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The hero of the worlds oldest epic_ Gilgamesh_ was the first to

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					                                World History Final Exam Review Fall 2007

The hero of the world’s oldest epic, Gilgamesh, was the first to tell the story of a great flood.
Greek civilization was spread by Alexander the Great to India and Egypt around 330 B.C.
 Judaism was started by Abraham, the leader of Israel, who made a covenant with God.
The Iliad and the Odyssey were written by Homer around 750 B.C.
During Athens Golden Age, Pericles was its ruler.
The philosopher Socrates, taught students to seek absolute truth using a teaching method including questioning.
The scientist Eratosthenes accurately estimated the earth’s circumference.
The scientist Archimedes invented a compound pulley, cylinder screw, and discovered the leaver and buoyancy.
Octavian was the first Roman Emperor to give himself the title Augustus in 27 B.C.
Christians believe Jesus to be the messiah or the one chosen by God.
The Greek mathematician Pythagoras developed the theorem for right angled triangles.
The Republic was written by Plato, who argued “The state is more important than the individual.”
Julius Caesar declared himself dictator for life and was murdered in the Senate chamber by Brutus and others.
The basis for our system of government was introduced in Politics, written by Augustine who argued that
government should be balanced between monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy with power resting with the
middle class.
The Apostle Paul spread Christianity to non-Jews & wrote a series of letters that are part of the New Testament.
The first great leader of the Mongol people was Genghis Khan.
The name of the Apostle who created the church in Rome was Peter.
The persecution of Christians was ended by the emperor Constantine which allowed freedom of religion.
Islam was founded by Muhammad.
China was invaded by Kublai Khan, the Mongol leader who became the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty and
China’s first foreign ruler.
During the 400’s the leader of the Huns, Attila, raided throughout Italy and Eastern Europe.
A commission was ordered to record the Corpus of Civil Law-preserving Roman law by Justinian.
The founder of Buddhism was Siddhartha Gautama.
Confucius was the Chinese philosopher who focused on ethics on the five relationships based on reciprocity.
The Chinese philosopher, Hanfeizi, founded Legalism arguing that man was basically evil and required a
strong, forceful government to compel individuals to properly perform their duties.
The Chinese philosopher who founded Daoism was Laozi, who emphasized living in harmony with nature.
Charlemagne was the French king who became the first Holy Roman Emperor during the Medieval Age.
The Ruler of Russia who saved Russia from the Mongol invaders was Ivan the Great.
The Act of Supremacy, in 1534 by the English King Henry VIII , created the Protestant Anglican Church.
The author of The Prince, Machiavelli, argued that “the ends justify the means.”
The New World was discovered by the European explorer, Christopher Columbus in 1492 for Spain.
Leonardo da Vinci, the painter who created the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, was also an accomplished
scientist, inventor and mathematician.
The Florentine sculptor, who created La Pieta and David, Michelangelo, also painted the Sistine Chapel.
In 1456 Johannes Gutenberg first used the printing press to print a complete version of the Bible.
The best known playwright of the Elizabethan period was William Shakespeare.
Ninety-five theses were nailed to the church door by Martin Luther at the church in Wittenberg, Germany
which focused on justification by faith alone.
The Protestant leader in Geneva, John Calvin, taught predestination which inspired the Puritans of England.
Catholic and Protestant beliefs were combined by the English Queen Elizabeth I and during her reign, the
Spanish Armada was defeated.
One of the earliest cities in Sumer, Ur, flourished around 3000 B.C.
The Bering Straight was once a land bridge connecting Asia to the Western Hemisphere.
The Nile River was the center of the Egyptian river valley civilization.
Famed for its salt and gold trade through the Sahara desert, Timbuktu in Mali became a center of trade.
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The rivers that were located in the earliest civilization were the Tigris and Euphrates.
The Byzantine Empire was destroyed by the Ottoman Turks who also captured Constantinople in 1453.
The Huang He river valley is where the Chinese civilization developed.
The city of Florence, Italy was ruled by the Medici family of merchants and bankers, whose wealth helped fund
the Renaissance.
The Harappan civilization was located in the Indus River Valley.
In the Fertile Crescent, Mesopotamia was the land between the two rivers.
The most likely origin of man. Africa
Oldest known civilization-built terraced temples known as Ziggurats around 3500 B.C. Sumeria
Civilization which built the Taj Mahal India
Civilization that built the Pyramids. Egypt
Location of the kingdoms of Nubia, Kush and Axum. Africa
Society where Sanskrit was the major language. India
Society whose social pyramid included Brahmans and excluded Pariahs. India
Location of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. Africa
Civilization that developed the 22 character alphabet. Phoenicia
Greek civilization that placed its emphasis on military ability. Greece
Society that is known for its development of direct democracy Athens
Civilization that built the Parthenon Athens
Patricians and Plebians were part of an empire (500 B.C. and collapsing during the 400’s A.D.) Rome
Civilization that built the Coliseum and the Circus Maximus. Rome
Civilization that contributed its laws and the Christian Church to Europe. Rome
The society which invented paper, block printing, and gunpowder. China
Society ruled by emperors and Shogunates. Japan
