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									    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

Content       Priority Content Expectation
Expectation   Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis.
Number        Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables.
B1.1h         Supporting Content Expectations:
              B1.1A, B1.1C, B1.1E, B1.1f, B1.1g
              Clarification: This Content Expectation refers to the scientific
              method. The questions the students pose must be testable and not
              an opinion or survey.
              Evidence                               Strategies
              Students can write a brief             Any experiment that the students
              report that directly refers to         design could be used (example
              the data collected.                    growing bean plants, response of
              The report must include these insects to stimuli, etc).
              steps:                                 Quantitative data (numbers) should
                  Question/Problem                  be collected.
                     Statement                       Students can be given a generic lab
                  Hypothesis                        template to fill out as they do the
                  Materials                         lab. Assistance on making graphs
                  Procedure                         may be necessary.
                  Data                              Checklists for each section of the lab
                  Analysis                          report could be given to guide the
                  Conclusion                        students as they write up the
                                                     experiment.
                                                     Show students examples of good and
              **See Sample Lab Report                bad lab reports, hypotheses, graphs,
              Checklist-Appendix A                   conclusions, etc.

B1.1B         Priority Content Expectation
              Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an
              understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling
              variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design,
              and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions.
              Supporting Content Expectations:
              B1.1D, B1.1f, B1.1g, B1.1i, B1.1C,
              Clarification: This Content Expectation focuses on the student’s
              ability to critique the steps of an experiment.
              Measurements errors could include human error, not using the
              appropriate tools, or inappropriate rounding of measurements.
              Independent, dependent variables and controlled variable (or
              constants) should be identified.

              Evidence                                Strategies
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

                Use measurement stations       Analyze examples from B1.1h.
                 to ensure accuracy of data      Show students examples of good
                 collection using basic lab     and bad lab reports, hypotheses,
                 equipment.                     graphs, conclusions, etc. Use
                Explain the strengths and      checklists to evaluate.
                 weaknesses of a given          Start with whole class analysis of
                 experiment.                    experiments and then give the
                Experiment must test the       students opportunities for small
                 given hypothesis using the     group and individual practice.
                 independent and
                 dependent variables and
                 nothing else.
                Logic of arguments within      **See Sample Lab Report Checklist-
                 the conclusion must            Appendix A
                 address why they got the
                 data. (not “Our hypothesis
                 is correct because the data
                 supports it.”)
                Underlying assumptions
                 will be specific to each
                 experiment.

B1.2B        Priority Content Expectation: Identify and critique arguments about
             personal or societal issues based on scientific evidence.

             Supporting Content Expectations: B1.2A

             Evidence                           Strategies

                Individual student’s written   Show students examples of articles
                 or oral explanation of both    about social and personal issues.
                 sides of an issue.
                     o Several supporting       Brainstorm a list of societal and
                        arguments relating to   personal issues in science. Have
                        the evidence.           students bring in article.
                During the discussion keep
                 a checklist of students        Discuss current events in science
                 contributing productively      that relate to social or personal
                 to the discussion.             issues. First identify the scientific
                                                information and its validity. Then
                                                relate to the personal and societal
                                                aspects involved.
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

B1.2C        Priority Content Expectation: Develop an understanding of a scientific
             concept by accessing information from multiple sources. Evaluate the scientific
             accuracy and significance of the information.
             Clarification:
             When analyzing for scientific accuracy, consider these questions:
             Who published the research? When?
             How was research conducted?
             Is there more modern research that reveals conflicting results?
             Do similar studies exist? How do there results compare?
             What was the size of the study groups? Were all conclusions
             reported?
             What bias do the researchers have? Who are they affiliated with?
             Who pays them?

             Evidence                              Strategies
             Have students compare                 Provide access to multiple sources:
             information from several              internet (Wikipedia vs. university or
             different sources. Evaluate           government sites), textbook,
             the accuracy of information by        newspaper, films, journals, etc.
             the source, date, and scientific
             accuracy.                               Evaluate the date, author, and
                                                     scientific accuracy as a class.
B1.2f        Priority Content Expectation Predict what would happen if the variables,
             methods, or timing of an investigation were changed.

             Evidence                              Strategies

             The results from testing the          Provide example experiments from
             predictions should be a logical       B1.1h or another lab. Discuss what
             extension of the original             would happen if variables, methods,
             experiment.                           or timing are changed.

                                                   Break into groups and have the
                                                   students test the predictions by
                                                   changing only one aspect of the
                                                   experiment.

