High Mobility Multipurpose

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					High Mobility Multipurpose
     Wheeled Vehicle
      Safety Guide

Department of Military & Veteran Affairs
          State Safety Office
       Annville, PA 17003-5002
      Commercial: 717-861-8813
            DSN: 491-8813
                SSO SG #03
Title                                           Pages



Risk Management………………………………………..………………3

General Safety Driver’s Tips………………………………..……………4

Driving in Unusual Terrain……………………………...……………….7


Towing Operations………………………………………………………10

Tire Chain Installation and Removal…………………………………….10

Run flat Operations………………………………………………………11

Wheel Assembly Replacement…………………………………………..11

Slave Starting Operations………………………………………………..11

Raising and Securing Hood………………………………………………11

Exhaust Gases Can Kill…………………………………………………..12

NBC System Operations…………………………………………………12

Convoy Commander’s Briefing………………………………………….13

Accident Reporting………………………………………………………14

PMCS Safety Restrictions……………………………………………….15

Hand Signals For Ground Guiding………………………………..…….15

HMMWV Specifications…………………………………………………21
         This guide was designed by the PAARNG State Safety Office to outline safety tips relating to operation and performing
maintenance checks on the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV). This guide can be helpful in performing
risk assessments and can be helpful in performing risk assessments and initiating control measures to reduce the risk to soldiers
using the vehicle. This guide should not be used to replace warnings mentioned in technical manuals or regulations but rather to
augment and reinforce them.

        This guide applies to the following models of HMMWV: M998, M1037, M996, M966, M997, and M1025.

       The M998 series HMMWV was designed to meet light wheeled vehicle requirements of the battlefield of the 1980’s and
beyond. A 4x4, 1 ¼ ton vehicle, the HMMWV consists of a common chassis that accepts various body configurations to
accomplish combat, combat support and combat service support roles.

        Leaders must ensure soldiers perform all tasks to standard and make safety an integral part of all decision making. Learn
the standards and perform those standards. Shortcuts are the quickest route to trouble when it comes to safe mission
accomplishment. Risk management is the key to safe training. Leaders must assess the risk early, train safely, and then perform
the mission accordingly. This means constantly analyzing risky situations and initiating control measures when necessary.

        Leading Accident Causes of the HMMWV

1. The following are the leading four (4) causes of HMMWV accidents Army wide:

        a. Excessive speed or too fast for conditions.

        b. Failure to control or not paying attention.

        c. Improper turning or over/under steering.

        d. Fatigue or falling asleep at the wheel.

2. The following are two (2) contributing factors that caused the most severe injuries or deaths in the accidents:

       a. Failure to wear seatbelts. AR 385-55 requires the driver and passengers to wear seatbelts in all vehicles equipped with
them. The only exception to this is during deep water fording.

        b. Rollovers. Strange as it may seem with the wide wheelbase of the HMMWV, rollovers are not uncommon. Analysis
of accident reports indicates that terrain hazards (holes, ditches, steep roadway shoulders, and rocks) are second only to excessive
speed as a cause of rollovers. In addition, turning sharply in sand and gravel while traveling fast can easily cause rollovers.

3. The following are control measures that can be used by leaders to help prevent the above-mentioned accidents:

        a. Perform thorough safety briefings that emphasize speed limits and the mandatory use of safety belts.

        b. Place mature, experienced drivers with less experienced drivers.

        c. Identify and control hazards through advanced planning and try to ensure down time before and during long missions.

4. The following are control measures that can be used by individual soldiers to help prevent rollover accidents:

        a. Get adequate rest when it is available.

        b. Slow down when driving in sand or gravel and do not make sharp, sudden turns.

                                                  Risk Management
       Risk management gives leaders a tool to make smart risk decisions in tactical training. It minimizes personnel and
equipment losses. Risk management is accomplishing the mission with the least risk possible.

