Botox Injections – How Do They Work? Injection of (Botulinum Toxin) Botox® is by far the most commonly performed aesthetic procedure in America nowadays. Botulinum toxin was first used by ophthalmologists as a treatment for squint; however, within less than a decade, its use was shifted to cosmetic rejuvenating procedures. Although Botox® is now used as an anti- wrinkling therapeutic module, the mechanism of its action is poorly understood which renders some physicians reluctant to use it. However, Botox is a drug of high therapeutic index; the incidence of occurrence of undesired complications and side effects is rather low. The paradox can be easily illustrated by the steady increasing rates of successful Botox treatments across America. So how does Botox induce its anti-wrinkling effects? Botulinum Toxin is a toxin that is produced by a bacterial pathogen that causes food poisoning. Botulinum Toxin food poisoning often occurs after ingestion of improperly stored canned meat. The poisoning leads to neurological paralysis of the voluntary muscles of the body which can evolve into a life threatening condition. Botox® is artificial Botulinum Toxin, so when it is injected locally, it leads to paralysis of selective groups of muscles of the face. In other words, the Botulinum Toxin does not directly affect the wrinkled skin. Alternatively, the muscle, which contracts excessively and produces wrinkles, is paralyzed. Accurately speaking, the toxin blocks transmission of nerve impulses to the muscle; hence, the wrinkling disappears. The paralyzing effect of Botox®, on the facial muscles, aids in rejuvenation of the face and decreases wrinkles. The positive rejuvenating effects of Botox can be completely maintained for more than 6 months. However, if Botox® injections are performed by a non-skillful plastic surgeon, the whole effects can be completely lost in less than a couple of months. Moreover, recent studies have shown that people, who receive Botox® injections regularly over a period of more than 2 years, preserve the anti-wrinkling effects of Botox® for longer durations. The outcome of Botox® injection is largely determined by the skill of the plastic surgeon. Proficient understanding of the functional anatomy of the face yields the most favorable results. Although the anatomy of the face has been extensively studied, no single textbook can describe all the variations between the facial muscles of different individuals. A successful plastic surgeon has the expert technical eye to analyze the face of the patient and determine specific muscle groups that produce wrinkles and unaesthetic appearances. Those muscles should be the targets for Botox® injections. If the plastic surgeon selects the right targets, most probably the procedure will be successful. Dr. Jay Calvert is a proficient Board Certified Plastic Surgeon who has been performing Botox injections for many years. He practices in California, Beverly Hills and Orange County, California. Dr. Calvert uses Botox® injections effectively as a face rejuvenating therapeutic module. Laugh lines, frown lines and worry lines would completely vanish after a successful Botox® injection session. Moreover, Dr. Calvert uses Botox® injections to successfully treat over sweating of the hands and feet (hyperhydrosis). Don’t hesitate to call Dr. Calvert office to take an appointment for a Botox® injection consultation.