Docstoc

Clean Coal Technology Conference

Document Sample
Clean Coal Technology Conference Powered By Docstoc
					             Reliance
             Industries Limited




               IGCC
  Clean Coal Technology Conference

10th November,2009 - PDPU, Gandhinagar

                    By
             Parthasarathi Deb
                     Contents
IGCC Salient features

History of Gasification: Global & Indian

Types of Gasifiers

Reliance Strategy for Petcoke Utilisation

Project formulation for Petcoke Gasification

Process of Evaluation

Emerging Technologies

                                               2 of 67
Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle
                   (IGCC)

                            Gasification
                               Island




        Air
    Separation                                        Power Island
    Unit (ASU)




         IGCC: Integration among the various Islands of Technology.




                                                                      3 of 67
   Block Flow Diagram of IGCC & Integration
                    options

       GASIFICATION ISLAND                             Slag

Coal
            Coal                                                     Heat            Gas             Sulphur
                                     Gasification
         Preparation                                                Recovery       Cleaning          Fly Ash




                              N2            O2      Waste N2
                                                                                         Clean Gas




                                                            Air
                             Air                                                      Gas
                                                                                                        Air
                                                                                     Turbine
                       Separation Unit
                           (ASU)
                                                                        Water
                                                      Air
                                                                                  Heat Recovery
                                                                                 Steam generator       Feed water
                                                            Steam                    (HSRG)
                Water / Steam integration

                Air side ASU-CC integration
                                                                                  Steam Turbine
                N2 side ASU-CC integration


                                                                                COMBINED CYCLE


                                                                                                              4 of 67
Existing Coal-based IGCCs
                            Tampa (Florida)




                                       5 of 67
Existing Coal-based IGCCs
                    Buggenum (Netherlands)




                                       6 of 67
Existing Coal-based IGCCs

                            Wabash (Indiana)




                                        7 of 67
Existing Coal-based IGCCs

                        Puertollano (Spain)




                                         8 of 67
                Features of IGCC Technology

Efficiency:

                                                                     Gross           Net
            Technology                                             Efficiency,   Efficiency,
                                                                     LHV%          LHV%
                                         ELCOGAS-Entrained
                                                                     47,1%         42,2%
                                         flow, dry-fed
  IGCC                                   SHELL (dry feeding)         48,3%         43,1%
  (according to gasification process)   TEXACO (no integrated)       51,6%         41,2%

                                               E-GAS TM              44,5%         39,2%
                                          Subcritical (165 bar,
                                                                     37,5%         36,0%
 PC, pulverised coal (with FGD, ESP       5400C)
 and low NOx burners)                    Supercritical (240 bar,
                                                                     41,1%         39,6%
                                         5650C)
                AFBC                                                 37,5%         36,0%

  NGCC, gas turbine F technology                                     57,3%         56,0%



                                                                                               9 of 67
                    Features of IGCC Technology
Environment:
        Technology                                              Emissions g/kWh         By-products
                                                                                        / solid waste
                                                        SO2      NOX    Particl   CO2      g/kWh(*)
                                                                          es
IGCC                         ELCOGAS/ SIEMENS           0.07     0.40    0.02     727
                             V94.3
                             SHELL / SIEMENS V94.2      0.10     0.05    0.02     712
(according to gasification                                                              Slag: 210 Fly
process / gas turbine)                                                                    ash: 2.0
                             TEXACO / GE 7F             0.13     0.35    0.02     745   Sulphur: 4.0


                             E-GAS TM / GE 7F A         0.14     0.37    0.02     783

PC                           Subcritical ηnet=36.0%     2.50     2.30    0.30     852   Fly ash: 25.0
                                                                                          Gypsum
                             FGD (90%), LNB (50%),                                      (FGD): 19.6
                             Supercritical ηnet=39.6%   2.15     1.10    0.27     774   Fly ash: 25.0
                             FGD (95%), SCR (95%),                                        Gypsum
                             ESP (99.2%)                                                (FGD) : 18.8

AFBC                                                    1.40     0.80    0.10     852     Fly ash –
                                                                                           gypsum-
                                                                                         limestone:
                                                                                             52.9
NGCC, ηnet=56.0%                                        0.007    0.54    0.02     350


                                                                                                      10 of 67
              Features of IGCC Technology
Environment:
  1. SOx , NOx and Particles:
    SOx , NOx and particulate emissions are comparable to or less
    than those obtained in a combined cycle using Natural Gas
    (NGCC).