         Rules to remember about taking risks:

1. No unnecessary risk should ever be accepted.

2. Risk decisions must be made at the appropriate level. Who’s going to answer if something goes wrong?

3. The benefits of taking a risk must outweigh the possible costs of the risk. What training benefits will be gained from taking the

         Rules for managing risks:

1. First identify the risk(s).

2. Evaluate the risk to determine how great it is.

3. Reduce the risk by eliminating or changing things that are not necessary.

4. Make risk decisions. Decide which risks are acceptable and which are not.

5. Initiate controls for the risks you are going to accept to try and make them less risky.

6. Ensure all affected personnel are briefed, and then supervise the operation.

        The following 7 elements are central to the safe completion of most driver training tasks. They can be used by leaders to
assess and control hazards associated with missions using HMMWVs:

         1. Soldier Qualification

         2. Vehicle Type

         3. Weather

         4. Terrain

         5. Equipment (TOW)

         6. Supervision

         7. Time of Day

         Risk Control Alternative:

         1. Eliminate the hazard totally, if possible.

         2. Control the hazard. Reduce the magnitude of the hazard or provide barriers.

         3. Change operational procedures. Modify operational procedures to minimize risk exposure consistent with mission

         4. Educate. Train personnel to use effective actions to avoid hazards

         5. Motivate personnel to use effective actions to avoid hazards.

Payoffs of risk management:                                         3
Risk management permits the execution of realistic training scenarios not possible without risk management procedures because
of those high potential costs in accidents. It also minimizes personnel and material losses in day-to-day training activities.

                                        General Safety Driver’s Tips
1. The horn will not operate unless the light switch indicates “Stoplight” or “Service Drive”.

2. Steering wheel lock cable permits the steering wheel to be locked to prevent unauthorized use of the vehicle.

3. First aid kit is part of the vehicle basic issue items (BII)

4. The fire extinguisher (also a BII component), is stowed in the fire extinguisher bracket between the driver and passenger seats.
It should be tagged and inspected monthly.

5. Ensure all chock blocks are in place. Chock blocks will be used whenever the vehicle is parked, and when performing PMCS.
(Failure to chock the vehicle may result in injured personnel and/or damage to equipment).

6. When vehicle is parked, always ensure the parking brake is set. If the parking brake is not functional, the vehicle is deadlined.

7. Ensure to remove all jewelry before performing PMCS.

8. Pay particular attention to all cautions and warning listed in the operator’s manual.

9. Always place the transmission in neutral, set the parking brake, and shut off the engine before leaving the vehicle.

10. Always use ground guides when backing the vehicle.

11. Maintain a safe following distance and speed limit when driving.

12. During blackout driving you must be able to see the blackout marker of the vehicle in front of you but still maintain a safe
distance. The blackout taillights contain four markers in each lens. If you can see four markers in each lens, you are driving too
close to the vehicle in front of you. If you can see two markers in each lens, you are driving a safe distance.

13. Ensure all occupants wear seat belts while the vehicle is in operations.

14. Extreme caution shall be taken when transporting personnel. Rollover protection and seatbelts are available for the crew area
only and is not provided in the troop/cargo area. (Failure to use basic safe driving skills may result in injury or death to personnel
and damage to equipment).

15. Ensure sufficient fresh water is available for all personnel.

16. The driver must never be urged to do something which is unsafe or which he/she does not want to do. Such urging may lead
to an accident.

17. Operating a vehicle with a tire in an under inflated condition or with questionable defect may lead to premature tire failure
and may cause equipment damage and injury or death to personnel.

18. Do not exceed 30-psi cold bias tire inflation pressure, and do not exceed 50-psi cold radial tire inflation pressure.

19. Cactus or thorn bushes may cause tire puncture. Do not attempt to drive through these areas.

20. Do not set the ignition switch to run to check the lights. This drains the batteries and can burn out the glow plugs and control

21. Check windshield for damage that would impair operator’s vision.

22. Check windshield wiper and blade for damage. Failure to do so could impair the driver’s vision during a time
when the weather has already impaired the driver’s vision.

23. Stop engine if coolant temperature gauge suddenly increases beyond approximately 230º F (110º C). Failure to do so will
result in engine damage.

24. Personnel inside M996/997 ambulance should not lean on the rear step assembly while unlatching and disconnecting rear
safety strap. Injury to personnel may result from rapidly falling steps.

25. Never open one end of the cargo shell door without first ensuring that the opposite end is securely closed. Not doing so may
cause both ends to open at the same time causing damage to equipment or injury to personnel.