B1.2h        Priority Content Expectation: Describe the distinctions between scientific
             theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations.
             Relates to B1.2B and B1.2C
             Evidence                                Strategies
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

             At the end of an experiment,               Define each concept.
             students should be able to
             answer these types of                      Venn Diagram or chart comparing
             questions:                                 each concept.
              What do the results of your
                experiment mean?                        When asking students to design
              Do your results provide you              their own experiments draw
                with a supported                        conclusions emphasize hypotheses
                hypothesis, theory, or law?             and observations.
                                                        When evaluating multiple sources of
                                                        scientific information, discuss
                                                        whether or not observations,
                                                        hypotheses, theories, or laws are
                                                        explained in the article.


B1.2k        Priority Content Expectation: Analyze how science and society interact
             from a historical, political, economic, or social perspective.

             Supporting Content Expectations: B1.2E, B1.2g, B1.2i
             Evidence                     Strategies
             Timeline focusing on one                   These topics can be used to address
             major topic showing how the                this Content Expectation:
             concept has changed over                   Agriculture, Biotechnology, Modern
             time.                                      Medicine, Genetic Engineering, Stem
             Timeline should include the                Cell Research, etc.
             initial discovery, any major
             revisions to the concept, and
             current research on the
             concept.


B2.1A        Priority Content Expectation: Explain how cells transform energy
             (ultimately obtained from the sun) from one form to another through the processes of
             photosynthesis and respiration. Identify the reactants and products in the general
             reaction of photosynthesis.
             Clarification: Explanation is limited to one way flow of energy from the Sun to organisms and
             energy transformations that occur in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.
             Reactants and products may be identified either by chemical formula or name.

             Evidence                                   Strategies
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

             Draw or label an energy
             diagram of the processes with
             labels and locations.
             Vocabulary
             breakdown of food molecules
             carbon
             carbon dioxide
             cellular energy conversion
             cellular respiration
             chemical bond
             flow of energy
             cycle of matter
             photosynthesis
             product
             reactant
             recombination of chemical elements
             release of energy
             transforming matter and/or energy

             Given the equations, label and
             identify its parts.
             Photosynthesis
             6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2
             Cellular Respiration
             C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O
B2.1C        Priority Content Expectation: Explain cell division, growth, and
             development as a consequence of an increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell
             products.
             Clarification of the Content Expectation: This Content
             Expectation focuses on why cells need to divide. Teach in
             conjunction with B4.3A.
             Evidence                              Strategies
             Students should explain using Use concrete examples of
             the following concept                 exponential growth. (using beans, or
             correctly:                            tearing paper)
             Cell size is governed by              Demo with a water balloon. It can
             surface area to volume ratio.         only so big before it pops, so the cell
                                                   must divide.

B2.2D        Priority Content Expectation: Explain the general structure and primary
             functions of the major complex organic molecules that compose living organisms.
             Clarification: Carbohydrates are limited to general structural formulas of simple sugars and
             polymers of those sugars and their functions as short- and long-term energy storage
             molecules as well as structural components of cell walls.

             Lipids are limited to general structural formulas of fats and cell membrane structures and
             their functions.
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology


             Proteins are specified to be polymers of amino acids with a variety of functions. These
             functions are limited to include proteins that relate to structure, such as those found in parts
             of the cell membrane, muscle and connective tissue. A large number of proteins also exist
             as enzymes, controlling the biochemical activities of an organism.

             Nucleic acids, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are limited to their
             structure as polymers of nucleotide subunits which provide information storage for the
             biochemical identity of an organism.
             Evidence                                     Strategy
             Match the general structure                  Practice drawing and labeling
             with its name.                               structural formulas and their parts.
             (Use graphics of structures
             from text.)

             Written or oral matching of
             molecule name with function.
             Vocabulary
             carbohydrate
             chemical bond
             covalent bonds
             DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
             element
             enzyme
             hemoglobin
             hormone
             lipid
             monomer
             nucleic acid
             protein
             protein structure
             polymers
             RNA (ribonucleic acid)

B2.3B        Priority Content Expectations: Describe how the maintenance of a
             relatively stable internal environment is required for the continuation of life.

             Clarification: Systems involved in homeostasis will be limited to the
             nervous, digestive, immune, circulatory, respiratory and excretory systems of
             organisms.

