharing of the income of V.F.Cs. between members,
forest development programmes and community works.
6. The Rajasthan model of strong 7-lady member "Mahila Upsamiti" is worth
consideration in other States particularly Uttaranchal and other hill states MOEF may
consider it for empowering the women in decision-making.
7. In wild life areas sharing of the forest produce on JFM model can be introduced in
Eco-development guidelines of the MOEF.
8. In predominantly Agro-forestry states, the MOEF guidelines for modem nursery
techniques and Agro-forestry practices should be made a base for J.F.M.
9. In tribal areas like Chakrata Division etc. the local deity like "Mahasu Devta",
village Vidya of Tharus can be used as motivation agents for J.F.M.
10. NTFP training in Medicinal plants, Vermi-compost, modern nursery techniques,
PRA extension techniques have to be used more effectively.
Structural measures to enhance people’s’ participation
1. Micro plans should be more area specific, focused and prepared after more
interaction with the VFC members.
2. The concept of "user group" has to be developed for making VFCs.
3. Joint account of fund released to VFCs, funds created in VDF cash book and     MOU

has to be enforced more strongly.
4. The labour for the plantations and works has to be from amongst the local villagers,
it should not be migratory or brought from outside.
5. Meetings of VFCs should be more frequent and approved plan of operation and
expenditure displayed prominently in the village.

6. The practice of 7 lady members "Mahila Up Samiti" of Rajasthan can be considered
by other States as well.
7. The provisions of distribution of income of VFC as laid down in UP Village Forest
Joint Management Rules-2002 should be considered by MOEF for a model guideline
to other states.
8. Soil Conservation measures, water harvesting structures nave 10 be developed as
per local requirements.
9. The release of funds by the MOEF has to be expedited as per approved FDA
project time schedule.
10. Funds for entry point activities should be released on priority basis.
11. The rules framed for JFM should derive its legal strength from the Indian Forest
Act. 1927 and the VFC can be given powers to enforce the protection of forest and
plantations under their charge.

                                   S.K.Sharma, I.F.S.
                                       CCF (JFM), U.P.
1. Natural and Human Resources:-
a. India's most populous State with a total population of 1 6 . 1 6 crore and a
population density of 689 per sq km.
b. It has three distinct geographical region, (i) Terai, (ii) Indo-gangetic plains and (iii)
Southern plateau region
c. Around 40% people are below poverty line with literacy rate as low as 57%.
d. Heterogeneous social groups in village
Only 8% crore of total geographical area is covered with forests Out of it only half is
well stocked.
2. National Forest Policy and JFM Resolution
a. National Forest Policy lays emphasis on participatory mode of Management with
ultimate aim of improving conditions of forest and rural poor dependant upon it.
b. Panchayat Forests of hills in undivided U.P. Taungya System of agri-silviculture in
Terai region and social forestry programmes in eighties were forerunner of JFM
programme in the State,
c, Circular issued by Ministry of Environment and Forest in 1990 paved the way for
passing a resolution in this regard.
d. In UP the resolution to adopt JFM was passed in the year 1996.
e. World    Bank Aided        Project provided strong support for implementation
of JFM Programme in UP It started from the year 1998.
3. Regulations Related to JFM in UP
a. In U.P., in the year 1997 rules were made for regulation of JFM programme. These
rules known as " U.P. Village Forests Joint Management Rules 1997" were framed
under section 28 and section 76 of the Indian Forest Act. 1927. These rules were
further amended in the year 2002.
b. U P was the first State to provide legal back up to village forest committees. These
committees were deemed as forest officer for legal purpose in 1997 rules.

c. These village forest committee also enjoy the legal back up of U.P. Panchayat Raj
Act 1947 as a Panchayat Raj Institution.
d. Funds were directly released to the VFC's and forest department worked
as facilitator.
e. Government order was issued for strip forests and management of Natural forests in
sal areas so the funds generated by felling can be utilized to regenerate forest areas
through JFM mechanism.
4. Implementation of JFM Programmes:
a. JFM being a new concept required training and motivation at all levels. Starting
from VFC's, forest guards and up to senior officers extensive training programmes,
workshops and field visits were organized.
b. NGO's were involved through motivators A facilitating team of an ACF, Range
officers foresters and two NGO motivators (one being women motivator) were
formed at divisional level.
c. Preparation of Micro planning was very important activity. These micro plans were
prepared by the VFC's with the help of spear head teams(SHT) or facilitating team.
d. After PRA exercise and through consultation with VFC's micro plans were prepared
in two parts, first part was regarding forestry activities while second part was related
to entry point activities
e. Implementation of micro plans start soon after signing-up of the agreement between
VFCs and Forest Department
f. VFC's will make annual plans and funds will be utilized for its implementations. All
such things were discussed in general meeting.
g. To ensure transparency in implementation details of micro plans "and annual plans
were always discussed in general body meeting and executive committee of VFC's.
5. Greening of State Through Participatory Mode:
a. To achieve the National Target of 33% geographical under forest cover by 2012.
UP has embarked upon Massive Tree Planting Programme.
b. A target of 300 million tree plantation has been fixed for the year 2005 out of
which 260 million trees will be planted through participatory mode.
c. To make the full availability of seedlings nurseries of 4000 to 5000 plants are being
established at all 1800 JFMC's.
d. Panchayat Raj Department is issuing orders for creation of nurseries at Nyaya
Panchayat level using the funds available from Rural Development Department.

e. Forest Department is aiming to make availability of seedlings by giving full
technical co-operation at Nyaya Panchayat Level. This year it is planned to raise
around 40 million plants.
f. Other Government department having land areas like schools, irrigation, electricity,
housing, PWD industrial townships are being given tree planting target by State
Government directly.
6. Joint Forest Management in Forest Regeneration
(A). Strip Forest
* In strip forests State government issued an order where first row or shade line will
belong to government and middle rows will be shared by community and the
department and last row will be owned by farmers.
*A MOU will be signed between department and farmers.
* Regeneration of strips was taken from the money released from the felling of middle
rows in collaboration with Gram Sabha.
(B) Assisted Natural Regeneration in Sal Forests:
a. In Fourteen forest divisions of terai area of U.P., ANR work was undertaken on the
principle of Joint Forest Management. These sal areas though well stocked were
deficient in establishment of natural regeneration.
b. Silviculture systems applied in these area is mainly shelter wood system and
selection system sometimes improvement felling were also taken.
c. Due to paucity of funds, despite the working plan prescriptions ANR works
suffered in sal areas
d. To ensure the sustainability and establishment of revolving funds for ANR
programme in the Sal forests.
A G.O. was issued in the year 2001. Some of the silent features are:-
i. One third of the Royalty generated from sal forests will be deposited in the forest
deposit and money will be utilized for natural regeneration and development of the sal
forests. The remaining two third royalties      will   be   deposited   in   the forest
ii Area selected for ANR should have a standing volume of more then 100 cubic
meter and at least 6.5 cubic meter volume of timber should come from felling.
iii. Marking will be done by ACF.
iv. Natural regeneration will be done as per the prescription of working plan.

v. All the works in ANR are to be carried out through VFC's. They participated in
maintenance work also in subsequent years.
vi. Regeneration status in Sal area is found to increase from 25% to 44 % in two to
three years.
vii. So far around 10000 hect. area has been covered under this programme.
7. Progress in JFM
A. JFM works was started with the help of World Bank Project in the year 1997-98
with 6 VFC's only. Today there are about 1900 joint forest management committees
working in the state.
Many forestry related schemes are being implemented on JFM principal in UP. Some
of schemes are.-
       a. National Afforestation Programme of NAEB through FDAs
       b. Watershed development through NABARD project in Bundelkhand region.
       c. "Sam Vikas” yojana of government of India in their selected districts of U.P.
      d. Eco-development Project in Wild life Protection areas
B. At present following is the State of JFM works under NAP Programme of NAEB
       i. At present FDA's are covering of 53 districts of U.P additional
       eight projects are under consideration for sanction with GOI.

           ii. So far total projects sent to Govt. of India are of 1 2 4 04 crore rupees
          Out of which projects worth 104 crore rupees have been sanctioned by Govt
          of India.
          iii. Approximately 65000 hect. Forest area is covered under NAP projects
             and approximately 1923 JFMC's are working
          iv. Against an estimated expenditure of 64 crore rupees utilization
              certificates of 63 crore rupees have been sent to GOl.
          v. So far more than 40000 hect        has been planted under various FDA's.
              This years target is about 14000 hect of plantation.
          vi. Under   Greening    India    programme    project   for   quality planting
              material (QPM), awareness creation and training has been sent to GOl.
          vii. Various projects for afforestation through NGO's are under active
              consideration. These afforestation programme will compulsorily use
8. Some Important Issues Related to JFM
(a). Extension of JFM In good forest areas. So far JFM has not been under taken in
good forest areas. The Guidelines dated 21-02-2000 of GOl also stress its extension in
good forest covers.
(b) Tapping the Resource of Gram Panchayats by JFMC's about from jointly
managed forests is very important issue.
(c).Legal Problems: Some of provisions of forest conservation Act. 1980, Wild Life
Protection Act 1972, Tree Protection Act 1972 and Transit rules 1976 some times do
give minor irritants in the implementation of JFM programme.
(d). Sharing Mechanism: The revised JFM regulations in 2002 have clearly spelt the
sharing mechanism with regards -to sale of timber, Bamboo and Tendu leaves but
sharing of benefits of NTFP by trading through U.P. Forest Corporation has to be
given a practical shape.
(e). Gender issues: Though the constitution of JFMC's clearly states nominations of
two women member in committee from User group and in some village some woman
are Gram Pradhan also but their level of participation is low.
            To overcome this hitch one NGO motivators in all division level SHT
were women. But despite these arrangement social fabric of villages allow low level
of participation by women.

(f). Economic issues Success of JFM programme depend on the income generation
for JFMC's and creation of village development funds
              Some of the important income generating activities are making of leave
plates from the leaves of Dhak and Sal trees Baskets made from bamboo and lantana
Toy making from koraiya in southern plateau area Literacy programme also boast
economic level of rural society. Thus economic activities have to be undertaken at
major scale.
(g). Sustainability : At present around 1900 JFMCs are operating in approximately
65000 hect. of forests land and same types of community lands to sustain Joint Forest
Management in this area some of the steps taken are:-
i. Re-orientation of forestry staff from regulatory function to participatory
ii. Capacity building of the JFMC's through training workshop and study tours.
iii Accelerating the development process through linkage between JFM and rural
development programme.
iv. Transparency in fund utilization and development works.
v Creation of village development funds.
vi. Equitable sharing of usufructs.
9. Success Story:
•     Kakarha Village. Katerniya Ghat Wild Life Division. Behraich District
•     Dhakia Bawan Safari , Bijnore District, Bijnore Forest Division (Nazibabad)
1 0 . Future Strategy
                          For the success of JFM programme forest department has to
have the support         of central      and state government,        rural    development
department, Panchayat Raj Institution. Politicians, public representatives. Media,
NGO positive thinking and above all the people for whom this programme is being
carried out. Future Strategy calls for
(a).        To    make     the   programme        self   viable   technical,   social   and
economical, monitoring indicators have to be developed.
(b).             Transparency and dedicated participatory approach, especially the
involvement of women and weaker section of society
(c)      Proper marketing, value addition and profit sharing of forest produce
(d).     to develop and manage self help group and its linkages to micro-financing.

(e).   Establishment of State level unit to supervise, monitoring and guide the field
level units for successful implementation of the programme.

                                     A.S. Joshi , I.F.S.
                                     C.C.F. (JFM/FDA)
                               Satpura Bhawan, Bhopal (M.P.)
Madhya Pradesh is a state, which inhabits rich forest flora fauna and huge tribal population
dependent on forest. Philosophy of Joint Forest Management (JFM) has been adopted by the

state in letter and spirit. As a result, around 52 lakhs rural people participate jointly with forest
department in protecting and managing the forest.
          As on today, more than 14000 committees are working in forest fringe areas,
strengthening of these committees will pave the way for the Sustainable Forest Management
(SFM). Sustainability is a long-term process, which requires consistent approach, Forest
development and rural development are complementary to each other. Rural prosperity adds
value to the forest. Rural prosperity depends on improving upon their existing income level for
which multiple activities are required. To employ rural people on a continual basis, employment
generation is an act of entrepreneurship and finance. Micro enterprise activities have emerged as
strong basis to achieve the rural prosperity. Micro enterprise activities at the level of finance ore
being followed by the formation of self-help group and common interest group.
     Self Help Groups are the groups having 10 to 20 people, which have got a common
interest, have a bank account, provide each other credit through common fund. And having
SHG reached to a particular level of operation (level-2) gets finance from the commercial bank
to the extent of four times of their revolving fund plus subsidy of Rs. 1.5 lakh per group.
Subsidy's is provided under Swama Jayanti Swa-Rojgar Yojna. These programmes of rural
development have got an innate importance to JFM also.
      RBI in its final report of the internal group on rural credit and micro finance has
highlighted that the SHG-Bank linkage model has emerged as the answer to completely alter
the socioeconomic face of rural India.
     Today, the success of this model can be gauged from the quantum jumps in the number of
SHGs being linked to banks every year. From 255 in March 1993 to 4,800 in March J996, an
astounding 16 lakh SHGs been linked with banks by March 2005. Latest figures for June show
another 21,000 SHGs being linked to banks in the first three quarters of this financial year.
Conceptual model
                     A model has been conceived wherein each JFMC would be grouped into
self-help groups. Self-help groups would have a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with
JFMC. JFMC already has MOU with State Forest Department, SHG within JFMCs would be
getting advantage of bank finance along with the subsidy besides regular benefits from the
Forest department in the form of formalized benefit sharing, and this type of convergence will
provide a larger platform for the growth of the people and will provide a model for the
Convergence in Capacity building

                                        Japan Social Development Fund has provided US$ 19,
15,500 towards the capacity building for Community Forest Management. It is a project, which
has envisaged monitor-able deliverable in the form of 800 designated JFM committees
requiring training in benchmark skills; 200 updated micro plan outlines and the utilization;
around 200 JFM committees completing forest inventory; 75 JFM committees completing
SM.E business plans. '
Operational convergence
                             No model of convergence will succeed until and unless adequate
level of coordination is achieved amongst different departments. There is a plethora of
committees at the village level and most of the villagers are members of one or other
committees. But some time they themselves are not clear about the objectives of the committee
meeting. At large most of committee members are not above to understand the outputs. There is
a strong need for vertical integration from the level of villager to district officers. At the district
level sporadic meetings do take place, but there is a lack of continuance of monitoring.
Synchronization of efforts is what the prime need of time. It is a moot question how overlapping
areas of the work of different departments can be made into cohesive work plan. A permanent
forum is required that go for monitoring of indicators both quantitatively and qualitatively. This
will weed out duplication of efforts and will provide assessment of incremental growth of
outputs. This district level forum will percolate down to the sub-division level, block level and
village level, In fact, coordination and monitoring has become an approach, which needs to be
focused, up dated and disseminated in cyclical manner.

                                  CCF (JFM), Chhattisgarh
The Stale of Chhattisgarh which was carved out by including 16 districts of the
erstwhile state of Madhya Pradesh came into existence on P1 November 2000 has a
geographical area of 1,35,224 sq km which is around 4.1% of the area of our country

India. The state has a population of 208 lacs out of which 32.4% is ST. 12.2% is SC and the
others constitute 55.4%.
          The State has 44% of the geographical area under forests and these forests
provide the catchments of at least four river system. Mahanadi. Godavari. Narmada and
Ganges. The climate of the State is generally sub humid with an annual rainfall ranging
from 1200to 1500mm.
          Over the years, the forests in the state have suffered serious depletion. This can
be attributed to relentless pressures arising from ever increasing demand for fuel wood,
fodder and small timber.
          The population of the State is predominantly tribal, who have significant
economic and cultural dependence on the forests of the state. There is a large population
of non tribal, landless and economically backward communities in the state who derive
livelihood security from the forests of the state.
          In view of extremely rich floral and fauna! Diversity and unique socio-economic
cultural symbiosis found in this state; the newly carved out state of Chhattisgarh.
Enunciated a People Centric Forest Policy which is a roadmap of people friendly
proactive framework for sustainable forest development, livelihood security and bio-
cultural diversity conservation of open access resource into community- controlled
natural resource. The policy has laid down a viable strategy to achieve these objectives by
targeting on broad range of goods and services in terms of physical, material, human,
social and environmental assets in conjunction with appropriate entitlement regime.
The policy aims at, enhanced well being of the local people by unlocking of the vast
array of forest resources on sustainable basis.
          Having regard to the symbiotic relationship between tribal and forests, community
based initiatives for executing forest programmes have been started. A new JFM
resolution, specifying clear guidelines regarding formation of JFM committees,
allocations of rights and duties among the committees and sharing benefits has been
          The abundant potential of people living in rural and forest areas has been tapped
to begin a process of transition from user- centered approach to multi stakeholder
community become positive stakeholders of the forests and not simple user of its
products. This will also address a range of forest management goals, including forest
and bio-diversity conservation, poverty alleviation and other economic benefits to
community living in and around forests. This decentralized institutional structure allows

greater participation of community both in planning and implementing of all
Joint Forest Management (JFM) has formed the basis of forest management in the
state. There are two types of JFM committees in the state viz: Forest Protection
Committee (FPC) and Village Forest Committee (VFC).
           So far 7050 FPC/VFC committees have been constituted in the stale for
improving the level of participation in the management of forests. With certain specific
modifications a new resolution was brought out by government in October 2002.
Chhattisgarh Forest Department issued an order in May 2003 elucidating distribution of
benefits in terms of money / Forests produce emanating from protection and conservation
of forests allocated to different JFM Committees.
Salient Feature of JFM: Resolution-2002 and 2003
1.         Forest produces equivalent to 15% value of the amount calculated by (of timber /
bamboo) deducting the expenditure (of timber/ bamboo) incurred on harvesting from the
total value of forest produce or cash equivalent to that shall be given to FPC.
2.             Forest produces equivalent to 30% value, calculated by deducting the
expenditure incurred on harvesting (of timber/bamboo) from the total value of
timber/bamboo obtained on final felling in plantation/rehabilitation of degraded forests,
as equivalent to that value, shall be given to village forest committee.
Forest Development Agency
           National Afforestation Programme (NAP) in the state is successfully carried out
through 29 FDAs involving 996 JFMCs. For further strengthening of JFM movement in
the state scheme like People's Protected Areas (PPA) and institutional arrangement for
sustainable development of forest fringe villages in Dhamtari district started as a pilot
People Protected Areas (PPA):-
           For sustainable forest development livelihood security and bio-diversity
conservation. People's Protected Areas (Papas) have been established in forest areas,
which are biologically rich in Non Wood Forest Products (NWFP) including medicinal
plants. Ecosystem based multi-tier approach of forest management is adopted in these
areas to improve productivity of NWFP and timber and also to ensure supply of a range of
other goods and services needed for sustainable livelihood of the people living in and
around forests.
The vision, values and mission of this programme are given below:

         Network of People's Protected Areas (PPAs) as Poor People's Pool of Assets for
sustainable livelihood through integrated ecosystem approach.
1.     Highest Respect and concern for People and their Traditional Knowledge.
2.     Care and Share.
1.    Community Based Participatory Mapping and Management Plan.
2.     Non-destructive Harvesting.
3.     Grading, Processing, Value addition certification and Marketing.
4.     Improved Food Security and health Cover.
Livelihood security
         Moving away from income or consumption criteria, many times poverty has
been equated with the lack of livelihood security. Stated briefly livelihood security
comprises of multi disciplinary safety nets for furtherance of physiological and
psychological well being of the people. Accordingly, sustainable livelihood approach
permeates the entire concept of People's Protected Area as a corollary to this; to begin
with, food security, health cover and dependable wage labour become areas of prime
Goods and services from the PPA's. More importantly non wood forest products
(NWFPs) originating from diverse sources ranging from large plants to micro flora
consisting of heterogeneous products, constitute a critical life line for poor forest
dwellers by providing family sustenance and livelihood. Due to their recurrent availability
on annual/ seasonal basis and immense socio-cultural, economic, environmental and
industrial development potentials, NWFP hold promise for developing interesting
mechanism for sustainable livelihood.
         The concept of People's Protected Areas (PPA) has been taken up in right earnest
in all the 32 forest divisions of the state for integrated forest management involving
local participation.
Dhamtari Models
         In order to promote sustainable development in areas w i t hi n 5 km from the
forests. Govt. of Chhattisgarh has decided to put in place an institutional arrangement
at the district level which will ensures proportionate allocation of funds for rural
development on the basis of number of villages and for timely completion of

development works in those villages. To begin wi t h under this arrangement.
Dhamtari district has been selected for pilot project.
       In Chhattisgarh about 50% of the villages with population of more than ten
million people are located within 5 Km. from the boundary of the forests. In large
number of these villages, poverty is rampant due to variety of reasons. The stale
Government is committed for over all development of these poverty stricken people
and conservation of their natural resource base. Forest department has been made a
nodal agency for integrated development of all the 401 villages situated within 5 Kms
periphery of forests in Dhamatri District, the first venture of its own ki nd in our
country. Thus, villages situated in the fringe areas of the forests have been brought
under the umbrella of forest administration for implementing the integrated
ecosystem approach at landscape level by convergence of all development schemes.
The State Government has also made budgetary for these developmental activities.

                                  Rajive Kumar, I.F.S
                                      C.F. (AGRA)

       Uttar Pradesh has a total geo-graphical area of 24.09 million ha. The area under
forest is 7.01% of state's geographical area. The forest and tree cover is 9.06% of
state's geographical area out of this 5.86% is inside the forest area 3.2% is outside the
forest area. In order to achieve the goals of sustainable forest management, the U.P.
Forestry Project was launched on 19 March, 1998 and continued till 31st July, 2003.
       One of the main elements of the project was to change in role of U.P. Forest
Department (UPFD) from a predominantly regulatory to one in which communities
are treated as equal partners in the management of forest resources. Stakeholders

would be enabled to make decisions and manage and protect the forests, ensuring both
the appropriateness and effectiveness of the micro plans.
        In the context of Uttar Pradesh, the principles of participatory forest
management are not new. The Van Panchayats in hills, Taungya system of Tarai
forests, agri-silviculture and mechanised plantation in Tarai areas, were age-old
experiments involving participatory forest management system. However these
activities could not produce specific institutional and managerial arrangements to the
satisfactory level.
Programme Implementation:
        In the project, J oi nt Forest Management was initially supported in the hills
of erstwhile Uttar Pradesh, Bundelkhand, Vindhyan and Tarai region. Subsequently the
programme was extended to p l a i n s of the state. In the present state of U.P. 540
micro plans were formulated for implementation, out of which 510 micro plans were
implemented till the end of project covering an area of 49,911.23 ha. The region wise
micro plans implemented are as follows:-
                       Vindhyan                       :      125
                       Bundcl Khand                   :       96
                       Tarai                          :      116
                       Plains                         :      173
                The micro plans were prepared by Village Forest Committee with the
assistance of Spear Head Teams (SHT). NGO support was provided to Spear Head
Team through Umbrella NGO group. The idea was that NGO must not act as
employee or contract persons of concerned division rather they must act as partner to
the forest department. From 14.01.1999 to 31.03.2001, NGO support was provided
by CDS Nainital and from 01.05.2002 to 30.06.2003 this support was provided. By
PSU foundation, Lucknow. The main tasks performed by these groups were :-
    • Selection, orientation and placement of NGO motivators.
    •   Training of Spear Head Teams (SHT) and Village Forest Committee - (VFC)
    • Review of: progress of JFM.   :

The Micro plans Prepared for implementation consisted of 3 parts.
    •    The first part consists of forestry related activities, directly funded by UPFD
        through World Bank assistance.

    • The second part enlists the entry point and other activities related to rural
         development and overall development of the village, emerged during PRA
    •    In some villages, part three was also prepared for the use of Village
Development Fund to be created from the contribution of the villagers. The cost of the
micro plan was shared by UPFD and VFC in 80:20 ratios. The necessary funds for
part one component was released by project u ni t directly to DFO, who in turn,
released the funds to VFC. The DFO directly transferred this fund to bank accounts
operated by the VFC, which was jointly operated by Chairman and member
secretary. The chairman is the person from village and Member Secretary is generally
Forester or Forest Guard. The VFC generally operated two bank accounts, one for the
funds received to implement the micro plan, and another one known as Village
Development Fund. The micro plan is implemented by village forest committee.