26. Do not perform fuel or battery system checks, inspections, or maintenance smoking or near sparks. Fuel may ignite and
batteries may explode causing damage to the vehicle and injury or death to personnel.

27. The M998 series vehicle does not have a “Park” position in its automatic transmission. Whenever the vehicle is parked, or
the transmission is in “Neutral”, the parking brake must be applied.

28. Make sure all slack from the two-point seat belt adjusting strap or three-point seat belt is removed. The two-point seat belt
retracts and but does not lock in any position. The three-point seat belt retracts and will lock only during sudden stops or impact.
Injury to personnel will result if an accident occurs and seat belts are not in use or adjusted properly.

29. Prior to towing the vehicle with the rear wheels up, secure the steering wheel to prevent the front wheels from turning.

30. Avoid using fire extinguishers in unventilated areas. Prolonged inhalation exposure to extinguishing agents or from the
burning material may cause injury to personnel.

31. Do not leave rotary switch in “Run” once Wait-To-Start assembly light goes out. The PCB and glow plugs will be damaged.

32. Do not use the hand throttle as an automatic speed or cruise control. The hand throttle does not automatically disengage when
the brake is applied, resulting in increased stopping distance and possible unsafe operation.

33. Do not operate the heater when the ventilation system is on. Damage to the heater and personnel will result.

34. To ensure opening of the hood assembly is accomplished safely and effectively, always maintain the proper lifting posture,
legs bent with back straight. When raising and securing the hood, make sure the hood prop rod is secured to the hood support
bracket. When releasing hood prop rod, do not pull the rod at the hook end.

                                 Always maintain the proper lifting

                               posture, legs bent with back straight.
35. Radial and bias ply tires should not be mixed on the same vehicle. Loss of control of the vehicle may result.

36. Do not operate the vehicle without the windshield assembly positioned upright and the “B” pillar securely attached.

37. Use of headphones or earphones while driving is prohibited.

38. Drivers will not consume intoxicating beverages or take antihistamines, tranquilizers, stimulants, or pain relievers 8 hours
prior to flying.

39. Drivers will not eat, drink, or smoke when the vehicle is in motion. Smoking reduces night vision.

40. Vehicles with any class II, III fuel, or I or brake fluid leaks are deadlined. Class III oil or water leaks will also deadline the

41. Drivers will check for improperly secured loads or vehicle overloads.

42. Drivers will obey all civilian traffic laws/regulations.

43. Drivers will not operate a vehicle for more than 10 continuous hours in any 24-hour period without 8 consecutive hours of

44. Drivers will have 15-minute rest brakes every 2 to 3 hours of driving or every 100 to 150 miles whichever occurs first.

45. One hour meal brakes will be taken.

46. The senior occupant or driver will ensure/enforce occupants wear seat belts when the vehicle is in motion.

47. All antennas must have ball tip protectors.

48. Cross shallow ditches by shifting into low gear and proceed slowly.

49. Do not attempt to straddle large boulders: they may damage axles and other low parts of the vehicle.
50. When activated, the warning flashers override operation of the brake lights.

                                        Driving in Unusual Terrain
Driving off-road

1. Driving off road or over rough terrain basically requires good driving sense and prior driver training.

2. Select the proper transmission and transfer case gear ranges. “D” (drive) and “H” (high range) are used for most situations.
The HMMWV must be stopped and the transmission placed in “N” before shifting the transfer lever.

3. Do not shift into any lower gear than is necessary to maintain headway.

4. Use “H/L” (high lock) only when absolutely required by terrain, weather, or road conditions.

5. On steep grades with poor traction, before starting up the hill, shift the transfer case to “L” (low range) and the transmission to
“2” (second) or “1” (first), depending on how steep the grade is.

6. Keep the engine operating at a constant, moderate speed to slow down or speed up quickly without changing gears.

7. The engine works at its best in the mid-RPM range. Maximum torque is attained at 2000 RPMs.

8. Use the transmission and transfer case to help control the engine speed.

9. Attempt to keep the vehicle’s wheels from spinning. If the wheels start to spin, ease off the accelerator until traction is

Climbing steep grades:

1. Apply light pressure to the brake pedal while depressing the accelerator to stop the free spinning wheel. This causes torque-
biasing differential to send equal torque to the other side of the vehicle, and the wheels that have traction will move the vehicle.

