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Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology Content Priority Content Expectation Expectation Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. Number Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables. B1.1h Supporting Content Expectations: B1.1A, B1.1C, B1.1E, B1.1f, B1.1g Clarification: This Content Expectation refers to the scientific method. The questions the students pose must be testable and not an opinion or survey. Evidence Strategies Students can write a brief Any experiment that the students report that directly refers to design could be used (example the data collected. growing bean plants, response of The report must include these insects to stimuli, etc). steps: Quantitative data (numbers) should Question/Problem be collected. Statement Students can be given a generic lab Hypothesis template to fill out as they do the Materials lab. Assistance on making graphs Procedure may be necessary. Data Checklists for each section of the lab Analysis report could be given to guide the Conclusion students as they write up the experiment. Show students examples of good and **See Sample Lab Report bad lab reports, hypotheses, graphs, Checklist-Appendix A conclusions, etc. B1.1B Priority Content Expectation Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions. Supporting Content Expectations: B1.1D, B1.1f, B1.1g, B1.1i, B1.1C, Clarification: This Content Expectation focuses on the student’s ability to critique the steps of an experiment. Measurements errors could include human error, not using the appropriate tools, or inappropriate rounding of measurements. Independent, dependent variables and controlled variable (or constants) should be identified. Evidence Strategies Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology Use measurement stations Analyze examples from B1.1h. to ensure accuracy of data Show students examples of good collection using basic lab and bad lab reports, hypotheses, equipment. graphs, conclusions, etc. Use Explain the strengths and checklists to evaluate. weaknesses of a given Start with whole class analysis of experiment. experiments and then give the Experiment must test the students opportunities for small given hypothesis using the group and individual practice. independent and dependent variables and nothing else. Logic of arguments within **See Sample Lab Report Checklist- the conclusion must Appendix A address why they got the data. (not “Our hypothesis is correct because the data supports it.”) Underlying assumptions will be specific to each experiment. B1.2B Priority Content Expectation: Identify and critique arguments about personal or societal issues based on scientific evidence. Supporting Content Expectations: B1.2A Evidence Strategies Individual student’s written Show students examples of articles or oral explanation of both about social and personal issues. sides of an issue. o Several supporting Brainstorm a list of societal and arguments relating to personal issues in science. Have the evidence. students bring in article. During the discussion keep a checklist of students Discuss current events in science contributing productively that relate to social or personal to the discussion. issues. First identify the scientific information and its validity. Then relate to the personal and societal aspects involved. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology B1.2C Priority Content Expectation: Develop an understanding of a scientific concept by accessing information from multiple sources. Evaluate the scientific accuracy and significance of the information. Clarification: When analyzing for scientific accuracy, consider these questions: Who published the research? When? How was research conducted? Is there more modern research that reveals conflicting results? Do similar studies exist? How do there results compare? What was the size of the study groups? Were all conclusions reported? What bias do the researchers have? Who are they affiliated with? Who pays them? Evidence Strategies Have students compare Provide access to multiple sources: information from several internet (Wikipedia vs. university or different sources. Evaluate government sites), textbook, the accuracy of information by newspaper, films, journals, etc. the source, date, and scientific accuracy. Evaluate the date, author, and scientific accuracy as a class. B1.2f Priority Content Expectation Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed. Evidence Strategies The results from testing the Provide example experiments from predictions should be a logical B1.1h or another lab. Discuss what extension of the original would happen if variables, methods, experiment. or timing are changed. Break into groups and have the students test the predictions by changing only one aspect of the experiment. B1.2h Priority Content Expectation: Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations. Relates to B1.2B and B1.2C Evidence Strategies Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology At the end of an experiment, Define each concept. students should be able to answer these types of Venn Diagram or chart comparing questions: each concept. What do the results of your experiment mean? When asking students to design Do your results provide you their own experiments draw with a supported conclusions emphasize hypotheses hypothesis, theory, or law? and observations. When evaluating multiple sources of scientific information, discuss whether or not observations, hypotheses, theories, or