  2. Greenhouse effect gas CO2 :
     CO2 emission is reduced by 20% in IGCC over conventional
     boiler base power plant.
     CO in syngas can be converted to CO2 and production of Hydrogen can
     be increased. Thus CO2 can be captured directly using regular
     commercial process at a higher pressure than extracting it from combustion gases
     from conventional PC plant or NGCC plant.

  3. Water consumption:
     Specific consumption of water for the operation of IGCC plant is approx. half that of
     conventional plant using gas cleaning system.


                                                                                             11 of 67
               Features of IGCC Technology
Environment:

4. Other contaminants : Chlorine , Mercury, Heavy metals:

   In IGCC operation,
  Chlorine compounds are extracted from Gas by washing with water.
  Heavy metals are almost entirely captured in the slag which is a vitrified, non
  leachable, inert solid.
  Mercury can be removed by absorption on a bed of active carbon for IGCC at a cost
  of 1/12 that of PC power plant.

5. Solid by products:
  Sulphur is recovered in a pure elemental state or as sulphuric acid.
  Solid waste (slag) can be disposed as by products for manufacturing of ceramic
  material, fiber glass, filling roads, manufacturing of cements, roof tiles or bricks.




                                                                                          12 of 67
                   Features of IGCC Technology
Fuel-multiple choice:
IGCC / POX :
1. Fossil Fuel:-
   Natural gas
   Petroleum coal
2. Alternative fuels:-
   Petroleum coke
   Biomass and waste products


  The security of supply of fuel, stability in prices of fuel and multiplicity in choice of fuel, IGCC
  Technology has clear cut edge over other technology / process for power generation.




                                                                                                         13 of 67
                          Features of IGCC Technology
    Global Situation:
   Owner/ Location          Commissioning    Net output. MW      Fuel       Combined    Gasification
                                             Other products                   cycle
Cool Water, USA             1984            120 MW            Coal          GE 107E     Texaco

Nuon, Buggenum,             1994            253 MW            Coal/         Siemens     Shell
Holland                                                       Wastes and    V94.2
                                                              biomass

Wabash River, Indiana,      1995            262 MW            Coal/ pet-    GE 7F       E-GasTM
USA                                                           coke
Tempa Electric, Florida,    1996            250 MW            Coal/ pet-    GE 7F       Texaco
USA                                                           coke
ELCOGAS,                    1997            282.7 MW          Coal/ pet-    Siemens     Entrained
Puertollano, Spain                                            coke          V94.3       flow
SUV, Versova Chec           1996            350 MW, vapor     Lignite       2 x GE 9E   Moving bed,
Republic                                                                                Lurgi

SVZ, Schwarze               1996            40 MW, steam,     Lignite/Was   GE 6B       Noell
Pumpe, Germany                              methanol          tes
Sulcis, Sardinia, Italy     2006            450 MW            Coal                      SHELL

Texaco El Dorado,           1996            40 MW, steam      Petcoke       GE 6B       Texaco
Kansas, USA
                                                                                          14 of 67
                       Features of IGCC Technology

  Global Situation:


 Owner/ Location         Commissioning    Net output. MW      Fuel      Combined      Gasification
                                          Other products                  cycle
Motiva, Delaware,       1996             240 MW, steam     Petcoke      2 x GE 6FA    Texaco
USA
Shell Pernis,           1997             127 MW, H2,       Visbreaker   3 x GE 7FA    Texaco
Rotterdam, Holland                       steam             reesidues
ISAB, Priolo, Italia    1999             510 MW            Asphalts     Siemens 2 x   Texaco
                                                                        V94.2 K


API, Falconara, Italy   2000             260 MW            Visbreaker   ABB 13E2      Texaco