Society where Samurai warriors followed a code of honor called Bushido. Japan
Society known for its “classical” architecture including the use of columns. Athens
Society known for its drama and theater including tragedies and comedies. Athens
Civilization that produced the Shang and Han Dynasty. China
The Mandate of Heaven gave authority to its rulers. China
Latin was the language spoken in this civilization. Rome
The main source of ancient history in the Fertile Crescent. The Bible
Monotheistic religion centered in Jerusalem that greatly influenced Christianity and Islam Judaism
Sunni and Shiite were the two major divisions of this religion. Islam
Religion that experienced a schism or separation into two parts-Catholic and Orthodox. Christianity
Religion that teaches reincarnation or rebirth of the soul. Hinduism
The Upanishads are the key religious text of this religion. Hinduism
Religion that introduced the Ten Commandments as God’s moral law. Judaism
Religion that contains the Four Noble Truths Buddhism
Religion that contains the Eightfold Path to Nirvana Buddhism
The Quran is the holy book of this religion. Islam
Religion with five pillars-Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, Pilgrimage. Islam
Religion that includes the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke & John. Christianity
Philosophy that was the basis for the civil service exam given throughout Chinese history. Confucianism
The Magna Carta was signed in England-one of the first steps toward limited government. 1215
Isabella and Ferdinand defeated the Moors in the Spanish Reconquista enabling them to afford Christopher
Columbus’s exploration in this year. 1492
William the Conqueror won the Battle of Hastings in this year defeating the Anglo-Saxons. 1066
The greatest achievement of humanity during the Stone Age. Language
Discovery that led to the Neolithic Revolution. Agriculture
Revolution that led to the invention of the plow, metal weapons, clay bricks and boundary lines. Neolithic
Exchange of goods and ideas between peoples. Cultural Diffusion
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Writing system used by the Egyptians-translated by the Rosetta Stone. Hieroglyphics
Government by a powerful, wealthy few. Oligarchy
The oldest known written language-it used wedged-shaped markings on clay tablets. Cuneiform
Government by the people. Democracy
The first written code of law-based on the principle “an eye for an eye” Hammurabi’s Code
The term used for a Greek city-state. Polis
Name for those with the right to participate in government. Citizen
A written plan of government-first introduced in Athens. Constitution
The most noted accomplishment of the Qin Dynasty. Great Wall
Roman leader whose word was law during an emergency. Dictator
Theory which states that a state’s power depends on its wealth as measured in gold and silver, led to
competition between new nations in Europe to be Number One. Mercantilism
Guaranteed the rights of Englishmen and placed clear limits on royal power especially on the power to tax.
Magna Carta
Those who wander in search of food. Nomads
According to Chinese philosophy, these two were opposing forces believed to be present in all nature. Ying and
Yang
The trade route that connected China to Europe and the Middle East. Silk Road
The most important characteristic in the development of civilizations. Cities
The Middle Ages between the Fall of Rome and the Renaissance. Medieval
The political system that developed during the Middle Ages which nobles received land and power in exchange
for protection. Feudalism
Was the name of the economic system that developed during the Middle Ages based on agriculture produced by
peasants on estates owned by lords. Manorialism
Period in European history from 1350 to 1600 during which they experienced a profound cultural awakening or
rebirth. Renaissance
Period of 200 years of peace during the Roman Empire which began in 31 B.C. Pax Romana
The economic system of the U.S. today in which individuals are motivated by profit. Capitalism
A series of four wars fought by European Christians to recover the Holy Lands from Muslims. Crusades
Protestant movement to reform the Catholic Church that led, instead, to new denominations of Christianity and
wars between Catholics and Protestants. Reformation
The period in which Greco-Roman culture developed. Classical
Epidemic caused by the bubonic plague which killed 1/3 of Europe between 1348 and 1350. Black Death
The class of civil servants who passed the civil service exam in China. Mandarins
Scandinavian warriors who invaded Europe during the Medieval period-Rurik was one of these warriors-invited
to rule the Russians Vikings
Peasants bound to the manor or land in Europe during the Middle Ages. Serfs
Theory which states that kings get their power from God and are answerable only to Him Divine Right
Court set up by the Catholic Church to punish people suspected of heresy-it was strongest in Spain Inquisition
The form of government in which the monarch has unlimited power. Absolutism
Assembly of nobles, clergy and merchants who struggled with English kings over the power to tax. Parliament
The war between England and France which strengthened the sense of national unity and hastened the decline
of feudalism by introducing the longbow, firearms and cannon.        Hundred Years’ War
Intellectual movement during the Renaissance which focused on secularism and the potential and the potential
of the individual to improve the world without divine intervention Humanism
Banking, joint-stock companies, entrepreneurs, and the abandonment of the barter system are all related to this
drastic change in the way business was done Commercial Revolution
Group that had few if any rights anywhere during ancient times Women
Type of government in which citizens choose representatives to make the laws Republic
Type of government in which a single ruler controls people of people of different cultures Empire.

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