Policy and Legal Issues :
                            The Government of Uttar Pradesh agreed in principle to
implement JFM, in the year 1995 after the ratification of State Forestry Action Plan,
1995. The Uttar Pradesh Village Forest Joint Management Rules, 1997 was ratified,
which provided the basis for changed management approach for the forests with the
legal backing from section 28 of IFA 1927. The rules provided the basis for
apportionment of income between UPFD and villagers. These rules were thoroughly
revised and with the bifurcation of the state, the Uttar Pradesh Village Forests Joint
Management Rules 2002 was promulgated on 28.12.2002. The VFC'S are given
legal status tinder JFM rules 2002, which have the basis under IFA 1927. In this way
the legal frame work for VFC and JFM is clarified and uncertainly in the light of
Panchayat Raj Act is removed. The VFC no longer remains as a part of Panchayat Raj
Institution. The Chairman of VFC may or may not be Gram Pradhan of the village.
Each VFC necessarily has the woman, schedule caste and backward class
representation. The rules also empower the VFC in the harvesting ' process in the JFM

Impact of the Programme :

                                 Though, the project was launched in 1998, JFM programme
got momentum late. In first two years :only 88 micro plans were prepared an d
implemented. Rest of the plans started from year 2000-2001. The m i d term
evaluation of programme by Tata Consultancy Services, impact assessment carried
out in 2002, field inspection and visits of Senior Forest Officers, World Bank
supervision missions, seminars, workshops clearly brought out certain long standing
impact on the forests and Communities. Some visible impacts can be summarized as
follows :
1.       The training and deliberations for SHT had a positive impact on the
          Forest department staff. The officers and staff of UPFD have already started
          realizing the need of participatory management practices and involvement of
          local villagers;
2. Various decentralized capacity building programmes organised at the divisional
      and circle levels has boosted the moral of UPFD staff and they started feeling
      pride in getting themselves involved in decision-making, in contrary to the
      previous regimental practices of Top lo Bottom approach.
3. The involvement of field staff in PRA techniques and micro plan preparation
     sensitized the staff to the plight of the local poor. An attitudinal and behavioural
     change was observed among them, lo execute the programme as a poverty
     alleviation programme in the .interest of disadvantaged groups and for the
     overall development of village including village forests.
4. The employment opportunities have been generated in the villages through the
      activities of the programme and the benefit has already started going to the poor
   of the village.
5. In the JFM                areas, in the reduction    of forest   offences   has   been
      observed. Less fire incidences, were reported in the JFM areas, and free
     grazing got reduced. The forest committees have also restricted the
     entry of outsiders into their village boundaries for collecting various
6. The fodder production due to protection and fuel-wood due to various
silvicultural operations have increased.

7. The 'village development fund' VDF in JFM villages was increasing which is
an indicator for the success of the programme.
8. The participation of the villagers in meetings and especially [he participation of
women were found increasing by the studies .

9. Many income-generating activities based on diversi fi ed forest based
activities were observed in JFM villages funded from VDF funds. Basket making.
Mat making from Bamboo, Lac and Tassar cultivation, leaf plate making from sal
leaves and furniture from Lantana and Bamboo were some example and these
activities have already started making the villagers to realize that JFM is for them.
10. Increase in production of NTFPs and sustainable exploitation of NTFPs observed in
    some JFMC/VFCs.
11. In divisions of Vindhyan and Bundelkhand region, many self-help groups of
    women were organized for Tassar production, and Tcndu Patta collection.
    Selling these products increases the income of the poor villagers.
12. The villagers through the savings in VDF had started literally campaigns also in their
13. Forest staff & officers were sensitized for gender issues.
14. Leadership of down trodden people who have a great stake in forests, encouraged,
across party lines.
15. Increase in awareness and belongingness with forests & environment is observed.
16. The new JFM rules have increased the roles and responsibilities of the communities
in managing the forest.
Lessons Learnt:
                     Project implementation has been a learning process. Following few
lessons have been learnt for improving (he JFM programme implementation.
    1.    Village      Development    Funds      (VFDs)     have     been       created     in   the
         project! Villages as a result of‟ the project activities. The VDFs
         would   be     useful   in   sustaining         VFCs   in    future.     However,        the
         villagers      would     need       sustained     motivational     and           operational
         guidance for increasing the corpus and its judicious and sustainable
         use.                            :

   2.   Withdrawal of financial support to community institutions should be planned
        and phased based on their institutional capacity and the establishment of
        sufficient return from forests and other assets to sustain the system.
   3. Sufficiently intensive training inputs are still required to adequately contribute to
developing the managerial capacity of VFCs and villagers.
A Success Story of Bundelkhand Region :
                                              Bundelkhand Region of U.P. mostly has
subtropical dry deciduas scrub forests. These forests are ri ch ii> root stocks and
various NTFPs. Activities of JFMC have resulted in restoration/ rehabilitation of
degraded forest land through ANR and soil & moisture conservation in many places
like Jhansi, Mahoba, Lalitpur & Chitrakoot. The JFMCs which have generated
enough resources by way of sustainable exploitation of NTFPs arc still managing
their forests. Such an example can be quoted from Mahoba district where Syorhi
Village JFMCs annual income from exploitation of Amla fruits is Rs. 70,000/- per
ye ar on an average. This JFMC is a successful example of participatory forest
management. It can be concluded from the experience of participatory management
that in places where the villagers have tasted the benefits/fruits/results of JFM
positively on a sustainable basis, the programme is successful. The "Mantra of
success" lies in making JFMC profitable for villagers.

                              IN UTTAR PRADESH
                       Ashwani Kumar, IFS, CCF (Research)
                            Dr. C.M.Mishra, Plant Ecologist
                          Forest Research Institute, Kanpur


       Trees and forests were always considered as an integral part of the Indian
culture. This is amply supported by the ancient scriptures and historical records. The
best of Indian culture was born in the forests. The Aryan civilization was started in
our forests and our Rishis who evolved the Hindu religion, lived in forests in complete
harmony with nature. The ashrams were the centres which harmonised agriculture
and pasture with trees, animals and birds. It was widely believed that destruction of
forests and cutting of trees created famine conditions, where as planting and
maintaining trees were regarded as noble acts. In fact, so much has been written in our
ancient literature that planting tree was being done by individuals on their own
agricultural fields in ancient times.
       Gradually, during recent periods because of increasing population and huge
gap between demand and supply, forests were ruthlessly exploited to meet the
increasing demand of fuel, fodder and timber. To overcome this huge burden upon
our existing forests, some alternative steps have to be taken to meet the increasing
demand of forest produce i.e. production of such items have to be carried outside the
forest areas as well. Hence, in the light of ever increasing demand concept of multiple

use of land with multipurpose tree species has become immensely important. In this
context, agro forestry, which is a form of multiple land/use system, should be adopted
and encouraged. The reasons for higher production under agro forestry system
(i)         Greater efficiency of tree species for photosynthesis.
(ii)        Improved soil structure and fertility with increasing effects on crop yield.
(iii)       Reduce losses from soil erosion and more closed cycling of organic matter
and nutrients.
(iv)        Creating better micro climatic conditions for the growth of agricultural
Agro-forestry: Concept and Definition
         Agro-forestry means practice of agriculture and forestry on the same piece of
land. Bene et al. (1977) defined agro-forestry as a sustainable management system for
land that increases overall production, combines agricultural crops and animals
simultaneously. Nair (1979) defines agro-forestry as a land use system that integrates
trees, crops and animals in a way that is scientifically sound, ecologically desirable,
practically feasible and socially acceptable to the farmers. Another widely used
definition given by the International Centre for Research in Agro-forestry (ICRAF)
Nairobi, Kenya, that, "agro-forestry is a collective name for all land use systems and
practices where woody perennials are deliberately grown on the same land
management unit as agricultural crops or animals in some form of spatial arrangement
or temporal sequence" (Nair, 1983).
Beneficial Effect of Agro-forestry:

         Higher yields of crops have been observed in forest influenced soils than in
ordinary soils. In the Tarai area of Uttar Pradesh, Taungya cultivators harvested
higher yields of crops such as maize, wheat, pulses etc. without fertilizer.
Approximately, 20% higher yields of grains and wood have been reported in agro-
forestry areas of Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh than from pure agriculture
(Dwivedi and Sharma, 1989). Experiments conducted at IGFRI, Jhansi indicate that
the total yield of fodder is more when fodder grasses are grown with fodder trees than
pure fodder grass cultivation. Leucaena leucocephala intercropped with agricultural
crops and fodder grasses increase the total yield of food grains, fodder and fuel
(Pathak, 1989).

        Nitrogen fixing trees grown in the agro-forestry systems are capable of fixing
about 50 -100 Kg N/ha/year (Tewari, 1995). Experience in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar
Pradesh, Gujarat and some parts of the southern states indicate that tree and
agriculture crop production system is more productive. The total production and value
of fuel, fodder and small timber in degraded lands are reported to be many times more
than the coarse grains usually produced on them (Gupta and Mohan, 1982). Sanchez
(1987) stated that," appropriate agro-forestry systems improve soils physical
properties, maintain soil organic matter and promote nutrient cycling". Nitrogen
fixing trees are mentioned as one of the most promising component of agro-forestry
system. The leaf litter after decomposition forms humus, releases nutrients and
improves various soil properties, it also reduces the fertilizer needs.
        Growing of trees and fodder crops (including fodder trees) is more
economical, particularly in marginal lands. Observations taken in arid and semi-arid
areas of Rajasthan indicate that marginal lands are incapable of sustaining stable and
dynamic cultivation of agricultural crops. Silvi-pasture consisting of growing trees
such as Prosopis, Albizia, Zizyphus and Acacia etc. may provide many times more
returns per unit of land than agriculture under such conditions (Gupta and Mohan,
1982). Eucalyptus in agro forestry has been found to be more profitable than pure
agriculture in Haryana. Populus deltoides increases the farm return by 50% in Tarai
region of Uttar Pradesh (Chaturvedi, 1981).
Agro-forestry In Uttar Pradesh:

                After creation of Uttaranchal state in the year 2000, the tree cover in
Uttar Pradesh has reduced to only 8.84% where as, the State Forest Policy 1998
envisaged that one third of the total geographical area should come under forest/tree
cover. Hence, agro-forestry is now the only option to increase the desired tree cover
of 33%. In Uttar Pradesh, practices of agro-forestry vary considerably according to
the agro climatic zones, socioeconomic conditions and site-specific tree species.

        The benefits of agro-forestry is better understood by the farmers in western
region of the state, this may be attributed, to the assured market of agro-forestry
produce because of flourishing wood based industries in the region. Eucalyptus and
Poplar are preferred species in the western region, whereas, Shisham and Teak is
preferred species in eastern region. Fruit trees also have considerable share of agro-
forestry particularly in western part of the state.

        Hence, to workout suitable agro-forestry models with preferred timber, fodder,
 fuel and fruit tree species for different agro-climatic zones of U.P. a state level
 workshop was conducted by the research circle of U.P. forest department at Kanpur.
 The aim of the workshop was to bring together different workers including forest
 officers, scientists, subject matter specialists and NGOs working in the field of agro-
 forestry at different places. Suitable recommendations for tree-crop combinations in
 four different agro-climatic zones of the state viz. tarai region, western plain gangetic
 region, eastern plain gangetic region and vindhya and bundelkhand region have been
 made. The outcome of the workshop published and circulated under Lab to Land
 leaflet series entitled “Significance and use of Agro-forestry System” (2002). The
 tangible and intangible benefits of agro-forestry as suggested in the leaflet are
 mentioned below:
       To meet the demand of fuel, fodder and timber for the increasing population.
       To reduce the biotic pressure on existing forests.
       To obtain maximum output in terms of yield from the same piece of land.
       To develop wasteland/ degraded lands by planting suitable tree species with
 agricultural crops.
       To reduce the environmental pollution by planting tree species.
       To reduce soil erosion.
       To increase the soil fertility by planting nitrogen fixing tree species.
       To create availability of raw material for wood based industries.
       To create opportunity of employment to local people and to increase the return
 in terms of money by increased crop production.
 Proposed agro-forestry models for different agro-climatic zones of U.P.:
                After creation of Uttaranchal state, Uttar Pradesh has been divided in
 to 4(four) different agro-climatic zones viz (1) Terai (2) Western gangetic plains (3)
 Eastern gangetic plains and (4) Vindhyan and Bundelkhand. The following tree
 species have been suggested for planting in different regions along with certain
 selected medicinal plants:
 (1) Terai region:
 I.Timber species: Poplar, Eucalyptus, Teak and Semal.
II.Fodder/Fuel species: Leucaena, Moringa, Babool and Salix.
III.Fruit species: Aonla, Bel, Litchi, Lisoda, Aam and Amrood.

 IV.Medicinal plants: Safed Musli, Ashwagandha, Sarpgandha, Gurch, Satawar and
    Lamon grass.
   (2) Western gangetic plains region:
 I. Timber species: Poplar, Eucalyptus, Teak, Siris, Kadam and Shisham (Suitable
II. Fodder/Fuel species: Leucaena, Moringa, Babool and Salix.
III. Fruit species: Aonla, Bel, Litchi, Lisoda, Aam and Amrood.
IV. Medicinal plants: Safed Musli, Ashwagandha, Sarpgandha, Gurch, Satawar and
   Lamon grass.
   (3) Eastern gangetic plains region:
   I.Timber species: Eucalyptus, Teak, Kadam and Shisham (Suitable clones).
  II.Fodder/Fuel species: Leucaena, Moringa, Babool, Prosopis and Sesbania.
 III.Fruit species: Ber, Aonla, Bel, Kathal, Jamun.
 IV.Medicinal plants: Safed Musli, Ashwagandha, Gurch, Kalmegh, Aloe vera and
   (4) Vindhyan and Bundelkhand region:
   I.Timber species :Siris, Anogeissus latifolia, A. pendula, Babool, Hardwickia and
  II.Fodder/Fuel species: Leucaena, Moringa, Babool, Bauhinia and Mulbery.
 III.Fruit species: Chironji, Tendu, Ber, Bel, Mahua and Citrus.
 IV.Medicinal plants: Safed Musli, Ashwagandha, Gurch,         Aloe vera, Satawar and
   References :
   Bene, J.C. Bealt, H.W. and A. Cole (1977). Tree, Food and People, IDRC Ottawa.

   Chaturvedi, A.N. (1981). Poplar for planting. Uttar Pradesh Forest Department Bull.
   No. 50, Lucknow, 27 pp.
   Dwivedi, A.P. and Sharma, K.K. (1989). Agro forestry : it‟s potential. Paper in
   Seminar on Eucalyptus, FRI, Dehradun.
   Gupta, T and Deepinder Mohan, (1982). Economics of trees versus annual crops on
   marginal agricultural lands. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi, 139 pp.
   Nair, P.K.R. (1979). Agro forestry Research : A retrospective and prospective
   appraisal Proc. Int. Conf. International Cooperation in Agro forestry. ICRAF Nairobi,
   pp. 275-296.

Nair, P.K.R. (1983). Some promising agro forestry technologies for hilly and semi-
arid regions of Rwanda. Sem. Agr. Res., The Hague.

Pathak, P.S. (1989). Management of subabul for optimizing production. In production
of fodder and fuel wood trees (Eds. N.G. Hedge and Others), BAIF Publications,
Prasad, K., Kumar, A., Dubey, P., Mishra, C.M. (2002). Significance and Use of Agro
forestry System. Lab to Land leaflet No. 10. published by Research Circle, U.P.F.D.,
Kanpur. pp. 50
Sanchez, P.A. (1987). Soil productivity and sustainability in agro forestry systems. In
: Steppler, M.A. and Nair, P.K.R. (Ed.,) Agro forestry : a decade of development.
ICRAF, Nairobi.
Tewari, D.N. (1995). Agro forestry for increased, productivity, sustainability and
poverty alleviation. International Book Distributors, Dehradun.

                                                                            Annex u re-1
          1. ASHWAGANDHA (Withania somnifera) (Linn.) Dunal
Propagation: By seeds
spacements: 60 x 60 cm.
Manures & Fertilizers: FYM @ 5-10t/ha
         Light shower after transplantation ensures establishment of seedlings. There is
no need of irrigation if rainfall is at regular intervals. Excessive rainfall/water is
harmful to the crop. Life saving irrigations may be applied, if required.
Harvesting: 150-170 days
         On an average, yield from one hectare land under commercial cultivation is an
approx 3-5 quintal of dried roots and 50-75 kg seeds.
Expenditure per hectare                Rs. 6,000/- approx.
Return per hectare                     Rs. 30-35,000/- approx.
Net income                             Rs. 25-30,000/- approx.
         2. GHRFTKUMAKI, (Aloe vera)
Propagation: Root Suckers or Rhizome (during rainy season)
Soil Type: Sandy loam
spacements: Row-to-row 30-45cm., plant-to-plant 30 cm.
Irrigation: Rain fed
Harvesting time: About 9 months
Yield: 500quintal/ha/year
Expenditure per hectare Rs. 45000 (Approx.)
Return per hectare          Rs. 175000 (Approx.)
Net income                Rs. 130000 (Approx.)
         3. SATAWAR (Asparagus racemosus)
Part Used: Roots

Propagation: By Seeds/Seedlings
Spacements: 60 x 60 cm.
Manures & Fertilizers: Compost & Vermi-compost @ 6 ton compost/acre
Irrigation: It requires light irrigation
Harvesting: 12-18 months.
Yield: Approx. 8-9 tons dried roots per ha.
Market Value: Rs. 25-30 per Kg.
        4. SARPGANDHA, (Rauvolfia serpentina) Part Used: Dried roots
Propagation: By Seeds and cuttings Spacements: 30 x 30 cm.
Manures & Fertilizers: Nitrogen 30 kg and Phosphorus 60kg per hectare
Irrigation: It requires light irrigation
Harvesting: 18 months.
Yield: Approx. 25-28 quintal dried roots per ha. and 50 kg seeds per ha.
Market Value: Dried roots Rs. 50-60 per Kg. and seeds Rs. 300-400 per kg-

                              FOREST MANAGEMENT

                       Ashwani Kumar, IFS, CCF (Research)
                      Dr. R.J.Srivastava, Forest Influences Officer
                         Forest Research Institute, Kanpur
       One of the main crops currently being promoted for bio-diesel production
globally is Jatropha curcas. There have been substantial political and social pressures
to promote the growing of Tree Borne Oil Seeds (TBO‟s) (in particular Jatropha
curcas) in India, as a means of economic empowerment, social upliftment and poverty
alleviation within marginalized communities.
       Jatropha is a valuable multipurpose crop to alleviate soil degradation,
desertification and deforestation which can be used for bio-energy to replace petro-
diesel, for soap production and climatic protection and hence deserves specific
attention. Jatropha curcas is found in the tropics and subtropics. It grows almost
anywhere – even on gravely, sandy and saline-alkaline soils. It can thrive on the
poorest stony soil as well.
       Government of India has selected this species for National Program to
promote its plantation in wastelands of the country owing to prospective like low cost
seeds, high oil content, small gestation period, growth on good and degraded soils,
growth in low and high rainfall areas, easy propagation through seeds/cuttings,
minimal requirement of after plantation care, unsusceptible for grazing by animals
even during the drought, wide environmental tolerance, erosion control, utility as
hedge plant etc. Besides, like all trees, Jatropha           removes carbon from the
atmosphere, stores it in the woody tissues and assists in the build up of soil carbon. It
is thus environment eco-friendly.
       The present paper envisages the prospects of Jatropha plantation on very low
fertility soils. A significant proportion of such lands can be brought under Jatropha
curcas plantation in an economically feasible manner under Joint Forest Management
Programme. There is a need to take up intensive cultivation of Jatropha                 on
wastelands through people‟s participation (JFM) and also in agricultural lands by the
farmers. It will result in rehabilitation of degraded lands vis-à-vis it would also help in
employment generation as well as upliftment of rural economy.
Key Words: - Jatropha curcas, JFM, TBO‟s, wasteland, soil degradation, peoples
participation, rural economy.

       One of the main crops currently being promoted for bio-diesel production
globally is Jatropha curcas. There have been substantial political and social pressures
to promote the growing of Tree Borne Oil Seeds (TBO‟s) (in particular Jatropha
curcas) in India, as a means of economic empowerment, social upliftment and poverty
alleviation within marginalized communities.
       A large genus of herbs, shrubs and trees of Jatropha Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) is
distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world, mainly in Africa and
America. It also occurs almost throughout India and in Andaman Islands. About 9
species have been recorded in India; some of them are grown in gardens for their
ornamental foliage and flowers. (Anon, 1991). The plant is reported to have been
introduced into Asia and Africa by the Portuguese as an oil-yielding plant. It is
generally found in a semi-wild condition in the vicinity of villages.
       According to an estimate about 16 percent of the world‟s population is
struggling to survive on only 2.4 percent of the planet‟s land mass. The pressure of
this intense land utilization is causing more and more forests and agricultural land to
deteriorate into uncultivable land (wasteland). In 2000, Ministry of Land Use Govt. of
India classified nearly 63 million hectares of the sub-continent about 1/5th of its entire
territory as wasteland out of which 33 million hectares of wasteland have been
allotted for tree plantation. According to Indian Government, 174 million hectare land
(more than one half of the country‟s territory) is suffering to a greater or lesser extent
from land degradation (Maharishi, A).
       Government of India has selected Jatropha species for National Program to
promote its plantation in wastelands of the country owing to its various prospective.
Like other trees, Jatropha also removes carbon from the atmosphere, stores it in the
woody tissues and assists in the build up of soil carbon. It is thus environment eco-
       A significant proportion of degraded lands can be brought under Jatropha
curcas plantation in an economically feasible manner under Joint Forest Management
Programme. It will result in rehabilitation of degraded lands vis-à-vis it would also
help in employment generation as well as upliftment of rural economy. The prospects
of Jatropha plantation have been discussed in the present paper.
Botanical Features:

          It is a small tree or shrub with smooth grey bark, which exudes whitish
colored, watery, latex when cut. Normally, it grows between three and five meters in
height, but can attain a height of up to eight or ten meters under favourable
Leaves :
          It has large green to pale-green leaves, alternate to sub-opposite, three-to five-
lobed with a spiral phyllotaxis.
Flowers :
          The petiole length ranges between 6-23 mm. The inflorescence is formed in
the leaf axil. Flowers are formed terminally, individually, with female flowers usually
slightly larger and occur in the hot seasons. In conditions where continuous growth
occurs, an unbalance of pistil late or staminate flower production results in a higher
number of female flowers.
Fruits :
          Fruits are produced in winter when the shrub is leafless, or it may produce
several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently
high. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of approximately 10 or more ovoid fruits. A
three, bi-valved cocci is formed after the seeds mature and the fleshy exocarp dries.
Seeds :
          The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow,
after two to four months from fertilization. The blackish, thin shelled seeds are oblong
and resemble small castor seeds.
Ecological Requirements:
          Jatropha curcas grows almost anywhere – even on gravely, sandy and saline-
alkali soils. It can thrive on the poorest stony soil. It can grow even in the crevices of
rocks. The leaves shed during the winter months form mulch around the base of the
plant. The organic matter from shed leaves enhance earth-worm activity in the soil
around the root-zone of the plants, which improves the fertility of the soil.
Climatically, Jatropha curcas likes heat, although it does well even in lower
temperatures and can withstand light frost. Its water requirement is extremely low and
it can stand long periods of drought by shedding most of its leaves to reduce
transpiration loss. Jatropha curcas is also suitable for preventing soil erosion and
shifting of sand dunes.
Chemical Composition of Jatropha Seeds

          Analysis of the Jatropha curcas seeds exhibits the following chemical
Sl. No.                  Content                               Percentage
   1.       Moisture                                              6.20 %
   2.       Protein                                              18.00 %
   3.       Fat                                                  38.00 %
   4.       Carbohydrates                                        17.00 %
   5.       Fibre                                                15.50 %
   6.       Ash                                                   5.30 %

The oil content is 25 – 30% in the seeds and 50 – 60% in the kernel. The oil contains
21% saturated fatty acids and 79% unsaturated fatty acids. There are some chemical
elements in the seed which are poisonous and render the oil not fit for human
Oil as raw material:
          Oil has a very high saponification value and is being extensively used for
making soap in some countries. Also, the oil is used as an illuminant as it burns
without emitting smoke.
Medicinal plant:
          The latex of Jatropha curcas contains an alkaloid known as "jatrophine"
which is believed to have anti-cancerous properties. It is also used as an external
application for skin diseases and rheumatism and for sores on domestic livestock. In
addition, the tender twigs of the plant are used for cleaning teeth, while the juice of
the leaf is used as an external application for piles. Finally, the roots are reported to be
used                as        an            antidote            for            snake-bites.
Raw material for dye:
          The bark of Jatropha     curcas yields a dark blue dye which is used for
colouring                                                     cloth, fishing nets and lines.
Soil enrichment:
          Jatropha curcas oil cake is rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium and
can be used as organic manure. The comparative quality of nutrients (percent) in
Jatropha curcus and other manures are given as below.
            Manure                 Nitrogen (N)        Phosphorus (P)        Potash (K)

Jatropha curcas                         4.44             2.09               1.68
Farm yard manure                        0.97             0.69               1.66
Raw husk compost                        0.81             0.18               0.68
Municipal waste compost                 1.25             0.25               0.68
Karanj cakes                            4.00             1.00               1.00
Neem cakes                              5.00             1.00               1.50

Insecticide/ pesticide:
       The seeds are considered anthelimintic in Brazil, and the leaves are used for
fumigating houses against bed-bugs. Also, the ether extract shows antibiotic activity.
Alternative to Diesel:
       It is significant to point out that the non-edible vegetable oil of Jatropha
curcas has the requisite potential of providing a promising and commercially viable
alternative to diesel oil since it has desirable physico-chemical and performance
characteristics comparable to diesel.
Varieties of Jatropha curcas
       There a number of varieties of Jatropha . Best among these is Jatropha
curcas. Some of the others are
      Jatropha curcas (nontoxic)
      J. curcas x J. integrerrima
      Jatropha gossypifolia
      Jatropha glandulifera
      Jatropha tanjorensis
      Jatropha multifida
      Jatropha podagrica
      Jatropha integerrima
Chemical Properties of Jatropha curcas Oil:
         ITEM                                           VALUE

         Acid value                                     38.2

         Saponification value                           195.0

         Iodine value                                   101.7

         Viscosity (31oC) cp                            40.4

         Fatty acids composition

         Palmitic acid %                                   4.2

         Stearic acid %                                    6.9

         Oleic acid %                                      43.1

         Linoleic acid %                                   34.3

         Other acids %                                     11.4

Oil Bearing Trees- Selection of Jatropha curcas
       There are many tree species which bear seeds rich in oil having properties of
an excellent fuel and which can be processed into a diesel-substitute. Of these, some
promising tree species have been evaluated and it has been found that there are a
number of them such as Pongamia pinnata (Karanj) and Jatropha curcas which
would be very suitable in our conditions: However, to start the programme, the
advantage is clearly in favour of Jatropha due to the following reasons.
      Oil yield per hectare is among the highest of tree borne oil seeds.
      It can be grown in areas of low rainfall (200 mm per year) and in problematic
soils. In high rainfall and irrigated areas too it can be grown with much higher yields.
Therefore, it can be grown in most parts of the country.
      Jatropha is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and is hardy.
      Jatropha lends itself to plantation with advantage on lands developed on
watershed basis and on low fertility marginal, degraded, fallow, waste and other lands
such as along the canals, roads, railway tracks, on bunds/boundaries of farmers‟ fields
as a boundary fence or live hedge in the arid/semi-arid areas and even on alkaline
soils. As such, it can be used to reclaim waste-lands in the forests and outside.
      Jatropha seeds are easy to collect as they are ready to be plucked before the
rainy season and as the plants are not very tall.
      Jatropha is not grazed or browsed by animals.
      Being rich in nitrogen, the seed cake is an excellent source of plant nutrients.
      Seed production ranges from about 0.4 tons per hectare per year to over 12
       tons /      ha.
      The plant starts seeding in a maximum period of two years after planting.