SARLUX, Sardinia,       2000             550 MW, H2m       Visbreaker   3 x GE 9E     Texaco
Italy                                    steam             residues




                                                                                        15 of 67
                     Features of IGCC Technology

Investment Cost:
$/kw




       1,500



       1000




       500



        0
                     1997            2000          2010           2015


               Forecast development evolution IGCC power plants costs ($/kw)




                                                                               16 of 67
                   Features of IGCC Technology
Cost Comparison among IGCC, PC and NGCC Power plant:

                                 IGCC         PC sub       NGCC        NGCC peak 1   NGCC peak 2
                                              critical     base
 Output MW                        590           500          506           506           506

 Production factor %               80           80           80            65            40

 Met efficiency, HHV %         41.0 (42.2)   35.0(36.0)   50.5(56.0)    48.7(54.0)    47.3(52.4)
 (LHV%)
 Fuel cost €/kWh               1.31(0.55)    1.31(0.55)   3.56(1.50)    3.56(1.50)    3.56(1.50)

 Investment cost €/kWh           1300          1186          496           496           496
 Investment cts. €/kWh            2.63         2.40         0.96          1.17          1.91

 O&M cts. €/kWh                   0,71         0,68         0,32          0,33          0,39

 Fuel cts. €/kWh                  1.14         1.33         2.57          2.67          2.74

 Electricity cost cts. €/kWh      4.48         4.41         3.85          4.17          5.04




                                                                                                   17 of 67
                  Features of IGCC Technology
Cost Comparison among IGCC, PC and NGCC Power plant:
           6

           5

           4                                       1.91
                                          1.17               Investment cts. €/kWh
   €/kWh




                        2.4      0.96
               2.63
           3                              0.33     0.39      O&M cts. €/kWh
                                 0.32
                                                             Fuel cts. €/kWh
           2
               0.71    0.68
                                 2.57     2.67     2.74    Coal price = 1.38 €/MMBtu
           1
                       1.33                                Gas price = 3.74 €/MMBtu
               1.14
           0
               IGCC   PC sub     NGCC    NGCC     NGCC
                      critical    base   peak 1   peak 2




                                                                                       18 of 67
History of Gasification: Global & Indian




                                           19 of 67
              History of Gasification
PERIOD              TECHNOLOGY

Before 1700         Major fuels were Wood and Charcoal

1700-1750           Industrial revolution – Coal as fuel

1800-1900           Coal Pyrolysis – Town gas supply
                    Water gas, Producer Gas

1920                Cryogenic air separation – Oxygen replaces air

1926                Winkler Fluidized Bed Gasifier

1931                Lurgi Moving Bed Gasifier

1940                Koppers-Totzek Entrained Flow Gasifier

1950s               Texaco and Shell develop Oil Gasification
                                                                     20 of 67
              History of Gasification

PERIOD            TECHNOLOGY

1970s             Oil crisis

1973              Texaco develops Slurry Process for Coal Gasification

1974              Shell and Koppers-Totzek Pressure Gasification JV

1981              High Temperature Winkler Gasification

1984              Lurgi Slagging Gasifier (together with British Gas)

1999              Shell/Krupp-Uhde develops Pressurised Entrained
                  Flow (PRENFLO) Gasifier

Beyond 2000       Shell Gasification, GE Quench/PHR/FHR, Siemens,
                  Chinese, GPE, Plasma, Headwaters
                                                                    21 of 67
            Gasification – Indian Context
PERIOD        TECHNOLOGY              FEED       LOCATION

1940s         Wood Gasification       Wood       FACT - Cochin

1945-1950     Lurgi Fixed Bed         Coal       Sindri

1960s         Winkler Fluidized Bed   Lignite    Neyveli

1960s         Texaco                  Naphtha    FACT - Cochin

1970s         Krupp-Koppers           Coal       Ramagundam
              Entrained Bed Atm.                 Talcher

1970s         Shell                   Fuel oil   Sindri

1980s         Shell                   Fuel oil   NFL - Bhatinda,
                                                 Panipat, Nangal

1980s         Texaco                  Fuel oil   GNFC - Bharuch
                                                             22 of 67
Types of Gasifiers




                     23 of 67
              What Is Gasification?