             Note: Teach with B2.3C
             Evidence                                     Strategies
             Students should explain the
             roles of each system in
             maintaining stable internal
             conditions.
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

B2.3C        Priority Content Expectations: Explain how stability is challenged by
             changing physical, chemical, and environmental conditions as well as the presence
             of disease agents.
             Note: Teach with B2.3B
             Evidence                                Strategies
             Given a real-world example,             Brainstorm things that keep you
             students should explain the             healthy and what body system is
             effects on the systems involved involved.
             using the following concept
             correctly:                              Discuss and introduce examples of
             Homeostasis of human body               conditions that disrupt the internal
             systems and specific body               environment. (Ex. Exposure to or
             systems.                                ingestion of harmful chemicals,
                                                     infectious disease, cancer)
B2.4C        Priority Content Expectation: Explain how different organisms
             accomplish the same result using different structural specializations (gills vs. lungs
             vs. membranes).
             Clarification: Structural designs that serve the same purpose in varying species are limited
             to the organs and organ systems that follow: digestion, skeletal, respiration, reproduction
             and excretion. Organisms should include plant as well as animal structures (e.g., flowers,
             seeds and fruits as reproductive structures)
             Evidence                                    Strategies
             Students should be able to                  Provide drawings and sketches of
             compare and contrast the                    each structural design for
             following in written or oral                comparison.
             form:
                Gas Exchange (gills vs. lungs vs.
                 membranes)
                Digestion (internal-humans vs.
                 external-starfish)
                Skeletal (endoskeleton-humans
                 vs. exoskeleton-insects)
                Reproduction (flowers, seeds
                 and fruits as reproductive
                 structures)
                Excretion of nitrogenous waste
                 (kidneys in mammals vs. kidney-
                 like structures in lower order
                 animals)
B2.4d        Priority Content Expectation: Analyze the relationships among organisms
             based on their shared physical, biochemical, genetic, and cellular characteristics and
             functional processes.
             Clarification: Explanations will be limited to given numerical estimates of DNA similarity
             between different groups of organisms as well as structural similarities. Embryological
             evidence will not be considered.
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

             Evidence                                    Strategies
             Students will be given                      Make a chart using the
             information about the                       characteristics in the Content
             physical, biochemical, genetic,             Expectation and different organisms.
             and cellular characteristics of             Use words or pictures to complete
             organisms. They should be                   the chart.
             able to choose two organisms                Lab comparing mammals physical
             and use the given information               structures (Ex. Bats, whales,
             to explain how closely they are             humans and horses).
             related.

B2.4g        Priority Content Expectation: Explain that some structures in the modern
             eukaryotic cell developed from early prokaryotes, such as mitochondria, and in
             plants, chloroplasts.

             Evidence                                    Strategies
                                                         Provide diagrams and explanation.
             Given pictures showing the
             sequence of development
             students will give a written or
             oral explanation of
             prokaryotes becoming
             eukaryotes.




B2.4h        Priority Content Expectation: Describe the structures of viruses and
             bacteria.
             Clarification: Structures are limited to bacterial cell walls, cell membranes, DNA and
             cytoplasm. Viral structures are limited to genetic material (either DNA or RNA) and protein
             coat covering of the virus.
             Evidence                                    Strategies
             Label and describe the                      Provide diagrams.
             following structures on a
             diagram of a virus and a
             bacteria:
             Bacteria
             Genetic material (DNA or RNA)
             Cell wall
             Cell membrane
             Cytoplasm
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

             Virus
             Protein coat
             Genetic material (DNA or RNA)




B2.5B        Priority Content Expectation: Explain how major systems and processes
             work together in animals and plants, including relationships between organelles,
             cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. Relate these to molecular
             functions.
             Clarification: Explanations are limited to the following systems and processes in plants and
             animals: how organisms use food/fuel, obtain gasses for metabolism, support themselves
             structurally, reproduce and excrete waste materials.

             For example, explain how an organism uses food. The food enters the organism and is
             broken down in the digestive system. The specific organs in the digestive system perform
             the chemical and mechanical breakdown of the food particles. Once the food is broken
             down to the molecular level it is transported by the circulatory system to tissues throughout
             the body. The food molecules enter individual cells which then metabolize it in the
             mitochondria. This process releases energy that is used by the organism to carry out its
             bodily functions.



             Evidence                                     Strategies
             Label a flow chart with                      Flow chart of levels of organization
             missing parts to fill in.                    using pictures and words tracing the
                                                          life processes from the organism to
             Students should be able to                   the organelle level.
             explain how an organism
             carries out a specific life
             function (Ex. obtain gasses for
             metabolism) through all levels
             from organism to organelle
             with consideration to the
             molecular functions (Ex.
             exchange of oxygen and
             carbon dioxide in lungs).