         Raising plants in nurseries, planting and maintaining them and collection of
          seed are labour intensive activities. Except for the cost of fertilizer and
          transportation of the plants from the nursery, all the activities in the nurseries
          and in planting consist of labour input.
         Various parts of the plant are of medicinal value, its bark contains tannin, the
          flowers attract bees and thus the plant has honey production potential.
         Like all trees, Jatropha removes carbon from the atmosphere, stores it in the
          woody tissues and assists in the build up of soil carbon. It is thus environment
         Jatropha can be established from seed, seedlings and vegetatively from
          cuttings. Use of branch cutting for propagation is easy and results in rapid
         The plant is undemanding in soil type and does not require tillage.
Potential of Jatropha Plantation on Different Types of Land
          The potential of Jatropha plantation on various kinds of land in India is as
         Forests cover 69 Million hectares of which 38 million hectare is dense forest
          and 31 million hectare is under stocked. Of this, 14 million hectares of forests
          are under the Joint Forestry Management. About 3.0 million hectare of land in
          forests may easily come under Jatropha curcas plantation.
         142 million hectare of land is under agricultural. It will be reasonable to
          assume that farmers will like to put a hedge around 30 million hectare of their
          fields for protection of their crops. It will amount to 3.0 million hectare
          (notional) of Jatropha curcas plantation.
         The cultivators are expected to adopt it by way of agro- forestry. Considerable
          land is held by absentee land-lords who will be attracted to Jatropha curcas as
          it does not require looking after and gives a net income of Rs 15,000 per
          hectare (approx). 2.0 million hectare of notional plantation is expected.
         Cultural fallow lands are reported to be 24 million hectare of which current
          fallow lands are 10 million ha and other fallows are 14 million hectares. Ten
          percent of such land (2.4 million hectares) is expected to come under Jatropha
          curcas plantation.

       On wastelands under Integrated Watershed Development, and other poverty
        alleviation programmes of Ministry of Rural Development a potential of 2
        million hectare of plantation is assessed.
       On vast stretches of public lands along railway tracks, roads and canals. One
        million hectare of notional coverage with Jatropha curcas is a reasonable
On the basis of the above facts it should be reasonable to assume that with proper
extension, research, availability of planting material and funds, plantation of Jatropha
curcas on 13.4 million hectares of land is feasible in the immediate future.
Institutional finance for private plantation and governmental allocation for public
lands will have to be provided. Once success is achieved on the lands described
above, it should be possible to include very low fertility soils which are classified
uncultivable in this programme. A significant proportion of such lands can also be
brought under Jatropha curcas plantation in an economically feasible manner.
Economics of Jatropha Plantation
        For successful plantation programme, nurseries are required to be setup which
will supply plants to the beneficiary to ensure success of plantations and quick return.
It will also result in seed production at the end of the first year itself. Nurseries will
supply seedlings to the farmers in their village. A seedling will start yielding seed
after a year of its plantation. Plants are planted at a spacing of 2m X 2m thus and 2500
plants will be grown in 1.0 hectare. Although using a seedling grown for 4 to 6
months in a nursery should not result in the usual rates of mortality of plantations, it
will be reasonable to assume that 20% of the plants will need replacement.
Cost of Plantation
        The cost of plantation has been estimated to be Rs. 30,000 per hectare.
Inclusive of plantation and maintenance for one year, training, overheads etc. It
includes items such as site preparation, digging of pits, fertilizer & manure, cost of
plants and planting, irrigation, weeding, plant protection, maintenance for one year,
i.e., the stage up to which it will start seed production etc. The cost of training,
awareness generation, monitoring & evaluation is also included.
Employment Generation and Costs in Jatropha Plantation

                                                             Estimated    Employment in
S.No                  Particulars of works
                                                                Cost        person days

                                                               Year                   Year

                                                             Ist     IInd       Ist       IInd

      Site preparation i.e. cleaning and levelling of
1                                                          600              10
      field - 10 Man Days

2     Alignment - 5 Man Days                               300              5

      Digging of pits (2500 Nos) of 30 Cm3 size @ 50
3                                                          3,000            50
      pits per Man Day - 50 Man Days

      Cost of Manure (including carriage) 2 Kg. per
4     pits during 1st year,1 Kg. per pit during second     2,000            20
      year onwards @ Rs. 400/MT

      Cost of fertilizer @ Rs. 6 per kg (50 gm. Per
5     plant during 1st year and 25 gm from 2nd year        870       495 2            1
      onward and 2 Man Days for each application.

    Mixing of Manure, insecticides fertilizers and refilling of
6                                                                     1,500               25
    pits @100 pits per Man Day 25 Man Days

    Cost of plants (including carriage) 2500 Nos. during first
7 year and 500 Nos. of plants during second year for                  10,000 2,000 100 20
    replanting @ Rs. 4.0 per plant.

    Planting and replanting cost 100 plants per Man Day.- 25
8                                                                     1,500 300           25 5
    Man Days and 5 Man Days, respectively

    Irrigation - 3 irrigation during 1st and one irrigation during
9                                                                     1,500 500           5      2
    2nd year @ Rs. 500/- per irrigation.

10 Weeding and mulching 10 Man Days. x 2 times for 2 years 1,200 1,200 20 20

11 Plant protection measure                                           300                 1

Sub total                                                             22,770 4,495 263 48

Contingency (approx. 10% of the above)                                2,230 505

Grand Total                                                           25,000 5,000 263 48

On the basis of experiences in India and elsewhere, a plant density of 2,500 per
hectare (spacing of 2 X 2 meters) has been found to be optimal - although in one trial
in rain fed areas on poor soils, a lower plant density of 1,666 has been felt to be more
desirable. In suitable plantation Jatropha gives about 2 Kg. of seed per tree. In
relatively poor soils such as in Kutch (Gujrat), the yields have been reported to be 1
kg per plant while in lateritic soils of Nasik (Maharashtra), the seed yields have been
reported between 0.75 kg to 1.00 kg per tree. If planted in hedges, the reported
productivity of Jatropha is from 0.8 kg. – 1.0 kg. Of seed per metre of live fence this
is equivalent to seed production of between 2.25 tons / hectare and 5 tons / hectare,
depending upon whether the soils are poor or average for plantations and between 2.5
tons / hectare / annum and 3.5 tons / hectare / annum for hedges.
         Assuming oil content of 35% and 94% extraction, one hectare of plantation
will fetch 1.6 MT of oil if the soil is average, 0.75 MT if the soil is lateritic and 1.0
MT if the soil is of the type found in Kutch (Gujarat). One hectare of plantation on
average soil will fetch on an average 1.6 Metric Tons of oil. Plantation per hectare on
poorer                    soils                   will                  give 0.9 MT of oil.
Non-Forest Areas Proposed for Jatropha curcas Plantation
         In India 200 districts in 19 potential states have been identified on the basis of
availability of wasteland, rural poverty ratio, below poverty line (BPL) census and
agro-climatic conditions suitable for Jatropha cultivation. Each district will be
treated as a block and under each block 15,000 hectare Jatropha plantation will be
undertaken through farmers. Proposal is to provide green coverage to about 3 Million
hectors of wasteland through plantation of Jatropha in 200 identified districts over a
period of 3 years.
In Uttar Pradesh, the districts viz. Allahabad, Agra, Balia, Bulandshaher, Bhadohi,
Baharaich, Chhitrakoot, Deoria, Ferozabad, Faizabad, Ghazipur, Hardoi, Jaunpur,
Jhansi, Kausambi, Lalitpur, Mainpuri, Pratapgarh, Raibareli, Sultanpur, Shahjahanpur
have been selected for large scale Jatropha plantation programme.
Scope and Potential of Jatropha Plantations under Joint Forest Management:
         The latest trend/technique of managing the forests/forest lands is adoption of
Joint Forest Management with the local villagers. This technique is getting success in
various parts of the country. In initiating the Joint Forest Management, particularly,
on those lands which arc almost barren, the main concern of the village community
revolves around the instant direct benefits to them. Usually, the forestry crops raised

on such lands take many years before they are able to provide the direct commercial
benefits to the village community. On the other hand, during this period, active
participation of the villagers is to be sought for protection and development of the
plants planted. Quite naturally, the impatience amongst the villagers regarding sharing
of benefits is to be handled very carefully. Intercropping of Jatropha with other
forestry species or even the pure plantation of Jatropha on the some of the lands
undertaken is a good remedy for this problem. As the Jatropha seeds can be harvested
every year after the first year of planting, the harvest will fetch a sustained annual
income benefitting the government and the villagers both.
       Jatropha plants, once grown, seed for number of years annually. As per the
present economics of Jatropha, It will fetch many times more than the main forestry
crops. Besides, the financial benefits, the land remaining covered with Jatropha plants
and its leaves litter being added to the soil every year, it will definitely improve in all
the aspects. Consequently, the barren land undertaken for Jatropha plantation is
bound to improve and when the cycle of Jatropha plant is completed, the land will be
available for raising the luxurious agriculture/horticulture/forestry crops. As
estimated, Jatropha plantation over 1.0 ha. Of land at a spacing of 2x2 m2 will
provide an average annual yield of 5 metric tons of seeds from which 1.5 metric tons
of oil and 3.5 metric tons of cake would be obtained. The cake being rich in nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium can be used as excellent organic manure (Kumar, Prakash;
Research Analysis, Bio Diesel: An Overview). As per the present average market
price of Jatropha seeds (Rs. 10/ Kg.), the sale proceeds arc expected to the tune of Rs.
50,000/- per year. The input cost being minimal in comparison as to this amount, the
huge net income is a very good attraction for the villagers. As already elaborated,
Jatropha plant is neither grazed nor browsed and is a very hardy species, thus, the
time, energy and the financial requirements for its raising is much less than those
required for most of the other agriculture/horticulture/forestry crops.
       In view of the soaring prices of diesel in the country, the market for the
Jatropha seeds would always be available at the doorstep of the villagers. So, it can,
undoubtedly, be said that there exists no factor which may discourage the raising of
Jatropha as an intercrop or even as pure crop under Joint Forest Management. Rather,
it would facilitate the extension of Joint Forest Management on a large scale. Once
the villagers start getting benefited in a sustained manner, their individual economics
and social status as well as genera] living conditions in the villages are bound to be

improving. The attachment with the forests and the foresters is likely to increase a lot
and in this way the problems being faced by the foresters in protecting and conserving
the forests would be minimized. Joint Forest Management shall not be a programme
to be thrusted upon, rather it will take a shape of a programme to be sought by the
villagers themselves and here lies the success of such a movement. It can be rightly
predicted that the plantations of Jatropha would turn the fortunes of the villagers at
right angle and the anticipated mass Jatropha movement would reduce the
consumption of the diesel to noticeable limits saving the hard earned foreign
exchange as a result of reduction in oil imports.
Anonymous, 1991 the Wealth of India: Raw Materials Vol. V: H-K, Council of
Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi pp. 332 Kumar, Prakash. Research
Analysis, Bio Diesel: An Overview, www.jatropha/energy
lines.htm Lele, Satish The cultivation of Jatropha curcas,
cultivation of Jatrophacurcas.htm Maharishi, A. Growing Diesel Fuel Plant-
Cultivation for Bio-diesel Production,
SRIPHIL. page.htm Sharma, Ravindra
2005. Agro-Technique of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants. Daya
Publishing House, Delhi, pp. 211-217.

                     H.P.Chaudhary, Professor & Head, Forestry
                             P.K.Singh, Vice Chancellor
                     K.D.Upadhyay Dean, College of Agriculture
               C.S.A.University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur

India is committed to the concept of sustainable management of its forest resources
and tree wealth. The proportion of the country‟s geographical area under forest/tree
cover is one of the basic criteria to judge sustainability. The national forest policy
aims at covering at least one third of the country with forests and trees. In order to
achieve this goal the Ministry of Forestry, Government of India has taken several
steps, including Joint Forest Management and strengthening of much legislation. The
present assessment shows that forest (20.55 %) and tree cover (2.48 %) together
constitute a healthy sign covering 23.03% of the country‟s geographical area. But,
infact the effective forest cover in India is only about 11.00 %. Now it is the need of
the time to have tree cover and water balance sheet too like financial balance sheet for
our survival and sustainable development of the country.
       Being the heart and lungs of the world, forests act as barometers of
environment and economy. The destinies of humans and trees have remained tightly
bound since the dawn of human history, with trees and forests being incorporated into
culture, religion, and mythology by people of every continent. Forests have exerted a
tremendous influence in survival and economic development of many societies.

Increase in population, industrialization and urbanization have taken their toll on
some of the earth‟s forest cover and placed the rest in jeopardy. Knowing all the facts
that protection of our motherland and consequently our survival depends on forest /
tree but we are not only ignoring this asset but damaging. If this situation continues
this planet (earth) will be unfit for life like others and what to talk for food, shelter
and water and the living beings will not survive in the want of oxygen.
        The year 2004 and summer of 2005 will be remembered as the year of
vagaries. Decreasing and erratic rainfall, recurrent floods and droughts, declining
ground water reserves and its quality, global warming, green house effects, growing
desertification, deteriorating soil health etc. are clear indications that we have not
learnt to live in harmony with nature. We cannot take granted that nature will behave
as we want it to behave. If we misuse the natural resources, nature reacts and often
reacts violently resulting in large-scale misery and destruction. If we want to live in
peace and enjoy the fruits of nature, we must learn to conserve and use nature‟s
resources wisely.
        Forests are the known moderator of climate and vegetation and have made the
soil a living organism in nature. Luxuriantly growing vegetation in the hall mark of
stable, productive soil with water adequately conserved under earth and fresh and
pure air and water above it, maintaining a healthy environment for man and animals
to live in peace.
        Apart from these growing menace of natural problems the bane of
deforestation also resulted in serious problems of sustainability and protection of
agriculture, employment and cottage industries, unavailability of forest produce both
timber and non- timber products, wild life etc.
        Non Himalayan Rivers have been shrinking in size from year to year mainly
due to shrinking of green cover in catchments areas. When trees on hilltops are gone
there is nothing to catch water from air, and no springs flow to make a rivulet that
may join the river below. The river will dry over a period of time. Loss of tree cover
also leads to land slides which result in silting of rivers dams. Therefore, a green
cover is a must for maintaining the ecological balances of all kinds. It is the key factor
of life on planet earth.
        Forest/tree cover scenario in U.P. has only 4.6% of its geographical area under
forest and its alluvial plain has hardly 3.0%. The salt affected districts have only 1.8%
land covered with permanent vegetation. The more startling information is that 53%

forest area has open forest cover having crown density 10 to 40%, out of which 38%
is reported as degraded, classified wasteland devoid of any worthwhile vegetation.
Having 33 percent of the land in U.P. under forest can be said to be distant dream but
efforts are being made to launch a massive programme of afforestration. The situation
has to be seen in other way that 9/10th of the glass of our goal is empty and the panic
button is already pushed if we have ears to hear and eyes to see.
Areas for enhancing tree cover
        Now it is a proven fact that the area under reserve forest can hardly be
increased. Alternatively the tree cover on agricultural lands, degraded/wastelands on
watershed basis in rural areas, offices, institutions and other community
community/social places may be increased.
                                1. Watershed projects
        Community based watershed development has now become the guiding
principle for rejuvenation of natural resources, especially land and water in the rural
areas. The potential of this approach in empowering rural communities economically
as well as socially has been recognized widely by one and all and has been receiving
considerable support from a large number of experts and practitioners in the field of
watershed development. Nevertheless, Government assistance for watershed
development programmes has been massive and increasing every year, as a
consequence of which these programmes are under constant scrutiny for more visible
and speedier results.
Some experiences of DPAP/IWDP watershed project
         In a study the percentage of area treated under afforestation in 1226 projects
of 15 districts has been 10.11, 5.49, 7.95, 3.58, 2.34,2.01,2.37 & 1.78 out of total area
treated during 1995-96, 96-97, 97-98, 98-99, 99-2000, 2000-01, 2001-02 and 2002-
03, respectively. Out of total expenditure incurred under afforestation it has been
16.29, 9.50, 10.00, 5.59, 1.94, 2.41, 1.65 and 1.66 per cent during 95-96, 96-97, 97-
98, 98-99, 99-2000, 2000-2001, 2001-2002 and 2002-03, respectively (Sinha, 2003).
        From the evaluation report of 211 IWDP Watershed projects of the nine
districts of the State (Aligarh-24, Agra-19, Chandauli-25, Firozabad-18, Lakhimpur
kheeri-26, Lucknow-20, Mirzapur-24, Sitapur -33 and Varanasi-22) it has been
reported that only in district Aligharh physical and financial target on afforestation

and horticulture was kept in 12 watersheds out of 24 watersheds but only in one
watershed (Kamruha) about 65 per cent of target was achieved. This way in 23
watersheds out of 24 watersheds of district Aligarh no work on afforestation and
horticulture was done. In other 8 districts of the state as mentioned above afforestation
and horticultural work was not done except in district Mirzapur where total of 23975
tree seedlings were planted (Chaudhary and Sinha, 2003).
         As per the watershed guidelines the expenditure under afforestation should
be 10% of total expenditure done in work. But the data show that due emphasis has
not been given on afforestation. It is noteworthy that both the area and expenditure
under the afforestation are declining every year and have reached to almost
insignificant position. Although, it is gathered from some evaluation reports that a
good progress has been made under afforestation in the form of treated area and
expenditure have been done but practically survival afforestation is either very less or
nil. This is also clear from the declining trend of afforestation under treated area and
expenditure with the advancement of the year. It shows that earlier the emphasis was
given to the afforestation work but due to the failure of plantations because of lack of
fencing, free grazing, scarcity of water etc. it has presented poor scenario. Now the
problems of afforestation and its survival need to be discussed in detail and addressed.
Reasons for not taking plantation work in watershed projects
1.     Lack of awareness among the watershed users about deteriorating
       environmental and ecological problems happening due to decreasing
       vegetation cover
2.     Excessive biotic pressure on land
3.     Free grazing by stray cattle and cost of fencing is too much
4.     Scarcity of water
5.     Problem of insect and pest
6.     Problem of marketing of tree produce
7.     PIA‟S more interest in earth work
Strategies for increasing afforestation:
    Particularly in Bundelkhand region where larger area participation would be of
     utmost importance in checking up the stray cattle problem i.e. Anna Pratha. It
     has already been demonstrated for its excellent result in certain selected pocket
     of district Mahoba. The programme should be peoples programme at their own
     initiative, and cultural measures.

   Scarcity of water could be solved by ensuring availability of water from either
    of the locally available resources at least for initial year of establishment of the
   Peri urban and peri village area could be adopted first for plantations as its
    could be more manageable for sustenance of the plantations.
   Tanks digging under “Food for Work Plan” in the rural area may be linked up
    with afforestation scheme with a view to ensure water availability to the new
    is under DPAP, people‟s plantations.
   For sustenance of new plantation, care may be taken for their protection from
    diseases and insects-pests.
   Arrangements should be made for protection guard for at least 4-5 years of the
    initial plantation so that it could not be harmed by animals and human beings.
   We should identify the plants and species which could really survive in the
    particular area.
   People are required to be thoroughly trained and motivated for plantation and
    their survival methods. During their training programme, they may be taken
    on excursion so as to make them fully convinced and understand the
    sustainable forest management methodology.
   In order for locally managing the afforestation programme village forest
    committee and eco-development committee should be established and
    involved in micro planning of joint and sustainable forest management.
   People‟s participation should essentially involve for management control of
    animal grazing.
   Location specific forest management programme should be planned with the
    help of people‟s participation.
   Public should be motivated for reduction on forest dependency through use of
    alternate resources of energy utilization.
   The requirement of seedlings for forest and fruit trees may be collected in
    advance for procuring seedlings from reputed govt. and private nurseries at the
    time of on set of rainy season.
   Demonstration on forestry, horticulture and seed/seedlings may be arranged as
    provided in project.
   Apart from training, T and V programme will be quite educative and effective.

      The visits, meetings and supervision of works by watershed development
       teams, watershed committee, president and secretary of watershed association
       are needed at regular intervals.
      Watershed users must be encouraged to have less but productive animals and
       rear them at home rather than numbers of unproductive animals and leaving
       them stray.
      Liaison with research and technical institutions and convergence of various
       rural development programmes of other departments may be promoted to
       ensure this holistic development.
                               2. Degraded/wastelands
Nature and Extent of the degradation problems
       If the six categories of land under USAR & uncultivable, cultivable waste,
pasture & grazing, shrubs and old and current fallow are rated as degraded, a total of
32.81 lakh ha or 13.56% of the geographical area of 242 lakh ha are degraded. To this
should be added part of the open forest area and rain fed agricultural land being
poorly managed which may amount to nearly 20 lakh ha. Thus a total of 52.81 lakh ha
or 21.82 % of the geographical area in the State is in different stages of degradation.
Land use classification is not based on the nature of problems. However the
information does give how our land resource base is being degraded.
       Degraded lands are gateway to wastelands. Out of total 22.69 lakh ha or
9.40% of geographical area of the state is covered by wastelands. Area wise in lakh
ha, the five categories constituting Saline alkali (5.811), land with/without scrub
(5.258), waterlogged and marshy lands (4.913), gullied & ravenous lands (2.790) and
degraded notified forest lands (2.250) account of 8.69% and the remaining 0.71% is
covered by smaller areas of barren rocks (0.772), sands (0.470), degraded pasture
(0.330), degraded plantation lands (0.040), mining and industrial wastelands (.028)
and steep sloping areas (0.026). The ten districts which have highest concentration (in
Sq.Km.) of wastelands are Bahraich 1566, Lalitpur 1259, Mirzapur 1248, Hardoi
1133, Jhansi 937, Alld 804, Banda 696, Unnao 680, Kanpur 665, and Gonda 647.
       Saline alkali soils suffer from high sodicity to a metre depth and salinity of
highly toxic sodium carbonate. Very often the soils have a kankar layer at 60-100 cm
depth. Soil permeability is very low. Environment is hostile to plant growth. Worst
affected districts lie in the lower half of Ganga-Yamuna and Ganga-Ghagra doabs.