Descending a Steep Hill:

1. Shift the transfer case into “L” (low) and the transmission into “2” (second) or “1” (first) gear, depending on how steep the
grade is.

2. Do not use the brakes. Remember, the HMMWV is in constant four wheel drive. Therefore, when the transfer case and
transmission are placed in the lower gears, all four wheels are working against compression to create a braking effect.

Traveling across a slope:

1. Do not travel diagonally across a slope unless it is absolutely necessary. Choose the smallest angle possible when moving
across the slope, keep the vehicle moving, and avoid turning the vehicle quickly

Fording a shallow body of water (30 in. or less)

1. Ensure water death does not exceed 30 in.

2. Make sure the oil dipstick, transmission dipstick, oil filter cap, and fuel tank cap are secure.

3. Secure all loose objects on the vehicles.

4. Make sure all battery caps are present and tight.

5. Place the transfer case shift lever in “H” (high range) and the transmission lever in “D” (drive).

6. Enter the water slowly and maintain even vehicle speed while fording (5 MPH or less).
7. Exit the water in an area with a gentle slope.

8. Do not rely on service brakes after fording until the brakes dry out. Keep applying the brakes until uneven braking ceases.

9. When clear of the fording area, stop the vehicle and apply and release the parking brake several times to remove water from the
brake components.

10. If the fording operation was through salt water, wash and wipe off all salt deposits as soon as possible.

Driving on snow and ice:

1. Install tire chains (4-wheel set) if needed for snow or ice.

2. Travel at reduced speeds and be prepared to meet sudden changes in road conditions.

3. Pump brakes gradually when stopping vehicle on snow and ice. Sudden braking will cause the wheels to lock and the vehicle
to slide out of control.

4. Place transmission shift lever in “D” (drive) and transfer case shift lever in H/L (high lock range) or “L” (low range) to
descend/climb steep hills. Place transfer case shift lever to “H” (high range) on high traction surfaces.

                 a. “2” (second) gear selection is used for hill climbing and for engine braking when descending steep hills.

                 b. “1” (first) gear is used for maximum engine braking when descending very steep hills, or when driving through
deep snow.

5. Place the vehicle in motion slowly to prevent wheels from spinning.

6. Press accelerator pedal slowly when changing speed.

7. Keep accelerator pedal steady after vehicle reaches desired speed.

8. Turn vehicle slowly when on slippery surfaces.

9. Steer vehicle away from ruts and large snow banks.

10. Steer vehicles straight up and down hills if possible.

11. Drive at slower speeds and keep twice the normal distance from the vehicle ahead.

12. Give turn signals sooner.

13. Keep windshield, windows, mirrors, headlights, spotlights, and area around air cleaner intake cap free of snow and ice. Snow
and ice may melt and freeze again causing restriction in the air intake system. If necessary, remove intake cap and clear ice and
snow without damaging intake cap screen. Hold the cap near the vehicle exhaust to quickly melt the ice without damaging the

Driving in sand:

1. The best time to drive on sand is at night or early morning when the sand is damp and has better traction.

2. Do not make sudden, sharp turns when driving in sand and gravel. This action could cause the front wheel to dig in and the
vehicle to roll over.

3. Reduced tire inflation to 12 psi on the front and 16 psi on the rear to increase traction when operating in sand.

4. Select the proper transmission and transfer case gear ranges. “D” (drive) and “H” (high range) are used for most situations.

        a. Do not shift into any lower gear than is necessary to maintain headway.
        b. Use H/L (high lock range) when operating in loose sand or soft terrain. If additional power needed to extract the
vehicle when mired in sand, place the transmission in “1” (first) and the transfer case in “L” (low range). After the vehicle is
extracted from the mired condition, immediately return the transfer case to the H/L (high lock range) position.

        c. On steep grades with hard surfaces and good traction, before starting up the hill, shift the transfer case to “L” (low
range) and the transmission to “1” (first) or “2” (second), depending on how steep the grade is.