 Conversion of any carbonaceous fuel to a gaseous
  product with a useable heating value.

 The feed for Gasification can be

    Gas           (e.g., Natural gas)

    Liquid        (e.g., Light or Heavy oils)

    Solid         (e.g., Petroleum Coke, Coal, Lignite or
                   Biomass).




                                                             24 of 67
      Combustion v/s Gasification



                          Combustion                Gasification
Operating temperature          Lower                   Higher
Operating pressure      Usually atmospheric      Often high pressure
Ash condition                Often dry              Often slagging
Feed gases                       Air               Steam, oxygen
Product gases                CO2, H2O           CO, H2, CH4, CO2, H2O
Gas cleanup                Postscrubbing        Intermediate scrubbing
Pollutants                   SO2, NO2             H2S, HCN, NH3, COS
Char reaction rate          Fast (with O2)       Slow (with CO2, H2O)
Oxidizer                In excess (Oxidizing)    Deficient (Reducing)
Tar production                  None                  Sometimes
Purpose                 High-temperature gas         Fuel-rich gas




                                                                         25 of 67
                    Types of Gasifiers

1) Moving/Fixed bed              e.g., Lurgi

        Counter-current
        Co-current

2) Fluidized bed                 e.g., Winkler/KBR/U-GAS

3) Entrained flow

        Dry pulverized solid fuel e.g., Shell/Prenflo/Siemens

        Fuel slurry              e.g., GE/Conoco-Philips

        Atomized liquid fuel     e.g., GE/Shell



                                                                26 of 67
                            Types of Gasifier
Moving Bed
(400-1,1000C, 10-100 bar)                                     Fluidised
                                                              (800-1,0500C, 10-25 bar)
                       Coal (3-30 mm)                                                         Gas




                                               Gas

                                                         Coal (1-5 mm)




                                                          Steam +Air / O2

Steam +Air / O2
                                                        Gas
                                                                                              Fly Ash

                            Fly Ash

                                        Coal (0.1 mm)
       Entrained
                                                                         Coal (0.1 mm)
       (1,200-1,6000C, 25-40 bar)


                             Steam + O2                                          Steam + O2




                                                              Slag




                                                                                                        27 of 67
Temperature Profile of Gasifiers


                                 MOVING BED GASIFIER
                                 (400-1100 0 C, 10 to 100 bar)




  FLUIDIZED BED GASIFIER
  (800 – 10500C, 10 to 25 bar)




                                    ENTRAINED FLOW GASIFIER
                                    (1200-16000C, 25 to 80 bar)


                                                                  28 of 67
Fluidised based gasifier

                                                                 SYNGAS
                   COAL
                                                              CYCLONE


                                   GASIFIER




       Inert Gas
                               Disengaging
                                  Zone
                             Freeboard

                              Fluidized
                                 Bed

                              Injector
                              Screws

         LOCKHOPPER
           SYSTEM



                                                       Grid



                                  AIR / STEAM
                                                  Bottom Ash
                                                   Removal




                          U-GAS ® Gasifier Schematic

                                                                          29 of 67
Equilibrium Exit Gas Composition




                                   30 of 67
Reliance Strategy for Petcoke Utilization




                                            31 of 67
          Background Story of Petcoke Usage

 First Refinery at Jamnagar started up in Q4’99. Petcoke production ~ 8500 TPD

 During project engineering phase several options for petcoke usage were
discussed:

    Thermal power plant – CFBC Boiler + STG

    Petcoke gasification to generate H2 for refinery. Back up of coal feed during
    start up

    Storage of petcoke during intervening period between start up of refinery and
    proposed units above

    Focused effort for marketing of petcoke – National + International Customers

 Marketing efforts were so successful, that we didn’t pursue any of the other
options.