B2.5g        Priority Content Expectation: Compare and contrast plant and animal
             cells.
             Clarification: Cellular structures are limited to cell membranes, cell walls, chloroplasts,
             cytoplasm, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, nucleus, ribosomes, vacuoles.
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

             Evidence                          Strategies
             Venn diagram that includes        Venn diagram.
             the terms listed above.           Label pictures.
             Label pictures with terms
             listed above.




B2.5h        Priority Content Expectation: Explain the role of cell membranes as a
             highly selective barrier (diffusion, osmosis, and active transport).

             Evidence                          Strategies
             Draw and/or label diagrams        Labs with carrots, eggs, or dialysis
             showing relative solute and       tubing in hypotonic and hypertonic
             solution concentrations and       solutions.
             the movement of water
             through a selectively             Demonstration: Sort of like the
             permeable membrane.               kids’ game “Red Rover”. Some kids
                                               make it through the “selective
                                               membrane” by busting through the
             The following terms should be     other sides’ hands.
             used correctly to explain the
             diagrams:
              Isotonic
              Hypotonic
              Hypertonic
              Solution
              Solute
              Concentration
              Selectively permeable
                membrane
              Diffusion
              Osmosis
              Active Transport
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology


B3.1A        Priority Content Expectation: Describe how organisms acquire energy
             directly or indirectly from sunlight.

             Evidence                         Strategies
                                              Draw food-chain type picture
             Draw a food-chain type           showing energy flow.
             picture showing energy flow of
             a specific food (Ex. Where did
             the energy in a hamburger
             come from?).




B3.1D        Priority Content Expectation: Explain how living organisms gain and use
             mass through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.
             Note: To be taught in conjunction with B2.1A, B3.1f
             Evidence                               Strategies
             Photosynthesis                   Discuss during photosynthesis and
             The students should explain      respiration.
             that the plant converts the
             carbon from the atmosphere
             and water from soil into
             sugars for storage which
             increases mass, oxygen is
             released.
             Respiration
             The students should explain
             that the sugars react with the
             oxygen to release energy and
             convert the stored mass to
             carbon dioxide and water.
             The energy released is used to
             make new chemical bonds in
             other molecules that can add
             to the mass of the organism.
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology



B3.1f        Priority Content Expectation: Summarize the process of photosynthesis.
             Clarification: Explanation limited to plants capturing the energy of sunlight to put together
             carbon and oxygen (from carbon dioxide) and hydrogen (from water) to make high potential
             energy organic molecules (glucose) and releasing oxygen (from water) as a by-product.
             Evidence                                    Strategies
             Given the chemical equation for             Write equation and show transfers
             photosynthesis, explain what it             in a diagram.
             represents in words making sure to
             include the sun.                            Act out the process of
             Vocabulary:                                 photosynthesis as a class. Students
             glucose                                     become molecules.
             water
             carbon dioxide
             chloroplast
             molecular energy
             photosynthesis
             product
             reactant
             transforming matter and/or energy



B3.2A        Priority Content Expectation: Identify how energy is stored in an
             ecosystem.
             Clarification: Identification is limited to discussion of chemical bonds as stored energy
             structures.
             Photosynthesis forms bonds in sugars. These sugars and other molecules eaten by
             consumers.
             Evidence                                    Strategies
                                                         Show food chains transferring
             Students should draw or                     energy.
             explain a food chain and label
             energy transfers when bonds
             are broken and energy stored
             when bonds are made in
             sugar molecules.




B3.2B        Priority Content Expectation: Describe energy transfer through an
             ecosystem, accounting for energy lost to the environment as heat.
             Clarification: Descriptions are limited to non-numerical accounting of inefficiencies of
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

             energy transformations.


             Evidence                                  Strategies
             Using the diagram from                    Show pyramid diagram of energy
             B3.2A, identify where energy              transfer.
             is lost as heat.


B3.2C        Priority Content Expectation: Draw the flow of energy through an
             ecosystem. Predict changes in the food web when one or more organisms are
             removed.
             Clarification: Drawings will not include numerical data, but emphasize inefficient
             conversions as energy moves through the trophic levels. Predictions may include changes in
             populations of organisms at various trophic levels as energy available to them changes.
             Note: To be taught in conjunction with B3.2A and B3.2B.
             Evidence                                  Strategies
             Students should be able to                Show pyramid diagram of energy
             explain why the shape of an               transfer.
             energy transfer diagram is                Give examples of what happens
             shown as a pyramid.                       when organisms at different trophic
                                                       levels are removed.
             In a given food web, the
             students should predict what
             would happen if one of the
             organisms is removed from the
             ecosystem. Emphasis should
             be on the effects this would
             have on all the other
             organisms.