laws are explained in the article. B1.2k Priority Content Expectation: Analyze how science and society interact from a historical, political, economic, or social perspective. Supporting Content Expectations: B1.2E, B1.2g, B1.2i Evidence Strategies Timeline focusing on one These topics can be used to address major topic showing how the this Content Expectation: concept has changed over Agriculture, Biotechnology, Modern time. Medicine, Genetic Engineering, Stem Timeline should include the Cell Research, etc. initial discovery, any major revisions to the concept, and current research on the concept. B2.1A Priority Content Expectation: Explain how cells transform energy (ultimately obtained from the sun) from one form to another through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Identify the reactants and products in the general reaction of photosynthesis. Clarification: Explanation is limited to one way flow of energy from the Sun to organisms and energy transformations that occur in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Reactants and products may be identified either by chemical formula or name. Evidence Strategies Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology Draw or label an energy diagram of the processes with labels and locations. Vocabulary breakdown of food molecules carbon carbon dioxide cellular energy conversion cellular respiration chemical bond flow of energy cycle of matter photosynthesis product reactant recombination of chemical elements release of energy transforming matter and/or energy Given the equations, label and identify its parts. Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O B2.1C Priority Content Expectation: Explain cell division, growth, and development as a consequence of an increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products. Clarification of the Content Expectation: This Content Expectation focuses on why cells need to divide. Teach in conjunction with B4.3A. Evidence Strategies Students should explain using Use concrete examples of the following concept exponential growth. (using beans, or correctly: tearing paper) Cell size is governed by Demo with a water balloon. It can surface area to volume ratio. only so big before it pops, so the cell must divide. B2.2D Priority Content Expectation: Explain the general structure and primary functions of the major complex organic molecules that compose living organisms. Clarification: Carbohydrates are limited to general structural formulas of simple sugars and polymers of those sugars and their functions as short- and long-term energy storage molecules as well as structural components of cell walls. Lipids are limited to general structural formulas of fats and cell membrane structures and their functions. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology Proteins are specified to be polymers of amino acids with a variety of functions. These functions are limited to include proteins that relate to structure, such as those found in parts of the cell membrane, muscle and connective tissue. A large number of proteins also exist as enzymes, controlling the biochemical activities of an organism. Nucleic acids, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are limited to their structure as polymers of nucleotide subunits which provide information storage for the biochemical identity of an organism. Evidence Strategy Match the general structure Practice drawing and labeling with its name. structural formulas and their parts. (Use graphics of structures from text.) Written or oral matching of molecule name with function. Vocabulary carbohydrate chemical bond covalent bonds DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) element enzyme hemoglobin hormone lipid monomer nucleic acid protein protein structure polymers RNA (ribonucleic acid) B2.3B Priority Content Expectations: Describe how the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment is required for the continuation of life. Clarification: Systems involved in homeostasis will be limited to the nervous, digestive, immune, circulatory, respiratory and excretory systems of organisms. Note: Teach with B2.3C Evidence Strategies Students should explain the roles of each system in maintaining stable internal conditions. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology B2.3C Priority Content Expectations: Explain how stability is challenged by changing physical, chemical, and environmental conditions as well as the presence of disease agents. Note: Teach with B2.3B Evidence Strategies Given a real-world example, Brainstorm things that keep you students should explain the healthy and what body system is effects on the systems involved involved. using the following concept correctly: Discuss and introduce examples of Homeostasis of human body conditions that disrupt the internal systems and specific body environment. (Ex. Exposure to or systems. ingestion of harmful chemicals, infectious disease, cancer) B2.4C Priority Content Expectation: Explain how different organisms accomplish the same result using different structural specializations (gills vs. lungs vs. membranes). Clarification: Structural designs that serve the same purpose in varying species are limited to the organs and organ systems that follow: digestion, skeletal, respiration, reproduction and excretion. Organisms should include plant as well as animal structures (e.g., flowers, seeds and fruits as reproductive structures) Evidence Strategies Students should be able to Provide drawings and sketches of compare and contrast the each structural design for following in written or oral comparison. form: Gas Exchange (gills vs. lungs vs. membranes) Digestion (internal-humans vs. external-starfish) Skeletal (endoskeleton-humans vs. exoskeleton-insects) Reproduction (flowers, seeds and fruits as reproductive structures) Excretion of nitrogenous waste (kidneys in mammals vs. kidney- like structures in lower order animals) B2.4d Priority Content Expectation: Analyze the relationships among organisms based on their shared physical, biochemical, genetic, and cellular characteristics and functional processes. Clarification: Explanations will be limited to given numerical estimates of DNA similarity between different groups of organisms as well as structural similarities. Embryological evidence will not be considered. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology Evidence Strategies Students will be given Make a chart using the information about the characteristics in the Content physical, biochemical, genetic, Expectation and different organisms. and cellular characteristics of Use words or pictures to complete organisms. They should be the chart. able to choose two organisms Lab comparing mammals physical and use the given information structures (Ex. Bats, whales, to explain how closely they are humans and horses). related. B2.4g Priority Content Expectation: Explain that some structures in the modern eukaryotic cell developed from early prokaryotes, such as mitochondria, and in plants, chloroplasts. Evidence Strategies Provide diagrams and explanation. Given pictures showing the sequence of development students will give a written or oral explanation of prokaryotes becoming eukaryotes. B2.4h Priority Content Expectation: Describe the structures of viruses and bacteria. Clarification: Structures are limited to bacterial cell walls, cell membranes, DNA and cytoplasm. Viral structures are limited to genetic material (either DNA or RNA) and protein coat covering of the virus. Evidence Strategies Label and describe the Provide diagrams. following structures on a diagram of a virus and a bacteria: Bacteria Genetic material (DNA or RNA) Cell wall Cell membrane Cytoplasm Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology Virus Protein coat Genetic material (DNA or RNA) B2.5B Priority Content Expectation: Explain how major systems and processes work together in animals and plants, including relationships between organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. Relate these to molecular functions. Clarification: Explanations are limited to the following systems and processes in plants and animals: how organisms use food/fuel, obtain gasses for metabolism, support themselves structurally, reproduce and excrete waste materials. For example, explain how an organism uses food. The food enters the organism and is broken down in the digestive system. The specific organs in the digestive system perform the chemical and mechanical breakdown of the food particles. Once the food is broken down to the molecular level it is transported by the circulatory system to tissues throughout the body. The food molecules enter individual cells which then metabolize it in the mitochondria. This process releases energy that is used by the organism to carry out its bodily functions. Evidence Strategies Label a flow chart with Flow chart of levels of organization missing parts to fill in. using pictures and words tracing the life processes from the organism to Students should be able to the organelle level. explain how an organism carries out a specific life function (Ex. obtain gasses for metabolism) through all levels from organism to organelle with consideration to the molecular functions (Ex. exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in lungs). B2.5g Priority Content Expectation: Compare and contrast plant and animal cells. Clarification: Cellular structures are limited to cell membranes, cell walls, chloroplasts, cytoplasm, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, nucleus, ribosomes, vacuoles. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology Evidence Strategies Venn diagram that includes Venn diagram. the terms listed above. Label pictures. Label pictures with terms listed above. B2.5h Priority Content Expectation: Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (diffusion, osmosis, and active transport). Evidence Strategies Draw and/or label diagrams Labs with carrots, eggs, or dialysis showing relative solute and tubing in hypotonic and hypertonic solution concentrations and solutions. the movement of water through a selectively Demonstration: Sort of like the permeable membrane. kids’ game “Red Rover”. Some kids make it through the “selective membrane” by busting through the The following terms should be other sides’ hands. used correctly to explain the diagrams: Isotonic Hypotonic Hypertonic Solution Solute Concentration Selectively permeable membrane Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology B3.1A Priority Content Expectation: Describe how organisms acquire energy directly or indirectly from sunlight. Evidence Strategies Draw food-chain type picture Draw a food-chain type showing energy flow. picture showing energy flow of a specific food (Ex. Where did the energy in a hamburger come from?). B3.1D Priority Content Expectation: Explain how living organisms gain and use mass through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Note: To be taught in conjunction with B2.1A, B3.1f Evidence Strategies Photosynthesis Discuss during photosynthesis and The students should explain respiration. that the plant converts the carbon from the atmosphere and water from soil into sugars for storage which increases mass, oxygen is released. Respiration The students should explain that the sugars react with the oxygen to release energy and convert the stored mass to carbon dioxide and water. The energy released is used to make new chemical bonds in other molecules that can add to the mass of the organism. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology B3.1f Priority Content Expectation: Summarize the process of photosynthesis. Clarification: Explanation limited to plants capturing the energy of sunlight to put together carbon and oxygen (from carbon dioxide) and hydrogen (from water) to make high potential energy organic molecules (glucose) and releasing oxygen (from water) as a by-product. Evidence Strategies Given the chemical equation for Write equation and show transfers photosynthesis, explain what it in a diagram. represents in words making sure to include the sun. Act out the process of Vocabulary: photosynthesis as a class. Students glucose become molecules. water carbon dioxide chloroplast molecular energy photosynthesis product reactant transforming matter and/or energy B3.2A Priority Content Expectation: Identify how energy is stored in an ecosystem. Clarification: Identification is limited to discussion of chemical bonds as stored energy structures. Photosynthesis forms bonds in sugars. These sugars and other molecules eaten by consumers. Evidence Strategies Show food chains transferring Students should draw or energy. explain a food chain and label energy transfers when bonds are broken and energy stored when bonds are made in sugar molecules. B3.2B Priority Content Expectation: Describe energy transfer through an ecosystem, accounting for energy lost to the environment as heat. Clarification: Descriptions are limited to non-numerical accounting of inefficiencies of Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology energy transformations. Evidence Strategies Using the diagram from Show pyramid diagram of energy B3.2A, identify where energy transfer. is lost as heat. B3.2C Priority Content Expectation: Draw the flow of energy through an ecosystem. Predict changes in the food web when one or more organisms are removed. Clarification: Drawings will not include numerical data, but emphasize inefficient conversions as energy moves through the trophic levels. Predictions may include changes in populations of organisms at various trophic levels as energy available to them changes. Note: To be taught in conjunction with B3.2A and B3.2B. Evidence Strategies Students should be able to Show pyramid diagram of energy explain why the shape of an transfer. energy transfer diagram is Give examples of what happens shown as a pyramid. when organisms at different trophic levels are removed. In a given food web, the students should predict what would happen if one of the organisms is removed from the ecosystem. Emphasis should be on the effects this would have on all the other organisms. B3.3A Priority Content Expectation: Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers and explain the transfer of energy through trophic levels. Note: To be taught in conjunction with B3.2A and B3.2B, and B3.2C. Evidence Strategies Label producers, consumers, Define terms. and decomposers in a given food chain. Make a food web and label Use the same diagram and producers, consumers, and relate it to the 10% rule of decomposers. energy transfer between trophic levels. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology B3.3b Priority Content Expectation: Describe environmental processes (e.g., the carbon and nitrogen cycles) and their role in processing matter crucial for sustaining life. Clarification: Descriptions are limited to names of participants in the carbon and nitrogen cycles and how they are used by and cycled through organisms. Evidence Strategies Given a diagram, students will Use diagrams and flow charts to give an oral or written explain. explanation which specifically states chemical transformation takes place involving the carbon. (Example: photosynthesis uses carbon from air to make sugar, etc.) B3.4A Priority Content Expectation: Describe ecosystem stability. Understand that if a disaster such as flood or fire occurs, the damaged ecosystem is likely to recover in stages of succession that eventually result in a system similar to the original one. Evidence Strategies Students should place Draw what would happen if your succession pictures in order yard was neglected for 100 years. and describe the changes to Show what it would look like at plant and animal life that are different time intervals. occurring in each stage. Show pictures of past catastrophic events and how the ecosystem has begun to regrow. (Ex. Mt St Helen, Yellowstone Park Fires) B3.4B Priority Content Expectation: Recognize and describe that a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some living organisms will survive in the face of cataclysmic changes in the environment. Clarification: Descriptions will be limited to relationship between biodiversity and genetic variation as indicators of stability within an ecosystem. Evidence Strategies Discuss the value of Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology Given an example of a Show a chart showing all of the cataclysmic change in the species in an ecosystem. Use the environment, give a written or chart to show who would be affected