       Water logging is due to seepage from canal, water stagnation on the surface
and/or shallow groundwater levels. High rainfall in low land gradient areas also
contributes to water logging. The problem is acute in the districts coming under north
eastern plains, eastern plains, eastern tarai and their periphery.
       Ravine/gully formation is very active on the banks of Yamuna, Chambal,
Betwa, Kali, Son and their tributaries where a major river cuts a channel deep from its
banks and the runoff from the tableland has to negotiate a steep slope and a waterfall
like situation is created. Further extension of the gully is upwards, when a system of
gullies is formed running parallel to each other. Ravine formation is eating into the
land resource base and creating law and order problems. Water table is very deep in
ravenous areas. Soil does not suffer from salinization. Gorges are deep, terracing cost
is unprofitable.
       Lands with/Without scrub are largely undulating and located mostly in
Bundelkhand and Mirzapur districts. The soils are shallow, and fertility very poor.
Significant areas also occur in Muzaffarnagar, Bijnor, Badaun in the western region
and Gonda, Hardoi and Faizabad in the eastern and mid-plains in the alluvial belt.
Here also the soils have undulating topography and poor fertility. All these sols suffer
from sheet erosion.
Causes of Land Degradation
       Increasing population and pressure on land have made stringent demands on
natural resources of land and water for food, fibre, fuel, fodder, timber and industrial
needs. This has lead to degradation of the natural resource base. There are four causes
of land degradation
       1.      Deforestation
       2.      Over-grazing
       3.      Over-cultivation
       4.      Uncontrolled irrigation
1. Deforestation: Destruction of forest is primarily due to increasing demand of
firewood, fodder and commercial timber exploitation. With the separation of hill
districts from U.P. bulk of the forest area has gone to Uttranchal and the state is left
with 11.073 lakh ha of forest cover which is 4.59% of its geographical area. Per capita
forest area in the state has been reduced to 0.0067 ha which is lowest in the country.
The forest cover in different regions of the state along with the proportion of dense to
open forest has been summarised in the following table. The startling information is

that only 46.9 of the forest area are under dense cover and 53.11% is under open (10
to 40%) cover. The Central Region has the lowest forest cover of 2.69% followed by
Western Region (3.05) which shows that the Gangetic plain is bereft of forest cover;
the salt affected districts have only 1.8% under natural cover.
          The more startling information is that out of 5.881 lakh ha of open forest,
2.250 lakh ha is reported as degraded, classified as waste, devoid of vegetation.
Salt affected and water logging areas
Afforestation for Bio-drainage
          All plants transpire water. The rate of transpiration depends primarily upon
climatic condition, type and species of plantation, and availability of soil moisture in
the root zone. Agriculture crops consume major part of the irrigation water by
transpiration but the water lost in percolation during field application and that lost
through seepage in the conveyance system, goes down to the ground water reservoir.
As and when the water table surface comes up sufficiently high, and is within the
reach of roots of trees in plantations, the trees start drawing water from the ground
water reservoir through the process of transpiration. This process of withdrawal of
ground water by plantations is termed „Bio-drainage‟.
Benefit of Bio-drainage over other drainage methods
          In comparison to horizontal and vertical drainage, bio-drainage has been found
advantageous in the following aspects:
1.        The cost is low
2.        Besides keeping water table rise in control it provides additional benefit in the
form of shelterbelt against wind hazards, food and forest produce.
3.        No energy is required for pumping water
4.        Bio drainage has all-round positive impact on environment and more
particularly in dry and arid regions whereas other methods of drainage leave adverse
5.        Social acceptability of bio drainage is positive while of horizontal and vertical
drainage is negative.
Experiences of Indira Gandhi Nahar Project (IGNP), Rajasthan
          In the IGNP, Rajasthan land strips on both sides of all canals have been
reserved for plantations. The width of the strips on either side of the canals varies
between 200-300 m on main canal, 100-150 m on branch canals and 40-70 m on
distributaries canals.

Based on experiences grained from IGNP, Rajasthan, following guidelines have been
      Minimum size of plantation plot to be 12.6 ha.
      Area to be reserved for tree plantation plots is to be kept about 10 per cent of
       cultivable area as follows :
      As far as possible, the tree plantation plots should be selected at lowest surface
       ground levels in the irrigation blocks.
      The distance between plantation plots may generally vary between 1 Km-2Km
      The plantations may be effective in lowering down water table up to a
       maximum distance of 1 Km.
      While planning location of plantation plots in any block, the position of
       plantation plots in adjoining blocks and along canals is to be taken into
It is not necessary that plantations are planned in compact blocks in the middle of
irrigated area. Parallel afforestation strips 50 m or more wide, suitably spaced, if
feasible, can provide better and more effective drainage arrangement.
Strategies for bringing waterlogged and salt affected soils under production through
1.     Soils should be characterized for the suitability of various tree species. Surface
       soil conditions as well as soil profile characteristics should be determined.
2.     The wasteland area which is not under any type of production must be
afforested with the recommended species and technology. Suitability of tree species
and technology are available for both the category of land. The area must be strictly
closed for grazing. Experience shows that waste and unproductive areas when
afforested by 5-6 species and closed for grazing developed into green dense forest
having much more number of important tree species than actually planted.
3.     As per the characterization a belt of 50-100 m of plantation along the Canal
Bank should be done. The next 50-100 m strip row of agro forestry can be adopted.
After the second strips (AF) pure cropping of agricultural crops as per the type of soil
should be taken.
4.     Fuel and fodder are the basic requirements of the village community whose
annual rate of planting has to be kept in relation to the demand and where fast

growing species which are nitrogen fixers, produce fuel and fodder and are of
industrial importance should be selected.
5.     Biological amelioration of degraded lands can successfully be done by closure
to grazing, improving the quality of livestock and reduction of unproductive cattle.
Rotational grazing can be permitted under controlled condition. Experiments
conducted by the Agriculture Department as early as 1881 where simple closure and
exclusion of grazing at several places in the state enabled even the worst type of alkali
lands to produce plentiful supply of grass for fodder in course of time. Plantation
done in better places grew in thick forest wherever protected from cattle grazing.
6.     Forestry is a long term enterprise and returns come after a long time. Inter-
cropping can partly compensate but special incentives will have to be given to raise
farm forestry even to a social forestry programme in the form of easy credit, free
seedlings and buy back assurance of the produce at remunerative price. Panchayati
Raj institutions and other community based organizations should be involved and
helped facilitating mobilization of local finances and micro credit.
7.     Replacement of all felling of trees should be must and strictly observed in all
the contracts, species by species.
8.     A pilot project on low cost for biological amelioration of sodic land with
people‟s participation integrated with cattle development programme is proposed
below. A 100 ha block should be trench fenced and bunded around on which prosopis
should be planted. A few criss-cross channels can provide drainage to some
neighboring drain. Babul (A.nilotica), Casuarina (Australian pine), Kanji (Pangomia
pinnata), Eucalyptus, Arjun etc. can be planted. Closure to grazing is proposed by
willing participation of graziers and owners of the land. In turn grasses can be cut and
carried at nominal rates. Cattle improvement and reduction of unproductive cattle
programme can be taken in association with Animal Husbandry Department. Finances
can be taped from scheme seeking employment generation, creating durable assets,
give subsidiary occupation to people and environment protection. A sustainable
management programme can be developed through Self Help Group of Women
       Since tree take water and nutrients from long distances by their large network
of roots hence, plantation on any possible area must be done which will be helpful in
controlling water logging and salinity even at distant places.
                              3. Community/social areas

          Community pays for essential facilities but not for the regeneration of green
cover- the basic source of our survival.
          Everybody seems to be putting the blame of loss of tree cover on somebody
else, be it government or the local bodies. But very often we find that the community
is not ready for generating or maintaining the tree cover. The residents of a residential
complex in an urban area are ready to pay for electricity, roads, telephones, water
pipes, cable connections etc, but they are not ready to pay for maintaining a tree
outside their house or the park with many trees. They take greenery for granted. It is
high time that the community realizes that green cover is as much part of living
infrastructure as any other facility. If the green cover is essential for healthy living, it
is to be paid for and protected. Just as the community or its individual members are
ready to pay for a cable connection they should not hesitate to pay for maintenance of
green cover in their locality.
          The question is as to how one pay for this asset. The authors have found that
many municipal corporations are actually charging a fee for maintaining green cover
in residential areas. They are supposed to provide maintenance services for the green
cover also. Many times, the green cover is replaced with small bushes instead of trees,
which is not desired. The municipal boards should maintain trees instead of small
Afforestation in Residential Areas of cities
          Many times it is found that when people book flats for living in so called
green areas, they find that the greenery is taken over by other residential or
commercial complexes and area has become barren. Without doubt the builder has
charged them the price of greenery that existed at the time of booking the residential
unit. But he had no control or commitment to maintain that greenery. The city
planners often overlook the master plan and convert green belts into residential or
commercial complexes. Therefore, people who love green environs should take
control of their surrounding environment and be prepared to bear the costs.
          The costs will change from location to location. But it may be less than what
we may imagine and the benefits may be more than what we could calculate in
monitory terms. Let us take a residential building with 100 units. In Mumbai, the
amount paid for one unit can be taken to be at least two million rupees. Now if each
purchaser agrees to contribute 10 % additional amount towards the green cover, the
cooperative society of the occupants, may be able to purchase adjoining plots for

maintaining a private green garden. If several building combines, they may be able to
support a big green cover and it is bound to add value their property and pay for itself
in no time. If all the city dwellers come together, they can have the city of their
Afforestation in and around cities
       Next take the example of cities. Every city should have its own forest. If
governments and local bodies can spend large amounts of budgetary grants for
building sport stadiums, why can they not spend some money for development of city
forest? Here it is important to make a distinction between a city park and a city forest.
A city park can have everything except large number of shady trees. A city forest
should be described as one having 90% areas under large green trees. We are quite
sure that a city of population of a few million people can support a city forest of at
least a few hundred hectares. The benefits of maintaining a city forest are far beyond
imagination, though there may be some managerial problems. These managerial
problems are nothing compared to managerial problems of, let us say, traffic
management. It is in fact right time to get managers into forest management and
marketing experts who can explain the benefits of maintaining a city forest. Apart
from the direct benefits the tree in its life time gives many indirect benefits worth of
several lakhs of rupees viz. oxygen, enrichment of air, absorption of water and
humidity control, enrichment of soil, shelter of animals and birds shade etc.
       The city forest will come along with what a forest is supposed to include. The
city forest will not only have a large variety of plants, it will also be host to wild
animals and other variety of life including singing birds. The city dwellers have to
learn to live with them. All other life forms may not be a threat for human life. In fact
they are not. It is only human greed that drives most of them away. The forest may
have its own pond and water courses, which will thrive if not disturbed. Above all the
forest will provide a variety in the landscape, so important for a beautiful city.
Afforestation in Zoo
       In addition to city forests, the Zoos also need protection of the community.
The existing zoos should be preserved in their original shape with forest cover. Tree
cutting in Zoo premises should not be allowed. Construction of entertainment parks
within Zoo premises can not be allowed in the name of generating funds. One fails to
understand as to why adequate budgetary grants can not be given for maintaining this

last refuge of animal and plant life? On the other hand municipal bodies can use some
of their tax revenue for giving grants to maintain city Zoo.
Afforestation on Highway
       Mumbai Pune highway is an excellent driving experience. But the loss of
green cover and biodiversity has been immense. A large number of trees were cut
down to build this highway. Money to build this highway is being realized from the
users. But what happened to regeneration of greenery? Where has the compensatory
plantation been done? This plantation is not visible on the near by hillocks. If it is
being done on some remote part of the country in some other city or state, how is it
going to compensate for loss of greenery in this part of the country? It is a common
site to see old trees being mercilessly chopped down for building new roads and
widening the existing one. There is no attempt to improve road usage efficiency
before embarking upon building new roads. There are examples of roads in rural
areas, specially the hill areas, going from nowhere to anywhere. Roads have been
constructed for the sake of construction only. It is high time that all construction
activity should be weighed against costs and benefits. If an existing road can take care
of increased traffic, than no new road should be constructed and if widening of road
leads to cutting of hundreds of trees than widening should be avoided as far as
possible. Replacement tree plantation should precede tree cutting and not the other
way round.
       Transport of man and material should not lead to drastic reduction of green
cover. Road and rail transport should be organized for maximum efficiency. Public
transport should be made more efficient so that private transport is discouraged. In
any case it should be seen that trees are not the last priority on roads. If road dividers
can house electricity poles than whey can‟t they house trees? Trees are often cut so
that the branches do not interfere with telephone and cable wires! New wireless
telephones or under ground cables can take care of this problem.
Tree plantation in large areas essential for water cycle regeneration.
       We are often over taken by the fact the under ground water is being depleted.
Rain water harvesting has been proposed as the panacea for taking care of this
problem. But what happens when the rainfall itself goes down? This, if fact is the
story of most successful rain water harvesting examples in India today. Take the data
of rainfall of Havery Bazar village in Ahamed Nagar District of Maharashtra.
Though some forest cover has been regenerated, rainfall is seems to be going down.

One of the reasons could be that green cover regeneration in an isolated area is not
going to have any impact on rainfall. Unless large area is recovered under forests,
rainfall is not going to show any improvement. Similar is the case with Rale Gaon
Sidhi area. Rainfall every year has been going down in that area also. It is indicated
that rain water harvesting does not ensure more rains. This has been proved by Nilgiri
Hills plantation also which were almost base of trees. Subsequently these hills were
planted with Eucalyptus and were found that although the total rainfall was not
increased, there has been increase in the number of rainy day with increase of forests
over these hills.
        Isolated projects of rain water harvesting will not solve the problem. Rainfall
cycle regeneration has to do with more things than the tree cover. But a tree cover is
an essential prerequisite for adequate rainfall. The limited aspect being examined here
is the relationship between tree cover and rainfall within a limited geographical area.
Diminishing rainfall has many alarming tones attached to it. One scientific study has
revealed that less snowfall/solidified rainfall has led to reduction in size of Himalayan
glaciers and this has led to less inflow into the rivers. Less water inflow will lead to
less water in man made dams and therefore less water for irrigation and power
generation. Some day many of our rivers may dry up. This is a phenomenon which
has occurred in history like the Sarwasti River in Allahabad.
Unprotected plantation will not help
        Unprotected and unmanaged plantation is being done both in public and
private sector and by the community, which almost results some times in total failure
or insignificant survival.
1. Public Sector
        In most of the town areas, road side, canal bank, railway line; parks etc
plantation is done involving very high cost but without consideration of stray cattle.
Though at some places protection guard is provided but it becomes useless due to free
grazing of cattle. Pit preparation and other planting procedure are not followed as far
need and specification of plantation is concerned. After the plantation even watering
is not done timely. The success of survival is left to chance and the accountability is
not fixed on any one. If we see the data of any aforesaid plantation and its success of
survival that will put us in very precarious situation.
2. Private agencies & social organizations

       At number of places plantation is carried out by private agencies and social
organizations. However, no proper after care is taken by these organizations excepting
a few cases. After the inaugural function of plantation watering is not done. Proper
plantation procedures are not adopted. In some cases plantation is done to gain
popularity and take advantages this or that way. Plantation is not done with the aim of
success or dedication to the society.
Strategies for development of greenery
1.         Extensive awareness should be created through meetings, news papers, and
electronic media about the benefits of greenery.
2.         Grazing of cattle must be banned and it should be made punishable/criminal
3.         The agencies organizations should be made accountable for the failure of
plantation programme. Strict monitoring and evaluation in needed for the success of
4.         Private agencies must take plantation survival oriented rather than to gain
popularity. They should also be made accountable for survival of plantation.
5.         House/ plot owners must be made accountable for plantation and its survival
in the periphery of their houses as per space and specification and in lieu of that they
should be given some tax rebate.
6.         City development authorities must have tree cover balance sheet and there
must be continuous contingent plant to increase greenery in places in the city. It
should always keep in mind about tree cover and not for numbers of trees. One well
grown up tree is equal to thousands of new-planted seedlings.
7.         Felling of the trees should be carried only in accordance to felling rules. It
should be done if there is no other alternative. If at all it is needed it must be
supplemented by planting number of plantation in near by area where it is situated.
8.         All the waste/ lands or unutilized land of Govt., Institutions, or private
owners land must be put under plantation may be for short rotational tree crop. If
these areas, however can not be put under plantation it must be forced and prohibited
for grazing and natural vegetation should be allowed to grow. No one should be
allowed to interfere until this area is needed for utilization of other work.
9.         The plantation drive will have to be stepped up several folds to cover the
vacant lands as fast as possible.

10.     Tree plantation drive should not only cover the conventional wasteland in
record but also roadsides, railway banks, canal sidings, village common lands such as
thrashing floor, tube well surroundings, house surroundings, field bunds, public places
etc. Similarly, in towns also several such places are available for planting, parks and
parking places in particular.
11.     A five year town and village habitation beautification plan should be prepared
for all towns and villages of the State. Bigger towns can have sector-wise plans.
Need of more forestry education
       The great worldwide upsurge in interest in forestry is undoubtedly to be
welcomed by the professional forester, for it has for the most part, a beneficial effect.
Now, it is well proved fact that as per the guide line of National Forest Policy, 1988
that 1/3 of the geographical area of the country should be under forest/tree cover for
stable environment balance ecology along with to meet the various direct produce
demands of the country, we will have to make mass afforestation in rural areas in
addition to rejuvenation of 70% degraded reserve forest. Seeing the very huge target,
the limited personnel trained in various forestry training centres can not alone do this
job. Therefore, to supplement the gap of forestry personnel, Agricultural Universities
and Colleges should come forward. As stated above that to fulfil the required demand
of forest/tree cover, we will have to go in rural areas also from reserve forest areas, if
really India wants and has determination to increase forest/tree cover, it should adopt
the pattern of agricultural development in the country which has been possible
through development agriculture education. India has increased its production about 4
times since independence and now we are very much surplus in food grains. Now, it
is necessary to post these forestry-trained graduates in various forestry projects
accordingly. It is being realized that there is greater demand of forestry experts
everywhere in rural areas development programme. The unavailability of forestry
expert is also one of the main reasons of poor afforestation development in rural
areas. Now, the country should take much active initiative to produce Forestry
Graduates in Agricultural Universities and Colleges.
Planting Species of Fodder, Fuel and Timber:
      Fodder trees like Acacia nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, Moringa oleifera, Morus alba,
Zizyphus sp. etc., Grasses like Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon fulfus, Dicanthium
spp., Panicum spp., legumes like Stylosanthes spp., Among timber Neem
(Azadirachta indica) Shisham (Dalbargia sisso) can be lanted in ravinous lands.

Brachiaria mutica, Paspalum notatum, Setaria spp. are recommended in humid areas.
In saline sodic areas the grasses such as Cenchrus, ciliaris, Dicanthyium annulatum,
Iseilema laxum, Brachiaria mutica. Panicum maximum, Panicum antidotale and range
legumes such as Clitoria ternatea, Desmathus virgatus, Siratro, Dolichos spp etc may
be successfully grown.
Chaudhary, H.P. and Sinha, K.K. (2003). Plantation less IWDP watershed Project of
Uttar Pradesh-Need strong Joint Attention of Government, PIAs and Watershed
Users. Proceeding of National Seminar on Forest Resource Management Nov. 15-17,
2003 pp 69-73 held at C.S.A. Univ. of an Agric. & Tech., Kanpur
Sinha, K.K. (2003). Watershed development: An Afforestation scenario in Uttar
Pradesh. Souvenir and abstracts. National Seminar on Forest Management Nov. 15-
17, 2003. pp, 100-108 held at C.S.A. Univ. of Agric. & Tech., Kanpur.


                                Umendre Sharma, IFS
                                    CCF (Training)
                                  FTI, Kanpur (U.P.)
Uttar Pradesh with 24.09 mha geographical area has only nearly 7% of its geographical
area under forest. Therefore it is very clear that the national objective of covering
33% of geographical area can not be met without Social forestry, Agro forestry and
other community initiatives. Forest Development Agencies are very effective
arrangement to induce this change. Forest Department has to change its role from
regulator to facilitator agency. Rural stakeholders have to adapt to this change and
have to adapt themselves more in the management of forest.
       This changed role requires capacity building of all the stake holders. This
change of role can be achieved by training activity of Forest staff as well as other
stakeholders need to be trained to understand and assume their few role effectively.
       Presently projects implemented under NAP have some money allocation to
spend on trainings but this money is not being used very scientifically. Training
imparted without identifying the specific training needs and the specific target groups,
cannot achieve its objective.
Design brief for training of stakeholders of FDAs and JFMCs

1. Client - Chairman and Member Secretary, FDA.
2. Stakeholders
       A t F D Level

                 Foresters (JFMCs Secretary)
                 Forest Range officers
                 Assistant Conservator of Forests.
                 Chairmen of JFMCs
                 Non official representatives of the Zila Panchayats in Apex
                  Institution of Panchayats in the district.
                 JFMC Members in the Executive Body of FDA
        At JFMC Level
                     Chairman of JFMC
                     Members of JFMC
                     NGO Motivator if any.

3. Identified training needs –

1-        To create awareness about National Afforestation Programme (N A.P.) and
its objectives.
2-      To create awareness about FDA & JFMC‟s Working Mechanism.
3-      To create awareness about how to ensure people‟s participation for
implementation of Plantations, P. R. A. (Participatory Rural Appraisal)
4-        To      update the    knowledge      of chairman     and   secretary   of JFMCs
regarding accounting of Money received and incurring expenditure, reporting and
record keeping.
5-      To improve social skills of Forest officers of the FDA about Motivation,
conflict resolution. Training and awareness methods and techniques.
6-      To get financial assistance from other schemes and Programmes like
DRDA, MPLAD, Horticulture Mission and N.M.P.B., etcetera.

4. Significant constraints –

1-      Allocation of Funds for awareness or Training arc little (1% of the
plantation cost).
2-      Some mechanism has to be developed to use savings from overheads, fencing
etc. which could be used for training
3-      Late release of funds from donor agencies.

4-          Forest officers and JFMC members may be busy in oilier acti vi ties,
therefore not available for training as programmed

      6. Training design for the state of U.P. –
Time & Learning Units                     Details              Training              Trainer
     Date                                                       Method/                  and
                                                               Technique             Institute
!Day 1       Introduction      • About NAP.                 Lecture            Faculty of F.T.I.,
                               • Role   of FDA,                                Kanpur or
                                   JFMCs                                       regional training
                               •   Status of JFM                               centres
                               • PR A
                               •   Micro planning

Day 2        Success stories   •   of JFMCs                   Lecture          Field officers
                               *   Analysis                 • Group
                               •   Problems it any            discussion
                               *   Problem solving          • Video films

Day 3        To conduct        To gather data         for   PRA       tools Faculty of FT1,
&            PRA for Micro     Micro Planning               Meetings ere.   Kanpur, regional
Day 4        Planning in a                                                     training centres ,
Day 5        Preparation of Preparation of micro            Group              Faculty of F'TI,
             draft of Micro plan                            discussion      on Kanpur, regional
             Plan                                           micro plan         training centres
Day 6                          * Discussion on the          Group              Faculty of FT1,
                               issues coming out            discussion         Kanpur,
                               from the PRA
                               •   Feedback from the
                               participants     for
                               future     Training
                               •   Evaluation of the
                               Training courses

6. Facilities required for training -
1-         Hostels for forest employees & officers with mess facilities and JFMC
2-     LCD Projector
3-     Lecture Rooms
4-     GPS and Survey (if possible)
5-     Library
6-     Facilities for indoor & outdoor games to. Develop team spirit among participants.
7-     Photocopier etc for training course material.
7. Cost of training -
Cost of training will be under Rs. 500/- per day per Trainee.