B3.3A        Priority Content Expectation: Use a food web to identify and distinguish
             producers, consumers, and decomposers and explain the transfer of energy through
             trophic levels.
             Note: To be taught in conjunction with B3.2A and B3.2B, and B3.2C.
             Evidence                                  Strategies
             Label producers, consumers,               Define terms.
             and decomposers in a given
             food chain.                               Make a food web and label
             Use the same diagram and                  producers, consumers, and
             relate it to the 10% rule of              decomposers.
             energy transfer between
             trophic levels.
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology



B3.3b        Priority Content Expectation: Describe environmental processes (e.g., the
             carbon and nitrogen cycles) and their role in processing matter crucial for sustaining
             life.
             Clarification: Descriptions are limited to names of participants in the carbon and nitrogen
             cycles and how they are used by and cycled through organisms.

             Evidence                                    Strategies
             Given a diagram, students will              Use diagrams and flow charts to
             give an oral or written                     explain.
             explanation which specifically
             states chemical
             transformation takes place
             involving the carbon.
             (Example: photosynthesis
             uses carbon from air to make
             sugar, etc.)


B3.4A        Priority Content Expectation: Describe ecosystem stability. Understand
             that if a disaster such as flood or fire occurs, the damaged ecosystem is likely to
             recover in stages of succession that eventually result in a system similar to the
             original one.

             Evidence                                    Strategies
             Students should place                       Draw what would happen if your
             succession pictures in order                yard was neglected for 100 years.
             and describe the changes to                 Show what it would look like at
             plant and animal life that are              different time intervals.
             occurring in each stage.
                                                       Show pictures of past catastrophic
                                                       events and how the ecosystem has
                                                       begun to regrow. (Ex. Mt St Helen,
                                                       Yellowstone Park Fires)
B3.4B        Priority Content Expectation: Recognize and describe that a great diversity
             of species increases the chance that at least some living organisms will survive in the
             face of cataclysmic changes in the environment.
             Clarification: Descriptions will be limited to relationship between biodiversity and genetic
             variation as indicators of stability within an ecosystem.

             Evidence                                    Strategies
                                                         Discuss the value of
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

             Given an example of a               Show a chart showing all of the
             cataclysmic change in the           species in an ecosystem. Use the
             environment, give a written or      chart to show who would be affected
             oral explanation of the effect it   by a cataclysmic event. Ex.
             has on biodiversity.                Tornado, or forest fire.
             Vocabulary
             biodiversity                        Discuss the value of a broad gene
             gene pool
             genetic diversity                   pool to a healthy population.
                                                 Discuss the impact on endangered
                                                 species.
B3.4C        Priority Content Expectation: Examine the negative impact of human
             activities.
             Evidence                            Strategies
             Students could design and           Discuss current and past events
             create an awareness poster          such as global warming,
             that explains specifically how      deforestation, industrialization,
             one type of human activity has      pollution, habitat destruction, etc.
             negatively impacted a specific
             ecosystem.




B3.4d        Priority Content Expectation: Describe the greenhouse effect and list
             possible causes.
             Evidence                            Strategies
                                                 Show diagram of the greenhouse
             Given a diagram showing the         effect in the atmosphere.
             greenhouse effect, explain the
             causes and processes                Demonstrate using a thermometer in
             involved.                           an opaque, closed container exposed
             Vocabulary                          to light vs. a transparent, closed
             Ozone                               container exposed to light.
             Carbon dioxide
             Stratosphere
             Ozone layer
             Greenhouse gases (CFC, CO2,
             Methane, etc)

B3.4e        Priority Content Expectation: List the possible causes and consequences of
             global warming.
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology




             Evidence                           Strategies
             Students could create a public     View relevant clips from film
             service announcement,              “Inconvenient Truth”.
             advertisement, or poster
             explaining causes and              Discuss articles and news reports.
             consequences of global
             warming.

             See B3.4d for vocabulary




B3.5A        Priority Content Expectation: Graph changes in population growth, given
             a data table.
             Supporting content expectation: B3.5f
             Evidence                      Strategies
                                                Practice graphing data from a table.
             Given a data table, produce a
             graph using appropriate
             scaling, labels, and title.




B3.5B        Priority Content Expectation: Explain the influences that affect population
             growth.