                                                                             32 of 67
                 Future Petcoke Scenario


 Second Refinery at Jamnagar start up on Q4’08

 Expected petcoke production: ~9000 TPD

 Total Reliance petcoke generation: ~6.5 MMTPA

 Expected additional generation of petcoke in India by 2012: ~10 MMTPA

 This far exceeds captive demand of ~4 MMTPA

 Surplus petcoke is available

 Reliance considers petcoke gasification as opportunity for value addition




                                                                              33 of 67
       Key Drivers for Petcoke Gasification



 Transform “Jamnagar” into “bottomless” refinery

 Exploit price delta between natural gas and petcoke

 Replace natural gas with syngas, to manage the supply risk

 Insulate the Jamnagar refinery from future energy cost escalation

 Pursue reduction in GHG through possible CO 2 capture and
  sequestration




                                                                      34 of 67
Project Formulation for Petcoke Gasification




                                          35 of 67
                Project Scope


 PETCOKE QTY             -     17500 TPD (Dry Basis)
                                19000 TPD (As recd. Basis)

 OXYGEN                  -     18,000 TPD

 SYN. GAS PRODUCTION     -     40,000 TPD
                                2/3rd FOR POWER
                                1/3rd FOR HYDROGEN/
                                         CHEMICALS


 POWER GENERATION        -     1140 MW

 HYDROGEN GENERATION     -     900 TPD



                                                         36 of 67
               Typical Fuel Composition


                     Petcoke
   Component                         Lignite   Orissa Coal (Wt%) *
                       (Wt%)
 Carbon               89.45          51.64           55.70
 Hydrogen              2.80            4.6            4.78

 Sulphur               7.49            7.5            0.67

 Oxygen                0.01          17.68            7.32

 Nitrogen              0.05           0.44            1.53

 Ash                   0.20          17.85           30.00
 GCV (Kcal/kg)         8350           533             4567


* For reference of comparison only
                                                                37 of 67
Energy Content and Composition of Solid Fuels




                                                Petcoke




                                                   38 of 67
Reactivity of Fuels as Function of Temperature




                                                 39 of 67
        Why Entrained Flow Gasifier?


   Ability to handle variety of solid fuels

   High throughput because of high reaction rates/temperature

   Opportunity for heat recovery

   High carbon conversion

   Syngas free of oils and tars

   Low methane production




                                                                 40 of 67
  Salient Features of GE and Shell Technologies

Sr.   Parameter           GE                           Shell
No.
 1    Nature of feed      Slurry                       Dry

 2    Firing              Top fired                    Side fired

 3    Number of burners   Single                       Multiple

 4    Gasifier            Pressure vessel with         Pressure vessel with
                          refractory lining            membrane wall
 5    Operating           Temperature:1200-15000C      Temperature: >16000C
      conditions
                          Pressure: upto 80 bar        Pressure: 36 bar

 6    Gas/ Slag Flow      Gas + Slag + Fine Ash all    Gas + Fly Ash goes up,
      Path                flow down - single passage   Slag flows down -
                                                       separate passage


                                                                          41 of 67
GE Quench Gasifier – Slurry Feed




                                           14500C
                                           10000C
                                           5500C
                                   2800C   3000C


                               1
   1.   Steel Pressure Shell
                               2
   2.   Insulation Layer
   3.   Castable Layer         3
   4.   Hot-face Refractory
                               4




                                             42 of 67
Shell Membrane Walled Gasifier
                                                            16500C


                                                            13000C

                                                            8000C
                                 500C                       5000C
          Syngas Cooler                                     2000C

                                                            1
                                                            2
                                                            3
                                                            4
                                                            5
                                                            6
                                                            7
                                                            8
                          1.   Flowing Slag Layer
                          2.   Solid Slag Layer
                          3.   High Alumina Refractory Material
                          4.   Metallic Studs (Incolloy)
                          5.   Membrane Tube Wall
                          6.   Free Space
                          7.   Refractory Lining on Pressure Vessel
                          8.   Pressure Vessel                        43 of 67
                                      Process Flow

                                                                      Flue gases
                                 STG                     HRSG
                   Power
                    N2

                                                                                   Power
                                                                Air
                                                                         GT
                              Steam
          ASU
                       O2                                             H2S            SRU
Air                                                                                           Sulphur
                                                      Gas
                   Steam       Gasifier            Cleaning &           AGR
        Grinding                                    Cooling
 Coke                  Feed                                                                 CO2
                                      Slag + Fine Ash
                                                                                           Capture
                                             To SRU