                           IN THE DEVELOPMENT
                                Star Paper Mill Limited
                              Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh)

       Paper industry is a very important industry as it plays a pivotal role in
promoting literacy and communication in a country. Today in India this industry is
passing through a very critical phase with competitiveness and profitability being a
matter of concern in the liberalised economy. The average capacity of a large
integrated paper mill in India is about 0.1 million tonne, whereas, the average global
capacity would be around 0.4 million tonne. The biggest impediment in expanding
capacities is a lack of sustainable supply of raw material. Despite growing domestic
requirements no new green-field ventures have been planned, primarily because of the
uncertainties associated with the sustainable availability of raw material.
       Per capita consumption of paper in India is only 4.8 kg compared to China‟s
29.6 kg, Indonesia‟s 13.3 kg, Malaysia‟s 161 kg, Japan‟s 260 kg and USA‟s 334 kg.
India‟s requirement for paper and paperboards are likely to be 8.5 million tonne/year
by 2010. Total pulpwood requirement in India would be approximately 24 million
tonne. This requirement can be met on a sustainable and cost effective basis through
captive plantations, raised through genetically improved clonal planting stock, over an
area of 1.2 million ha assuming on average improved productivity of 20 t/ha/year. As
India has 32 million ha of degraded forest lands and nearly 100 million ha of non-
forest wastelands, there should be no difficulty for the government to set apart 1.2
million ha equivalent to 1 percent of the total 132 million ha of degraded lands, for
such plantations.
       Production of 6 million tonne of pulp from these captive plantations will mean
a huge saving of around 4200 million US $ as foreign exchange, tremendous local
value addition, and great employment opportunity for the rural poor. These

plantations will increase green cover, help in minimising biotic pressure on the natural
forest and conserve their rich bio-diversity.
Plantation programme of Star Paper Mills Limited
       Star Paper Mill is one of the oldest paper mills, established in the year 1937,
has present capacity of production of around 75,000 tonnes of paper. Essentially this
Mill used various type of forest based raw material procured from Government
forests, however present scenario of raw material has changed and now SPML has
been meeting major requirements from manmade plantations.
       Realising the need to have a sustainable base of raw material and keeping in
mind future capacity expansions the company gave its full support to the Farm
Forestry programme. The present annual requirement of mixed hardwoods consisting
of Eucalyptus, Poplar and Bamboo is to the tune of 3 lakh tonne. This is quantity is
procured from government plantations of Uttar Pradesh & Uttranchal and farm
forestry plantations raised by farmers of Uttar Pradesh and Uttranchal.
       SPML made a humble beginning of plantations on farm lands of western Uttar
Pradesh in 1995-1996 with a distribution of around 1.0 million seedlings amongst the
farmers. Since then, activities were accelerated and expanded with the encouraging
participation and response of farmers. Last year (2004-2005) 247 nurseries have been
developed and 22.46 million seedlings distributed amongst farmers of adjoining six
districts of Uttar Pradesh (Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Bijnor, Meerut, Moradabad,
J.P. Nagar) and two districts of Uttranchal (Hardwar and Dehradun). As on date,
around 89.50 million plants were distributed amongst the farmers of Uttar Pradesh
and Uttranchal. SPML have thus contributed to green an area of around 26790
Hectare. Now, our programme envisages raising of over 30 million seedlings every
year and distributing among the farmers. In order to enthuse the farmers for planting,
periodical seminars and workshop are held at various places, where interaction with
farmers helps solving their problems.
       This year (2005-2006), SPML is establishing Kisan Nurseries with target of 30
million plant distributions. The work is under progress. All operations including
raising and planting is done under the technical guidance of our experienced and
technical personnel.

       Apart from environmental improvement, our emphasis is to increase
productivity of renewable wood resource to the benefit of the farmers. For this
purpose we have a research and development centre, where process of development of
improved varieties of clones and its multiplication is in progress. SPML has
developed high yielding clones of Eucalyptus and farmers response for planting of
these clones in very high. During this year there is plan to distribute around 2.0 lakh
clonal plants at a subsidised cost to the farmers.
Economic benefit to society due to farm forestry programme
                            While raising 1 million seedlings around employment of
1600 man days is generated. Similarly employment potential of 432 man days is
generated for raising 1 ha of plantation over a period of 7 years. For harvesting of 1
tonne of pulpwood around 3 man days are generated. This benefit mainly goes to
landless labour and small farmers in the catchments area of the company.
       Farmers of Western Uttar Pradesh and Southern Uttranchal mostly carry out
planting of trees on the periphery of the farms as an additional source of income to the
tune of around Rs.1.5 lakh over a 5 year period. Evolution of Farm Forest in our area
has created additional employment and business opportunity.
Strategies for promoting agro forestry should focus on removing legal barriers,
bringing about market reforms, fostering farmer-industry linkages, and enhancing the
overall profitability of farm forestry. Legal restrictions on land ownership and on the
harvesting and transport of timber products need to be rationalized. While some
effort to revise the norms for timber extraction and transport is under way, the
proposed provisions are far from adequate. Farmer-industry linkages need to be
strengthened by a free flow of information between the producers and consumers on
demand, supply, and pricing of timber products. Further, farmers should receive
support from research and extension.

When there is willingness of industry to participate in afforestation programmes by
investing in long gestation projects on wastelands and providing guarantee for buy-
back for the produce, there is need that Government develop a strategy for involving/
bringing communities and Industry to work with each other in a win-win situation.
                                               In India the Pulp & Paper industry
provides paper and newsprint worth Rs.90, 000 crores per annum and contributes Rs.
16,000 million to the national exchequer through excise duty and taxes annually.
Benefits, accrued from plantations, are given below: -

                                     Raw material security for Industry

                                     Employment generation for rural
         Plantation                  Local value addition & Foreign
                                     Exchange saving
                                     Environment amelioration

                                     Carbon credits

Carbon credits
Apart from generating wood resources and employment, man made plantations
are/will act as sinks for carbon sequestration. As per the Kyoto Protocol plantation
activities are covered under CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). India being a
signatory to the Kyoto Protocol can get benefited by converting wastelands into
plantations and encash this opportunity. Plantation on 1 m Ha can earn carbon credits
worth of US$ 9 million per year and total worth will be US$ 27 million at present rate
of US$ 3 per tonne of carbon sequestered (Kulkarni, 2003 and Singh et al, 2000).
Suggestions for growth of farm forestry and wood based industries
       There are many serious constraints hampering development and growth of
farm forestry, like:
      Allotment of degraded waste/vacant in the forest, road side and on the side of
irrigation canals to pulp and other wood based industries for industrial plantations at
reasonable terms for which modalities may be discussed and worked out.

      Abolition of Transit system (Ravana) and restriction of movement of farm
Forestry produce.
      Kisan Mandi Samiti is having no role in sale and purchase of wood and
bamboo in the state. It would be necessary to delete wood as “Krishi Upaj” from
Krishi Utpadan Mandi Adhiniyam.
      Abolition of statutory ceiling on agricultural land holdings and restrictions on
leasing of land.
      Availability of genetically improved seed and planting stock of tree species.
      Research & Development wing to develop technically sound and
economically attractive agro-forestry models.
      Timely extension services and technical guidance regarding improved package
and practices.
      Long-term credit at reasonable interest rates.
      Integrated development of plantations and wood based industries.
       It is essential to have consuming industries in our state so that the advantage of
value addition accrues to the state where plantation is raised. It is also essential that
every consuming industry whether it is big or small must contribute towards
generation of wood resources. Most of these constraints can be addressed through
innovative policy changes by government.
       As pulp and paper industry is highly capital-intensive with long gestation
period, entrepreneurs will invest in new international standard mills only if bulk of
their future raw material supplies can be secured through captive industrial
plantations. Like wise, existing wood based pulp mills can expand or modernize only
on the basis of sustainable raw material supplies. Therefore, government should
permit the existing and planned future pulp mills to raise 50-60% of their raw material
requirements through captive industrial plantations on degraded forestland.
       A corpus fund could be created by government for promotion of industrial
plantations. Million of man days of rural employment will be generated. It is well
recognized that there is multiplier effect of such measures on the economy and
plantations is the best way to do so.

                    D.K. Chakrabarti, O.P. Singh and C.M. Ojha
       Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Unit, Directorate of Research
 N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U.P.)

       Wilt-disease induced by Fuxariuni siilant f. sp. dalhergia Snyder and Hansen
was identified as the cause of decline of sisso (Dalbergia. sissoo) in the Indian sub
continent. The characteristic symptoms of the disease are yellowing, drying and
falling of leaves and withering of shoots from crown towards base. Symptom
expression varied with edaphic factors. Water logging, clay soil, and monoculture,
high planting density pre-disposed the plants to the disease development. Younger
plants are more vulnerable. The pathogen is soil borne and enters the host through
damaged roots, improved cultural practices, solurination of nursery soil, seed
treatment with Trichoderma or carhendazim reduced the infection. The diseased

plants can be cured by treating its roots with common salt and formalin. Attempts are
being made to develop wilt resistance clones.
        Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex. DC (Indian rose wood) is native to Indian sub-
continent. It is extensively cultivated In Tarai of Nepal, northern states of India.
Bangladesh and Pakistan as timber species for rural and industrial plantation. Its
cultivation small scale farm forestry is encouraged and subsidized by various
governments in poverty elevation programme. Farmers take this plantation approach
as their risk management strategy. This tree has also been planted by public sectors
i.e., forest department and NGOs under participatory forestry approach.
Since last 15 to 20 years sissoo trees are drying at an epidemic rate. In Nepal alone an
estimated loss up to 2003 was 5 billion dollars. From some parts of India the disease
incidence is as high as 80 per cent (Dayarum 2003]. In Pakistan and Bangladesh
also mass mortality of sissoo has been reported and the trees, indeed, are on the verge
of disappearance.

Causal organism:
        The sissoo trees suffer from a number of diseases of which powdery mildew,
leaf spot (Ccrcospora sissoo). leaf blight (Colleioirichum .v/.v.voo), root rot
(Amiirodaema niger) misletoe are often fatal. But the main cause of mortality of
sissoo is considered due to wilting (Bakshi and Singh. 1959).
        Initially it was thought that environmental stress like nutrient deficiency,
extreme drought soil salinity, flooding. water logging and high temperature may be
resulted into mortality. In 1954, a fungus, t'ltsariwn solani f sp. (Jalhergia Sensu
Syndcr and Hansen was reported to be associated with roots of wilt affected plants
(Bakshi. 1954) and later the same was recorded in other places also. Bakshi and Singh
(1959) proved the pathogenicity of fungus in inducing wilting by artificial
inoculation. Recently Dayaram, (2003) also attempted to confirm the
pathogeniticity of the fungus by artificially inoculating the roots of healthy 1-3 years
old standing sissoo. The disease symptoms manifested within 30 days of inoculation
in the form of chlorosis on the top leaves of the plants. Leaf dropping started after 40-
50 days and within 60-70 days drying and defoliation of leaves occurred. The plants
died completed within 90-100 days after inoculation. However, in artificial

inoculation wilting symptoms was some what different from the natural one. Besides.
Ganoderma lucidium has also been reported to cause wilting of sissoo.
       In naturally infected plants three types, of wilting viz., sudden, slow and
partial wilting was noticed. In sudden wilting, leaves of green trees dried and dropped
from top of the tree. The branches started drying from the lop and dried completely
within 3 months. Some times after leaf fall, new small leaves and new shoots
appeared but within 3-4 months again wilting appeared. Such types of symptoms arc
common in low land and water logged plantation. In slow willing, first the green
leaves turned yellow and then branches dried slowly from lop to bottom and dried
completely within 9-12 months. Slow wilting was observed in upland plantation. In
ease of partial witting, a portion of the tree suffered from wilting while the healthy
portion remained alive for a longer period The partially wilted plants underwent total
wilting 2-3 years later.

Pre disposing factors:
       Various factors viz., edaphic and environmental stress, cultural practices, host
age and tree girth were identified to aggravate the disease. Water logging. Hooding.
semi-Hooding and high irrigation caused 73.1. 27.4, 52.1 and 13.8 per cent disease
incidence, respectively (Uayaram et.aL. 2003). Higher wilting incidence in sissoo due
to water logging and high moisture was also recorded by Bakshi (1955 and 1957).
Root injuries due to uncared ploughing and high plant density caused 30.2 and 41.1
per cent disease incidence. Maximum incidence was recorded in plant with 51-100 cm
girth followed by 101-150 cm girth. This shows that younger trees were more
susceptible to disease than the older and higher girth trees (Bakshi, 1955; Dayaram.
2003). However, in Bangladesh wilting of all trees irrespective of age was reported.
Monoculture helps rapid spread of the disease. In dense planted monoculture
plantation, the growing roots of healthy plants easily come in contact with the infected
rots and thus got the infection. Clay soil due to its compactness affects the
development of root system. Besides, compact soil experienced water logging during
rainy season; thus inflicted rotting. Weak and decayed roots served as entry points for
the pathogen. The pathogen survives in soil and thus initiates fresh infection.
Disease management:

       As the disease is soil borne, for cost effective and eco-friendly management of
the disease emphasis has been given on improved cultural practices and better nursery
Cultural methods:
       Plant should be grown in alluvial soil with proper drainage: but never in
degraded land, in case of sissoo plantation in clay soil, vermi compost @. 5 tonnes
ha"1 may be used to make the soil loamy and porous to facilitates its drainage
capacity. Instead of monoculture maximum diversity should be maintained in
Nursery management:
       The pathogen invades the roots at formative stage of young seedlings at
nursery; thus, causing mortality of large number of seedlings. If the environmental
conditions in the mean while become unfavourable, the seedlings may survive
temporarily. The disease may manifest later after transplanting. Hence, prophylactic
measures should be adopted during raising the seedlings. Mulching of nursery soil
with transparent polythene sheet (150 gauge) in April-June for 60 days
reduced the disease incidence up to 80 per cent. Besides seed treatment with bio-
fungicide (Trichodcrma hanianiim} (a) 4g Kg'1 or vviih carbandazim (0.1%)
controlled 60-75 per cent of the disease.
Curative measures:
       Plants at the initial stage of wilting have been reported to recover by some
curative measures (Yousuf. 2002). For this purpose, a wide circular ditch (3-4) around
the disease tree was made exposing its surface roots for 10 days. Then 1 Kg common
salt was dusted in the ditch and was filled with water. After water and salt were
absorbed, again water was put in to the ditch. To this waiter 1/2 litre Formalin (30%)
was added. After 24 h. the ditch was filled up with leaf litter and finally the leaf litters
were covered with soil. Although best way to control the disease is use of resistant
cultivars but no such varieties are available till now. However. attempts are going on
to develop wilt resistant clones.
Bakshi, B.K. and Singh, S. (1954). Wilt disease of shisham. I Introduction and host
parasite relationship. Indian Forester 80 : 316-322.
Bakshi, B.K. (1955). Wilt disease of shisham (Dalbargia sissoo Roxb.). Behaviour of
Fusarium solani. the wilt organism, in soil. Indian Forester 81 : 276-281.

Bakshi, B.K. (1957). Wilt disease of shisham (Dalhargia sissoo Roxb.). The effect of
soil moisture on the growth and survival of Fusarium solani in the laboratory. Indian
Forester $1 : 505-511.
Bakshi, B.K. and Singh, S. (1959). Root diseases of shisham (Dalbargia sissoo
Roxb.). Vfll. Inoculation studies on wilt. Indian Forester 85:415-42 i.
Dayaram. M; Kumar, S. and Chaturvedi. O.P. (2003). Shisham mortality in Bihar :
extent and cause. Indian Phytopath 56 : 384-387.

                         WIMCO-FARMER INTERFACE
                           DEVELOPING FORESTRY
                                      R C DHIMAN
                         General Manager, Wimco Seedlings Ltd.
                                Kashipur Road, Rudrapur
                                  U.S. Nagar, Uttranchal

       Wimco Ltd is a green corporate house that initiated forestry operations long
back through its extensive network of extension staff, established research facility for
research on forest tree species and introduced technologies that has transformed
Indian forestry at least in non-conventional forestry sector. The company is well
recognized nationally and internationally for its poplar programme undertaken in the
indo-gangetic plains of north western states where thousands of farmers plant poplar
every year on their fields along with agricultural crops. Wood available from these
plantations is now sustaining the wood raw material availability to the hundreds of
wood based industries located in this region and elsewhere.        In addition, poplar
operations provide employment opportunities to millions of workers especially in
rural areas where employment opportunities, in general, are very few due to poor
developmental activities in such remote locations. This programme is therefore
indirectly helping in the poverty alleviation and rural development to an extent

numerous other programmes initiated in the government and non government sector
has not done so till date. Another programme on kadam (similar to poplar programme
in the north) was started by the company during 1990‟s in eastern states especially in
Assam and West Bengal where lacs of kadam trees were planted by the farmers. The
company is further credited in developing cloning technologies for other forest tree
species (Chandra and Yadav 1986), introduction of root trainer technology and its
transfer to research organizations, corporate houses, forest departments and forest
corporations (Dhiman and Gandhi 2004) and development of agro forestry packages
for the benefit of the farming community. This paper presents briefly the poplar
programme of the company that has transformed the rural economy in the poplar
growing region.
Evolution of poplar programme
       Wimco began its search for alternative sources of match wood from the early
sixties onwards when traditional wood raw material supplies from forests began to
dwindle. The company taking cue from the U.P. Forest Department‟s Tarai poplar
research and plantations, launched scientific investigations into possibilities     of
raising poplars for matchwood production in the agriculture sector. The company
from the year 1965 launched an earnest search for such poplar clones that could
grow fast. Poplar deltoides clone G-48 and G-3 received by the company through
Prof. LD Pryor from Australia in 1968 conclusively proved more productive than
those tried earlier by the research organisations. Over time, the list of poplar clones
suitable for agro forestry has been enlarged with the addition of many more exotic
clones and simultaneously Wimco Seedlings Ltd. it has developed many new clones
under its poplar improvement programme. The philosophy of wood based industries
fulfilling their raw material needs in collaboration with farmers was thus translated
into a practical reality by the company, much before the concept was integrated in the
National Forest Policy 1988.
       At operational level, the company started distributing poplar ETPs free of cost
to the farmers of Punjab, Haryana, and Western Uttar Pradesh (Including Uttranchal)
w.e.f 1977. Only a few farmers opted for planting poplars as they were not sure of
getting handsome returns from the trees produced from such plants. Growth exhibited
by these plants slowly attracted the attention of many farmers and they started
planting these trees on their farms. In 1981 the company started charging Rs. 0.10 per
ETP from the farmers as many farmers who got plants free of cost started them

neglecting. The survival of plants improved and the company started charging Rs.
0.20/ETP w. e. f. 1983. In 1984, the company joined hands with NABARD and
WIMCO-NABARD scheme for providing finance to the farmers in the form of soft
loan was started under which the company provided quality planting stock and
technical know how to grow these plants and also entered an agreement to buy back
the wood produced from such trees provided the trees have reached certain dimension
required to produce match wood.       This scheme was operational till 1995 when
company stopped it because the company started getting          litigations from some
growers who insisted the company to procure trees which could not attain the desired
dimensions capable of giving match wood. The company is now supplying poplar
ETPS from its production nurseries located in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and
Uttranchal directly on cash basis and farmers are free to sell their wood anywhere
including to Wimco ltd.
Wimco Seedlings Ltd., established as subsidiary of Wimco Ltd in 1984, inherited the
forestry base of AFF Division of Wimco Ltd and is now the biggest producer of
quality planting propagates (ETPs) of poplar clones and is patronized           by the
discerning farmers. It produces and supplies 3 to 4 million poplar ETPs each year.
Poplar plantations are reported to be highly productive and are capable of yielding
50 m3 /ha/yr (Tewari 1993) and 60 m3 /ha/yr (Oberoi 2001) wood, these productivity
figures being the maximum so far reported for any forest tree species grown in India.
This yield is, however, in addition to yield of sugarcane ( 500 qtl/ha/yr for the first
two years), wheat (25-40 qtl/ha/yr till harvests of the poplars) and that of summer
crops sometimes grown by the farmers on their agricultural fields. Poplar programme
besides getting recognition from the farming community also found strong support
from research, industry and finance institutions which are briefly discussed as under.
Research support
       Poplar programme of the company is carefully integrated with its research
base created at its R&D Centre, Bagwala and technologies developed here are tested
through out the poplar growing region in North Western Indian plains. The research
programme is simple yet highly optimistic to develop new clones through intensive
research and field testing on company farms and farmer‟s fields. Trees with useful
variation created through conventional breeding means are screened based on useful
characters like growth, productivity and resistance to pests and diseases, rejuvenated
and clonally multiplied in large number, and supplied to the farming community once

they prove their potential through local and multilocational trials conducted in
Uttranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab.
       Poplar breeding and improvement programme                spanned over 20 years is
divided in three main screening phases viz., nursery screening phase (1-4 years), local
level field trial (5-8 years) and multi-locational trial (13-20 years). The nursery level
trials screen out 99% of the seedling/sapling population based on mainly
susceptibility to pests and diseases, local level field trial screen out around 0.9%
population based on mainly growth and productivity and hardly a couple of
individuals are picked up (based on adaptability and productivity) for registration and
field planting after the multi-locational trial is completed in around 20 years period.
Each year a new trial is added at each level viz., nursery level, local level and multi-
locational level and the monitoring and keeping track of all these trials and
documentation of their findings is regularly done and published in our annual research
report. Table-I given below details the phased breeding and improvement program of
poplar in the company.
Table - I         Phased breeding & improvement programme on poplars at Wimco
                  Seedlings Ltd.
Year I Seedling production from manipulated crosses (fullsib) and open pollinated
seed (halfsib).
Year 1-4          Nursery Screening for disease and pest resistance, growth & form.
Year 5-12         Local area field testing of selected individual trees.
Year 13-20        Multilocational trials in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and
Year 19-21        Rejuvenation of       better performing individuals and their mass
                  production for commercial nurseries.
       Young seedlings, grown from the seed collected from controlled breeding
programme, are sprayed with water extracts of blight and rust infested leaves and also
kept in beds under the fully grown saplings of susceptible clones so that young
susceptible seedlings are identified and culled once they are infested with these
pathogens. Selected seedlings are put to another year production and screening in the
nursery itself in which these are planted in alternate rows of susceptible clones to
disease and pests. In the fourth year, selected individuals are multiplied in adequate
number for local area trials. Details of the screening process for 1997 populations is
given below(Table-II).

Table-II : Number of individuals selected during 4 year nursery     production phase
of breeding population of year 1997.
Population     Seedling      After Ist    After       After        After        Field
               produced      (Nry)        IInd        IIIrd        IVth         Planted
                             Screening    (Nry)       (Nry)        (Nry)        in 2000
                                          Screening   Screening    Screening
Half-sib       2739          2500         1949        76           45           45
Full-sib       136772        56607        222         192          56           56
Total          139511        59107        2171        268          101          101
% Selected     -             42.36        1.56        0.20         0.07         -
% Rejected     -             61.94        98.44       99.80        99.93        -

        Some of the diseases and pests are manifested in specific locations. One such
location is in eastern U.P. viz.,        Lakhimpur Kheri, Beharaich, Hardoi, and
Sahjahanpur districts where mite infestation comes almost every year and some of
the clones are highly susceptible to these pests. The attack of mites in some years is
so severe that it is almost impossible to grow plantable ETPs of susceptible clones .
To screen    clones for these areas, a trial of different clones was conducted in
Beharaich area and based on the findings of this trial some clones viz., Bahar, S7C8,
S7C15, WIMCO 39, WIMCO 80, and WIMCO 82 were found to be resistant to mite
and are being grown in this locality.
        90% of the clones presently grown in this country are those introduced and/or
developed by Wimco/Wimco Seedlings Ltd. Six clones viz., Wimco 22, Wimco A/26,
Wimco 27, Wimco 32, Wimco 39 and Wimco A/49 have been registered with the
International Poplar Commission and some of them like Wimco 22, Wimco 32 and
Wimco 39 have been picked up by the farmers of the poplar growing region and their
share is significantly increasing after their release in 2002. Three other Wimco‟s
clones viz., Udai, Kranti and Bahar are well recognized by the IPC and Udai has
captured around 25% of the market share by now. Hundreds of other improved

clones are in the final stages of their evaluation from our trials and are the future base
for sustaining the poplar programme in this country.