             Evidence                           Strategies
             Given a specific population of     Discuss factors that affect
             organisms, explain how             population growth and population
             specific factors will affect the   decline. (Ex. predation, food
             size of the population.            availability, disease, catastrophic
             Vocabulary                         events, human interference, etc.)
             Carrying capacity
             Predator
             Prey
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

B3.5C        Priority Content Expectation: Predict the consequences of an invading
             organism on the survival of other organisms.
             Clarification: Predictions are limited to the effect of a non-native species on the
             populations of native species.
             Evidence                                    Strategies
             Students could predict what                 Discuss examples of invading
             would happen if a non-native                organisms. (Ex. zebra mussels in
             species invaded the habitat of              Great Lakes, purple loosestrife,
             an organism that they can                   emerald ash borer, etc)
             relate to. (spider, rabbit,
             snake, pigeon, etc,)                        View and discuss episode of
                                                         “Simpsons” where Bart releases the
             Vocabulary                                  frogs from Australia or the episode
             Niche                                       where Bart raises a baby lizard
             Habitat                                     which kills native birds.



B4.1B        Priority Content Expectation: Explain that the information passed from
             parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes that are coded in DNA
             molecules. These genes contain the information for the production of proteins.

             Evidence                                    Strategies
             Students should be able to use the          Use fill-in-the-blank diagrams to
             following terms to explain inheritance.     discuss terms and process of
             Vocabulary
             amino acid sequence                         inheritance.
             chromosome
             DNA
             DNA molecule
             DNA sequence
             double helix
             gene
             inherited trait
             protein
             storage of genetic information
B4.1c        Priority Content Expectation: Differentiate between dominant, recessive,
             codominant, polygenic, and sex-linked traits.
             Clarification: Traits identified by definition (dominant traits are expressed if the allele is
             present, recessive traits only if the dominant alleles are missing, co-dominant in which both
             alleles are expressed, polygenic having more than one gene active in determining trait and
             sex-linked traits as alleles on X chromosome). Also included are interpretations of Punnett
             Square results, given that the trait is identified as one of those listed in the content
             expectation. Interpretation may include prediction of phenotype or genotype ratios.
             Supporting Content Expectation: B4.1e
             Evidence                     Strategies
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

             Solve monohybrid Punnett                Use pictures and real-life examples
             squares to determine                    to explain how traits are expressed.
             likelihood of offspring’s traits.
                                                     Solve monohybrid Punnett squares
             Determine genotype and                  to determine likelihood of offspring’s
             phenotype ratios of offspring           traits.
             by using dominant and
             recessive rules of genetics.            Determine genotype and phenotype
                                                     ratios of offspring.
             Students should be able to
             identify the type of inheritance        Practice identifying the type of
             pattern based upon the                  inheritance pattern based upon the
             phenotypic ratio observed in            phenotypic ratio observed in
             offspring.                              offspring.

                                                     Tell which allele is dominant and
             Vocabulary:                             recessive based upon the capital or
             allele                                  lowercase letters.
             chromosome
             chromosome pair
             co-dominant traits                      Explain the phenotype (“what it
             dominant trait                          looks like”) based upon the genotype
             genotype                                (“the letters”).
             heterozygous
             phenotype
             polygenic traits
             Punnett Square
             recessive traits
             sex-linked traits



B4.2A        Priority Content Expectation: Show that when mutations occur in sex
             cells, they can be passed on to offspring (inherited mutations), but if they occur in
             other cells, they can be passed on to descendant cells only (noninherited mutations).

             Evidence                                Strategies
             If the students are told what
             type of cell has the mutation,
             the student can indicate
             whether or not it could be
             passed to offspring.
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

B4.2B        Priority Content Expectation: Recognize that every species has its own
             characteristic DNA sequence.
             Evidence                                    Strategies
             Students should be able to tell
             you that different species have
             different DNA sequences. The
             best way to evaluate would be
             with a multiple choice
             question.




B4.2C        Priority Content Expectation: Describe the structure and function of
             DNA.
             Clarification: DNA exists as a double stranded helix, joined by a sequence of nucleotides
             (subunits of DNA) of four types in specific sequences. Content expectation is limited to
             complementary sequencing and knowledge that sequences of DNA nucleotides “code” for
             the amino acid sequence of a protein.
             Evidence                                    Strategies
             If given a sequence of                      Label and color diagrams of DNA.
             nucleotides (A, T, G, or C),
             students should be able to
             give the complementary
             sequence.

             Students should be able to
             identify a double helix
             structure as the shape of DNA
             among other shapes offered.