5. Keep the engine operating at a constant, moderate speed to slow down or speed up quickly without changing gears.

        a. The engine works best if the mid-RPM range. Maximum torque is attained at 2000 RPMs.

        b. Use the transmission and transfer case to help control the engine speed.

6. Attempt to keep the vehicle’s wheels from spinning. Accelerate slowly so the wheels will not spin and dig into the sand.

1. Leave the engine running.

2. Place the transmission shift lever in the “N” (neutral) position.

3. Look for a tree, heavy object, or other large object to anchor the winch cable to.

4. Turn the clutch lever counterclockwise to “Free Spool” and, while wearing leather gloves, pull out the winch cable by hand to
the desired length.

5. Ensure that at least 4 wraps or cable remain on the drum. Connect the cable to the anchor leaving one foot of slack in the

6. Remove the remote control switch from the stowage box. Direct all personnel to stand clear of the winch and cable at a
distance greater than the length of the cable and opposite the angle of pull.

7. Turn the clutch lever clockwise to “Engaged”, then pull out the throttle cable until the engine speed reaches approximately
1500 RPM.

8. Operate the remote control switch to “In” until the vehicle can move under it’s own power, and set the parking brake.

9. Once the winch operation is complete, disconnect the winch cable from the anchor. Wind the winch cable in until the hood is
four feet from the cable guide.

10. Turn the clutch lever clockwise to “Free Spool” and rotate the drum by hand to retrieve the remaining cable.

11. Turn the clutch lever clockwise to “Engaged”. Place the remote control switch in the stowage box and released the hand

Note: Recovery operations must be closely supervised because of the potential for injury or death. A risk assessment should be
performed prior to each recovery operation.

12. Ensure all chock blocks are in place when vehicles are parked.

13. Ensure transmission is always placed in neutral, parking brake is set, and engine is shut off before leaving the vehicle.

14. Ensure soldiers pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the operator’s manual.

15. Ensure heavy work gloves are always worn when handling cable. Never let cable run through your hands. A frayed cable
may cause severe lacerations.

16. Ensure cable is not bent at sharp angles.                          9
17. Keep all personnel clear of the area near the winch cable when tension is on the cable. If winch cable breaks, it can cause
severe injury or death.

                                       Always wear leather gloves
                                      When working with wire cables

                                               Towing Operations
1. Do not exceed a towing speed of 30 mph or a towing distance of 30 miles without first removing the front propeller shaft
and/or rear propeller shaft with the parking break rotor. Failure to remove the necessary propeller shafts may result in damage to
the transmission and/or transfer case.

2. Before initiating vehicle recovery, operator should be familiar with basic vehicle recovery techniques and precautions. Refer
to FM 20-22 (Vehicle Recovery Operations).

3. If propeller shafts are to be removed, notify unit maintenance personnel.

4. Towing pintle (front bumper) provides improved driver control when moving trailers in hard to maneuver areas and during
aircraft loading operations.

5. Caution: Always use a tow bar when towing the vehicle. Failure to do so may cause damage to equipment.

                             Tire Chain Installation and Removal
1. Tire chains are only used when extra traction is required and must be used as a four wheel set. Any other combination may
cause damage to the drive train.

2. Remove tire chains from tires as soon as weather conditions permit. Prolonged use of tire chains may damage drive train.
                                              Run Flat Operations
1. Do not exceed 30 mph with one tire flat in any location, two tires flat on the same side, or two tire flat on the front only. Do
not exceed 20 mph if two tires are flat in the rear.

2. A wheel that has been run flat must be replaced and inspected by unit maintenance as soon as possible before reuse or damage
to equipment may result.

3. Run flat operations may cause the tread to separate from the tire and/or wheel. If abnormal handling is experienced or noise
such as flapping or pounding around the wheel well occurs, the tread needs to be cut away from the wheel before continuing
operation. Failure to do so could result in damage to the vehicle.

                                     Wheel Assembly Replacement
1. Always apply parking brake and block opposite wheel before removing wheel assembly. Avoid removing wheel assembly
when vehicle is on sloping terrain. Injury to personnel or damage to equipment may result.