Industrial support
       Poplar wood is presently used to manufacture around three dozen products as
given in Table-III. Most of these products are manufactured commercially though a
couple of them may still have only a theoretical application. However, poplar wood
is now a life line for at least plywood, match, artificial limbs, pencil, sports, ice-cream
spoons and sticks, and many more industrial units and their survival without poplar is
difficult to exist. Till 1990, Wimco was the major user of poplar wood as it was
grown under buy back agreement but slowly wood grown even under these
agreements started finding sale in plywood and packing case units. Wimco now uses
less than 1% of total poplar wood availability for making matches and the rest of the
wood is used by others of which plywood is the major user consuming more than
80% wood. It is estimated that 70-80% of the plywood in this country is made from
poplar wood by the       units located in the poplar growing region and elsewhere
(Dhiman 2004). The use of poplar in paper pulp has increased significantly in the
last couple of years and many units located in the North has replaced their traditional
raw material with that of poplar wood.           Units located in the south even are
transporting poplar pulp wood in trains from the poplar growing region and around
100 racks have so for been taken from this region to Orissa, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
and a few other states. The poplar programme initiated by Wimco Ltd for meeting its
own wood raw material requirement is thus sustaining raw material to hundreds of
other units without any efforts from their side to develop and promote this species.
Mr. K P S Katwal the then DG, ICFRE while presenting the national report on poplars
and willows of India to the 23rd Session of International Poplar commission in Chile
during Dec., 2004 reported that poplar is presently meeting 5% wood requirement of
the country. This figure is significant because 95% of the poplar wood is produced by
the farmers outside conventional forests. India is a wood starved country resulting in
increased wood imports year by year. Governmental support to such a programme
can further relieve the forestry sector from the pressure for more wood and farmers
will get encouragement for planting more trees by any such initiative.

Table-III: Uses of Poplar

1       Plywood                                    19       Packing cases
2       Ply board                                  20       Gift packs
3       Match splints                              21       Gift items
4       Match box                                  22       Toothpicks
5       Artificial limbs                           23       Shoe heels
6       Paper pulp                                 24       Tool handles
7       Rayon pulp                                 25       Wood wool
8       Pencil                                     26       Coal
9       Drawing Board                              27       Music instruments
10      Ice-cream spoons                           28       Crates for transmission Lines
11      Sports goods                               29       Shuttering material
12      Furniture                                  30       Panel planks
13      Firewood                                   31       MDF
14      Vermi Compost(leaves)                      32       Moulding
15      Building furniture                         33       Particle board
16      Poles for fencing                          34       Photo frame
17      Supports for agri-crops.                   35       Building material
18      Colour dye                                 36       Basin Board

Financial support
       WIMCO- NABARD scheme on promotion of poplar was one of the initial
schemes for providing loan to the farmers to grow trees. This refinance scheme
played a significant role in popularizing the species among the cash deficit farming
community. Once the farmers started earning handsome money by selling the trees,
they are now comfortable in purchasing poplar planting material on cash basis. The
experience gained in this WIMCO-NABARD scheme was integrated in other schemes
initiated by some other corporate houses to develop their wood raw material for their
manufacturing facilities.    Based on the overall success of WIMCO-NABARD
scheme, NABARD now has reportedly approved refinance on growing poplar through
nationalized banks and farmers need not to prepare a separate project report to get the

loan sanctioned from the banks. This is though a significant step taken forward by the
NABARD, not many farmers opt for this scheme now as they feel satisfied in cash
based transactions.
       Wood based industry is unable to raise its captive plantations because of its
inability to hold land under the present ceiling laws. The industry has therefore been
advised by the National Forest Policy 1988 to grow trees with the help of farmers to
meet its raw material requirement. The practice of agro-forestry as a sustainable land
use is also advocated in the National Agricultural Policy, 2002. Industry especially
Wimco in the north and ITC in the south has created two success stories of growing
extensive tree plantations with the help of farmers. Industry in many cases is unable
to procure wood from its promoted plantations because of the governmental
regulations on felling and transit of wood from one area/state to another. This is
unnecessary increasing the problems of tree growers and in many cases inviting
litigations for not felling the plantations as per schedule because of not getting timely
permission of the concerned government departments. Wimco‟s kadam programme
in the Eastern states is in a real trouble for the want of getting timely and clear
permission to harvest trees and carry wood to its factory. Similarly, agro-forestry
especially that depends on poplar and eucalyptus in some parts of Uttar Pradesh is
getting suffered because of the transit permissions required for felling of such trees
and transporting the wood for sale to the industry and market. MoEF, GoI needs to
look this matter on priority basis and (to begin with) at least could issue guidelines to
the states to permit the felling of at least those farm grown trees(including movement
of their wood) which are not grown by the respective state forest departments inside
their conventional forest areas. This will not only promote growing of trees by the
farmers to meet the supply of industrial wood but also be an important sector to help
the ministry in increasing the area under tree cover especially in those states like Uttar
Pradesh where forest/tree cover is amongst the lowest in the country.
       Wood from the farm grown trees is marketed directly to the industry and is
also sold in the unregulated wood markets that have mushroomed at numerous places.
Presently there are around one dozen wood markets in North India where wood is
traded on day to day basis and each location quotes a different rate for each kind of
wood on each day. The wood trading in these wood markets is like stock market
where there is a different rate for different security on different day. This system is

subjected to lot of manipulations and ultimate victim in this process of wood trading
is the farmer who is being exploited by every link of the trading chain. These markets
are required to be regulated so that its sale and purchase could be conducted as per the
laid down procedures. Agricultural mandis get lot of revenue in the form of mandi
tax on sale of wood, pulp wood etc and there is a possibility and potential to start
forest mandis. Uttranchal has created three mandis for auction and sale of medicinal
herbs and scope of such mandis could also be expanded to include sale of other forest
produce including wood produced by the farmers. Grading and trading rules for
marketing of timber grown by the farmers are required to be formulated and
advertised so that exploitation of the farmers is avoided and they are encouraged to
grow more trees.
       Wimco as a corporate house played a significant role in developing forestry
especially through its poplar programme. The human resource and research base
developed on forest tree species have proved useful in developing similar
programmes in other giant wood based industrial establishments in the country. The
company has silently and diligently promoted the clonal forestry in corporate houses,
research organisations, State Forest Departments and Forest Corporations through its
research findings, consultancies and trainings. It has provided consultancies to over
a dozen organisations that includes ICFRE institutes, State Forest Departments and
Forest Corporations, Paper and Pulp Industry and others             in which cloning
infrastructure   including construction of   mist chambers, establishment of hedge
orchards, tree improvement and seedling production in root trainer technology were
demonstrated. The company has provided training to the staff of numerous
government departments, research organisations, industry within and outside country
on the above disciplines.
       Based on its excellent work done in forestry especially on clonal forestry
research and extension, company gets lot of appreciation and finds government
recognition and nominations in Board of Directors / Governing Bodies / Research
Advisory Committees of         the leading Forestry and Agro-forestry          research
organisations. The company which started forestry operations to develop sustain
wood supplies for its parent match company has clearly played a dominant role in
developing wood raw material resources for other wood based industry in the country.
Poplar programme promoted by the company has completely transformed the rural

economy in its growing region. This unique success story is a win-win situation for all
i.e., the farmers, workmen, traders, industry and the governments and is a beginning
of second generation green revolution resulted through poplar farming initiated by
Wimco/Wimco Seedlings Ltd.
1.     Chandra J.P. & Yadava MPS (1986). Clonal Propagation of Mysore gum,
Indian Forester 112(9) 783-791.
2.     Dhiman, R. C., 2004. Poplar wood availability – A boon for plywood industry.
Ply Gazette: August 2004. Pp.64-72.
3.     Dhiman R C and Gandhi J N 2004. Breeding clones in Wimco Seedlings
limited for sustaining poplar based agro forestry.       In proceedings of National
workshop on Agro forestry. 22-24 November, 2004, Forest Department, Haryana,
Panchkula, Haryana.
4.     Oberoi C.P. 2001. India – Wild and Wonderful, Bishen Singh Mahinder
Singh, Dehradun, U.P. pp. 231-237.
5.     Tewari D.N. 1993. Poplar. Surya Publications, Dehradun-248 006, India.

                 V.F.C SHERPUR : A SUCCESS STORY
                      JOINT FOREST MANAGEMENT

                                 Charchil Kumar , I.F.S
                            C.E.O , F.D.A, Sangrur , Punjab

This is a story about poor and scheduled caste(SC) women who not only involved
themselves in forestry affairs but also earned their livelihood from income generating
activities (IGAs) started by forming their self help groups (SHGs) and freed
themselves from the clutches of money-lender by inter-loaning from the funds created
out of small savings. Exemplary work by V.F.C sharper made it a shining example for
the entire plain areas of state if not for whole of Punjab.
Location and Background: - Village Sherpur
       Sherpur village is located in Malerkotla Forest Range of Sangrur Forest
Division, south-east part of Punjab. Village Sherpur has total population of 6348, with
47% women. Out this population 27% are scheduled caste with 48% SC women.
Total area of the village is 1018 ha with 13 ha panchayat land. Majority of the people
area engaged in agriculture practices, but major chunk of population particularly
women are landless & poor who, have no work for their livelihood support excepts
seasonal daily wage work available during sowing and harvesting of wheat & paddy
crops. There is no forest in 10-15 Km radius of village. Surrounding agriculture fields
and link roads leading to Sherpur, institution lands were devoid of any tree cover.
Formation of V.F.C Sherpur: – A humble beginning
One day, in Sept.2003 an old man (Sh. Gurdial Singh) came to meet Divisional Forest
Officer in his office, after discussion it was realized that he was educating and making
rural people aware of environment and carrying out plantations in schools & other
institutions. It was proposed to him to help forest deptt. In mobilizing the people to
form a Village Forest Committee (VFC) in Sherpur so that massive afforestation and
other development work can be started through the Joint Forest Management (JFM)
mode. First meeting was conducted in the village and only a few elderly
representatives of village attended the meeting. The response towards proposal was
very discouraging and lot of apprehensions was posed regarding working of forest
deptt. Because of the policing role of forest deptt. in the past and being first attempt of
JFM in the plain area of Punjab. To win the confidence of people training on Income
Generating Activities (IGAs) was organized for the poor people with majority of them
women. It was good opportunity for forest deptt. to make them aware about forestry
and environment. Subsequently an exposure visit, for these women to nearby village

Kaulseri where IGAs were started by SHGs of women, was organized. These two
initiatives by forest deptt. changed their attitude towards forestry and forest depttt.
completely. A lady from south India, expert in vermicomposting was invited to visit
the village Sherpur and a meeting was conducted, To surprise of every body, more
than five hundred people turned up in the meeting out of them more than 60% were
women. This was a first big success towards people‟s mobilization. Not only an
executive body of VFC was formed but three SHGs of women were also formed out
of this huge gathering (general body meeting)
Active Participation in Afforestation Work: - Protection with Awareness
       V.F.C Sherpur identified link roads, institutional lands, for plantation and
motivated individual formers to plant saplings on the bunds of their agriculture fields.
V.F.C was motivated to an extent that they started their own plants raising nursery
and raised about 4000 plants which were distributed to children to plant at least one
plant in their houses and where-ever they can plant and nourish it. With active support
and technical guidance of forest deptt. , VFC Sherpur took massive work of
afforestation and planted 13200 saplings (12 ha plantation). V.F.C members did
wonderful job of protection of plantation not through “coercion & stick policy” but
through awareness. They used loudspeakers of Gurudawaras to make people aware in
general and owners of goats, sheep, buffaloes & other cattle to save plantation from
grazing. Farmers were convinced to protect plants from fire resulted from burning of
agriculture residue.
The result of this message from religious places was impressive with the finding of
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Agency, deputed by NAEB, MoEF , GoI ,to assess
the FDA project work in the village & M&E Agency wrote in its report that survival
percentage of plantation was more than 90%.

Village Development Activities :- An Incentive
       It has been an experience that to get good cooperation from the people their
long felt needs are required to be fulfilled. In this direction with coordination of other
distt. deptts and voluntary organizations , few Income Generating Activities (IGAs)
and other development activities , taken up in village Sherpur , are briefly discussed
as follows :-
Vermicomposting :- An Income Generating Activity (IGAs) and a boon for

       Thirty women of three SHGs were given training on vermicomposting by staff
of Sangrur Forest Division and subsequently their exposure visit, to nearby village
Kaulseri and generated encouraging results. More than forty vermicompost units ( one
unit means 6-7 feet x 3-4 feet bed of cow dung) were established by these women in
their houses itself where-ever the space was available. Sangrur Forest Divison
provided half kg earthworms for each vermicompost unit and made a buy-back
arrangement for purchasing produced vermicompost at the market rate of Rs. 500 per
quintal. These ladies were encouraged to reach out to the nearby private nurseries and
local farmers (potential buyers for vermicompost) to sell their vermicompost. Over a
period of one year each SHG has earned approx. Rs.40000/- from sale of earthworms
and vermicompost. Out their small income these ladies started saving Rs. 100/- per
member pre month , initially savings were deposited in the bank account for six
months later they started inter-loaning among themselves and stopped extending
hands before money lenders who had been exploiting them by charging heavy rate of
interests. Impressed by their excellent performance and cooperation among them
recently DRDA and NABARD have rated these SHGs and a loan of Rs. 1,20,000/- is
being given to each SHG to take up other income generating activities. This IGA
initiative has become a boon for these poor ladies who got a regular source of income
to support their livelihood.
Homeopathic Dispensary :- Successful Health Care Initiative
       With the cooperation of Association for Scientific Research in Homeopathy
(ASRH) , Sangrur , a homeopathic dispensary was started in the village Sherpur.
Qualified Homeopathic Doctor visits village dispensary once in a week. A token fees
of Rs. 10/- is charged from each patient , 50% of the amount collected from patients
goes as doctor‟s fee and rest 40% is ploughed back into village development funds
towards the purchase of medicines . These dispensaries area being managed by
V.F.Cs in sustainable manner without intervention of forest deptt. Sangrur Forest
Division has started seven such Homeopathic dispensaries in other project villages .
These health care initiatives have become indispensable medical facilities for about
30000 people at their door step and at affordable cost. More than 9000 patients have
been treated so far for various diseases like skin disease , Joint pains , Asthma , fever,
cough etc.
Silai – Kadhai Centers :– Entrepreneurship development for women

       A silai- kadhai centre was set up by the VFC Sherpur , with 10 sewing
machines provided by forest deptt. , at a common place dharamshala. Two batches of
forty ladies / girls started taking training in morning & evening shifts. A local lady
from village was engaged as instructor to impart training to these ladies. A token
amount of Rs. 20-25 / per month per lady / girl is collected to make the partial
payment of instructor. Forest deptt. made partial payments for initial few months but
now VFCs are being encouraged to manage these centres independently and in a
sustainable manner by increasing token fee per member and also to deposit some
amount in village development fund to maintain these sewing machines and other
assets created. More than 500 ladies have been trained so far at 12 silai kadhai centres
in other project villages. These centres have become very good Entrepreneurship
development centres for these rural poor ladies
Conclusion :-
       The greatest success of JFM is not only plantation and other development
activities but the support & good will of the people which has drastically changed the
relationship between the staff of the Sangrur Forest Division and people. We have
reached a point where this support can be utilized not only for implementing forestry
projects through JFM but also to make any programme as people‟s movement.

                          FOREST PLANTATIONS,
                             AN.Chaturvedi, I.F.S. (Retd)
                      A-202, Priyanka Apartments, Jopling Road

                                     Lucknow (U.P.)

         Fertilization and irrigation are .important. Inputs to increase productivity of
plantations. These are however mixed blessings and have many limitations. These can
be quite harmful if their impacts are not correctly understood. Fertilization without the
availability of adequate quantity of water can do severe harm forest trees. Trees grow
taller than agricultural crops. The channels that carry the fertilizers to the growing tips
are also thinner than in agricultural crops. The viscosity of the solution has therefore
to be thinner than in agricultural crops. For the same Quantity of fertilizer larger
quantity of water, is therefore required in forest plantations. No fertilizers have been
developed for forest crops. Fertilizers developed for agriculture and horticulture arc
generally used for forest crops also. NPK in different proportions are generally used.
Nitrogen increases the leaf area of plants. This Increases the photosynthetic surface
and thus promotes growth. This increased leaf area reduces the wax content of the leaf
and makes it thinner. The leaf therefore becomes softer and easier for the insects lo
eat. Studies have shown that fertilized plants have larger number of insects than
unfertilized plants. More Insecticides are therefore required to control the insects and
maintain growth. Increased growth the wood density of trees and thus makes the
wood lighter. Higher Nitrogen content, higher hum; it. And sorter wood facilitates the
development of several fungi, inducing main diseases. The Committee set up to study
the reasons for the failure of tropical pine (mainly Pinus carabia) Plantations in Baster
region of Madhya Pradesh, concluded that the principal reason was the attack of
Charcoal Root Rot. This fungus developed due to higher Nitrogen content of the soil,
caused due to fertilization. Very high dozes of Nitrogenous fertilizers were used in
Nurseries to obtain taller plants in shorter time. This induced growth, disturbed the
Shoot/Root ratio and produced lanky plants. The Phosphorous in fertilizers suppresses
the development of Mycorrhizae. As mycorrhiza is considered essential for the
growth of all trees and more so for conifers it   WLS   also ascribed to be the reason for
the failure of tropical pine plantations. Poplar plantations are raised along with
agricultural crops. Excessive dozes of fertilizers are used in such crops. In Gangapur
Patia plantations of Poplars in the erstwhile Tarai Bhabhar forest division of
Uttarakhand, several forest trees had their barks ruptured and fertilizer thrown out. I
published a photograph of such a tree in my book entitled 'Poplar farming in U.P.”,

U.P. Forest Bulletin No. 45. What was given as food for the tree was considered as
toxin by the tree and thrown out of the system. The injury caused other pests and
diseases to gain entry and finally kill such trees. Forest trees recycle adequate
nutrients through decay of fallen leaves, bark and branches. The decay of root hair
also provides for early growth, as life of a root hair is about three days. The fallen
litter is first convened to humus and then decomposed as fertilizer. Recycling is
carried out only if the leaves and humus are permitted to stay on the ground. Studies
carried out at Clutterbuckganj in Eucalyptus plantations showed that fertilized
plantations showed better growth in early age of up to four years. After seven years
there was no significant difference in the growing stock between fertilized and non
fertilized plantations,
Micro nutrients:-
        While NPK show no positive benefit, micro nutrient if properly used show
positive results. In Eucalyptus and Po| plantations the use of Zink and Iron has been
found to be very useful. These are however not absorbed through soil and should be
given as foliage spray in light concentrations.
Fertilization in mist chambers.-
        In mist chambers temperature and humidity are maintained at high levels.
These conditions are ideal for the development of diseases also. Inert medium like
Vermiculite and Perlite are therefore used. These have no food for the plants. It is
therefore essential to use both macro and micro nutrients. When 1 used the nutrients
as top dressing, I found that the roots, that were going down turned upwards and
formed J roots. Such root system results in failure of plants in field conditions. I
therefore started 1-1 making a solution of the desired strength of fertilizer and then
putting the trays in this solution so that the fertilizer is taken up by osmosis. This
creates proper fertility gradient; such that higher concentration of fertilizer; is at
bottom and lower at lop. This prevents the formation of J roots.
        Surface irrigation is often used to boost growth of plantation crops. In case of
forest plantations providing water at the surface induces the downward going roots to
come up. This prevents the roots to go down 10 lower levels in search of water. Such
root systems arc weak. Such plantations suffer from severe wind throw in storms.
After irrigation is withdrawn, the trees show high mortality from draught. Surface
irrigation is beneficial if it is given after the root system is established. This type of

irrigation is beneficial after about three year of the start of a plantation. The irrigation
should never be given during dormancy. In north India winter is usually a pronounced
dormant season. Irrigation during this period will only benefit the growth of weeds.
The period of -summer dormancy can be reduced by Irrigation. When temperatures
are really high, no amount of irrigation can induce growth in trees. Several tree
species like Jamun, Arjun, Kanji etc tolerate water logging. They do not like such
conditions. In arid and semi-arid conditions surface irrigation brings up salts which
cause saline and alkaline conditions. These severely restrict growth and may even
cause mortality. When irrigation is stopped most trees may die as the upper layers dry
up as the root system is confined to these layers. When poplars were first tried in
Tarai region we followed the planting technique, used in Europe. We planted cuttings
of about 20Cm length and 2 Cm thickness. These were planted at 4m*3m spacing.
These were adequately irrigated. While unsuitable clones died at early stage but those
that survived grew very well. All cuttings that were not irrigated died after a few
months. Only cuttings planted during winter months and irrigated survived. Well -
grown cuttings developed big crowns. After about three years majority of such trees
were blown down by wind. We then started systematic trials with varying lengths of
cuttings and planting depths. After trial of about a decade we were able to develop the
system of Entire Trans Plant (ETP) Planting. Copying the system of Irrigation used in
Irrigation and Horticulture will not serve the interest of Forest plantations.

Deep layer irrigation.
       Drip system is often recommended in forest plantations. This is not a desirable
system. This induces surface roots and many of these can be seen on the surface.
During July-August 1992, I tried a system of irrigation at Gwalpahari campus of
TERI. I named this as deep drip irrigation system. In an Experimental Plot of about I
hectare I planted seven species at 2m*2m spacing in randomized block design. These
species were Kale, siris, Jamun, Babool, Khejri, Bakain, Imli, and Kanju. All plants
were irrigated through nozzles. These nozzles were buried 35 Cm below ground and
50 cm away from plants. Initially irrigation was provided at weekly intervals. Water
was pumped into storage tanks. Thin pipes were connected to drips, and a motor
pumped water to the pipes. As soon as water appeared on the surface, the motor was
switched off. Salts were not seen on the surface at all. Irrigation was continued for

two years during summer and spring months. Root systems were dug up. The plants
had formed pronounced tap- roots and balanced crowns. After two or three years, the
whole system can be taken out and reassembled. Where irrigation is essential, this is a
more scientific system.

                     UNDER FOREST ECOSYSTEMS
                            Bajrang Singh and K. P. Tripathi
                                  Restoration Ecology
                          National Botanical Research Institute
                                    Lucknow (U.P.)