                      Sour                AGR            Sweet              AGR                Hydrogen
                                                                                     PSA
                      Shift                H2S            Shift             CO2


                                                                                              44 of 67
Typical Syngas Composition (Gasifier O/L)

        Licensor          GE               Shell
            COMPONENT (Mole%, dry basis)
          CO              48               61
           H2             32               25
          CO2             16               4.5
          CH4            0.10          0.01

     Ar + Rare gases      1.1              0.9

           N2             0.7              6.7
          H2S              2               1.7
          COS             0.1              0.3

     HHV (Kcal/kg)       2500          2700

                                                   45 of 67
                 Retrofitting of existing assets
Retrofittings of GT (Frame 6 & Frame 9) for Syngas firing:
 Piping:

     •   Syngas
     •   N2 Purge
     •   N2 / steam
 Controls
     •   MK 6
     •   Software
     •   Instrumentation (valves / flow meter)
 Combustion
     •   Fuel Nozzle
     •   Liners
   Syngas Skid
     •      Syngas injection
     •      Air Extraction (Optional)
     •      N2 injection ( Optional)
   Compartment modification
     •      Off base enclosure
     •      CFD modeling
     •      Hazardous gas detection system
                                                             46 of 67
   Gasification: Ultimate Product Flexibility

      Power & Steam              Carbon Source           Iron Reduction


Naptha          Fischer-             Gasification        Fuel/Town Gas
                Tropsch
 Waxes           Liquids         Synthesis Gas         H2           Ammonia
                                                                     & Urea

 Diesel/Jet/Gas Fuels                 Methanol           Dimethyl Ether

 Synthetic Natural Gas
                                                            Ethylene
                                 Methyl Acetate                &
  Acetic Acid                                               Propylene

                           Acetate
VAM        Ketene           Esters                  Oxo Chemicals


         Diketene &             Acetic Anhydride               Polyolefins
PVA
         Derivatives                                                      47 of 67
Process of Evaluation




                        48 of 67
                   Process of Evaluation

   Proposal from process licensors
   Series of discussions with process licensors
   Visit to plants of GE & Shell and discussion with plant operators:

    Location                                                      Feedstock
    GE
     Coffeyville resources, USA                                  Petcoke
     Polk Power Plant, Tampa                                     Coal + Petcoke
     Eastman Chemical Company, Kingsport                         Coal
     Sarlux IGCC, Cagliari                                       Vacuum residue
     Wison Chemical Co, Nanjing                                  Coal
     Sinopec Nanjing Chemical Industries Co, Nanjing             Coal
     Shanghai Coking and Chemical Company                        Coal
     GNFC, Bharuch                                               Fuel oil
    Shell
     Nuon Power, The Netherlands                                 Coal+ Biomass
     Elcogas, Puertallano, Spain                                 Coal + Petcoke
     Yueyang Sinopec & Shell Coal Gasification Co Ltd, China     Coal
                                                                               49 of 67
             Process of Evaluation (contd.)


   Information and data available in the public domain.

   CAPEX estimation based on:

       PFD & sized equipment list provided by the licensors

       Pre-engineering to estimate quantities of bulk materials

   OPEX estimation for Jamnagar location

   Personal experience of operating oil and coal gasifiers.




                                                                   50 of 67
Parameters for Evaluation of Performance


   OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS / RATIOS
       No. of Gasifiers
       Gasifier Temperature & Pressure
       Oxygen Purity
       O2 / Te of coal
       Syngas / Te of coal
       % (CO + H2) per Te of coal
       Steam – Water / Te of coal
       Gas Composition
       Calorific Value of Syngas


                                           51 of 67
Parameters for Evaluation of Performance (contd.)