             Students should be able to
             explain that DNA contains the
             instructions for making
             proteins.
B4.2D        Priority Content Expectation: Predict the consequences that changes in the
             DNA composition of particular genes may have on an organism (e.g., sickle cell
             anemia, other).
             Clarification: Expectation is limited to understanding that if DNA sequence changes, non-
             functioning proteins may result that lead to adverse effects in the organism or its offspring.
             These adverse effects may take the form of commonly inherited disorders such as sickle cell
             anemia, phenylketonuria or cystic fibrosis.
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

             Evidence                                   Strategies
             Students should answer
             questions that show
             understanding of concepts
             explained in the clarification.



B4.2E        Priority Content Expectation: Propose possible effects (on the genes) of
             exposing an organism to radiation and toxic chemicals.
             Clarification: Effects are limited to understanding that certain chemicals and environmental
             hazards may change the structure of the DNA, altering the instructional function of the DNA
             molecule to make correct proteins. These changes in DNA may lead to cancer.
             Note: Teach in conjunction with 4.4b
             Evidence                             Strategies
             Students should answer                     Explain examples of real-world
             questions that show                        radiation exposure, such as the
             understanding of concepts                  Chernobyl meltdown, Hiroshima,
             explained in the clarification.            Three Mile Island, etc.




B4.2h        Priority Content Expectation: Recognize that genetic engineering
             techniques provide great potential and responsibilities.
             Clarification: Limited to understanding that genetic engineering is used currently to produce
             gene products such as human insulin. The great responsibility is making sure that altered
             genes don’t upset natural ecosystems or cause human suffering. There are also ethical
             decisions regarding use of stem cells and cloning.
             Note: Teach in conjuction with B5.3f
             Evidence                             Strategies
             Students should answer                     Discuss current events in genetic
             questions that show                        engineering in agriculture and
             understanding of concepts                  human reproduction.
             explained in the clarification.
                                                        Identify different viewpoints
                                                        regarding the ethical implications of
                                                        genetic engineering, such as cloning
                                                        and stem cell research.
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

B4.3A        Priority Content Expectation: Compare and contrast the processes of cell
             division (mitosis and meiosis), particularly as those processes relate to production of
             new cells and to passing on genetic information between generations.
             Clarification: Limited to identification of pictures or diagrams of cell division and explanation
             that mitosis produces new body cells and meiosis is responsible for the production of sex
             cells and passing genetic information on to the next generation.

             Evidence                                     Strategies
             Put pictures in order.                       Identify stages of mitosis on slides.

             Written or oral explanation of
             the differences between
             mitosis and meiosis using the
             following vocabulary.
             Students may use diagrams to
             aid explanation.

             Vocabulary:
             chromosome
             chromosome pair
             crossing over
             DNA replication
             diploid
             duplication of genes
             haploid
             genetic variation (gene shuffling)
             meiosis
             mitosis
             new gene combinations
             progeny
             recombination of genetic material
             sex cell
             sex chromosomes
B4.3C        Priority Content Expectation: Explain how it might be possible to identify
             genetic defects from just a karyotype of a few cells.
             Clarification: Limited to identification of Down syndrome and Turner’s syndrome as
             examples of genetic defects by comparing those karyotypes to a normal karyotype.
             Evidence                                     Strategies
             Students should be able to                   Students need to be shown normal
             select from several karyotypes               karyotypes and karyotypes that
             the ones that show Down                      display genetic disorders or
             syndrome and Turner’s                        abnormalities.
             syndrome.
                                                          Activity Idea: Have students match
                                                          homologous pairs of chromosomes
                                                          by creating their own karyotypes.
                                                          They should match up pictures of
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

                                                       chromosomes to determine if “their
                                                       baby” has a genetic disorder or not
                                                       and to determine the baby’s sex.

B4.3d        Priority Content Expectation: Explain that the sorting and recombination
             of genes in sexual reproduction result in a great variety of possible gene
             combinations from the offspring of two parents.