       As a consequence of increasing population pressure and tropical forest
deforestation it has become essential to develop the degraded lands under forest
ecosystems. This endeavour provides several tangible and intangible benefits to the
society. Some of them can be mentioned here like creation of habitats for wild life
protection, increasing fuel wood, small timber, minor forest produces and

disappearing medicinal herbs, biodiversity and environmental conservation. Recently
a considerable proportions of degraded sodic lands (1, 53000 ha) of UP has been
developed under cropland ecosystems with the World Bank assistance. However,
instances of resodification have also been noticed at scattered places. Alternative land
use systems are equally important which were not developed to any significant extent
except a few research plots of NBRI, Lucknow, FRI, Kanpur & Dehradun, UPFD,
Jhansi, Aligarh, NDU, Faizabad developed under forest ecosystems. Creation of new
forest resources appears to be most viable and sustainable approach of ecosystem
restoration as it conserves a wide range of species in new biotope. Considering upon
the enormous scope and utmost importance of the problem, degraded lands were
rehabilitated under forest ecosystems in the recent past. Their monitoring and
assessment have shown a high degree of stability and resilience in comparison to
restoration under agro-ecosystems. Therefore, it is proposed to compare these two
types of secondary ecosystems developed on degraded lands to understand the
mechanisms and underlying principles in the restoration process.
       Once this region was known to be for a very good fertile land and luxuriant
forest vegetation in pre historic time, which was mismanaged/overexploited without
considering sustainable productivity. Degraded lands in this biogeography region
although have emerged not only from the anthropogenic effects (construction of road,
canal, railway line, check dams and over cultivation), but some natural reasons have
also contributed a lot like undulated topography followed by periodic submergence,
recurrent drying & wetting of the soil, flocculation and de-flocculation of clay
particles, sodium toxicity etc. These adverse situations do not permit for the natural
succession of plant species on severely degraded sodic lands, and external efforts are
required to manage such lands under an appropriate land use systems. Restoration is a
costly affair nevertheless, it has become imperative to cater the growing population
for their multiple needs and services.
       Afforestations on sodic wastelands, however, have not been successful for
strengthening the production forestry programmes of the state. Instead of it was a part
of social forestry and protection forestry to encounter the effect of degradation of
natural forests, which provides a number of goods and services to the society. The
studies those have been conducted in the genetic plain region largely remained
confined to the afforestation level (Yadav,1975, 1980, Sandhu and Abrol, 1981, Abrol
1986, Chaturvedi, 1985). However, a few investigators have observed the influence of

juvenile trees in the reclamation of sodic soils (Singh, 1989, Garg & Jain, 1991,
Shukla & Misra, 1993), which does not show substantial improvement. Reclamation
is a very long term process and therefore hasty conclusions of soil-plant interactions
depict to rather unstable effects. This paper deals with the applied ecology aspects of
a well developed rehabilitated forest ecosystem developed on a sodic waste land at
Banthra, Lucknow and was compared with the contemporary restoring agro-
        NBRI is well recognized as one of the primer institutions in India in wasteland
reclamation and utilizations since the establishment of Banthra Farm in 1956 on about
85 ha of degraded sodic waste land. Later on a Usar land reclamation and utilization
project was carried out at Aligarh during 1983-1989 and about 100 acre highly sodic
land was developed successfully under agriculture and silviculture systems including
the commercial cultivation of a medicinal herb Malricaria chamomilla (Singh 1989,
Singh and Tripathi 1993).
        Afforestations of multipurpose tree species and their protection from biotic
disturbances have developed a semi-natural forest ecosystem on barren sodic land at
Banthra, Lucknow. About 74 species were identified in this mixed dry subtropical
forest with deciduous and evergreen species. These species were classified in
overstory (44) understory (9) and ground layer (8). The dominant species in each
category were as under:
Overstory:- Albizia lebbeck, A. procera, Syzygritm heyniamm, S. citmini, Pongamia
pinnata, Terminalia arjuna, Azadirachta indica, Baithinia variegate, Sterciilia alaia,
Srteblus asper, Ficus sps. etc.
Understory:-:        Leucaena leucocephala, Lantana camara. Phoenix sylvestris,
Sterciilia alata, Streblus asper etc.
Ground      layer: Barleria phonitis,      Ichnocarpus frutescem,     Leiicus biflora,
Clerodendrum viscoswn etc.
        This composition of forest indicates the adaptability of a wide range of species
in restoration of sodic wasteland. More tolerant species during its growth and
development created the suitable conditions for the establishment of less tolerant
species during different successional stages of a forest formation. The status of this
forest in terms of biomass energy, carbon, nutrients and litter and fine roots at 40-yrs
was estimated as under:

              Biomass       Energy (GJ Carbon (Mg Litter        (Mg Nitrogen        Fine root (g
              (Mgha1)       ha'1)         ha'1)         ha ')         (Kg ha1)      m'1)
Pool          347± 27       8936±790      186±IO        12.10±2.1     3574±221      498±79.38
Flux          25±2          644±8         11±1          8.45±1.8      401±22        233±12

Soil properties as a result of growth and development of forest indicated appreciable
changes after 45 years (table1, figure1). As a consequence of building of soil C in five
decades, pH & sodium content decreased whereas, C and Ca content increased in the
curvilinear patterns (figure 2 ). Different canopies have exerted variable soil
properties (Verma et al., 1982). On average it could be concluded that gain percent of
about 65% in soil restoration process was although slow but remained stable without
any threat of resodiflcation. whereas careless management or discontinuance of
cultivation on sodic soil have led to resodification of semi-reclaimed sodic soil
through agricultural practices.
Several publications of the institute on periodical monitoring of sodic soils
undergoing to the bio-reclamation process indicate a wide variation as affected by
species, population density, plantation age and management techniques (Garg and
Jain 1992, Jain and Garg 1996, Garg and Jain 1996, 1998a, Garg 1998, Jain and Singh
1998, Garg 2000, Singh et al. 2000, Singh el at. 2001, Garg 2002, Jain el al. 2001,
Jain et al. 2002a, b, Garg and Singh, 2003). These studies have revealed the different
degrees of soil amelioration (recovery) over a period of time under different land use
systems. However their economics was not encouraging to adopt the sodic land
reclamation and utilization program by the owners of small/ marginal/ landless
farmers to whom such lands are generally allotted. In order to make it economically
viable, several clones of poplars (Poplus deltoides) were evaluated on semi reclaimed
sodic land under agro-forestry and silvipastoral systems (Singh and Misra 1995, Singh
1998b c, Singh and Behl 1999, Singh and Behl 2001)
       Short rotation intensive culture (SRIC) plantations of some promising fuel
wood shrub species, particularly those of good coppice Leucaena leucocephala)
appears to be highly successful to accomplish the increasing fuel wood demand
quickly as well as rapid recovery of degraded soils. However, one of the serious
drawbacks for this species is that this is an invasive alien species which does not grow
in association with other species and causes allelopathic effects to kill other species.

       Some area of sodic land was developed under bamboo and Eucalyptus
plantations. It was observed that Eucalyptus plantation could not reclaim the soil that
much even in 30 years as bamboo and polar could do it in only 10 years (Figure 3) It
was probably due to slow decomposition of Eucalyptus litter as compared to bamboo
which led to building of a very high soil organic matter in a relatively less time.
Besides, the plantations of bamboo developed a highly dense canopy and there was no
irradiance on soil surface, whereas Eucalyptus plantations grew erect with sparse
canopy, as a result their litter was also blown away by wind storms.
       The average recovery of soils during 5 years of agricultural management
under UPSLR Project has been compared with the original as well as standard soil
sites covering eastern plain, mid plain and western semiarid dry agro climatic zone of
UP (table-2). There has been a significant progress in soil reclamation during a short
period through agriculture in comparison to forestry as shown by the average gain
percent (figure-4). Therefore extension of forestry in non forest areas particularly on
wastelands may not be an economically lucrative venture, even then it should be
encouraged and supported at least partly by the government through viable, active and
efficient committees including the members of village Panchyat, forest department
and NGOs on accounts of their enormous indirect benefits to the societies in habitat
development, creation of new biotopes, atmospheric CO2 alleviation and biodiversity

             Table 1: Indices of soil amelioration during 40 yrs old forest
              development on a barren sodic land (up to 45 cm depth)

       Character                Forested soil Barren soil    LSD
PH                             8.62           10.37         0.08
EC (mSm-1 )                    2.3           9.9            0.08

Organic carbon (%)             0.51          0.13           008

Total N (mgg-1)                0.44          0.1 7          0.03

Available N(µg g-1)            33     '      18.7           4.14

Mineralized N (µg g-' )        9.21          3.69           1.34

C/N                            12            7              -

ESP                            10            73             7.6

CEC (cmolkg-l)                 117           18.2           3.1

Total P (µg g-')               459           447            NS

Available P (µgg-1)            11            12             NS
Exchangeable         cations
Ca++                           8             5              0.28

K+                             0.47          0.34           0.05

Na+                            1.57          13             0.74

MBC(mgkg-1)                    149           49             15

MBN(mgkg-1)                    26            9              4

MB P(mgkg-'t                   18            7              3

 Table 2: Reclamation status of sodic land of U.P during 5 years of agricultural
                 and forestry practices: a comparison with reference

Soil properties              Uncultivated             Semi reclaimed        Nonsodic
                             land   sodic Crop fields          Under trees crop fields
pH                           10.6           9.2           8.8               80
EC (dSm-1)                   3.4            08            045               03
ESP (%)                      90             25            23                8
Ex. Na (cmolkg-1)            132            39            5.2               17
Ex. K(cmolkg-1)              31             2.8           0.52              36
Ex. Ca (cmolkg- )            0.8            73            9.0               6.6
Ex, Mg (cmol kg-')           04             05            4.7               06
OC(mgkg- )                   10             2.2           5.2               37
TN(mgkg-'}                   07             09            0.64              13
P04(µgg-')                   9              7             8.0               9
MBC([µgg- )                  36             168           -                 280
MBN(µgg-')                   5              22            -                 34
MBP (µg g-^)                 4              S             -                 12
                 3   1
Fungi (x 10 g- )             0              14            -                 20
                     5   1
Bacteria (x 10 g- )          816            171 1         -                 297.9
Actinomycetes                185            12            -                 7.7

Garg, V.K. 1998. Interaction of tree crops with sodic soil environment potential for
rehabilitation of degraded environments. Land Degradation and development, 81-93.
Garg, V.K. 1999. Leguminous trees for rehabilitation of sodic wastelands in northern
India. Restoration Ecology 7: 21-287.
Garg V.K. 2000. Bio reclamation of sodic waste land a case study. Land Degradation
Development 11:487-2000.
Garg, V.K. 2001. Soils of Banthra Then and new. Applied Botany Abstract, 22: 283-

Garg, V.K. and B. Singh (2003) Macronutrient dynamics and use efficiency in three
species of short rotation forestry developed on sodic soils in north India. Journal of
Tropical Forest Science, 15 (2): 289-302.
Garg, V.K. and R.K. Jain 1996. Effect of fuel wood plantations on some properties of
sodic waste lands J. of Tropical Forest Science. 9:194-205.
Jain R.K. and V.K. Garg 1996. Effect of a decade old tree stands on some properties
of soils while revegetation sodic wastelands. The Indian Forester 122:467-475.
Jain R.K, and V.K. Garg, 1992. Influence of fire wood trees on sodic soils. Can. J.
For. Res. 22: 729-735.
Jain, R.K. and Singh, B. 1998. Biomass production and soil amelioration in a high
density Terminalia arjuna plantation on sodic soil. Biomass and Bio energy 13.
Jain, R.K., B. Singh, K.P. Tripathi and N. Srivastava (2001). Reclamation of sodic
soils in north India through afforestation with Azadirachta indica and and Pongamia
pinnata. Journal of the Indian Society of SoilScience 50: 147-148.
Jain, R.K., B- Singh, N. Srivastava, K.P. Tripathi and H. M . Behl (2002a). Influence
of tree growth on reclamation of sodic soils, Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,
Jain, R.K1., B. Singh, N. Srivastava, K.P. Tripathi and H.M. Behl (2002 b).
Amelioration in sodic soils by planting Albizia lebbeck benth. And Pithecolobium
dulce benth. Indian Journal of Forestry 25 (2): 114-121.
Khoshoo, T.N. 1987 Eco development of alkaline land Banthra a case study. NBRI-
CSIR ,Lucknow India, P1D, New Delhi.
Singh, B. 1989. Rehabilitation of alkaline wasteland on the Gangetic alluvial plains of
Uttar Pradesh, India, through afforestation, Land Degradation rf- Rehabilitation Vol.
1. 305-310, U.K.
Singh, B. 1996 Influence of forest litter on reclamation of semiarid soils. Arid Soil
Research and Rehabilitation 10: 201-211, U.S.A.
Singh, Bl. 1997. Deforestation consequences and rehabilitation of sodic wasteland in
the Gangetic plains In: The Environmental Degradation (Vol. II), pp 119-134, S.K.
Gupta and K. Kumar (Editors) Tar Book Agency, Varanasi, India.

Singh, B. 1998b. Productivity dynamics of Populus deltoids clones a degraded
Gangetic alluvium in north India. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 10:478-493
Singh B. 1998c. Biomass production and nutrient dynamics in three clones of Populus
deltoids planted on Indogangetic Plains. Plant and Soil, 203: 15-26, Kluwer.
Singh B. and Behl. H.M. 1999. Energy flow, carbon and nitrogen cycling in Populus
deltoids planted on India. Biomass and Bio energy 17:345-356.
Singh, B and Behl, H.M. 2001. Scope of Populus deltoids on marginal lands of Indo
Gangetic plains. The Indian Forester, 127-91-100.
Singh , B. and Misra .P.N. 1995. Biomass, energy content and fuel wood properties
Populus deltoids clones raised in North Indian Plains. Indian Journal of Forestry
Singh, B. and Tripathi ,S, .S,. 1993. Economic crop production through appropriate
management of sodic soils of Aligarh (U.P.). In Management of productivity

                                  CHAPTER- IV

                                     SESSION I
                                    (6TH Sep. 2005)
First Speaker of the session Shri R.S. Shukla I.F.S. (Retd.), senior consultant
Agriculture Finance Corporation New Delhi, presented a study by RC-N.A.E.B on
“Role of JFMCS in preparation of micro plans”. He presented findings of the study in
the states of Uttaranchal, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.
       The second speaker Dr. D Debroy, Ex Director National Research Centre for
Agro forestry Jhansi, expressed the need for providing technical guidance to farmers.
Farmers should be encouraged to earn income from fodder and grasses from agro
forestry and silvipastoral practices. He also recommended Jatropha the bio-diesel

plant for agro forestry as it is not browsed by animals and can be raised on degraded
         Third speaker Dr.R.K. Srivastava, Director (Silviculture) FRI Dehradun
presented information about the research facilities at FRI. He emphasized on the need
of tree improvement programs and site specific research techniques for forestry.
         During discussions Mr. Padam Vir Singh, Sr. Manager (Horticulture) U.P.,
Bhumi Sudhar Nigam spoke about the success of Jatropha plantations on USAR
lands. He also informed that the seeds of Jatropha are often eaten by peacocks during
Shri A.N. Chaturvedi while deliberating on the grazing problem disclosed the fact that
although Ailanthus Excelsa leaves was initially not eaten by goats but now Ailanthus
has become a very important fodder. Similarly Shisham and Khair were earlier not
eaten by animals but now they have become important fodder. Even Sal and Chir pine
leaves are being eaten by animals in some areas. He opined that only commercial spp.
e.g. Bamboo, Eucalyptus and Popular etc have proved to be beneficial for farmers. Dr.
Dhiman from Wimco said that Wimco had planted Jatropha on some reclaimed lands.
They have found that the milk of Jatropha seeds is carcinogenic and that further
serious thinking is required before promoting its plantations on agriculture lands.
         Shri B.K. Patnaik, PCCF (UP) expressed concern over the extra emphasis
given to Jatropha plant. He doubted the figures of yield which are subject to variation
according to site quality.

Closing the session Co-chairman made the following remarks,
1.             Extension of NAP in states such as Uttaranchal, UP, Rajasthan, Haryana
is going very well.
2.             FDA should be linked to other on-going development programs such as
3.             Self Help Groups formed under FDAs should act as nodal agencies for
all development programs at village level and thus providing sustainability to FDAs.

                                      SESSION II
                                    (6TH Sep. 2005)
The session started with a discussion by Dr. A.N. Chaturvedi IFS (Retd.) on the lack
of technical input from professional foresters in different aspects of forestry. He said
that often only very degraded and over-used lands are made available for plantations.
There is heavy pressure of cattle whose numbers are much above the carrying
capacities of the areas. According to him planting a mixture of several species at a site
is technically wrong. After 3-4 years only one or two species survive which are
suitable for the site, he cited the example of riverine successions.
        He mentioned that the due to lack of humus in the soil nematodes are
adversely affecting plantations in many plantation sites. Holmic acid which controls
nematodes is getting depleted from soil in such sites. He mentioned that often success
of plantations is wrongly measured by the numbers of surviving plants irrespective of
their health and girth. Success of plantation should be measured by basal area of the
plantation. He recommended that a tree plantation should be treated as an investment
and some of the returns from the plantation should be ploughed back to improve the
        Second speaker Shri S K Sharma, Chief Conservator of Forests, Joint Forest
Management, UP, presented an overview of evolution of joint forest management and
JFM rules in UP. He emphasized on the need of developing mechanisms to make JFM
committees self sustainable and the possibility of increasing forest cover by involving
local people.
        Third speaker Dr. S D Singh Regional Manager, Uttaranchal Forest
Corporation spoke on the necessarily of establishment of land banks. He said that in
order to achieve the target of creating green cover over 33% of land area waste lands
of any category should be reclaimed and forest corporations should help in these
efforts. He also advocated for planting Jatropha on degraded lands as it will help in
producing fuel oil and will save foreign exchange. He informed about the
development of 3 medicinal markets by Uttaranchal Forest Corporation and the
marketing of medicinal plants through JFM committees help groups.
        Shri A K Bisariya conservator of forests JFM Madhya Pradesh presented
details of work done in Madhya Pradesh on the convergence of different departmental
activities at village level through SHGS. He presented 16 parameters for grading Self

Help Groups to asses their functioning and for deciding the amount of loans to be
given by banks.
Shri Churchill Kumar DFO from Punjab Presented details about the mechanisms
developed in Sangrur district, Punjab for efficient functioning of FDAs.
        He identified the need for placing job oriented and dedicated staff for
implementation of FDAs. He informed about establishment of need based and
sustainable entry point activities. He also informed about the establishment of 12
homeopathic dispensaries, 6 sewing and embroidery centres and wormy compost
units in Sangrur district. These SHGS were linked to SGRY
        Fourth speaker Shri Rajeev Kumar Conservator of Forest Agra, UP, in his
presentation advocated for well targeted entry point activities, IGA activities for
increasing VDF, change of approach form regulatory to participatory function and a
clear withdrawal strategy.
        Shri R.C. Dhiman General Manager WIMCO, Bareily described the
development of different clones of popular by WIMCO. He mentioned that project of
WIMCO is individually supported, ecologically sustainable, economically viable,
financially feasible and socially acceptable. He lamented that there are no forest
personnel working solely for Agro Forestry. There is no certification agency for
certification of tree clones in India. He recommended for abolition of transit rules for
forest produce grown on agricultural lands. There should be no Mandi tax on forest
produce from agro forestry and different agro forestry models should be developed for
different sites.
Discussions: -
        During discussions Mr. Ojha a progressive farmer from Basti Uttar Pradesh
expressed concern over high intake of water by Eucalyptus and lowering of water
table. Shri R C Dhiman, GM WIMCO explained about the requirement of popular
being less in comparison with rice and wheat etc. Dr. A N Chaturvedi observed that
the high requirement of water by eucalyptus was only till third year of plantation and
in later years it did not affect the water table.

                                      SESSION III
                                      7th Sept 2005
In this session, the first speaker Shri Avani Kumar DFO Kanpur presented the
activities of FDA in Kanpur District.
        Second speaker of the session Dr. Ramji Srivastava presented his paper on
plantation techniques        of Jatropha covering various aspects of production and
economics of Jatropha plantations.
        Third speaker Shri R.P.Tyagi from Star Paper Mills, Saharanpur presented his
paper. He underlined the need for every user industry to plant double the number of
trees exploited by its as raw material.
        Fourth speaker Dr. Bajrang Singh senior scientist, National Botanical
Research Institute, Lucknow, presented a paper on plantation techniques and nutrient
requirement of plants. He showed that even bamboo can be grown on sodic or
alkaline soils. Selection of species should be done carefully according to the
plantation site.
        Dr. H P Chaudhari Prof. forestry, Chandra Shekhar Azad Agriculture
University Kanpur, Presented his paper on greening areas other than reserve forests.
He highlighted the need for developing agro-forestry models for different climatic
zones on scientific basis.
        Dr. D.K. Chakravarti, professor Acharya Narendra Dev University of
Agriculture, Faizabad, presented a paper on planting, harvesting and pest-control
techniques of Delbergia Sisoo.
        Shri Satya Deo Ojha, Chairman, Basti Shaheed Smarak Samiti, Basti
presented a paper on the activities of the Samit and role of this NGO in forestry.
        Shri Shailesh Prasad, Conservator of Forest, Allahabad, presented an article on
role of entry-point activities and sharing of usufructs in advancing JFM.
        Shri L K Tripathi Deputy Director, Uttaranchal Forestry Training Institute,
Haldwani, presented a paper on field experiences of forest staff on JFM. He expressed
the opinion that development without destruction of forest and possibilities of income
generation only will promote JFM.
        Shri Ashok Dixit DFO Faizabad presented a paper on sustainability of JFM.
        Shri Bhuwaneshwar Pande Chairman,“ADHAR”, an NGO in Gorakhpur,
discussed about the experience of the organization on sustainable development of
forest and people‟s participation.

       Shri Umendra Sharma, Chief Conservator of Forest/Director, Forestry
Training Institute, Kanpur, presented a paper on the need of training of forest staff for
the change of their role and on the activities of FTI Kanpur in this matter.
       During discussions following issues were highlighted :-
1.             Preservation of genetic bio-diversity is a matter of concern.
2.             Success of people‟s participation is good in areas where poverty and
               dependence on forests is high
3.             Complicated rules regulating trees felling discourage planting activity
4.             Govt. support in the form of buy-back guarantee for promotion of
               farmer‟s nurseries should be provided.
5.             Grass and fodder benefits from plantations sites increase people‟s
6.             Harvesting of bamboo should be free from felling regulations.
               Reportedly these have been removed in Uttaranchal.
7.             Development and promotion of markets for NTFP should be given
8.             Participatory   approach      for   providing   technical   assistance    in
               establishment of nurseries.
9.             Management of stray cattle.
10.            Production forestry should not be ignored completely.
11.            Plantation to be promoted in residential areas in cities and along
12.            Forestry education should be imparted for creating awareness among
       Mr. A.N. Chaturvedi, chairman of the session, urged foresters to strive for
technical excellence and to extend the technical know-how to people. He also
observed that research work done by Indian foresters was not reflected on internet and
other international forums. He said that growing of one species should not always be
termed as mono-culture as there is the option of growing several genetic variations of
a single species in order to avoid the dangers of mono-culture.

                                     SESSION IV
                     (Presentation of the Workshop Recommendations)
                                     7th Sept 2005
Group recommendations
Four groups were formed to deliberate on the recommendations of the workshop.
After the deliberations all the groups presented their recommendations before the
house. The recommendations are given below.
Group one:-
1-     Forest Development Agencies should not work in isolation.
2-     Joint Forest Management must be linked with other ongoing development
       programs such as SGSY etc.
3-     Funds for afforestation from all centre and state sponsored schemes must be
       pooled together.
4-     Certain percentage of Gram-Panchayat funds must be legally earmarked for
       afforestation activities.
5-     Land for plantation activities should be identified by Village Panchayats in a
       participatory manner.
6-     Responsibility of plantations along link roads must be given to concerned
       Gram Panchyats.
7-     Protection and management of plantations along chuck roads, river sides,
       gram-samaj lands and along ponds must be given to Gram Panchayats.
8-     Linkages between different programmes must be institutionalized.
9-     Monitoring and evolution of plantation activities must be strengthened and
       should be performed in a structured manner.
10-    All the SHG‟s must be made functional and should be engaged in afforestation
11-    Private-Public partnership should be encouraged in plantation activities.
12-    Wastelands may be leased to various industries for raising plantations with a
       clearly defined memorandum of understanding.
13-    Agriculture universities should work in liaison with the Forest Department.
14-    More funds should be allocated for forestry research.
15-    More training should be provided for SHGs
16-    A proper market intelligence network has to be developed.

17-   Knowledge about different forest produce markets should be disseminated
      amongst various stakeholders.
18-   A complete market grid for forest produce should be developed.
Group Two:-
1.    Absentee landlord‟s co-operatives should be formed wherever possible and
      they should be made part of Forest Development Agencies and should be
      financed through micro-plans for raising plantations.
2.    Various institutions such as universities, industries etc. should be encouraged
      for raising plantations and should be funded through micro-plans under
      national afforestation programme.
3.    Land of such Patta-holders who have got govt. land and who are not willing to
      cultivate, should be brought under plantations for 5 to10 years under FDA
4.    Tree groves raised or maintained by industries should be given special status
      and should be kept out of purview of concerning acts.
5.    Industries, urban development corporations and local bodies should contribute
      towards NAP through contribution of certain percentage of their income. A
      Green India Fund should be created in this manner.
6.    Proper marketing facilities are required for medicinal and aromatic plants in
      agro forestry systems. Uttaranchal Forest Development Corporation has
      started Jari Buti mandis (Medicinal and aromatic plants markets) concept and
      3 jari buti markets have already been established there and jari buti collected
      from forests and from agricultural fields are marketed through them.
Group Three:-
      JFMC members and concerned forest staff should be given training on -
1-    Rules and regulations, primarily on formation of various committees, financial
      powers of members and office bearers, accountability of office bearers and
      usufruct sharing mechanism.
2-    Proper accounting procedures.
3-    Social accountability of the committee.
4-    Developing market information system for marketing of forest produce in
      order to avoid distress sale.
5-    Institution building for sustainability of the different activities of the JFMCs.
6-    Monitoring indices and criteria of success.

7-     Development of expertise and skill up-gradation for local self-sustaining
8-     Development of proper reward system and fixing individual and common
Group IV:-
1- Implications of fencing plantation sites-
1.     Stopping grazing temporarily in any area will only transfer the livestock
       pressure to neighbouring areas.
2.     Most of the village do not function as a unit (specially these are heterogeneous
       in composition) and there are always some black sheep in the village.
3.     Even if the project village decides to completely prevent its cattle from
       grazing; there are no such obligations for the adjoining village.
4.     Despite the psychological fencing a semblance of some physical barrier is
       necessary e.g. a watcher or a low cost fencing.
5.     Any kind of fencing is effective only till the project period. One suggestion is
       to ensure that an emotional linkage of villagers is established with the
2- Entry point activities :
1.     Focus should be on creation of assets. Activities like health camps etc. are
       good for a short time but the effect is ephemeral.
2.     These activities should not weaken village institutions and enhancement of
       agricultural productivity by means of lift irrigation schemes, wormy culture,
       irrigation ponds, irrigation wells etc. should be encouraged
3- Involvement of Forest Range Officers in Joint Forest Management activities:
       Lower rank forest official lack proper report writing abilities. Range officer is
a Key-man in implementing all the activities in the division. Range officers should
be formally included in JFMC activities.
4- Funds should be allotted timely.
5- Co-ordination with other agencies:
1.     In many cases, developmental programmes run by village panchayats,
       B.D.Os. and other agencies pay higher wage rates than the F.D.As. for similar
       or lighter works. The plantation activity is tedious, time consuming and
       requires plenty of hard work. There should be parity in wages.