oral explanation of the effect it by a cataclysmic event. Ex. has on biodiversity. Tornado, or forest fire. Vocabulary biodiversity Discuss the value of a broad gene gene pool genetic diversity pool to a healthy population. Discuss the impact on endangered species. B3.4C Priority Content Expectation: Examine the negative impact of human activities. Evidence Strategies Students could design and Discuss current and past events create an awareness poster such as global warming, that explains specifically how deforestation, industrialization, one type of human activity has pollution, habitat destruction, etc. negatively impacted a specific ecosystem. B3.4d Priority Content Expectation: Describe the greenhouse effect and list possible causes. Evidence Strategies Show diagram of the greenhouse Given a diagram showing the effect in the atmosphere. greenhouse effect, explain the causes and processes Demonstrate using a thermometer in involved. an opaque, closed container exposed Vocabulary to light vs. a transparent, closed Ozone container exposed to light. Carbon dioxide Stratosphere Ozone layer Greenhouse gases (CFC, CO2, Methane, etc) B3.4e Priority Content Expectation: List the possible causes and consequences of global warming. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology Evidence Strategies Students could create a public View relevant clips from film service announcement, “Inconvenient Truth”. advertisement, or poster explaining causes and Discuss articles and news reports. consequences of global warming. See B3.4d for vocabulary B3.5A Priority Content Expectation: Graph changes in population growth, given a data table. Supporting content expectation: B3.5f Evidence Strategies Practice graphing data from a table. Given a data table, produce a graph using appropriate scaling, labels, and title. B3.5B Priority Content Expectation: Explain the influences that affect population growth. Evidence Strategies Given a specific population of Discuss factors that affect organisms, explain how population growth and population specific factors will affect the decline. (Ex. predation, food size of the population. availability, disease, catastrophic Vocabulary events, human interference, etc.) Carrying capacity Predator Prey Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology B3.5C Priority Content Expectation: Predict the consequences of an invading organism on the survival of other organisms. Clarification: Predictions are limited to the effect of a non-native species on the populations of native species. Evidence Strategies Students could predict what Discuss examples of invading would happen if a non-native organisms. (Ex. zebra mussels in species invaded the habitat of Great Lakes, purple loosestrife, an organism that they can emerald ash borer, etc) relate to. (spider, rabbit, snake, pigeon, etc,) View and discuss episode of “Simpsons” where Bart releases the Vocabulary frogs from Australia or the episode Niche where Bart raises a baby lizard Habitat which kills native birds. B4.1B Priority Content Expectation: Explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes that are coded in DNA molecules. These genes contain the information for the production of proteins. Evidence Strategies Students should be able to use the Use fill-in-the-blank diagrams to following terms to explain inheritance. discuss terms and process of Vocabulary amino acid sequence inheritance. chromosome DNA DNA molecule DNA sequence double helix gene inherited trait protein storage of genetic information B4.1c Priority Content Expectation: Differentiate between dominant, recessive, codominant, polygenic, and sex-linked traits. Clarification: Traits identified by definition (dominant traits are expressed if the allele is present, recessive traits only if the dominant alleles are missing, co-dominant in which both alleles are expressed, polygenic having more than one gene active in determining trait and sex-linked traits as alleles on X chromosome). Also included are interpretations of Punnett Square results, given that the trait is identified as one of those listed in the content expectation. Interpretation may include prediction of phenotype or genotype ratios. Supporting Content Expectation: B4.1e Evidence Strategies Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology Solve monohybrid Punnett Use pictures and real-life examples squares to determine to explain how traits are expressed. likelihood of offspring’s traits. Solve monohybrid Punnett squares Determine genotype and to determine likelihood of offspring’s phenotype ratios of offspring traits. by using dominant and recessive rules of genetics. Determine genotype and phenotype ratios of offspring. Students should be able to identify the type of inheritance Practice identifying the type of pattern based upon the inheritance pattern based upon the phenotypic ratio observed in phenotypic ratio observed in offspring. offspring. Tell which allele is dominant and Vocabulary: recessive based upon the capital or allele lowercase letters. chromosome chromosome pair co-dominant traits Explain the phenotype (“what it dominant trait looks like”) based upon the genotype genotype (“the letters”). heterozygous phenotype polygenic traits Punnett Square recessive traits sex-linked traits B4.2A Priority Content Expectation: Show that when mutations occur in sex cells, they can be passed on to offspring (inherited mutations), but if they occur in other cells, they can be passed on to descendant cells only (noninherited mutations). Evidence Strategies If the students are told what type of cell has the mutation, the student can indicate whether or not it could be passed to offspring. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology B4.2B Priority Content Expectation: Recognize that every species has its own characteristic DNA sequence. Evidence Strategies Students should be able to tell you that different species have different DNA sequences. The best way to evaluate would be with a multiple choice question. B4.2C Priority Content Expectation: Describe the structure and function of DNA. Clarification: DNA exists as a double stranded helix, joined by a sequence of nucleotides (subunits of DNA) of four types in specific sequences. Content expectation is limited to complementary sequencing and knowledge that sequences of DNA nucleotides “code” for the amino acid sequence of a protein. Evidence Strategies If given a sequence of Label and color diagrams of DNA. nucleotides (A, T, G, or C), students should be able to give the complementary sequence. Students should be able to identify a double helix structure as the shape of DNA among other shapes offered. Students should be able to explain that DNA contains the instructions for making proteins. B4.2D Priority Content Expectation: Predict the consequences that changes in the DNA composition of particular genes may have on an organism (e.g., sickle cell anemia, other). Clarification: Expectation is limited to understanding that if DNA sequence changes, non- functioning proteins may result that lead to adverse effects in the organism or its offspring. These adverse effects may take the form of commonly inherited disorders such as sickle cell anemia, phenylketonuria or cystic fibrosis. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology Evidence Strategies Students should answer questions that show understanding of concepts explained in the clarification. B4.2E Priority Content Expectation: Propose possible effects (on the genes) of exposing an organism to radiation and toxic chemicals. Clarification: Effects are limited to understanding that certain chemicals and environmental hazards may change the structure of the DNA, altering the instructional function of the DNA molecule to make correct proteins. These changes in DNA may lead to cancer. Note: Teach in conjunction with 4.4b Evidence Strategies Students should answer Explain examples of real-world questions that show radiation exposure, such as the understanding of concepts Chernobyl meltdown, Hiroshima, explained in the clarification. Three Mile Island, etc. B4.2h Priority Content Expectation: Recognize that genetic engineering techniques provide great potential and responsibilities. Clarification: Limited to understanding that genetic engineering is used currently to produce gene products such as human insulin. The great responsibility is making sure that altered genes don’t upset natural ecosystems or cause human suffering. There are also ethical decisions regarding use of stem cells and cloning. Note: Teach in conjuction with B5.3f Evidence Strategies Students should answer Discuss current events in genetic questions that show engineering in agriculture and understanding of concepts human reproduction. explained in the clarification. Identify different viewpoints regarding the ethical implications of genetic engineering, such as cloning and stem cell research. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology B4.3A Priority Content Expectation: Compare and contrast the processes of cell division (mitosis and meiosis), particularly as those processes relate to production of new cells and to passing on genetic information between generations. Clarification: Limited to identification of pictures or diagrams of cell division and explanation that mitosis produces new body cells and meiosis is responsible for the production of sex cells and passing genetic information on to the next generation. Evidence Strategies Put pictures in order. Identify stages of mitosis on slides. Written or oral explanation of the differences between mitosis and meiosis using the following vocabulary. Students may use diagrams to aid explanation. Vocabulary: chromosome chromosome pair crossing over DNA replication diploid duplication of genes haploid genetic variation (gene shuffling) meiosis mitosis new gene combinations progeny recombination of genetic material sex cell sex chromosomes B4.3C Priority Content Expectation: Explain how it might be possible to identify genetic defects from just a karyotype of a few cells. Clarification: Limited to identification of Down syndrome and Turner’s syndrome as examples of genetic defects by comparing those karyotypes to a normal karyotype. Evidence Strategies Students should be able to Students need to be shown normal select from several karyotypes karyotypes and karyotypes that the ones that show Down display genetic disorders or syndrome and Turner’s abnormalities. syndrome. Activity Idea: Have students match homologous pairs of chromosomes by creating their own karyotypes. They should match up pictures of Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology chromosomes to determine if “their baby” has a genetic disorder or not and to determine the baby’s sex. B4.3d Priority Content Expectation: Explain that the sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction result in a great variety of possible gene combinations from the offspring of two parents. Evidence Strategies Students should be able to Use an activity that demonstrates debrief the activity using the the