2. Remove only the inner group of nuts when removing a wheel from a vehicle. Removing the outer nuts, which hold the rim
together while the wheel assembly is inflated, could result in serious injury or death to the soldier.

3. Ensure scissors jack is positioned directly under the lower control arm, next to the wheel being replaced. Do not place at any
other location such as frame rails.

                                         Slave Starting Operations
1. Make sure all battery cables in the disabled vehicle are properly connected before connecting slave cables. Damage to
batteries, cables, or serious injury to personnel may result from improperly connected batteries.

                                       Raising and Securing Hood
1. To ensure opening of the hood assembly is accomplished safely and effectively, always maintain the proper lifting posture, legs
bent with back straight. Failure to do so may cause injuries to soldiers.

2. When raising and securing the hood, make sure the hood prop rod is secured to the hood support bracket. Damage to
equipment or injury to personnel will occur if hood is not properly secured in the raised position.

3. When releasing hood prop rod, do not pull rod at hook end. Injury to fingers will occur.

           a. While supporting and slightly raising the hood, grasp prop rod above retaining ring, pull out and release the hood prop

           b. Once the prop rod hook is clear of the support bracket, slowly lower the hood and secure the left and right hood

                                                Exhaust Gases Can Kill
1. Brain damage or death can result from heavy carbon monoxide exposure. Precautions must be followed to ensure crew safety
when the personnel heater or engine of any vehicle is operated for any purpose.

2. Do not operate a vehicle engine in enclosed areas.

3. Do not idle vehicle engine with vehicle windows closed.

4. Be alert at all times for exhaust odors.

5. Be alert for exhaust poisoning symptoms. They are as follows:

           a. Headache

           b. Dizziness

           c. Sleepiness

           d. Loss of muscular control

6. The following steps should be taken for treatment of exposed personnel:

           a. Remove soldier from the area

           b. Expose the soldier to fresh air

           c. Keep the soldier warm

           d. Do not permit the soldier to do physical exercise

           e. Administer artificial respiration, if necessary

           f. Notify a medic immediately

7. Be aware: The field protective mask and ambulance NBC system will not protect soldiers against carbon monoxide poisoning.

                                                NBC System Operation
1. NBC filters do not protect against carbon monoxide poisoning. The filters do not decontaminate or neutralize contamination,
they only collect and contain it.

2. NBC contaminated filters must be handled using adequate precautions (See FM 3-5) and must be disposed of by trained

3. After Nuclear, Biological, or Chemical exposure of the HMMWV, all air filters shall be handled with extreme caution.
Unprotected personnel may experience injury or death if residual toxic agents or radioactive material are present. Personnel will
wear protective over garments, mask, hood, chemical protective gloves, and boots. All contaminated air filters will be placed into
double lined plastic bags and moved immediately to a temporary segregation area away from the work site. If contaminated dust,
the company NBC team will determine the extent of safety procedures required. The temporary segregation area will be marked
with the appropriate NBC signs. Final disposal of contaminated air filters will be IAW local SOP.

                                    Convoy Commander’s Briefing
1. Always follow civilian and military police instruction, when given

2. Use only truck parking areas on controlled access highways.

3. Make only emergency halts on the roadside of controlled access highways.

4. Do not stand on the traffic side of a convoy during halts on conventional highways.

5. Perform vehicle operation maintenance and check cargo security at every halt.

6. Move vehicles off the highway before beginning maintenance.

7. Have reflectors and warning devices in place before beginning maintenance.

8. Use warning lights during periods of darkness or reduced visibility.

9. Begin convoy movement only at convoy commander’s signal.

10. Vehicle speed restriction will be determined by the convoy commander.

11. Vehicle interval (Minimums) are as follows:

        a. Controlled access highway………………………………..200 yds.

        b. Rural conventional highway………………………………150 yds.

        c. Urban conventional highway………………………………50 yds.

12. Maintain close interval until reaching main convoy route.

13. Use acceleration lane, when available, to reach convoy speed.

14. Gradually attain proper vehicle interval once on main convoy route.

15. In case of accident, main column does not stop to provide assistance. The next following vehicle provides immediate
assistance to the accident vehicle.