2.     Representatives of other departments, though being members of committee
       have little interest in FDA activities. They should be encouraged to take more
       interest in FDA‟s activities.
6- Schemes for fully stocked forests :
       In present arrangement the villages, which have destroyed their community
forests by careless management or deliberate actions are getting rewards in the form
of sanction of Govt. funds to be spent in plantation activities and rural development
programmes in the form of entry point activities. There are no schemes for villages
which have judiciously used their forests and protected them zealously. This anomaly
should be rectified.
7- Regulations on farmers‟ forest produce and that produced out of forest areas
should be removed.
8- Minimum support price should be declared for forest produce grown by farmers.
Prices of forest produce traded in unregulated markets should be monitored,
documented and published for the benefits of the farmers.
9- R&D on post harvest technology including value addition in forest produce,
medicinal plants and aromatic plants should be ensured through Agricultural
Universities and other such institutions.
10- Social fencing only can not be effective in protecting the forest resources,
therefore other strategy or options should be searched.

                                 CHAPTER- V

                           GROUP DISCUSSIONS

       In this session, 4 groups were formed from among the participants to discuss

the themes related to National Afforestation Programme (NAP), mechanism of Forest

Development Agencies (FDA) and participatory approach in implementing the

National Afforestation Programme.     Mr. B. K. Patanaik, PCCF, UP chaired the

session. Deliberations of the groups are summarized below.

4.1 Group One -

Theme - Linkages with other programmes and Self Help Groups

Participants -

   1- Mr.    D.K.Shukla,      Regional   Chief   Conservator   of   Forests,   Palamau


   2- Mr. Rajeev Kumar, C.F., Agra, U.P.

   3- Mr. A.K. Diwedi, C.F., Faizabad, U.P.

   4- Mr. Shailesh Prasad, C.F., Allahabad, U.P.

   5- Mr. A.K.Bisariya, C.F., FDA, Bhopal, M.P.

   6- Mr. Ajai Sehagal, C.F., HRD, Lucknow, U.P.

   7- Mr. Padam Vir Singh, Sr. Manager (Horticulture) U.P., Bhumi Sudhar Nigam

   8- Mr. Ashok Dixit, D.F.O., Faizabad, U.P.

   9- Mr. Charchil Kumar, D.F.O., Sangrur, Punjab

       The group explored the possibilities of arranging additional sources of funds,

expected role of Industry in extending linkages with forestry activities and

strengthening Self Help Groups.

Recommendations -

   19- Forest Development Agencies should not work in isolation.

   20- Joint Forest Management must be linked with other ongoing development

       programs such as SGSY etc.

   21- Funds for afforestation from all centre and state sponsored schemes must be

       pooled together.

   22- Certain percentage of Gram-Panchayat funds must be legally earmarked for

       afforestation activities.

   23- Land for plantation activities should be identified by Village Panchayats in a

       participatory manner.

   24- Responsibility of plantations along link roads must be given to concerned

       Gram Panchyats.

   25- Protection and management of plantations along chuck roads, river sides,

       gram-samaj lands and along ponds must be given to Gram Panchayats.

   26- Linkages between different programmes must be institutionalized.

   27- Monitoring and evolution of plantation activities must be strengthened and

       should be performed in a structured manner.

   28- All the SHG‟s must be made functional and should be engaged in afforestation


   29- Private-Public partnership should be encouraged in plantation activities.

   30- Wastelands may be leased to various industries for raising plantations with a

       clearly defined memorandum of understanding.

   31- Agriculture universities should work in liaison with the Forest Department.

   32- More funds should be allocated for forestry research.

   33- More training should be provided for SHGs

   34- A proper market intelligence network has to be developed.

   35- Knowledge about different forest produce markets should be disseminated

       amongst various stakeholders.

   36- A complete market grid for forest produce should be developed.

4.2 Group Two –

Theme - Extension of National Afforestation Programme

Participants -

   1- Mr. R.S.Shukla, (IFS Retd) Ex PCCF UP, senior consultant AFC, New Delhi

   2- Dr. Bajrang Singh, Senior Scientist, National Botanical Research Institute,


   3- Dr.    S.D.Singh,     Regional   Manager,   Uttranchal      Forest   Development

       Corporation, Dehradun.

   4- Dr. Charan Singh, Literacy House, Lucknow, U.P.

   5- Mr. R.K.Singh, Literacy House, Lucknow, U.P.

   6- Mr.    B.Prabhakar,     D.C.F.   (Training.)/Human       Resource    Development,


   7- Mr. Avani Kumar, D.C.F., Kanpur, U.P.

   8- Mr. P.S.Srivastava, D.C.F., N.T.F.P., Lucknow, U.P.

            Group was of the opinion that traditional areas like degraded forest lands,

community lands, pasture land, Railway side lands, Road side lands, canal side lands

and similar other waste lands should be afforested. Other landholder‟s viz. farmers,

Patta-holders, other institutions and departments should also be involved with

national afforestation programme through plantation committees. They should also be

funded under national afforestation programme.

Recommendations -

The group recommendations are -

   7. Absentee landlord‟s co-operatives should be formed wherever possible and

       they should be made part of Forest Development Agencies and should be

       financed through micro-plans for raising plantations.

   8. Various institutions such as universities, industries etc. should be encouraged

       for raising plantations and should be funded through micro-plans under

       national afforestation programme.

   9. Land of such Patta-holders who have got govt. land and who are not willing to

       cultivate, should be brought under plantations for 5 to10 years under FDA


   10. Tree groves raised or maintained by industries should be given special status

       and should be kept out of purview of concerning acts.

   11. Industries, urban development corporations and local bodies should contribute

       towards NAP through contribution of certain percentage of their income. A

       Green India Fund should be created in this manner.

   12. Proper marketing facilities are required for medicinal and aromatic plants in

       agro forestry systems. Uttaranchal Forest Development Corporation has

       started Jari Buti mandis (Medicinal and aromatic plants markets) concept and

       3 jari buti markets have already been established there and jari buti collected

       from forests and from agricultural fields are marketed through them.

4.3 Group Three –

Theme - Improvement in working of J.F.M.C.S. and forest staff .

Participants -

   1- Mr. Rashmi Kant Shukla, CCF (Administration.), U.P., Lucknow

   2- Mr. M.S.Dhillon, C.F., Firozpur, Punjab.

   3- Dr. O.P.Singh, Project-incharge, M.A.P., Acharya N.D. University of

       Agriculture Technology, Faizabad.

   4- Mr. D.D.Chakraborty, Plant Pathologist, Acharya N.D. University of

       Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad.

   5- Mr. C.P.Goel, C.F., Kanpur.

   6- Mr. L.K.Tripathi, Dy. Director, Uttaranchal Forest Academy, Haldwani, U.P.

   7- Mr. B.C.Tiwari, D.F.O., Shahjahanpur, U.P.

   8- Mr. B.Banerjee, D.C.F. (Projects), U.P, Lucknow.

The group deliberated on the issues of improvement in the working of J.F.M.C s and

forest staff. The group suggested that meetings of F.D.A. and J.F.M.C.s should be

held regularly and appropriate training should be imparted about the accountability of

various stakeholders and on other related issues.

Recommendations -

1- JFMC members and concerned forest staff should be given training on -

   1- Rules and regulations, primarily on formation of various committees, financial

       powers of members and office bearers, accountability of office bearers and

       usufruct sharing mechanism.

   2- Proper accounting procedures.

   3- Social accountability of the committee.

   4- Developing market information system for marketing of forest produce in

       order to avoid distress sale.

   5- Institution building for sustainability of the different activities of the JFMCs.

   6- Monitoring indices and criteria of success.

   7- Development of expertise and skill up-gradation for local self-sustaining


   8- Development of proper reward system and fixing individual and common


4.4 Group Four -

Theme - Implementation issues of National Afforestation Programme

Participants -

   1- Sri B.C.Naik, C.F., Bhagalpur, Jharkhand.

   2- Sri Ravi Ranjan, D.F.O., Garhwa, Jharkhand.

   3- Sri R.P. Tyagi, Star Paper Mills Ltd. Saharanpur

   4- Dr. R.C.Dhiman, Wimco Seedlings Ltd. Rudrapur.

   5- Dr. H.P. Chaudhary, CSA University, Kanpur

   6- Dr. C.M.Mishra, Plant Ecologist, FRI, Kanpur

   7- Dr. Ram Jee Srivastava, F.I.O. FRI, Kanpur

   8- Sri Bhuvaneshwar Nath Pandey, "AADHAR" NGO, Gorakhpur

   The group discussed the problems being faced in implementation of N.A.P.

   through F.D.A. The group only identified various problems but did not suggest


Recommendations -

1- Implications of fencing plantation sites-

   1. Stopping grazing temporarily in any area will only transfer the livestock

       pressure to neighbouring areas.

   2. Most of the village do not function as a unit (specially these are heterogeneous

       in composition) and there are always some black sheep in the village.

   3. Even if the project village decides to completely prevent its cattle from

       grazing; there are no such obligations for the adjoining village.

   4. Despite the psychological fencing a semblance of some physical barrier is

       necessary e.g. a watcher or a low cost fencing.

   5. Any kind of fencing is effective only till the project period. One suggestion is

       to ensure that an emotional linkage of villagers is established with the


2- Entry point activities :

   1. Focus should be on creation of assets. Activities like health camps etc. are

       good for a short time but the effect is ephemeral.

   2. These activities should not weaken village institutions and enhancement of

       agricultural productivity by means of lift irrigation schemes, wormy culture,

       irrigation ponds, irrigation wells etc. should be encouraged

3- Involvement of Forest Range Officers in Joint Forest Management activities:

    Lower rank forest official lack proper report writing abilities. Range officer is a

    Key-man in implementing all the activities in the division.         Range officers

    should be formally included in JFMC activities.

4- Funds should be allotted timely.

5- Co-ordination with other agencies:

   1. In many cases, developmental programmes run by village panchayats,

       B.D.Os. and other agencies pay higher wage rates than the F.D.As. for similar

       or lighter works. The plantation activity is tedious, time consuming and

       requires plenty of hard work. There should be parity in wages.

   2. Representatives of other departments, though being members of committee

       have little interest in FDA activities. They should be encouraged to take more

       interest in FDA‟s activities.

6- Schemes for fully stocked forests :

   In present arrangement the villages, which have destroyed their community forests

   by careless management or deliberate actions are getting rewards in the form of

   sanction of Govt. funds to be spent in plantation activities and rural development

   programmes in the form of entry point activities. There are no schemes for

   villages which have judiciously used their forests and protected them zealously.

   This anomaly should be rectified.

7- Regulations on farmers‟ forest produce and that produced out of forest areas

should be removed.

8- Minimum support price should be declared for forest produce grown by farmers.

Prices of forest produce traded in unregulated markets should be monitored,

documented and published for the benefits of the farmers.

9- R&D on post harvest technology including value addition in forest produce,

medicinal plants and aromatic plants should be ensured through Agricultural

Universities and other such institutions.

10- Social fencing only can not be effective in protecting the forest resources,

therefore other strategy or options should be searched.

Observations by Sri D.N.S.Suman, M.D., U.P.F.C., and Lucknow:-
Sri Suman stressed that there is need for seed certification along with production of
good nursery stock and supply of quality planting material for the success and
sustainability of FDA. He felt that the time has come to get the research activities get
sponsored so as to encourage forestry research with addition of courses in forestry in
the curriculum of Agricultural Universities.
       He explained that the success and extension of any scheme/program is related
to the economy of stakeholders. He stressed that the duration of crop and size of
holdings are two governing factors to be considered before designing ago forestry
models for the feasibility and overall sustainability of any biological industry.
Transfer of technology should be done only after suitable field trials of various
       Giving his opinion on improving JFMCs/FDAs, he opined that successes
stories should be maintained giving an opportunity/experience to the staff for getting
inspired through study tours. Successful models should be well described and widely
publicized enabling villagers to adopt any suitable model as per his requirements.
       Sri Suman also opined that established industries should come up with
packages for funding organizations involved in producing quality planting materials
or developing forestry/agro forestry models. He also felt that there is need that these
industries should also contribute towards research and extension activities in the field
of forestry to benefit farmers.
Observations by Shri B.K.Patnaik P.C.C.F, U.P.:-

                                                          Heartily congratulating all the
participants for coming up with very useful recommendation at the end of 2 days
workshop, he made certain observations: -
(1)             He appreciated the 2 days marathon efforts leading to concrete
recommendations by participants from different states, saying, that all the
recommendations are need of time and the house. He also pointed out that the
property resource management required a change on the face of paradigm shift in
national demographic & global economic scenario. The outcome of which is the
Forestry and JFM (after 1970) where the role of stake holders and people participation
occupied        the       hub       of         forestry      management          practices.
Citing figures from Reports of Forest Survey of India-2003 with respect
to U.P, he stressed the importance of people / farmers in afforestation. Pointing at
tree cover outside the legally constituted forest areas he appreciated the contribution
in green cover to the tune of 26 crore trees in the state. Forestry in the present scenario
has been shifted from forest land to non-forest lands. He also stressed the importance
market intelligence, information and analysis for forest produce, saying that, any
endeavour related to commerce and profit, will be sustainable. Pointing out the
importance that had usually been attached to market analysis for preparation of
Plans 60 - 70 years back, he suggested more rigorous market research and inventory
in the present day context with respect to designing of sustainable afforestation or
agro forestry models attractable to farmers.
         He supported his views with examples of JFM at Arabari, West Bengal, where
even 10% of the JFM produce could not be marketed for lack of demand in the
market. Only poles were sold because of limited demand for mine prop. He was of the
opinion that more importance was given to market information for the preparation of
WP 60 - 70 years back, and gradually, reduced over the time when, in fact, market
intelligence ought to have given more importance owing to adverse supply and
demand position.

       On transit fees he opined for a holistic consideration. Fees is not taken as a tax
but charged for the services rendered to the payee. Fees also have practical &
operational justification for watch and ward duties for forest produces (an unlocked
treasury). We can't guard every tree but by systematizing growth/extraction regime for
all trees an administrative check and common responsibility can be put in to practice.
So a holistic view on the same is welcome. He stressed again the importance of
establishment of market intelligence mechanism, inventory and survey particularly
(a) Land availability for plantation,
(b) Species wise plantation available,
(c) Demand and supply scenario of timber, fuel wood and other forest produces.
(d) Demand of raw materials for industries etc.
       On wasteland afforestation, he was of the view that because of heavy biotic
pressures and agro-climatic conditions most of the wastelands are experiencing a
stage of regression. For timber production or for running profitable bio-industry, no
private entrepreneur is coming up. Only good production can assured the demand for
private participation in afforestation activities on wasteland.
       As FDA is nothing but a management strategy in changing paradigm of
management forming co-operative under FDA, will help is extension of afforestation
activity as well as marketing mechanism.
       He appreciated “Greening India Programme" and expected more participation
by NGOs and private organizations. Stating importance of social fencing, he also
advocated strong mechanical fencing at the initial stages, as only social fencing is yet
to give expected results. He also stated the success of social fencing as a test of
people's involvement and participation in afforestation activities.
       He also stressed the need of simultaneous institution building outside the govt.
setup through the implementation of FDA for sustainability of the same.
       Comments by Shri S.K. Dutta Additional Principal Chief Conservator of
Forests, Research Training and Working Plans UP, Lucknow.- Forestry
productivity in India is very low in comparison to other countries in the world. Low
productivity is due to lower inputs put into forestry operations. Inputs include growth
accelerating fertilizers, high productive clonal seedlings, superior seeds and efficient
production system. The managerial input which is needed for high productivity is also
not to the expected level.

       That‟s why silviculture and tree growing occupation gets a lower priority
among Indian farmers in comparison to other land based activities. The challenges
before the forestry today are to change the present scenario efficiently. Forestry can
be made more productive through a paradigm change in the system of seedling
production and identifying the superior clonal planting material. Such changes in the
collection of planting material can be effected if all levels of forestry functionaries
starting right from the mali to the higher ups are given proper training in present
development in the fields of bio-technology.
       Forestry is meant not only for direct production system but also for its
contribution indirectly to environment and conservation of soil and water. People
generally try to look into the direct benefits ignoring the secondary ones which are
more important than the direct benefits. Training and workshops are also needed for
the general public for making them understand that forestry has a much-much bigger
role than only for producing timber and others forestry based materials or goods.
       The indirect service of forests need to be highlighted at every level so that our
degrading environment and natural resources get a more sympathetic response from
the general people.


Workshop on National Afforestation Plan

                       Forest Development Agencies

                         Programme of the Workshop

9.00 AM to 10.00 AM       -     Registration
10.00 AM to 10.15 AM      -     Welcome Address
10.15 AM to 10.45 AM      -     Inauguration of the Workshop by Hon'ble Chief
10.45 AM to 11.00 AM      -     Tea

Session - I

11.00 AM to 11.45 AM      -     Extension of National Afforestation Programme
                                the States.

11.45 AM to 12.30 PM       -    Exploring linkages with other ongoing
                                programmes     for strengthening FDA

12.30 PM to 1.15 PM       -     Establishment of self help groups.

1.15 PM to 2.30 PM        -     Lunch

Session - II

2.30 PM to 3.30 PM         -    Examination of FDA programme for
                                strengthening implementation process.

3.30 PM to 3.45 PM        -     Tea

3.45 PM to 5.45 PM              -   Search      for   additional   funds    for   further
                                    the programme.


Session - III

9.00 AM to 9.45 AM              -   Collection and sharing of information on issues
                                    of mutual concern such as market trends,
                                    research findings etc.

9.45 AM to 10.00 AM             -   Tea

10.00 AM to 11.30 AM            -   Sharing of information on agro-forestry models,
                                    participatory approaches to common property
                                    management etc.

11.30 AM to 1.30 PM             -   Group discussions

1.30 PM to 2.30 PM              -   Lunch

Session - IV

2.30 PM to 4.00 PM              -   Presentation          of       the        Workshop

4.00 PM to 4.15 PM              -   Valedictory address

4.00 PM to 4.30 PM              -   Vote of Thanks


                                          LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

    S. no.      Name & designation                          Official Address                       Phone/ Mobile
1            Sri V.K.Sharma           Prinicpal Secartary, Forest , Govt. of U.P. Lucknow     0522 2238669

2            Sri B.K.Patnaik          P.C.C.F, UP. Lucknow                                    0522 2206168
3            Sri D.N.S.Suman          M.D.,UPFC , Lucknow                                     0522 2716609

4            Sri Md .Ahsan            A.P.C.C.F. Wildlife,U.P, Lucknow                        0522 2206584
5            Sri S.K.Dutta            A.P.C.C.F. (T&R),U.P,Lucknow                            0522 2206051
6            Sri Rajive Kumar         CF. Agra, U..P.                                         0562-2530953
7            Sri Satya Dev Ojha.      Shaheed Smarak Samiti, Basti , U.P.                     9336730756
8            Sri B.C.Naik
             Advocate                 C.F. Bhagalpur, Bihar

9            Sri S.K.Sharma           CCF, JFM, Lucknow, U.P                                  2206195
10           Sri Ravi Ranjan          DFO. South Division. Garhwa, Bihar                      9431183833
11           Dr. C. M. Mishra         Plant Ecologist FRI. U.P.,Kanpur                        0512 2548414

12           Sri Ashok Dixit.         D.F.O.Faizabad , U.P.                                   9415022926
13           Dr. R Debroy             Dir S.F.(Retd) B-387 S.Vihar. New Delhi                 011-26946338
14           Dr. Ram Jee Srivastava   Forest Influences Officer. FRI, U.P.. Kanpur            2541092
15           Dr. P.K.Verma            CF, WFP. Lucknow, U.P                                   2716619
16           Sri Rajeev Kumar Garg    CF; Jhansi, U.P                                         9415058188
17           Sri Anil Bakshi          Director B. Consultant, New Delhi                       9810335598
18           Sri M.S.Dhillon          CF, FP, Punjab                                          01632279360
19           Sri Awani Kumar          DFO. Kanpur, U.P                                        9415017227
20           Sri Charchil Kumar       DFO. Sangrur. Panjab                                    09872890345
21           Sri Rakesh Kumar Singh   Literacy House, Lucknow, U.P
                                      -y-                                                     2470268
22           Sri A. N. Chat urved i   IFS, (Retd), Lucknow, U.P                               2207391
23           Sri Charan Singh         Literacy House. Lucknow, U.P                            2470268
24           Sri R.S.Shukla           Senior Consultant AFC, New Delhi                        9335904443
25           Biswajit Banerjie,       DCF , PCCF Office, U.P                                  09335103361
26           Sri A.K..Dwivedi         CF. Faizabad., U.P.                                     05278 260855
27           Sri L.K.Tnpathi          Dy. Director, , Forest Training Academy, Uttaranchal.
28           Sri A.K.Srivaslava       Dy. Director, UPFD , U.P
29           Sri Ajai Prakash         Dy. Director (Project) PCCFj U.P.
30           Sri Ashok Mishra         D a ri'i/j-oui'i-
                                      Jj Y. IDirector, UPFD U.P. .                            9412034047
31           Sri Amar Bahudur         Dy. C.W.L.W, U.P.
32           Sri Dr. S.D. Singh       73 Nehru Rd., Dehradun

33    Sri P.S.Srivastava      DFO. NTFP. Social Foresty , Lucknow, U.P       2206195
34    Sri Janmayjai Singh     Dy.DirecIor. PCCF Office , U.P                 2206184
15    Sri Rupak De            General Manager U.P. Forest Corporation, U.P   2715864
36    Dr. K.K.Jha             R.M. UPFC , Lucknow, U.P                       2715742
37    Sri R.K.Shukla          CCF(ADM) / Lucknow, U.P                        2207956
38    Prof. H.P.Chaudhorv     CSA University, Kanpur, U.P                    9415129830
39    Dr.D.P. Singh           N.D.U.A.T., Kumarganj, Faizabad, U.P           9415720215
40    Sri Ashubodh Kumar Pant SDO. PCCF. Office, Lucknow, U.P                3950416
41    Sri A.KHalen            CF.Utilization. Lucknow, U.P                   2206183
42    Sri B.C.Tiwari          DFO, Shahjahanpur. , U.P                       9415048726
43    Sri S.K Upadhyaya       CCF.Bareilly , U.P                             0581-2427207
44    Sri D.K.Shukla          Regional CCF. Patna , Bihar
43    Sri San jay Kumar       DIG. MOEF. New Delhi                           24362416
46    Sri Divakar Kumar.      C.C.F ,1 7, Rana Pratap Marg. Lucknow, U.P     9415110150
47    Sri C.B.Nath            C.F. (W.L.) Gonda , U.P                        9415202203
48    Dr.D.K.Chakrabarti      N.D.U. Kumarganj.,Faizabad                     262306
49    Dr. Bajrang Singh.      Sr. Scientist , NBRI, Lucknow                  0522 2205831-Ext.300
50    Dr. R.C.Dhiman          GM. WSL Kashipur Road. Rudrapur. U.P..         9837042464, 059442619
51    Sri Bhuvaneshwar Nath   President, Aadhar NGO. Gorakhpur, U.P.         2282240
52    Dr. O.P-Shukla
      Pandey                  N.D.U.A.T. Kumaranj. Faizabad, U.P
53    Sri Umendra Sharma      CCF(T), Kanpur, U.P                            2604259
54    Sri R.P.Tewari          CCF. (C)U.P, Lucknow, U.P                      0522-2715976
55    Sri C.P. Goyal          CF.Kanpur      , U.P                           9415202709
56    Sri A.S.Joshi           CCF. (JFM). FDA, Bhopal. M.P.                  2674224
57    Sri A.K.Bisaria         CFC, .FDA. , Bhopal, M.P.                      2763390
58    Sri R.P.Tyagi           Star Paper Mills Ltd. Saharanpur, U.P          2727731, 9412557924
59    Sri G.P.Sharma          Field Director Dudhwa Tigar Reserve, U.P.      05872 252106
60    Sri B.Prabhakar         DCF (T)/HRD.U.P. Lucknow, U.P                  0522-2207950
61    Shaliesh Prased         CF. Allahabad , U.P                            0532 2468732
62    Sri Aditva Kumar        DCF. PCCF. Office, UP
63    Sri Padam Vir Singh     Manager (Horticulure) U.P.Bhumi Sudhar Nigam   2720412-414
                              Lucknow, U.P
64    Sri L.R.Bairwa          D.C.F.. FTI, Kanpur, U.P                       2604259
65    Rajeev Srivastava       Silviculturist, FRI, Dehradun


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