actual process of meiosis and following vocabulary: potential gene combinations in Vocabulary: offspring. chromosome See Appendix for an example. chromosome pair crossing over diploid haploid genetic variation jumping genes meiosis mutation new gene combinations progeny recombination of genetic material sex cell sex chromosomes B4.4b Priority Content Expectation: Explain that gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division called cancer. Also know that exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus increases the chance of cancer. Clarification: Limited to recognizing that gene mutations that control cell division cause cancer. These mutations can be passed on from parent to offspring, or more commonly can develop over the course of one’s life due to exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Note: Teach in conjunction with 4.2E Evidence Strategies Students should answer questions that show understanding of concepts explained in the clarification. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology B5.1A Priority Content Expectation: Summarize the major concepts of natural selection (differential survival and reproduction of chance inherited variants, depending on environmental conditions). Clarification: Summary will be limited to four concepts: 1.) the potential for a population to increase its numbers, 2.) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes, 3.) a finite supply of resources required for life and 4.). The ensuing selection from environmental pressure leaves some of those organisms better able to survive and leave offspring. Evidence Strategies Students should answer Discuss specific examples of natural questions that show selection using specific populations. understanding of the following (Ex. Peppered moths, endangered vocabulary: species, inbreeding of dogs, etc) Vocabulary biodiversity biological evolution degree of kinship differential survival gene pool genetic drift genetic diversity genetic mutation genetic variation natural selection recombination of genetic material speciation B5.1c Priority Content Expectation: Summarize the relationships between present-day organisms and those that inhabited the Earth in the past (e.g., use fossil record, embryonic stages, homologous structures, chemical basis). Note: Also addressed in B5.2b. Evidence Strategies Students should answer Compare diagrams showing questions that show embryonic stages and homologous understanding of the following structures. vocabulary: Give examples of modern-day Vocabulary organisms, such as horses, whales, biological evolution and camels, whose development can comparative anatomy degree of kinship be seen in the fossil record. DNA DNA molecule Use a table of comparative DNA to embryonic stages of development show chemical basis of evolutionary evidence for the unity among organisms homologous structures relationships. morphological structures natural selection Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology phylogenetics B5.2a Priority Content Expectation: Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms that can be classified based on morphological, behavioral, and molecular similarities. Evidence Strategies This is the definition of species. Students should be able to state what is in the content expectation. B5.3A Priority Content Expectation: Explain how natural selection acts on individuals, but it is populations that evolve. Relate genetic mutations and genetic variety produced by sexual reproduction to diversity within a given population. Clarification: Most mutations are neutral, many are harmful, and very few are beneficial to the individual organism. The only way that a mutation leads to a change in the population is if it gets passed onto offspring in proceeding generations. Beneficial mutations are selected by the environment (survival of the fittest) and become part of the population’s gene pool. After many generations the mutation becomes common in the population, also known as evolution—a change in population over time. Note: Teach in conjunction with B5.3C Evidence Strategies Students should be able to Give students concrete examples of state what is in the content this process. (Ex. Peppered moth, expectation and clarification. albino animals, etc.) Be sure to Using the following discuss how changing environmental vocabulary: factors could select for mutations Vocabulary that were once neutral or harmful. Survival of the fittest biodiversity biological evolution chance inherited variants differential survival gene pool genetic diversity genetic mutation genetic variation natural selection speciation B5.3e Priority Content Expectation: Explain how changes at the gene level are the foundation for changes in populations and eventually the formation of new species. Clarification: The formation of a new species occurs when a portion of the original population has genetically changed so much that it can no longer interbreed with members of the original population. Priority Content Expectations for Personal Curricula 4/1/2010 Course: Biology Evidence Strategies Describe what geographic and Discuss ways in which a population reproductive isolation are can become isolated, such as using specific examples. geographically and reproductively. Examples of geographic isolation include populations separated by mountain ranges, large bodies of water, large man-made features, etc. Examples of reproductive isolation include behavioral, temporal, morphological, etc.
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