16. If an accident occurs to a vehicle ahead, make maximum effort to clear the lanes of traffic.

17. Operate all vehicles with headlights at all times.

18. Use warning devices correctly.

19. The only trailers authorized to be towed by HMMWVs are the M116A1 and M101A1.

20. The M1037 and M1042 requires either shelter or payload of 1500 lbs in the cargo area to operate any distance.

                  When and How to Report Accidents to the State Safety Office


1. Is there $200 or more military or civilian property damage? Or

2. Is there one or more lost work day/incapacitation days? Or

3. Is there suspected or known equipment failure?

Answer: YES – Complete DA Form 285-AB-R (Abbreviated Army Accident Investigation Report), submit to TAGPA, Attn:
SSO, NLT 20 days following the accident.

        NO – Complete SSO Form 27 (Abbreviated Army Accident Investigation Report), submit to TAGPA, Attn: SSO, NLT 20
days following the accident.

Status: Technician


1. Is there $2000 or more military or civilian property damage? Or

2. Is there suspected equipment failure?


YES – Complete DA Form 285-AB-R (Abbreviated Army Accident Investigation Report), submit to TAGPA, Attn: SSO, NLT 20
days following the accident.

NO – Complete SSO Form 19 (Technician Accident Investigation and Countermeasures Short Form), submit to TAGPA, Attn:
SSO, NLT 20 days following the accident.

Note: If the 20-day suspense date cannot be met, please call the State Safety Office to inform us of the incident.

Safety office phone numbers:

DSN: 491-8813
Commercial: 717-861-8813

                                         PMCS Safety Restrictions
1. Ensure the vehicle is chocked.

2. Ensure parking brake is set.

3. Ensure rings on hands are removed.

4. Ensure all cautions & warnings are followed.

5. Do not perform fuel system checks, inspections, or maintenance while smoking or near fire, flames, or sparks.

6. If the engine has been recently operated, do not remove radiator cap to check coolant level.

Light Signals. Light signals are used at night. Use red filters when possible to protect night vision. Light signals with red filters
are not only used to preserve you night vision, but to transmit prearranged messages rapidly over short distances, for recognition
and identification of friendly forces, and by the track vehicle ground guide.

                         Start Engines. Move the light to              Move in Reverse. (for stationary
                         describe a horizontal figure 8 in a           vehicles) or “Slow Down” (for
                         vertical plane in front of the body.          moving vehicles). Hold the light at
                                                                       shoulder level, blink several times
                                                                    15 toward vehicle.
   Right Turn                                     Left Turn

   Turning. Rotate light to describe a circle 12 to 18 inches in diameter in the desired direction of the turn.

                           Stop Movement or Stop Engines.
Move light horizontally several times across traffic path to stop vehicles or stop engines

                          Start Engines or Prepare to Move.
    Simulate cranking of engines by moving arm in a circular motion at wrist level.

Forward – Move Out, Go, Increase Speed or Double Time. Move the light vertically several times in front of the body.

      Stop Engines. Draw right hand, palm down, across the neck in a “throat cutting” motion from left to right.

                       Right Turn. Extend right arm horizontally to the side, palm to the front.

                         Left Turn. Extend left arm horizontally to the side, palm to the front.

Move In Reverse. (back up) With hands raised and palms facing front, move hands forward and backward as if pushint the
                                                    vehicle away.

  Decrease Speed. Extend arm straight out sideward, palm front; wave arm down and back to horizontal several times.

Extend or Open Up. Extend arms overhead, palms together; bring arms to horizontal at the sides, palms down. Return arms along
                            front of body to overhead position and repeat signal until understood.

  Close up. Extend arms sideward, palms up, bring palms together overhead momentarily. Return arms along front of body to
                                      sideward position and repeat until understood.

  Change Direction. Bend elbows to bring hands to front of shoulders. Clench fist on arm in direction of turn. With other arm,
                            make beckoning or pushing motion to bring vehicle forward or back.

Move Forward. Move hands backward and forward with palms toward the chest as if pulling the vehicle.