  F-R-A-M-E (Flexibility, Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Efficiency)
   Flexibility:
      Feed
      No. of burners (single vs. multiple)
      Design margin
      Turn down
      Gasifier sparing
      Gasifier downstream processing
      Product
   Reliability / Availability:
      On-stream factor
      Planned outage
      Unplanned outage
      Forced outage rate
                                                                             52 of 67
Parameters for Evaluation of Performance (contd.)
 F-R-A-M-E (Flexibility, Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Efficiency)
   Maintainability:
      Air compressor train
      Grinding mills
      Slurry feed pumps
      Gasifier
           o Burners, refractory, waste heat recovery
      AGR
           o Columns, heat exchangers, vessels, pumps etc.
      SRU
   Efficiency:
      Carbon Efficiency:          (Te of carbon in CO,CO2,CH4,COS)/(Te of C in feed)x100
      Total Thermal Efficiency: (Cold gas energy + steam energy (LP/MP/HHP))/(input
                                      energy of coal ) x 100
       Cold Gas Efficiency:          (LHV of cold gas x Te of syngas)/(LHV of coal x Te of coal)
                                      x 100
       Useful Gas Efficiency:        (Ton of CO+H2 produced)/(Ton of C+H2+O2 in feed) x 100
                                                                                            53 of 67
               Environmental Performance

SOx control
   H2S & COS removal – mature technologies available.
   Captured “acid gas” to solid sulfur or sulfuric acid
   >99% removal
NOx control
   Minimize “fuel nitrogen”: NH3 washes out of syngas with water
   Minimize “thermal NOx”: moderate flame temperature in GT with diluent
   injection (N2/steam)
PM control
   Ash is converted to glassy slag which is inert and usable
   Secondary removal of fine solids from syngas with barrier filters and water
   scrubbers



                                                                             54 of 67
            Economics

Raw Material
   Solid
       •Coke, Lignite
ASU
   Number of trains
   Oxygen purity (95.0 vs 99.7%)
   Cold box operating pressure
   Number of compressors
   Drive for compressors (Motor vs Turbine)
   Oxygen supply (liquid/gas)
   Recovery of rare gases
   Extent of integration with GTs
Grinding
   Wet vs. Dry
   Feed slurry pumping vs. pneumatic feed
                                               55 of 67
Energy Requirement vs. Oxygen Purity
                                                     Energy Requirement Vs Oxygen Purity


                                112
                                111
                                110
                                109
                                108
        Energy Requirement, %


                                107
                                106
                                105
                                104
                                103
                                102
                                101
                                100
                                 99
                                 98
                                      94   95   96      97     98      99      99.1   99.2   99.3   99.4   99.5
                                                                 Oxygen Purity, %




Going From 95 % to 99 % Purity, increases the energy by 5 %.
Going From 99 % to 99.5% Purity, increases the energy by another 5 %.
Energy requirement sharply increases beyond 99 %.


Source : Industrial Gas Handbook, Gas Separation & Purification, By Frank G. Kerry
                                                                                                                  56 of 67
            Economics (contd.)
Gasifier
    Type (Quench, FHR)
    Pressure (low & High)
CO Shift
    Sour vs. Sweet
Acid Gas Removal Unit
    Chemical vs. Physical
Sulphur Recovery
    Granulated sulphur vs. sulphuric acid
CO2 capture
    Sequestration vs chemical
Product Slate
    Power, H2, NH3, Urea, MeOH, AA, MTO, DME, GTL etc.
Integration
    Gas, Air, Nitrogen & Steam                           57 of 67
Conceptual Scheme for GT – ASU Integration

                                1.     Steam generation with extracted air from GT compressor
                                2.     Steam injection for NOx control / no Nitrogen injection

                                                           Steam


                                                                       HP Steam @
                                                                      42 bara 391oC
                         Syn Gas                          Syngas
                          @ 400C                          Preheater                                   Fuel
                                                                                                      Mixer
Oxygen to                                                                          Syn Gas Temp
gasification                                                                        not < 2000C



                       ASU                            Nitrogen
                                                                                   Air                        GT
                                                      LP/MP/HP                                                     112 MW
                                                        Steam                               GT
BFW Feed
                                                                                         Compressor

                             8.1 bar      BFW              Steam        10.2 bar
                              400C      preheater         Generator      3600C