             Evidence                                  Strategies
             Students should be able to                Use an activity that demonstrates
             debrief the activity using the            the actual process of meiosis and
             following vocabulary:                     potential gene combinations in
             Vocabulary:                               offspring.
             chromosome                                See Appendix for an example.
             chromosome pair
             crossing over
             diploid
             haploid
             genetic variation
             jumping genes
             meiosis
             mutation
             new gene combinations
             progeny
             recombination of genetic material
             sex cell
             sex chromosomes
B4.4b        Priority Content Expectation: Explain that gene mutation in a cell can
             result in uncontrolled cell division called cancer. Also know that exposure of cells to
             certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus increases the chance of
             cancer.
             Clarification: Limited to recognizing that gene mutations that control cell division cause
             cancer. These mutations can be passed on from parent to offspring, or more commonly can
             develop over the course of one’s life due to exposure to chemicals and/or radiation.
             Note: Teach in conjunction with 4.2E
             Evidence                             Strategies
             Students should answer
             questions that show
             understanding of concepts
             explained in the clarification.
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

B5.1A        Priority Content Expectation: Summarize the major concepts of natural
             selection (differential survival and reproduction of chance inherited variants,
             depending on environmental conditions).
             Clarification: Summary will be limited to four concepts: 1.) the potential for a population to
             increase its numbers, 2.) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and
             recombination of genes, 3.) a finite supply of resources required for life and 4.). The ensuing
             selection from environmental pressure leaves some of those organisms better able to
             survive and leave offspring.

             Evidence                                    Strategies
             Students should answer                      Discuss specific examples of natural
             questions that show                         selection using specific populations.
             understanding of the following              (Ex. Peppered moths, endangered
             vocabulary:                                 species, inbreeding of dogs, etc)
             Vocabulary
             biodiversity
             biological evolution
             degree of kinship
             differential survival
             gene pool
             genetic drift
             genetic diversity
             genetic mutation
             genetic variation
             natural selection
             recombination of genetic material
             speciation
B5.1c        Priority Content Expectation: Summarize the relationships between
             present-day organisms and those that inhabited the Earth in the past (e.g., use fossil
             record, embryonic stages, homologous structures, chemical basis).
             Note: Also addressed in B5.2b.
             Evidence                               Strategies
             Students should answer                      Compare diagrams showing
             questions that show                         embryonic stages and homologous
             understanding of the following              structures.
             vocabulary:
                                                         Give examples of modern-day
             Vocabulary                                  organisms, such as horses, whales,
             biological evolution                        and camels, whose development can
             comparative anatomy
             degree of kinship                           be seen in the fossil record.
             DNA
             DNA molecule                                Use a table of comparative DNA to
             embryonic stages of development             show chemical basis of evolutionary
             evidence for the unity among organisms
             homologous structures
                                                         relationships.
             morphological structures
             natural selection
    Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
    4/1/2010
    Course: Biology

             phylogenetics
B5.2a        Priority Content Expectation: Describe species as reproductively distinct
             groups of organisms that can be classified based on morphological, behavioral, and
             molecular similarities.

             Evidence                                Strategies
             This is the definition of
             species. Students should be
             able to state what is in the
             content expectation.
B5.3A        Priority Content Expectation: Explain how natural selection acts on
             individuals, but it is populations that evolve. Relate genetic mutations and genetic
             variety produced by sexual reproduction to diversity within a given population.
             Clarification: Most mutations are neutral, many are harmful, and very few are
             beneficial to the individual organism. The only way that a mutation leads to a
             change in the population is if it gets passed onto offspring in proceeding generations.
             Beneficial mutations are selected by the environment (survival of the fittest) and
             become part of the population’s gene pool. After many generations the mutation
             becomes common in the population, also known as evolution—a change in
             population over time.
             Note: Teach in conjunction with B5.3C
             Evidence                                  Strategies
             Students should be able to              Give students concrete examples of
             state what is in the content            this process. (Ex. Peppered moth,
             expectation and clarification.          albino animals, etc.) Be sure to
             Using the following                     discuss how changing environmental
             vocabulary:                             factors could select for mutations
             Vocabulary                              that were once neutral or harmful.
             Survival of the fittest
             biodiversity
             biological evolution
             chance inherited variants
             differential survival
             gene pool
             genetic diversity
             genetic mutation
             genetic variation
             natural selection
             speciation
B5.3e        Priority Content Expectation: Explain how changes at the gene level are
             the foundation for changes in populations and eventually the formation of new
             species.
             Clarification: The formation of a new species occurs when a portion of the original
             population has genetically changed so much that it can no longer interbreed with
             members of the original population.
Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula
4/1/2010
Course: Biology

         Evidence                        Strategies
         Describe what geographic and    Discuss ways in which a population
         reproductive isolation are      can become isolated, such as
         using specific examples.        geographically and reproductively.

                                         Examples of geographic isolation
                                         include populations separated by
                                         mountain ranges, large bodies of
                                         water, large man-made features, etc.

                                         Examples of reproductive isolation
                                         include behavioral, temporal,
                                         morphological, etc.

								
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