                 Table 1-8 Maximum Vehicle Operating Speeds
Transmission Range                  Transfer Case Range Selection
     Selection         “L” Low Range      “H” High Range “H/L” High Lock
   “R” (reverse)            11 mph             29 mph              11 mph
                           (18 kph)           (27 kph)            (18 kph)
    “D” (drive)             27 mph             55 mph              55 mph
                           (43 kph)           (88 kph)            (88 kph)
   “2” (second)             19 mph             48 mph              48 mph
                           (31 kph)           (77 kph)            (77 kph)
     “1” (first)            11 mph             29 mph              29 mph
                           (18 kph)           (47 kph)            (47 kph)

                        Table 1-9 Vehicle Dimensions
    Vehicle         Length Overall   Height Overall*                    Height
                                                                   Minimum Reducible
                    Inches   Centimeters   Inches    Centimeters    Inches   Centimeters
 M966/M966A1         180        457         73         185         71       180
                                           69**        175
 M996/M996A1         202        513         86         218         77       196
 M997/M997A1         202        513        102         259        102       259
 M998/M998A1         180        457         69         175         55       140
M1025/M1025A1        180        457         73         185         71       180
                                           69**        175
M1026/M1026A1        185        470         73         185         71       180
                                           69**        175
M1035/M1035A1        180        457         69         175         55       140
    M1036            185        470         73         185         71       180
                                           69**        175
    M1037            189        480         69         175         55       140
M1038/M1038A1        185        470         69         175         55       140
    M1042            185        470         69         175         55       140
M1043/M1043A1        180        457         73         185         71       180
                                           69**        175
M1044/M1044A1        185        470         73         185         71       180
                                           69**        175
M1045/M1045A1        180        457         73         185         71       180
                                           69**        175
M1046/M1046A1        185    470             73         185         71       180
M1097/M1097A1        180    457            69**        175         55       140
   Vehicle           Width Overall                      Ground Clearance
                    Inches   Centimeters         Under Axle        Under Chassis
                                           Inches    Centimeters    Inches   Centimeters
      All            85         216         16          41           24         61
    * Height covers basic vehicle only. ** Height when weapon station is removed.

                                               Table 1-10 Vehicle Cruising Range
When the vehicle is driven on hard surface and hilly terrain at a speed of 30-40 mph (48-64 kph), the ranges shown in this table
can be expected when using bias ply tires. Cruising range may increase by approximately 30 miles (48.3 km) when using radial
                            Vehicles                                          Gross Vehicle                  Cruising Range
                                                                              Weight (GVW)
                     M998, M1035, M1038                                      7700 lb (3493 kg)              337 mi (542 km)
                M966, M1025, M1026, M1036                                    8200 lb (3719 kg)              320 mi (515 km)
                M1043, M1044, M1045, M1046                                   8400 lb (3810 kg)              312 mi (502 km)
                     M996, M1037, M1042                                      8660 lb (3928 kg)              300 mi (483 km)
                             M997                                            9100 lb (4128 kg)              275 mi (442 km)
                             M1097                                          10000 lb (4540 kg)              275 mi (442 km)
                M998A1, M1035A1, M1038A1                                     7880 lb (3578 kg)              337 mi (542 km)
                M966A1, M1025A1, M1026A1                                     8380 lb (3805 kg)               320 mi (515 kg)
          M1043A1, M1044A1, M1045A1, M1046A1                                 8580 lb (3895 kg)              312 mi (502 km)
                            M996A1                                           8840 lb (4013 kg)              300 mi (483 km)
                            M997A1                                           9280 lb (4213 kg)              275 mi (442 km)
                           M1097A1                                          10000 lb (4540 kg)              275 mi (442 km)

                                                     Table 1-11 Winch Data
                                Vehicle                Description                   Capacities
                                                                              Standard         Metric
                        M1026, M1036, M1038,             Max Load             3360 lb         1524 kg
                        M1042, M1044, M1046,           (Fifth Layer)
                         M1026A1, M1038A1,               Max Load              3780 lb         1715 kg
                         M1044A1, M1046A1             (Fourth Layer)
                                                         Max Load              4310 lb         1955 kg
                                                       (Third Layer)
                                                         Max Load              5020 lb         2277 kg
                                                      (Second Layer)
                                                         Max Load              6000 lb         2722 kg
                                                        (First Layer)