                                                    BFW
Air

                                                                                                                   58 of 67
      ASU Compressor
Technology Suppliers Considered


           Unit                  Supplier

Air Separation Unit     Air Liquide, Air products,
                        Linde, Praxair
Grinding                L & T - MHI, Loesche,
                        Pfeiffer, Metso, Promac
Gasification            GE, Shell

Acid Gas Removal Unit   Linde, Lurgi, UOP, BASF,
                        Ineos, Shell, Amines &
                        Plasticizers, Black &
                        Veatch




                                                     59 of 67
Typical Capex Break-up for IGCC


    Sections            %
    Gasification        39
    ASU                 21
    Sour block          10
    Power block         14
    OSBL                7
    Contingency         9
    Total              100




                                  60 of 67
                      Sensitivity Analysis

JAMNAGAR IGCC

Feedstock:        17500 TPD petcoke
Product:          Syngas
CAPEX:            Approximately USD 3.0 - 3.3 billion

                                          NG Price ($/MMBTU)

Petcoke price ($/T)        5         7          9        11      13      15

                 60    15.86      6.84        4.36       3.2    2.53   2.09

                 90              11.09        5.77       3.9    2.94   2.37

               120                29.4        8.53      4.99    3.53   2.73

               150                           16.36      6.93     4.4   3.22

                                         CAPEX/EBITDA (Years)



                                                                       61 of 67
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES




                        62 of 67
                      Emerging Technologies

To summarise
 Gasification Technology offers the cleanest and most efficient way to convert low
   and / or negative value carbon based feed stock to syngas.
 Syngas can ultimately replace natural gas for Industrial uses, electrical power
   generation and basic raw material to produce chemical and fuel oil.
 Commercial Success of Gasification Technology will depend on the advancement
   of technologies such as :
            Low cost oxygen production
            Syngas cleanup and
            Cost effective separation of Hydrogen from C 2




                                                                                      63 of 67
                     Emerging Technologies

 Advanced and / or Novel Gasifier Technology
 Hydrogen Separation (from H2 and CO2 mixtures) Membrane Technology
 Solvent Absorption / Physical Solvent Technologies
 Sulfur Conversion and Recovery Technology
 Non-Cryogenic Oxygen (e.g. Membrane) Production Technology
 Multi-Component Removal Technology
 Gasification Integration




                                                                       64 of 67
                            Emerging Technologies
New Gasifier designs:
1. GE global/ Unmixed fuel processor (UOP):
      • Elimination of Air Separation Unit (ASU)
      • High Temperature Syngas Clean up
      • Higher efficiency
      • Lower cost
2. KBR Transport Gasifier (TRIG TM):
      • Low rank, high-ash, high-moisture coal compatible
      • For power generation, air can be employed as the oxidant
      • Lower cost predicted
      • Higher availability predicted
      • Non-slagging, and refractory issues should therefore be minimal
      • Higher predicted efficiency
      • Lower emissions (due to higher efficiency)
      • Large scale up of the technology still required, by a factor of ~30
              By 2010, this technology will be operating at the scale of E-Gas which has >20 years
                experience already in 2007.
      • Lower temperatures and short gas residence time may lead to some methane formation,
        which is detrimental in chemical applications.
      • Ash disposal problem if carbon conversion predictions are not met in commercial
       apparatus.                                                                                     65 of 67
                            Emerging Technologies

3. Catalytic Coal Gasification – BluegasTM :

      • Elimination of oxygen plant
      • For SNG objective, little or no catalytic methanation required
      • High thermodynamic efficiency potential
      • Catalyst cost and recoverability
      • Carbon conversion and methane production yields in the gasifier
      • Cost of applying the catalyst effectively to the coal
      • Inherently must be done in a fluidized bed which have not been scaled up to larger capacities
       of entrained gasifiers (yet)
      • Interactions of catalyst with coal ash
      • Separation costs of syngas and methane – cryogenic process
      • Excess steam requirements
      • Unsuitable for chemical synthesis processes due to CH 4 reforming requirement.




                                                                                                        66 of 67
67 of 67

				
DOCUMENT INFO